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Massawa’s Cultural Heritage: Through the Prism of PFDJ

This investigative report was published on June 23, 2003. Two days ago, Asmara, Eritrea’s capital city was designated a “World Heritage site” for its buildings that were built by Mussolini’s Italian Fascist colonizers less than a century ago, and are affectionately promoted as “Art Deco”. Nothing indigenous about it. The 2003 Gedab investigative report focused on Massawa whose heritage was (and still is) in dire need for attention. The investigative report aimed at creating awareness—it didn’t, particularly with Eritrean intellectuals and friends of Eritrea who we hoped will show some interest. We decided to republish the 2003 report to put the designation of Asmara in perspective.

…with its labyrinthine streets and its hodge-podge of interesting houses, hotels, squares and religious buildings. In the side-streets opposite the harbour you’ll find a 17th-century coral-block house, coral having once been the traditional building material for Massawan abodes, as well as the ancient Ottoman-style houses of Mahmoud Mohammed Nahari and Abu Hamdan. Hidden elsewhere in the precinct are several old covered markets, the 500-year-old Sheikh Hanafi Mosque, with its stuccowork and stunning Murano chandelier, and the visually splendid Campo, a large square lined with houses that boast Turkish and Egyptian wood-carved facades…

The above excerpt describing Massawa, which is derived from lonely planet, is a fitting description that lives in the memory of Massawans. Now with its buildings in serious disrepair, its cultural heritage endangered and a government whose every move is shrouded in secrecy, some Eritreans—particularly the indigenous Massawans—are beginning to question the government’s motives. Is it a case of pro-growth vs pro-conservation? Is it a case of cultural bias? Is it a case of highly centralized decision-making process? This is the scope of Gedab Investigative Report on Massawa’s Endangered Cultural Heritage.

Given the absence of civil liberties in Eritrea and the government’s history of arresting citizens on flimsy suspicions, we hope readers will understand that Gedab’s investigative report of the issue will not include extensive quotes or on-the-record interviews. Via e-mail, Gedab News attempted to speak to government officials to get their side of the story–they did not respond.

The History of Massawa

The historic Adulis or Azzuli as the Semharites call it, was an African gateway to Egypt, Persia, Mesopotamia and Indian civilizations. In the 7th century, after nine hundred years of vitality, Adulis’s civilization, closely linked to Axumite Kingdom, faded.  Massawans consider their town, only 30 miles north of Adulis, the rightful heir to its civilization.

Massawa’s island status (the causeway was built by the Egyptians only in the last quarter of the nineteenth century) protected it from the incessant political and military upheavals of the interior, although Hirgigo, which served as the island’s outpost on the mainland, was frequently subjected to attacks by various marauding armies.

Arab rule was established over the Dahlak Islands in the 8th century when the representative of the Ummayads in Jiddah decided to obtain anchorage on both sides of the Red Sea. By the ninth century, an autonomous sultanate had been formed in the Dahlak Islands which extended its sovereignty over Massawa and parts of the coastland. The high level of cultural development of the Dahlaki Sultantate is attested to by the exceptionally beautiful and elaborate Arabic inscriptions in the stylized Kufic ductus which have been found in the Dahlak burial grounds. The sultanate moved its center to Massawa at some point, and some of its cultural and artistic influence remain evident on the island.

Situated as it was at the cross-roads of various civilizations, Massawa flourished—but it was also plunged into conflict and chaos throughout its history. Since 1420, successive Axumite kings, including Isaac, raided and plundered the Massawa region, conquered the traditional rulers, imposed their religious order and levied taxes. Unable to endure the harsh environment, they would leave—only to return and plunder some more. In the mid-16th century, the then Axumite Prince (later Emperor), Lebne Dengel and his Mother Queen, Helena, invited Portugese crusaders to assist in countering the expansion of Muslims on the coast.  This clash between Axum and Adulis would culminate in a battle between the Axumite Gelawdios “Atnaf Seged” (Amharic for “The Horizon Leveler”) and Harari Prince Ahmed Ibrahim AlGhazi or Mohammed “Gragn” (Amharic for “The Left Handed”), whose northbound Muslim conquest had expanded to the coastal regions.

Unable to withstand the assault by the Axumite emperors and the Portugese, the coastal area rulers of Massawa, Zeilae, Suakin and Dahlak appealed to the Ottoman rulers in Yemen for protection. In 1557, Ozdemir Pasha, a Mamluk commander in the service of the Ottoman Sultan defeated the Portugese army. He built a garrison in the region and seized control of the island and expanded inland to other parts of modern day Eritrea; southwards to the Ethiopian region of Harrer and westward to Kassala in the Sudan. Massawa was integrated into the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans appointed a local family to serve as their viceroy (Naibs), a status they retained well into the nineteenth century. In 1846, the Ottoman sultan leased control of Massawa and its hinterland to the Egyptians, and in 1865 they were permanently incorporated into the Egyptian Sudan. Ottoman and Egyptian influences blended with the existing architectural and artistic styles of Massawa to give it a distinctive cultural heritage that is at the heart of this report.

By the time the Italians arrived in the late 19th century, Massawa, was a long-established town with a distinct civilization.  The city could boast of an architectural heritage that included Missjid Abu Hanafi, built in 1203 by Nu’iman Thabet of Mesopotamia; Misjid Sheikh Mudui, built in 1503 by Hergigo’s Sheikh Mudui; Missjid Hamal, built in 1543 by Sheikh Omar Ibn Sadiq AlAnsari; as well as the equally old Misjid Ghafi, built by Sheikh Ahmed Idris Almasri.

As the only urban center of any significance that can trace its existence before the advent of the Italians, Massawa served as the capital city of the Italian colonial administration until the turn of the twentieth century, when it was relocated to Asmara. The rest of the modern Eritrean cities were built by the Italians around a military network of highways and interests that belonged to the occupational Italian community.

Today Massawa is a city that is fast losing its historical identity. Its merchant community that catered to the needs of the whole population around the area is now non-existent and totally replaced by the PFDJ conglomerate.  Most of the houses were either destroyed or damaged during the war of liberation, particularly in 1979 and 1990, when the Ethiopian Derg regime bombarded the city indiscriminately. The Eritrean government has made known its intent to create a commercial enterprise zone, as well as to convert the port into a military base.  The complaint is that the pro-growth agenda does not give consideration to Massawa’s unique culture and that reckless measures taken now would be irreversible.  Out of this concern, a Diaspora citizens group named the Eritrean Heritage Society (EHS) is stepping in to make the case for protecting Eritrea’s architectural heritage.

Massawa’s Culture & Its Preservation in Post Independent Eritrea

In 1991, Mr. Tageadin AlMoulaye, who is a long time EPLF veteran with a strong personal and professional interest in preserving the historical sites of Massawa, became the first director of the Eritrean National Museum. He was instrumental in reopening the museum and advocating for the preservation and restoration of Eritrea’s heritage. In the mid-1990s, the PFDJ formed the Cultural Heritage Project (CHP). Headed by Dr. Naigzy Gebremedhin, a retired former UN employee, CHP has no clearly defined structure. Although a board was set up to oversee its function, it was not given a clear mandate and support from the government, which has effectively constrained its ability to proceed with its stated projects.

In 1995, for the first time since independence, the government started working with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO.)   That year, UNESCO prepared a “Draft Proclamation for the Protection and Conservation of the Heritage of Eritrea” (Restricted Technical Report, RP/1994-1995/IIA.III; Serial No. FMR/CLT/Ch/95/111). The document was prepared by Mr Richard Crewson and was an effort by UNESCO to assist the Eritrean Government in preparing legislation for the safeguarding of the cultural heritage of Eritrea. The draft legislation attempted to, “reflect and incorporate all the various concerns and proposals” made at a workshop held in Asmara from 20 to 24 March 1995.

On July 1996, Eritrea attended UNESCO’s Second Global Strategy Meeting that was held in Addis Ababa. The themes of the meeting were: African heritage, archaeological heritage, historical heritage, human settlements and living cultures, religious places, places of technical production, etc. Representative from seven African countries (Chad, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, Niger and Uganda) presented reports on major cultural heritage in their respective countries. The Strategy Meeting recommend, among other things, that the World Heritage Convention should take into account a nation’s spiritual and sacred heritage and its physical supports. (Reference Document WHC-96/CONF.201/INF.7.)

By 1999, the task of cultural preservation was diffused among various ministries including the Ministry of Tourism.  On February 5, 1999, Ahmed Haj Ali, Minister of Tourism, wrote a letter to Abraha Asfeha, Minister of Public Works, to inform him that, “the Ministry of Tourism has taken the liberty of drafting a sample for a National Heritage Project and Development Board (NHPD),” and asking for comments and feedback before the Ministry proceeded further.

On October 31, 2001, 10 years after independence, Eritrea became the 167th country to sign the Convention Concerning The Protection Of The World Cultural And Natural Heritage. In welcoming Eritrea, Mr. Mounir Bouchenaki, UNESCO’s Assistant Director-General for Culture, stated “this achievement of near universality proved that the world attached special importance to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage.”  

The Government’s Decision, Omission

The government of Eritrea has nominated the ancient Quohaito and Mettera as World Heritage Sites, under UNESCO’s World Heritage Convention.  From Massawa, Eritrea’s Cultural Heritage Project (CHP) has identified three architectural sites: the Royal Palace Building, the Covered Walkway and the Banco di Roma Building (Bank of Rome).  As far as religious buildings are concerned, the Steering Committee of the CHP has listed only two:  the Debre-Bizen Monastery,which was built by Abuna Filipos in 1361and the 200-years-old Kidane Mehret Church in Senafe.

The glaring omissions are striking.  None of Massawa’s four grand and old mosques were identified as part of Eritrea’s cultural heritage worthy of restoration. There were no submissions of ruins from the Sahel, Dahlak or even Adulis.

Why is there such imbalance in the recommendations of the government in recognizing Eritrea’s diverse cultural heritage?  A recently formed citizens group, Eritrean Heritage Society EritreanHS@yahoo.com, is asking the same question.   Based on our research, there are three possible explanations for this discrepancy: (1) the super-centralized decision-making process within the government of Eritrea; (2) Scholarship compromised by politics and lack of diversity and (3) the absence of an influential constituency and lobbying group.

(1)  The decision-making process within the government of Eritrea:

When it comes to macro-economic issues and development projects, the cases are managed directly by the President of the State of Eritrea, Mr. Isaias Afwerki.   Literally, the president’s office holds the files for all major development projects and, from planning to execution, the president personally manages the entire process.  His development project includes turning “Massawa into the Dubai of East Africa,” a tax-free transit and export center. The commercialization of Massawa, which includes development of infrastructure, as well as the tourism/hospitality industry—including restaurants, hotels and casinos—occasionally conflicts with other priorities, such as preservation.  When that happens, there is no mechanism for arbitrating competing interests: what the president wants, the president gets.

Unfortunately, implementing the “Massawa into the Dubai of East Africa” dream is a nightmare for some citizens: midnight knocks on the doors and a visit by camouflaged security personnel to arrest dissenters who express unfavorable views about the vision is all too common.  In pre-dawn raids, brazen agents of the regime have awakened people in Massawa and ordered them to move to makeshift tents on the other side of the city.

The decision-making process also discourages public servants from engaging in honest debate, weighing the pros and cons of specific issues because they understand the futility of taking advocacy positions contrary to that of the president’s. By all accounts, for example, Mr. Tageadin AlMoulaye was considered a committed public servant who was passionate about the preservation issue.  But his service to the nation was met by continuous stonewalling and he has since retired to private life. 

Similarly, when Musa Naib was the Mayor of Massawa, he attempted to conform Massawa’s skyline so that the minaret of Massawa’s Grand Mosque would prominently feature even after Massawa’s growth. But in 2000, Isaias Afwerki, overruling the decision of Massawa’s Municipality, personally approved Getachew Bekele’s architectural design for the Twin Towers. In 2000, Eritrea’s Cultural Heritage Project (CHP) was highly critical of the twin towers: in an article entitled “Conserving the Built Environment” and appearing in the “Pearl of the Red Sea” publication to commemorate the tenth anniversary of Massawa’s liberation, CHP wrote:

“the building of the twin towers for the Port Authority located at the edge of the historic old town has changed Massawa’s urban form dramatically. All these changes have taken place almost precipitously, before anyone had a chance to examine critically other alternatives for creating urgently needed new office and residential space.”

The article went on to point out that one of the main purposes of the project is:

 “to conserve the unique architectural heritage of Asmara, Massawa and other cities.  It will see selective renovations by developing public/private partnerships through ‘custodial assignments,’ conditioned upon the preparation of sensitive restoration plans.”

But the words of the CHP were too little, too late.  Almost all “big projects” bear the handiwork of President Isaias Afwerki and nobody else. The issue of converting Massawa into Dubai, much like the earlier (and now abandoned) effort of converting “Dahlak into Monte Carlo” (which contributed to the Eritrea-Yemen skirmish of 1996), has not undergone any debate or serious scrutiny.  Although Massawa has a deep-sea harbor, the small number of the berths (only 4) and its limited access due to the conditions of the roads makes the issue of its capacity to accommodate modern cargo ships highly questionable. As many countries in the region have learned, it is ill-advised to rely on centuries-old port facility designed for old technology (dhows and Senbuk) to accommodate current and future capacity (supertankers, cargo and passenger ships.)  In 1997, Eritrea’s other port, Assab, was a major beneficiary of the World Bank’s funding for repairing and upgrading its facilities.  Yet, the port remains a ghost town and is likely to remain so for as long as the Ethiopian government makes its use conditional on removal of the Eritrean government.

(2)   Scholarship Compromised by Politics and Lack of Diversity 

Despite Eritrea’s pluralism, Eritrea’s policy formulating elite tends to reflect a uniform political, geographic, religious, political, cultural background. The case of the Steering Committee of Eritrea’s Cultural Heritage Society is reflective of this bias.  Chaired by Dr. Naigzy Gebremehdin, it includes the following members:

  • Naigzy Gebremehdin, Chairman, Steering Committee on Cultural Heritage
  • Eritros Abraham, Office of the President
  • Yohannes Tecle Haimanot, Municipality of Asmara
  • Alemseged Tesfai, Oral History Project (PFDJ)
  • Zemhret Yohannes, PFDJ member in charge of research and cultural affairs
  • Azeib Tewelde, Director of the Research and Documentation Center
  • Solomon Tsehaye, Cultural Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Education
  • Yosef Libsikel, National Museums of Eritrea
  • Kidane Solomon, Ministry of Tourism.
  • Daniel Tesfalidet, Ministry of Finance
  • Kesete Abraha, Steering Committee on Cultural Heritage, Secretariat

The eleven members of Eritrea’s CHP are all PFDJ ideologues. Excepting for one member, all male. Not surprisingly, they tend to view all issues from the same perspective thereby severely limiting discussions and debate, which is a requisite for any type of scholarly endeavor.

To understand how the narrow background and orientation of Eritrea’s policy elite affects all facets of Eritrea, including its history and perception of heritage, consider what Mr. Araya Tessagi, General Director of the Port Authority of Massawa had to say in a publicly available brochure, where he claims that “Massawa is one of the main Port of Eritrea, and was constructed between 1885-1941.”   Anyone who visited Massawa can easily tell that the ancient buildings of Massawa certainly were not built in the last one hundred years. So, why the egregious distortions? Is Mr. Araya Tessagi, who presumably lives in Massawa, ignorant of this basic historical fact?

Does the above distortion suggest that some of Eritrea’s occupiers (and their contributions to Eritrea) are prized more than others?    Mr. Hailemichael Misgina, a retired UNESCO employee, seems to suggest so. In 1997, at the Conference on Languages held in Asmara, he was interviewed by a South African reporter.  The paper states that: “Although the statue of the Ethiopian emperor was determinedly pulled down and Selassie’s palace (both structures at the port city of Massawa) is being left a ‘triumphant’ ruin with gaping holes in its dome and walls, the Italian-style Art Deco buildings of Asmara are conserved with pride – as are some of the trenches and the underground hospitals and other constructions built during and because of the war.”

This goes to the heart of finding a just arbiter of Eritrean legacy, which should be the work of scholars, working independently from the calls of politics.  In addition to the uniformity of values, the denial of scholarly rigor is further limited by the PFDJ’s unique prescription of nationalism, which tends to find as much meaning in elevating Eritrean art as it does in denying Ethiopia’s. A case in point is that of Eritrea’s Museum Director, Dr. Yosef Libsekal, an Eritrean who lived all his life in Ethiopia. He went to Paris on scholarship during the Mengistu regime to complete his doctoral studies in the history of Gonder.   In 1999, while constructing the Sembel Housing Project, some archaeological ruins were found, and the preliminary findings suggested that they predated those in Axum, Ethiopia.  Archeological findings or new theories of that sort are normally published in a scholarly journal first to go through scientific scrutiny.   In a “patriotic” fervor, while Eritrea was in a middle of a war with Ethiopia, Dr. Yosef Lebeskal held a press conference to announce that his findings mean that Eritrea’s civilization predates that of Ethiopia, (after all, the region of the Aksumite civilization was primarily modern Eritrea, much more so than even Tigray, let alone modern Ethiopia) thereby shunning scholarship and choosing to be a part of the governments propaganda wars. The results were disastrous.  In the May 2000 offensives, when Ethiopia was able to penetrate deep into Eritrea, it rampaged Mettera and Qohaito, some of Eritrea’s most prized archaeological possessions.    While the destruction of Mettera and Quohaito is solely the responsibility of the Ethiopian government, Dr. Yosef Libesekal’s provocations were helpful neither to scholarship nor to Mettera and Qohaito.

(3)   Absence of an effective Eritrean Lobby Group

The Banco Di Roma in Massawa, built by Mussolini and now housing the National Bank, was slated for demolishing in 1995 to accommodate a planned Housing and Commercial Bank. This proposal faced a strong protest by the Italian Community and worldwide lovers of Art Deco. Consequently, the building was named a cultural heritage and spared and the planned Housing and Commerical Bank was built at Adebabay Square.

While it is true that all Eritreans, unlike some powerful foreign powers, have no mechanism to influence their own government, the case of indigenous Massawans is even more pronounced because a disproportionate percentage of them live in exile and are considered “political enemies” of the Eritrean government. Very few of indigenous Massawans who were exiled have returned, most discouraged by the Eritrean government’s demand for property taxes in arrears for property they abandoned during the Derg occupation era—properties they had neither lived in nor derived revenues from.   Consequently, the most articulate defenders of Massawa’s heritage are exiled and marginalized by the government.

Since the 1970s, the demography of Massawa has undergone a major change and, to the majority of its current residents, the old Massawa mosques have no emotional or sentimental value and are no more than old buildings.


Despite the efforts of several concerned citizens and individuals both within and outside the Eritrean Government, no comprehensive list of buildings and sites that could be designated as either “Historic Landmarks,” or part of Eritrea’s “Cultural Heritage” has yet been prepared.  In the absence of such a list and a legal framework to protect them, the arbitrary and super-centralized manner of decision-making in Eritrea is leading to a reckless endangerment of the nation’s cultural inheritance.

All fair-minded persons understand that Eritrea’s limited resources must be allocated equitably and fairly to preserve all Eritrean heritage and not just selective locations that promote the PFDJ’s version of history.  Yet, due to various reasons—including those cited above–the Eritrean government seems to be following a reckless path in its self-defined role as arbiter of Eritrean heritage.  It should be noted that not all the people who are involved in the projects are accomplices of the regime’s recklessness. As a matter of fact, in some cases, it was the very committees appointed by Isaias Afwerki that publicly questioned his wisdom.

The case of Massawa’s heritage is not the only case of the government’s double standards and insensitivity when dealing with delicate issues that are of great importance to Eritreans.  The case was chosen for this report because it is one of the most easily demonstrable cases of the government’s recklessness. Eritrea’s history and heritage must not be politicized and the government must find a mechanism to take proactive measures to reach out to citizen groups and Diaspora Eritreans to receive an input that reflects Eritrea’s diversity.  This could be a perfectly suitable role for the recently appointed Commissioner of Diaspora Affairs, who can hold public meetings and solicit papers from interested parties.  The Commissioner would find a willing and constructive partner in the Eritrean Heritage Society (EHS), a citizen group with the knowledge base and resources to help the government, assuming it has the good will to address this important issue. EHS can be reached at  EritreanHS@yahoo.com

[1] Colonia Eritrean: The Regional Commissariat of Massaua to the 1 January 1910. Monography of the Knight Dante Odorizzi, Asmara: Printing office Fioretti and Beltrami, 1911.

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  • Abraham H.

    Hi K.Snake, why do you keep talking about khat? I think that is the reason why you keep travelling back and forth to the land ruled by your nemesis the Weyanes?

    • Kalihari Snake

      Hi Abraham H.: I keep talking about khat because more than 50% of Ethiopia’s youth are drugged whereas it is illegal in Eritrea.

  • Kalihari Snake

    Hello All: Can any good come from it? Back in April of this year the Ethiopian Government started to redraft/reformulate its strategy in regards to Ethiopia. In doing so, a tasked group was to consider all options to include a possible Ethiopian withdrawal from Badme. The U.S. Department of State has started to reach out to both the Ethiopian and Eritrean Governments in this regard and a high level U.S. mission will be despatched the first week of August (6th?) to provide support. There is talk that the U.S. will soon appoint a new republican-aligned Ambassador to the African Union to replace Obama appointed Mary Beth Leonard, who will be expected to ‘facilitate’ issues. There are a number of factors in play that are causing a shift in positioning to include: 1) U.N. sanctions against Eritrea will likely be lifted at end 2018 (Susan Rice is now out of the picture), 2) GCC rapid positioning in Eritrea, 3) PIA/PFDj has now quietly started to release some prisoners and is showing some signs of ‘thawing’ in terms of western exposure; and 4) EU continues to provide large sums of money to the Eritrean Government to stem the flow of migrants/refugees to Europe.

  • Kalihari Snake

    Hi Berhe Y: You say Eritreans never insult their guests? The TPLF are not our GUESTS but rather they are our ENEMIES. Those that you mention are clearly TPLF supporters.

  • Abraham H.

    Greetings All, this is to congratulate the Ethiopians and esp. the Meqelians with your new industrial park. Well done. Funny to watch PMHD dansing Tigrinya, the guy is getting real Weyanay for everyday that goes:-)

    • Nitricc

      Hi Abraham; do you have any life? who cares about your masters? if they mean anything to you then keep it to yourself. No one cares about your masters. what a loser. who cares?

      • Abraham H.

        Nitricc, why are you so angry, think positive for a change! There is a saying in Tigrinya ‘zeyqenie ayiweled’, you know that?

        • Nitricc

          Abraham, why do you bring it in here? Why don’t come out and tell the world you are Tigryan? have some dignity and respect your roots. why hide it? Trust me, we know. Do you just watch Tigray-TV all day? get some life.

          • Abraham H.

            Hi Nitricc, I have nothing to hide about my identity, and there is nothing that would hinder me to say I’m Tigrayan if I were Tigrayan. Your problem is you see other people through your prism of perverted world view. You know Nitricc, I don’t have to display extreme fake nationlism like yours in order to prove to others that I’m Eritrean. This kiind of character is what you and your likes have perfected through the last 17 years, and by doing so, you are wreaking havoc on the Eritrean people.

          • Nitricc

            Abraham; answer the question; why do you bring the Tigryan news in here? why? If it wasn’t for your ignorance and Tigrrayness; you could have been a little sensitive to the oromo and Amhara who are not only losing all the economic advantage under your weyane but losing their life but for you, you have no shame to congratulation your own Weyane for toothless and worthless so-called industrial park. All I am asking is that stop your fake Eritrean identity and be happy and proud accepting your natural Tigryan identity. Again, if you weren’t a Tigryan, why did you bring it? No one did, why you? do you know what i mean,Tata-Tata!

          • Abraham H.

            Hi Nitricc, I brought it to congratulate my neighboring people; nothing wrong with that. Industrial parks are being built not only in Tigray but everywhere in Ethiopia. Nitricc talking about sensitivities, my foot, lol! Bye!

          • Nitricc

            Hi Abraham; ” my neighboring people” Boy, you don’t even know how to act it out. Don’t worry the Oromo and the Amhara don’t need anything but they are coming for your head. before you jump with joy, do you what is happening in Ethiopia? there is places besides Your ” Meqelino” lol to use your words in EThiopia. I Have never heard or read any one use the word ” Meqelino? lol you are a loser.
            How is Meqelino doing. lol

          • Abraham H.

            Nitricc, grow up man, grow up! Now I’ve to leave you.

          • Nitricc

            Abraham, please don’t let the door ……. bye “Meqelino” You are not fooling anyone!

          • Mez

            Dear Nitricc,
            with all due respect–based on frequency repeated of calling peoples in tigray, also oromo, and amhara included–you are the #1 in the rank.

            Probably not in love or love-hate, but rather in hate-love.

            The following things are happening, which may have contemporary regional significance: 1) the Eritrean government is still heavily invested on military as its policy number one–both in the country and at regional level. 2) The GERD dam-for all practical purposes started filing, changing a lot of things on the ground, 3) in the era of federation and then after Eritrea alone was contributing more than 50% of the industrial output of all Ethiopia, 4) now with the Ethiopian policy of focused industrialization, things are changing for ever–completely diminishing the competitive chance of Eritrean industries in the near future Ethiopian market. 5) the slow but persistent political movement in Ethiopia, will definitely push for further political reform, in a way much more advanced popular movement than what we have in Eritrea–hence reform is more likely to come in Ethiopia than in Eritrea.

            1) A while ago the bad guys were Shewa and Amhara. 2) Yesterday it was Neftegna, 3) today it is Weyane and Tigrian…… what a skewed state of mind….

            I would think–leaving all hoof and poof 1) Eritrea should come to the table with her Ports and God fearing people, 2) ethiopia with its green power supply and its God fearing citizens as well–agree on some rudimentary things to hang on and survive into the future.


        • Thomas

          Hi Abraham,

          I wish if I was getting into Nitricc’s nerve like you do. Shame to those living around him!! Because his masters/the mafias could not show anything, he wanted to see the failures of the neighborhood regions. Very sad but good to know that Eritrea has many of his types.

          • Abraham H.

            Hi Thomas, actually I’ve given up on this low life Eritrean wannabe. He keeps irritating people on this website for years, while his slave master DIA is well underway in ruining Eritrea.
            From whom do you think he learned this type of malicous attitude and sick jealousy? Of course, from his demigod, who had no shame to speak in demeaning language about the Ethiopian GERD dam. ‘Kindeen zeyakhlas bien yiweala’, lol.
            Eritra adina kabzom zeyrebhu gefet mefet mewatsio yifterela iyu zebil.

    • Mez

      Dear Abraham,
      It is funny (especially ) you say that “…..Funny to watch PMHD dansing Tigrinya….”

      1) what is wrong/special withit.
      2) at least those in the south use the good song to look into the future–contrary to what we do, namely anihilate each other.


      • Abraham H.

        Hi Mez, blame it on my poor English; but I wanted to say funny in a good way.

  • Nitricc

    Greetings AT; I have this annoying red colored notice on my profile and whenever I try to post, it rears its ugly head.

    it says…..

    ” We are unable to post your comment because you have been banned by Awate. Find out more.”

    And then when I ignore it and post, it goes through with no problem at all. I am just carious. why is this happening? I am not banned am I? 🙂

    • Thomas

      Hi Nitricc,

      I don’t think you are banned but the system thinks your input is useless anyways:) You see even the site/not awate moderators hates the supporters of DIA regime. Think you about it, this is just a signal for the DIA regime is crushing and PIA is dying like MZ:)

  • Selam blink,
    The 5000/month is the sum total of people who leave the country in all directions, i think. You are right there.
    I am not sure if I fully understood the rest of your message, nevertheless, I would like to say this as much as crushing foreign enemies is concerned. You see it is a habit you acquired with the italians, succeeded in 1991 with the help of so many others, and finally made the grave mistake of 1998. The best thing is to avoid creating foreign enemies, instead of paying the price at the same time while trying to crush them.
    I do not understand why eritreans should delete their memory. There are good and bad memories. It is up to the individual to decide which to keep and which to erase. It all depends on the effect they have on one’s life. If the memory concerns ethiopia, i do not think that she will have any problem at all.
    Finally, I do not know what to make of the link. It does not open.

  • sara

    selamat habybna ertreen.
    imagine these website awate forum is a virtual parliament of Eritreans in exile , and the parliament as they do have at awate forum makes a rules that members/participants should not have a duel citizenship, how many of us Eritreans in this forum will qualify to be members of this virtual Parliament?
    my guess is maybe v few, how about you? those commenting today at this hour…

    • MS

      Ahlen wo sahlen Sara
      I still have my 1993 ID card, I don’t know if it is renewable, haha…I may need help to renew it.

    • Berhe Y

      Dear Sara,

      Having dual citizenship is an asset and not a liability in my opinion.

      If advantage is, for countries like Canada and others where they have a democratic system and the state have no agenda to control the people then there is only advantage.

      Those who oppose are countries who want to control their citizens and have an agenda to get hold or deport permanently.

      The US for example, wants no loophole for people to run away from the military adventure that it needs to have if it wants to continue to be an empire. Same for china, who wanted to control their citizen and want no body out of their control.

      For example, what can possibly be a reason why wouldn’t Ethiopia allow dual citizenship, specially the large diaspora it has in the US?

      Anyway, any such decision needs to be left for the elected law makers to decide not arbitrary citizens who have their agenda or bias.

      Personally it’s useless debate one to have, specially for a third world countries.


      • sara

        Dear Berhe,
        today when i was reading the news i was damb struck to came across a front page news that a very successful young mother politician and parliamentarian was forced to resign because she had duel citizenship… and what stuck me more was she didn’t new that she has duel citizenship until some one brought it to the parliament and that for sure must be her opponents. again what is surprising is its in Australia and her duel citizenship is not from Uganda but Canada.

        • Berhe Y

          Dear Sara,

          Thank you for sharing. I can see there are some exceptions where this could be applicable, where it involves the citizen loyalty in terms of political and other national interests, such as being a parliamentarian. For example what if Australia is at war with Canada and where dies the loyalty of this person lies?

          I think there should be a mechanism to withdraw your citizenship as long as the position / duty you are responsible for asked for it.


  • Kalihari Snake

    Hello All: A problem that I see here is that NOBODY wishes to talk of possible solutions for Eritrea short of complete removal of the PIA/PFDJ regime.

    • Thomas

      Hi Mr. K. Snake,

      I am worried you now are talking with yourself:) The problem is that we don’t get to run Ethiopia and we have NO control over their policy on Eritrea. What do you expect the awate community to do with that? The easiest thing would be to ask your masters in Eritrea to make peace with the owners of Eritrea, the Eritrean people. That you can have control over, of course; I am only asking you if you are an Eritrean and if care for the Eritrean people. Be a part of solving problems within Eritrea and then worry about problems out, I am just saying.

      • Kalihari Snake

        Hi Thomas: How are you Oromia bro? Are you holding strong? Hope that they are at least giving you a daily meal while you are in prison. How many hours a day do they force you to troll Eritrean websites?

    • Simon Kaleab

      Selam Kalihari,

      You said: “…very few wish to talk of possible solutions for Eritrea short of complete removal of the PIA/PFDJ regime.”

      Complete removal? How? By praying and ranting around the clock? It will never happen. It is more likely that these chaps are drowning their sorrow by comforting each other.

    • Yosief Tewolde

      Peace Kalihari Snake. Your statement (efforts to overthrow the PIA/PFDJ regime) is well put. I am happy you did not state ‘Shabia’ along the terms PIA/PFDJ.

      In my view Shabia had a positive intent to liberate the country from the tyrannic entities like Haile Silassie and Derg. The sad reality is that Shabia has been over taken by PIA/PFDJ that has ruinous intent.

      • Kalihari Snake

        Hi Yosief Tewolde: We share the same view in regards to Shabia

  • Kalihari Snake

    Hello All: Teddy Afro is blasting the Ethiopian (TPLF) Government for dividing the country and causing it go in reverse progress. Maybe that will create another crime for him and lock him up again.

    • Selamat Snake,

      The slithering sounds of the Cobra ahhhh GEBEL…. Can you visualize the snake charmer with his flute as the Cobra tunes its ears? TiniEE zbelet Eed weyliA. Eske, tSin tSinta Aweget SelaHta Werrar Qanatat iznikha metSHaff tSinTswayy Quannii.
      SaHil ilenn tebegisenn nkhiHalfa… Tebeges!


    • Haile WM

      hey Kalihari,

      MeHal ? 😀 😀 haTewQetew imo yitsineHalka, may yiharim do alo ab Adi ?

    • Yosief Tewolde

      Peace- Kalihari Snake, Teddy Afro CHOOSES to live in Ethiopia, where incremental Democracy is practiced. He had the CHOICE to stay in America or Europe, like you and me who CHOOSE not to live in Eritrea.
      for incremental Democracy definition, check me on Twitter @Ucf_Seber

      • Kalihari Snake

        Hi Yosief Tewolde: I am not sure that ‘Incremental democracy’ is practiced in Ethiopia though it might be more apt for the U.S.A. In any case, many comments that I make here are simply made in retort to those who are criticizing anything Eritrean and glorifying everything in Ethiopia.

  • Selamat Awate Comminity:

    tSelamat Aya Amanue Hidrat,

    DeGiga nzkrr Al Degiga*…

    1. The under 2 DeGegiga Flash Back moment as the spotter zooms to capture the 10K Marathon Runners @ To the East 17th Goderna or as Semere Tesfay would say: “The Amaras call Eritreans Tigre and we Eritreans have our own Tigre within us….type thing.” kinda thing THINK … Bring on the Funk Stink!

    2. Would you be kind to give the exact date for this:

    “Actually, this is the area both ELF and TPLF were claiming, that eventually lead ELF to be expelled by the joint forces of EPLF and TPLF.”

    The integral of Delta t / Delta X of FucnkTION (X) from “were claiming” to “that eventually.”.

    Sort of a AH || HA reflexive property POKEMON poke Hayat Adam || Amanuel Hidrat moment thing … Segway to HA || AH AbrahamH reflexive wink (Hint captain.)

    3. Bring The Funkadelic Function home… QitchAAter shiH Goblel Runners, I suggest you to the FIBER Diet – refer to “SaHil Ilen Tebegisen…” The spotter integrating FATTY diets and of Bits and Bytes CONVOLUTED INTEGRATION and partial differentiation.
    Gather around for the tSintSuay wedi ‘koy tSilimai mayy mayy mayy;)

    AmEriGitSAtSE Azzilo40 Agnieya40

    E.S.T17 AbuAAshera Weapon X -Evolution

    Solomon Seyum


    • MS

      MarHaba Xaxe
      Just back from Sawa graduation, fully loaded and ready to…
      You want some of us to have Calculus flashbacks?

    • Berhe Y

      Dear tSatse,

      It’s 10K now under 2 hours you were aiming ?

      Nay enda gobye legibuka:).


      • Selemant Berhe Y,

        nay endakha zeylegebeka nay enda menn klegbeka? 😉


  • MS

    Selam AbrahmH
    First i want you to know I don’t question your patriotism; I don’t question the patriotism of all those who are calling for dialogue. I also understand you are exhausted discussing this subject, and it’s understood. I am replying out of respect.
    I think your position and mine are not that different, that’s exploring Ethiopia’s proposal through the mediation of a UN body would not hurt. As PMMZ said in the interview, if Ethiopia is not genuine, Eritrea could stop there. Was meles genuine when he simplified things the way he did? I don’t know, but I don;t trust him at all. He was a shrewd politician, and he knew he was addressing Eritreans. Having read the five point proposal, I can’t help myself but wonder Why would we go to the court if we were capable to sort out the border and all other related issues including the root cause of the conflict. I wonder if delimitation of a border is contingent upon normalization of relations’ I wonder if the word and spirit of the EEBC ruling on deciding the border coordinates, it also espoused that both countries should resolve other outstanding issues before letting the border be marked.
    The point: the physical marking of the border according to the ruling is one thing and solving the root cause of the conflict is another thing. You can mark the border by an independent body while resolving root causes need the two parties agree to sit together and discuss them, possibly through a third party. Hence:
    1. The burden should be on Ethiopia because it is the party that is dragging its feet in accepting the EEBC ruling, and I believe the five point proposal was designed to be a safe escape chute. And it did serve for that purpose.
    2. Eritrea said it will normalize its relation with Ethiopia the day after the border has been demarcated. If Ethiopia is really interested in normalization why did not it let the border be demarcated, and then sit for a dialogue for the rest of the issue.
    3. Is Eritrea required to have a good relations with Ethiopia in order for the border to be demarcated? Is the relation and the task of solving the root cause a precondition? If peace and stability was PMMZ’s worry, is not leaving the border the way it is a cause for more wars and conflicts?
    4. If according to PMMZ the root cause was not the rocky areas but the people, was not that part of the legal proceedings that culminated in the final ruling of EEBC? Do I have to believe PMMZ that those villages, plains, ridges and gorges were not discussed by the lawyers of both countries? Was not the final ruling based on the arguments presented by the lawyers concerning those villages and hamlets and their environs?
    5. PMMZ said Ethiopia accepted the ruling without precondition. However, it is all in the five point plan that Ethiopia is placing not only a condition but conditions, and the stated position of Ethiopia (the 5 point proposal) that Ethiopia could only move on implementing the court ruling when Eritrea satisfies Ethiopia proposal in itself is a precondition.
    I brought this question to test waters if we could discuss the main substance of the topic instead of labeling each other pro this or that. I think both sides have valid points what is missing is levelheaded discussions. I hate when Nitrickay jumps his guns and call you wayanista, and by the same token I head when others are called PFDJistas when ever they call on Ethiopia to proceed implementing the court ruling. When both sides pitted people against people and made young soldiers canon fodders they did not think about those villages and hamlet; they did not think about the ramification of the war on the relations of both countries. In another word, border are clearly demarcated in order to avoid confusion and unwanted conflicts. Any party that cares for the people need to demarcate that bloody border. The relations of governments has never been a precondition of demarcating a border. So many lives perished in these border areas, and to expect that both governments could sit down and settle their remaining issues is simply unthinkable. IN addition, governments come and go, even if PFDJ and TPLF sort out their current problems, other governments in the future may have conflicts of different nature. So, while border denotes the limits of a sovereign nation and which is permanent, relations of governments change.
    In a related issue, in today’s world where GPS has made physical markings obsolete, can we say, UN’s virtual demarcation, stands any future attempts to bend the interpretations of the ruling?
    Sorry, i’m just jotting down ideas, some may be overlapping and repetitive, I may edit it without changing its message. And sorry for acting like IA showering you with questions, I understand you may not have time nor the appetite to reply and that’s just fine Abraham.
    With all due respect.

    • Abraham H.

      Selam Mahmuday, the respect is mutual, and it is good to know that you and me agree about the need for the two parties to discuss about how to implement the eebc ruling in the best practical way. I think this is what is expected from governments that care for the well-being of their citizens. As things stand today; we are not moving anywhere; instead we’ve a regime in Asmara exploiting the border issue maximally to perpetuate its oppressive rule of the Eritrean people.
      I’m afraid you seem to give too much weight to the actual demarcation of the border, rather than to resolving the root-causes that have led the two sides to that bloody war. I’m of the postion that negotiations for repairing the damaged or even non-existing relationships could be held irrespective of the border issue. But you need a political gut from the two sides, in particular from the pfdj side, which has been rejecting any dialogue unless the border is demarcated. Once the two parties soften their relationships, it would be easier for them to handle the border demarcation based on the eebc ruling, making adjustments whereever necessary and if they agree.
      I notice that you do not trust what Meles said and what the Weyanes are offering, and that is ok, but I don’t think there any danger in trying. Eritrea has nothing to lose from listening to the demands of the Weyane, sitting together to resolve all disagreements cannot nullify the eebc ruling.
      The eebc even allowed the two parties to make some adjustments to the delimitation ruling in situations where the border runs accross villages or cuts roads in two, provided they both agree. But the pfdj regime is not willing to engage in this exercise, and I cannot understand why it doesn’t, if those adjustments are for the benefit of the affected people on both sides?
      It is my understanding that Ethiopia has not rejected the final and binding eebc ruling, it is only requesting for some minor adjustments to the border so that it is demarcated in the most suitable manner to those people affected by the line. Above everything else, Ethiopia is offering a dialogue to resolve all outstanding issues, why would one reject such an offer?
      Your point no.4 imagines that the eebc had considered virtually every village and hamlet of the border, which I believe was not the case. In fact, I don’t think the commision visited the border area to ascertain the position of villages, gorges, valleys, and hamlets on the ground. This was the second phase of its mission, i.e, the actual demarcation. Thanks for engaging.

  • Abraham H.

    Greetings All, yesterday, during the graduation ceremony of the Sawa recruits, there was a particular incident that drew my attention. At the front of the military procession there were ten large posters of people, with nine of them allegedly representing the nine ethnic groups, and the tenth was a picture of a much younger smiling DIA. Even the presenter, I think Suleiman Osman Abbe, was first confused as to how describe the situation cutting his presentation midway; only to repeat his message after getting some advice later on. I don’t know if I missed such displays before, but to me this was the first time the picture of DIA is portrayed in this manner in an official regime organized commemoration inside the country. I think this is just a tiny symbolic representation of what has gone wrong during the past years, particularly the last two decades. I don’t think there is any sane minded Eritrean who back in May 1991 imagined that Eritreans would be reduced to worshiping a despot in this manner. What a sad turn of events!

  • Kebessa

    Selam all
    “There is no working parliament, no vice president and no organised opposition. When the president goes, there will be… chaos”
    Biniam Simon, editor of Radio Erena, told The Guardian.
    Indeed, that’s the real nightmare for us Eritreans. By banning parliament and governmental institutions, President Isaias has paved the road to chaos and is holding Eritrea hostage. In the the end, it will come to either chaos, as planned by Isaias, or the wisdom and level of consciousness of our people will prevail and it will be a soft landing.

  • TK4367

    Continued…..if to tomorrow GOE said to Woyane, go ahead use assab port for free. Guess what Woyane would say? Yep! you

    guessed, can we have Massawa too. Seriously. Eritrea has time and again has said we will talk the same day if woyane removes

    it’s army. How simply is that. As per our agreement. But honest people know woyane want no peace. Simply because woyane

    can’t make a decision. They can only obey, just like almost all African puppets do. What does Uncle Sam want? Why do they

    finance wars globally? What is the end game? These are the questions we, Eritreans ought to be talking about.

  • TK4367

    Dear Eritreans,

    I am always amazed as to why many Eritreans, fail to see the common enemy of humanity, the American empire disastrous policy

    towards Eritrea. US, has been and is the main enabler of the backward, shortsighted, Ethiopian successive regimes. Without US

    help, Ethiopia would not have this belligerent policy towards Eritrea. And most certainly would have vacated from Eritrean territory.

    Herelet me make it clear to our equally shortsighted and misguided, Eritreans. The illegal occupation of Badema the issues. It is

    the broken promise, which brings mistrust. It is the constant treat of regime change. It is the peddling of the Ethiopian government

    on the corridor of the powers THAT SHOULD NOT BE.

  • Hayat Adem

    Dear friends,
    UN says about 165K refugees from Eritrea are camped in Ethiopia as we speak. The Irish Times have a new report on this detailing realities and policies, “Ethiopia strongly believes that generous hosting of refugees will be good for regional relationships down the road,” said Jennifer Riggan, an associate professor of International Studies at Arcadia University in the US, and analyst of Eritrean refugees in Ethiopia.”
    So, the entire country is melting in many unredressable ways.. We still are talking about chunks of land in the Badime environs.

    • Dear Hayat Adem,

      Ethiopia’s open-door policy towards refugees is really appreciable. I do not know if ethiopia will be able to win eritrean hearts and minds in the future, nevertheless, it is the right thing to do. There are even some eritrean women who moved to ethiopia with their children from sudan for security reasons. Of course, regime supporters call all this ethiopia’s international obligation without giving any credit, as if it is the duty of their regime to produce refugees, and that of ethiopia to care for them.

      As to the UN findings of about 50% of children under five having stunted growth and about 40% are malnourished and underweight, all contributing negatively to mental and body development, again, regime supporters have their own alternative facts here too, that hunger and malnourishment exist only in ethiopia, and they talk about it day and night.

      Eritreans have ended up being foster children at the hands of the regime and its supporters, and their fate is to leave their country and live in refugee camps or die in far away places. Despite all these, regime supporters see themselves as the noblest eritreans of them all, because they stand for the common good, the land without its people. These people can not be of this world, but from another planet.

      • Hayat Adem

        Hi Horizon,
        “…nevertheless, it is the right thing to do.” Exactly, Horizon. I understand your doubts about Eritreans, whether they will ever attach any value appreciating Ethiopia’s policy but like you said, countries have to do the right thing regardless. But even, the time to appreciate all this will come in due time as things get cleared off the endless dusts and smokes of propaganda and disinformation have come to settle down and sink.
        The other day, I met a university professor at a transit flight stop in Dubai. He teaches and lives in Frankfurt. We started conversing to kill our lazy time at the airport and the talk evolved to refugees. The professor told me Ethiopia is number one in Africa in hosting refugees and he is supportive of that particular Ethiopia’s policy. He thinks in the long run, it will also benefit Ethiopia and by way of example, he started telling me about an incident that involved 1 ethiopian and 3 somalis. The Somalis defended and supported the Ethiopian in Frankfurt from a German police who tried to physically abuse the relatively new Ethiopian origin immigrant. The case reached a local court and the 3 Somalis were there to also testify in favor of the Ethiopian. In the court, they said, to the effect, “Ethiopians host our people,; they helped us; they are brothers and sisters who were there for our people in bad times…etc”.

        • Graviton

          Peace new?

          Right as we speak there are countless Eritreans living in Addis(apart from the refugee camps), some doing business, others enrolled in our universities (Ethiopians students will repay the cost , Eritreans for free),and even some have got Ethiopian passport, you know, just like a regular Ethiopian.

          Now the most disheartening part of all this is, the minute they make it to the western world they wont waste a minute to badmouth a country that gave them the protection they needed from their own liberator. To the Unfamiliar commentator it might seem an excesses of the border war and the aftermath eventualities. But to the keen observer, sizable segment of Eritrean’s conspicuous “ungratefulness” is hard to miss, come liberation or even way before that. Are Eritreans incapable of humility and appreciation? How will this affect them with their neighboring countries? or its just with Ethiopia? Will there ever be an end to Ethiopia’s open door policy towards refugees?

          • Nitricc

            Graviton; Nice try! the truth is your inferior weyane is inviting Eritreans to come to Ethiopia and register as a refugee so that the weyane thugs can use the number of refugee to the number of dollars. The truth is there are more Tigryans settled in the west in the name of Eritreans than Eritreans themselves. Last year the UNHCR couldn’t account 80000 so-called Eritrean refugee in Tigray. The truth is your TPLF thugs use the inflated numbers of Eritrean refugee for bagging and for settling their own people in the west. I know what you are trying to fool the fool Eritreans, Thomas and Abraham comes to mind but we do know the truth. .

          • Thomas

            Hi Nitricc,

            Listen smart boy, we don’t have to hear that from Graviton because we exactly know the facts on the ground. You, the staunch supporters of the criminals, will say anything to defend the criminals. However if you don’t remember, I will remind you what we have said about:

            1) G15- the weyane and CIA agents
            2) The 367 poor Eritrean who drown in the Lampedusa were just Africans (Eri-TV)
            3) Eritrean refuges in Tigray/Ethiopia as most Tigreans themselves.
            4) fill the blank
            5) fill the blank
            6) so and so forth

            Finally, your day to day lies have been exposed and they have NO more credibility on whatever you bluff here.

          • Nitricc

            Hi Thomas; I am just stunned at your simplicity. Who cares about the leader? the country must be protected against anything and everything. What you are doing is destroying the country in hope to destroy PIA; that so wrong and so stupid, I have no word for it. let me be nice and answer your big ideas hahahahah

            1) On the G15- that they are the weyane and CIA agents

            A) what ever they are and what ever their crime is they must be brought to face their accusers in a court of law. Holding them in a prison with out due process is wrong and the government of Eritrea is responsible of such crime against G-15. it is crime to hold people indefinite. the end of the story!

            2) The 367 innocent Eritreans who drowned in ocean of Lampedusa were just Africans (check Eri-TV archives)

            A) Technically Eri-tv is not wrong. Eritreans are Africans so, calling them Africans is not the end of the world. What you and many Eritreans failed to understand is that the Government of Eritrea can’t sympathize or publicly say anything about the Lampedusa because they victims are escapees. defection is a great crime in a military institutions so Eritrea is no difference on this regard.

            3) Eritrean refuges in Tigray/Ethiopia as most Tigreans themselves pretending to be Eritreans

            Absolutely, positively True!!!! I know, you are not that bright to see it but it is all over and crystal clear to every one. The Tigryans are milking the coward Eritreans who are in Ethiopia. so, anything happens to the Eritreans in Ethiopia is very deserving.

            4) fill the blank
            Eritrea comes before anyone, including PIA and his system.
            5) fill the blank
            Ethiopian leaders are the enemy of Eritrea.
            6) so and so forth
            Stop being weyane stooge and think for your self!

          • Thomas

            Hi Nitricc,

            Now I see your stupidity at the highest level. I took a risk and tried to engage you for the last time, you turned me off with your ignorant view. I know you are a unique animal where your brain never develops as it captures absolutely nothing. Below is what your response to me was:

            1) on the G15 “what ever they are and what ever their crime is they must be brought to
            face their accusers in a court of law. Holding them in a prison with out
            due process is wrong and the government of Eritrea is responsible of
            such crime against G-15.”. So, what are you doing about it. Are you waiting to see their dead bodies to appear in the court? It has been 16 years since they were taken to Era-Ero and their age estimated was over 50’s. In a normal world people are taken to court within 48 hours, you are not seeing this in your pfdj world and you still have plenty of time to talk about the weyanes NO time about the G-15 and the over 10,000 other innocent Eritreans jailed by your bosses. Again your stupidity does not have measures.
            2) I is amazing who your dumb mind sees things, “Technically Eri-TV is not wrong. Eritreans are Africans so, calling them Africans is not the end of the world.”. It is never the end of the world because the pfdj kind of ruling has no place in the world. So, it is ok if people call you an African, but it is not ok if people call you an Ethiopian (“Aregawi or Gemechu”). Can African governments be blamed for your masters crimes to? Again, you are an amazing animal.
            3) On this one I have nothing to say to you but I wish to see you get stoned by the real Eritrean migrants in Ethiopia. Why would the tigrian pretend to be Eritreans when the reality is 5000 Eritreans/month are fleeing to their land? I know stupid people such as yourself will never get it. That is why I doubt if you really are an Eritrean or you are in mission to finish the Eritrean races.
            4) I read this one as saying “PIA” comes before everything else
            5) I read this as PFDJ is a backward and criminal regime. IGAD and AU have already spitted on the races of these criminals for PFDJ regime only are good at making enemies (the PFDJ attack on Djibouti, Sudan, Yemen and others are good examples of their criminal behavior)

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Nitricc, Kal and all,

            If you could spend a fraction of your time and efforts and look at finding solution to Eritrea problems, instead of looking for enemies to blame (weyane, US, EU) others, would be better.

            Let’s make two assumptions:

            1) US and the west are our enemies
            2) TPLF / Ethiopia are our enemies

            These above we can’t change. Given this, how do you find a solution to Eritreas problems (refugee, imprisment, indefinite national service) etc.

            If you are saying it’s impossible to find solution to the immediate need of our country and people without the boarder is demarcated and the US and Ethiopia agree to your demands, waiting for the good will or collapse of your “enemy”, then this shows how small you are and how the leaders you support are incapable of finding solutions in their own.

            If your purpose is however, to suppress the people and by doing so to support the regime to stay in power, and this is your service by bogging down people with endless gut retching excuse, then you truly have achieved your mission.

            Just look yourself in the mirror and be able to live with yourself and congratulate that you job well done. Specially when you hear and see your own people die in the desert of hunger and thrust, drawn in the Mediterranean see or live in open air camps in Israel, or beg in the street of Europe. Well done, I wish you can trade your life for a day.

            However, if you can dream for a day and see what life would look like for your country and people by only focusing on the things you can control:

            Issue: boarder demarcation
            Solution: no problem. Retain top 3 to 5 lawyers, and leave it for them to make and respond to the UN, US or anyone else. You don’t need the whole 5 million people to talk about, analyze what have you. If it doesn’t get demarcated, no problem even if it takes another 50 years.

            Issue : indefinite national service

            Solution: no problem. Figure out the total number of people needed to secure the boarder (eg 50 or 60 thousand). Have the national service rotate, as per the low. 6 months training, 1 year service. Let the people serve and demobilize as soon as done. Give them passport, exit or freedom to move where ever they need. This makes the national service program legal and online with the rest of the world, then all Eritreans will either be deported, repatriated or move or live in the country peacefully. Let the people figure out how to make a living. As a government work with partners, investors to help create job in the country (eg tourism, mining, constraction etc). Not only that people stay home, but I think a lot of people return voluntarily. And the government has nothing to say or do except accept them with open arms (unless they are criminals) who can do harm (based on evidence).

            Issue: Impressment
            Solution: no problem

            Figure out the worst case maximum sentence, even if it’s death if it must be. But bring people to court or set them free, but give them the legal right to defende themselves.
            Why should the country be pariah state because of few individuals.

            Issue: elections /multiparty democracy
            Solution : no problem. You can actually have a good excuse and valid reason to suspend. You can say we are under state of war and we are in state of emergency so no elections.

            I do not believe that even this would be acceptable to Isayas and his supporters. Because they hate the ERITREAN people and they have declared war but I thought it would worth a try.


          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Berhe: PIA/PFDJ is using the border issue (rightly or wrongly) as a reason for for indefinite national service, lack of judicial system, lack of constitution, lack of free press, etc.; so why does Ethiopia not take that reason away by withdrawing from Badme? Also by doing so, Ethiopia would be taking the high ground and adhering to the Rule of Law.

          • Abraham H.

            Nitricc, I told you before; instead of screaming in his website for years, please go to your master DIA; at least he may have use of you as his cannon fodder.

          • Thomas

            That is right Abraham. DIA would quickly realize that Nitricc is nothing but someone filled with hate towards the weyanes. And as we know, deep inside more than anyone else DIA loves the weyanes (for he himself is a tigrian trait afterall:)). As you exactly said DIA would recruit Nitricc for just to be used as “Fenj Regach”:) I know cowards like Nitricc would only be good for letting it go/fart while running towards the hidden mines. Then the real soldiers would identify where the mines are planted.

          • Abraham H.

            Selam Thomas, that was funny, lol. Imagine someone with Tigrayan roots, like DIA, how would that person feel deep inside as you said when he sees his roots being demeaned and denigrated by some Eritreans, in particular his hardline worshipers like Nitricc?

          • Thomas

            That is right, Abraham. Nitricc would never know what his stupid could do to him:) He is easily brainwashed as we can see.

          • blink

            Dear Graviton
            The minute they make to the west , that line is 100% true and you know it is in our blood to not trust Ethiopian leaders. It is that simple. I have my relative who was in Addis for 4 years and now he is in the U.K , I can tell you that you guessed him perfectly. Eritreans will always put their heart for their beloved country that is natural sir.

          • Graviton

            Peace new blink?

            Well aint that a shame? blink, can you give me your honest assessment of Eritrea’s future as a country? As in like the next five years?

          • blink

            Dear Graviton
            My assessment is the man will stay and we will still chat here. The refugee issue will not be the same and the threat from Ethiopia to Eritrea will reduce to its a minimum level while the dictator continue to make havoc in Eritrean society.

          • Selam blink,

            Do you really believe that ethiopia is a threat to eritrea? Do you believe that any government that is afraid of an imminent attack from a neighboring country would simply sit and see while about 5k of its young of which about 50% are from the military escape to the land of the enemy every month? If eritrea is in an imminent danger, the first thing the regime would do will be to avoid this hemorrhage to its armed forces, and to avoid the moral decay of the army personnel by all means possible. The regime knows very well that unless it starts a major conflict itself, ethiopia is not going to engage it in any way. That is why it feels free to do whatever it likes internally in eritrea.

            As to DIA’s future, do you see another Mugabe in him? Both came to power as liberation front leaders, both believe that the country they liberated belong to them, and they hate their power contested by anybody as long as they are alive. Is it possible to imagine DIA replaced by somebody else, even by his son, when he is still alive. Mugabe is above ninety, and he plans to rule from a wheelchair. His wife said something on this few months ago, unfortunately i forgot.

          • blink

            Dear Horizon
            Isaias is far worse than Mugabe , the fact that you compare Isaias to Mugabe is an insult to dictatorship. Eritreans wage a 30 years military war for their country and I don’t believe Mugabe with his colleagues did such. Zimbabwe has some air to breathe while we don’t.

          • Graviton

            Peace new?

            so in this grim assumption of yours, will there ever be a breaking point? There is a certain extent a society shoulders the burden of oppression( be it foreign or local),wouldn’t you say such indicators have surfaced in recent times? And assuming a post wed afoam era, would Eritreans trust each other considering the sectarian and ethnic divide?

          • blink

            Dear Graviton
            If you ever met any Eritrean who is so optimistic after Issaias, I am the one.Eritreans have been through testing times and this one is not different, we are the tested people. The notion Eritreans do not trust each other is false and heinous at its best. We are not killing each other nor do we hate each other
            Because of our ethnic or religious differences, it is the system of Issaias.The system live and breathes on imaginary differences some people set for themselves.

          • Yosief Tewolde

            Peace Blink, you say,

            One important thing is, a reason for what you stated above is because people are ruled by FEAR.

            check me on Twitter @Ucf_Seber

          • blink

            Dear Yosief
            I do not have Twitter account . Fear and politics are always in the same place. I think for any political Propaganda to win fear must be in place.

          • Abraham H.

            Dear blink, I’m afraid whatever trust that existed between Eritreans is fast eroding with each day that passes under the rule of DIA. How do you think DIA can hold this far despite exerting a huge suffering on the Eritrean society with his iron rule? Of course, he is capable of doing so thanks to the unconditional, and bilind support he has been getting from his closest circle, as well as a considerable section of the Eritrean society, both inside and outside the country. Therefore, I’m afraid there is an accumulation of great resentment and bitterness between Eritreans because of the current regime, and there is a huge risk of us getting on each other’s throats. This is compounded with the absence of a unified and well organized opposition camp.

          • blink

            Dear Abraham
            You tell me where is the friction between Eritrean society based on religion, ethnic ? Have ever heard they killed each other after 1993 to be close to my guess. Have you ever heard from Tigrinya ,Tigre or any other that they got deported from low land to highland or from any places because of his religion or ethnic ??
            Where do you think such thing happened ??

            The notion Eritreans hate each other due to hidden ethnic cause is false.
            The only problem we have is one man problem, that is the only reason as far as I can see. Call me blind but I do not believe Isaias is on power due to one ethnic group. I simply don’t buy the crazy Tesfatsion or the religious fanatics. Such people don’t exist. Eritreans will never go to ethnic war , that is a dream of some idiots and they are free to dream.

          • Abraham H.

            Dear blink, no where in my reply did I imply there is an ethnic or religious strife between Eritreans; though there is a danger it might surface when the oppressive pressure of the pfdj is let go. I’m mainly focussing on the strong and dangerous divide between those who are supporting and prolonging the DIA tyrannical regime and those who are against the system. This divide is more than enoguh to set the country ablaze.

          • blink

            Dear Abraham
            Isaias lost his broad support when he hijacked the Eritreans dream , if you read my reply to Graviton and I am thinking you do , I was making the case that all Eritreans are being smashed by the system of Issaias. So once the system of craziness got smashed, Eritreans with common sense will prevail no room for lunatics. The difference you see in the west has many factors.
            The havoc in the opposition has nothing to do on why they oppose the PFDJ.

      • Kalihari Snake

        Hi Horizon: Ethiopia’s open door policy? Do you not remember how Ethiopia barbarically deported tens-of-thousands of Eritreans back in 1999? Ethiopia’s open door policy is nothing but a propaganda ploy. And also don’t forget that for every refugee that Ethiopia and UNHCR is able to claim, they ask for accordant support from the donors. Who transports food for refugees and the 7.8 million starving Ethiopians? Tigray owned transports fleets get priority of course.

        • Hi K. Snake,
          Call the 1999 deportation an unfortunate case of burning up the chaff with the wheat, because there was no way to differentiate between those who were undermining and working against ethiopia from the center of ethiopia, from the innocent eritreans. Those who continue to hate ethiopia today are the same eritreans or their children who hated her then.
          165K refugees in camps just in ethiopia, and much more in sudan is a propaganda for regime apologists, who are deaf and blind to the plight of their people. So, you expect ethiopia to carry the burden alone. Even if she does so, which is beyond her capability, you people will always find something to demonize her efforts.
          If ethiopians have to regret for the deportation, it does not include people like you. They say good riddance in this case. Ethiopians are waiting for eritreans who are ready to give value to peace, cooperation and good neighborliness. As much as you people are concerned you can go on to strut and fret your days with topics like ethiopia the enemy, tplf collapsing, occupied badme, final and binding, beggars and famine in ethiopia, paid tplf propaganda machines, state of emergency in ethiopia, etc, things that have lost meaning and value to many, even as you pronounce these words day and night.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Horizon: Look at UNHCR’s own website and it indicates that about half of that number in unaccounted for in terms of location. Refugees and starving people have been big business in Ethiopia for several decades.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Horizon: There is absolutely no logic in deporting Eritreans back in 1999, on what you describe as security concerns, and then to have ‘open arms’ for Eritreans as refugees, as refugees could also be working undercover for the Eritrean Government. You have already blamed Eritrea for supporting and arming the Oromos as the reason behind Ethiopia’s State of Emergency, so why would you allow Eritrean refugees in? You, Abraham H. and Hyat are nothing but lower level TPLF propaganda machines!

          • Graviton

            Peace new?

            “so why would you allow Eritrean refugees in?”

            You dry up the ocean to capture the monster. Its that simple

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Graviton: You capture the monster and then what?

          • Nitricc

            Hi Kali; do you want a proof TPLF’s double tong? look what Graviton responded to you. he said ..

            ” “so why would you allow Eritrean refugees in?”

            “You dry up the ocean to capture the monster. Its that simple”

            and the same TPLF agent said …

            “Now the most disheartening part of all this is, the minute they make it to the western world they wont waste time to badmouth a country that gave them the protection they needed from their own liberator”

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Nittricc,
            How come you are cozying up with this K. Snake. You called him Kali, an affectionate and endearing term. Do you believe everything he said? I can’t believe it.
            I wanted to share with you a mind boggling report I read this weekend. I want you to use that “African Mentality” prism to express you take.
            I was browsing for a little information about Ethiopia this weekend, you know the Dam and the railways etc., and read many reports and opinions. I also read about the oppression of Amharas and Oromos, the pending implosions and several doom and gloom reports mainly from diaspora Eri. & Eths.
            Then I read a totally disconnected view…World Bank’s 2017 edition of the Global Economic Prospects report….has named ETHIOPIA as the fastest growing economy in the WORLD 2017.
            Ivory Coast was the fastest growing economy in 2016.
            Nittricc, buddy, 1st of all I don’t believe it myself. How can Eth. do this when the year is only half over.
            I just wanted your take. This must be that “African Mentality” at work seeping everywhere, infecting world organizations. What do you think. I wish I could give you the link.
            Mr. K.H

          • Nitricc

            Hey Kim; hahaha, I don’t know if you know this but I hate snake! I hate it snake so much, i don’t want spell it out and that is way i took the short way out. lol
            Anyway; I thought you knew better that to relay on World bank report. where do you think they get their report? I hope you don’t believe that the world Bank reports on due delegent assessment before they report anything about 3rd world country. It is all cruel game. What ever any government throw at them and they run with it. I don’t think even the government knows the exact situation with the economy. I am not an economist but with that much corruption, with that much black market witch killing the hard currency the country needs, how exactly can anyone arrived at any reasonable numbers? Ask your self.
            If you want to know the real deal about Ethiopia, follow the day to day citizen’s life. Right now the Ethiopian government is going absolutely crazy with the taxation process.small business owners are asked to pay monumental and unreasonable amount of taxes. Everyone small business owner in Addis is closing their business down. They can’t just afford the amount of taxes they are asked to pay. from what i read, things are getting really interesting. The question is what kind of economic growth is that? When you demand for a woman who sells coffee in the corner of the street to pay taxes on 3000 Birr a day income while the truth is that in a good day 150 Birr in sells is an excellent day. From what I read, a cup of coffee costs 5 birr and 100 Birr a day is the average, how did they came up 3000 birr in sells? May be that is all along a weyane style of economy. You don’t have to take my word, all i want you to do is to think for yourself. Now, get out that African mentality, “If the whites said it it must be true” think for your self. the question is for business to thrive, do you raise taxes or lower taxes? Thnik for your self. Why do you think the dollar is going up every day against the Ethiopian Birr?

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Nittricc,
            When the cats are away, the mice play. I think Abi said that, I wonder what he really meant by it.
            Nittricc, you didn’t disappoint on your response, it was so predictable.
            However, let me go a little further with this. I didn’t realize where the World Bank got their information. Now it makes sense. But then again, why didn’t PIA submit 16.6% growth rate for 2017. If weyane can do it, I am sure he can doubly do it, right. (I hope it is not integrity that is getting in the way)
            The tax policy of Ethiopia, coffee and the daily lives, dollar and birr…it is mind boggling.
            Nittricc, the only thing that is bothering me about this “African Mentality” thing is, and just thinking for myself, a while back I think you claimed to be an African. Perhaps you may want to re-state it, to remove that splinter from my head.
            Mr. K.H

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Kim Hannah: It does not take a genius to see the irony: Ethiopia with the fastest growing economy in the world is under a State of Emergency, tens-of-thousands of its citizens remain politically imprisoned, and there is no free press of social media, Why do you think it is that in June, both the U.S. and the U.K. issued travel warnings (not alerts) advising their citizens, in no uncertain terms but with diplomatic delicacy, ‘Avoid Ethiopia like the plague!’ If you travel to Ethiopia and get in a jam, and the likelihood of getting jammed is high, you are on your own. The U.K have even warned its citizens to not go to the Bole Area.

          • Nitricc

            KIM: one thing I wanted you to understand is that I don’t post or say something to convince anyone, all I wanted everyone to do is, think for yourself. As far as I am concern, there are no news worthy of my trust. So, I take things to my own matters. For instance; every one keep telling me how Issaias is bad, my thinking is, is he as bad as they make out to be? You ask me, why not PIA declare 16.6% economic growth? That is precisely my question? And please keep going with inquiry you have initiated. Why not call fake election and sit in power peacefully? why not implement toothless constitution and shred it to pieces? why not drain every dollar for the nation and send kids and family members to US and UK for education and vacation. Why no bring the G-15 and the rest of the prisoners to fake courts and conclude the matter for good, with out headaches. Why not permit fake private press that you control completely? the lists goes on. So what is it?

            Is it a brutal Dictatorship?
            or is it an Absolute commitment and vision that requires Unflinching Persistence in doing so that perceived by the weak, by the Unenlightened and absolute Benighted as brutal dictator?
            witch one is it my friend, I ask you this question to eradicate the term African mentality that you all suffer from.
            What is power if you can’t benefit your self and your family from it?

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Nitricc,
            In life there are lines and boundaries. You seem to enjoy crossing them. I will comment on what I took from your last paragraph, ONLY.
            First, I have to tell you that you are hanging out too much with M.S. You are beginning to post lengthy mixed subjects filled with twisted logic to end up with: My President is Great.
            HOWEVER, it might surprise you when I tell you that I understand and empathize with your predicament, at least, as far as I understood your last paragraph.
            As an illustration I will tell you what might be comparable to what you might be saying.
            In our high school years when we felt we knew everything about everything and bring up the modern way of governing, the older folks in the family were critical of such thinking.
            To them Haile Selassie was the absolute right person for the time and the job. A couple of them have gone through the Italian invasion.
            Their stern warning was if Haile Selassie was to disappear one day, the chieftains and their supporters would ” eat each other up”. Peace and stability for the rest will be lost. The nation might splinter and get lost.
            Mengistu happened.
            Of course, there might be a compelling other side of the coin story to this.
            Your concern is real. It is a big and heavy gamble being discussed and tossed around. I don’t know what the solution is.
            Mr. K.H

          • Graviton

            Peace new Shaleka Amiche?

            Do you have any news of monkey? Boy, i heard he got whacked along with the ambassador. Is this the beginning mark of the great Eritrean divide? The inevitability of the impossible? A spark to the logical conclusion of an illusion, a fruit of a conflicted identity?

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Kim Hanna: I take it that you hail from the Tigray royal family? Ethiopia’s economic growth is masking the ugly reality of poverty in the country and growing disparity of rich and poor. Look what percentage of Ethiopia’s new millionaire club members are from Tigray? The Tigray that have been using their connections to grab land left and right over the past 26 years. Why do you think that there is a State of Emergency in Ethiopia? Ethiopia continues to do very poor in all of the three measures of basic human needs, foundations of well-being and opportunity. Relative to the country with similar per capita income, Ethiopia is doing extremely bad in undernourishment, depth of food deficit, upper secondary school enrollment and rural access to improved water, and basic freedoms such as of speech and movement. Ethiopia, not surprisingly, also has very low mobile subscriptions and press freedom is constrained. No wonder, even as news came out that Ethiopia had overtaken Kenya to become the largest economy in the region, a lot of Ethiopians did not get the news as the government had blocked all access to Internet for significant portions of its population.

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Kalihari Snake,
            You began by saying …”I take it that you hail from the Tigray royal family?”. Let me tell you in a blunt way.
            No I am not, but I heard that someone sitting in Asmara Palace is. You better check.
            I am an Amhara, not just any Amhara, Shoa Amhara.
            Remember, Shoa Amhara was your favorite target for demonization up until 20 years ago. Remember?
            Now you and co. switched to Tigray. All of us are wise to you, including those who have problems with TPLF, thanks to you.
            Don’t forget the more you hate them, the more we love them in direct reverse proportion. So your obvious attempt to sow seeds of hatred and malice to Tigray will result in the exact opposite condition.
            A little wisdom I picked up at this University is all the factors of the equation suddenly changes when we see Tigray and Tigrinya fall in love again.
            So if you hail from Tigrinya, don’t hate them or don’t love them.
            Mr. K.H

          • Selam Kim Hanna,

            “So if you hail from Tigrinya, don’t hate them or don’t love them”.

            I was smiling as I was reading through your post. This has also been my problem, that sometimes I find myself supporting tplf without being aware of it, because of the things regime supporters write. Tplf supporters on the other hand must be sitting and laughing, as they see other ethiopians defending them on awate website. People like K. Snake think that they are working against tplf, but as you said they are having the opposite effect on ethiopians.

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Horrizon,

            A week or two ago, you were sounding a perfect TPLF cadre it was unbelievable. It made me laugh when you said TPLF supporters must be laughing…

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Fanti and Horizon,
            What will be funny is, Nittricc and co., using reverse psychology have nothing but praise for everything Tigray represent.
            By accident a grain of truth escapes, if one of them claim that their own great grand father was from Tigray, that is when I laugh out loud.
            They will not stop at anything.
            Mr. K.H

          • Selam Kim Hanna,

            Do you think that they will dare come out to do DNA test to prove that they do not have any genetic similarities with Tigrayans, even amharas for that matter? I do not think so. You see, the abyssinian (habesha) gene was in the area for thousands of years, before the arabs, ottoman turks and later italians came to the region, and there is no way that they can get rid of their habesha genes, however they try. This is going to be a big disappointment for them.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Horizon: You too should go and try to convince the more than 60% of Ethiopia’s population that does not fit the Habesha mold (i.e. Oromos, Somalis, Konzo, Anuak, etc.)that they have that Abysinnian (Habesha) gene that you are talking about.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Kim Hanna: Why don’t go and convince more than two-thirds or Ethiopia’s population that does not fit the Habesha mold to include the Oromos, that their great grandfathers were also from Tigray?

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Fanti, Horizon and all,

            I know exactly what you mean…and this goes to Hayat, I know she completely ignored me. By making constant insults on Ghedli she really made me to be one of the hardcore supporters of Ghedli, including EPLF, although I have a lot of criticism to their leadership.

            It’s common human nature, the PFDJ and their supporters do not seem to understand. If they had treated the Eritrean people fairly and free, there will not be any better people to defend their country against anyone.


          • Hayat Adem

            Hi Berhe Y,
            No, I am not ignoring you at all. It is just my times here are becoming so piecemeal that when I have time, responding to your feeds becomes too late. And yes, I am aware of your hardened positioning when it comes to ghedli. My views on that can’t be clearer than this. Like you, in an opposite way, I always get agitated when I see people defending ghedli. otherwise, it is not that sexy for me either. Rather, I want to discuss the three T pillars of development: Technology, Trade and Talents. Those are where my heart is.
            However, I have always felt not sufficient depth of discussion has taken place regarding that subject. Do you want how I know: people’s hairs stand whenever someone says something on ghedli. ELF and EPLF ; Berhe and PFDJ become the same on the point. It makes no sense for non-agitated normal people. It is too complicated to stomach; hence my genuine call for open and frank discussions in a convenient future time.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Hayat,

            I agree to almost all what you said, except the last below belt jab.

            “Do you want how I know: people’s hairs stand whenever someone says something on ghedli. ELF and EPLF ; Berhe and PFDJ become the same on the point.”.

            I know you enough now you do this on purpose:(.

            There is nothing the PFDJ says and does can bring me to its side, specially related to Ghedli. I don’t mind ELF, EPLF but could not have been further when it comes to PFDJ.

            What ever it owned and inherited, it has lost it in Sept 2001.

            Anyway, would love to engage in the other more important topic you have at heart.

            Let me tell you what I think about PFDj, I wanted to share the news when I heard it over the weekend. The Canadian PM named a former Astronat to be the next Governer General of Canada. It’s an honorary assignment, basically represents the queen. All the geeks where over the moon and including me. I remember when she went to space, Julie Payette, as the second Canadian women, we were extatic. I think every engineering student, probably had a crash on her. It was good times, Star Trek and all.

            When I heard the news, I just reflected the time spend since then, over 20 years that how the world have moved and changed and here we have the PFDJ kill every person dream and kill a nation.

            This is how much I detest the PFDJ and their head, a disputable, evil individual who is he’ll bend to burn and destroy a nation that gave him everything.


            You can never put me in the same league. You can never put EPLF and ELF and many others who paid dearly to see a free and democratic country.

            There were everyone else, and there was IA and his cronies, planning their subjugation of the Eritrean people. They fooled us.


          • Abraham H.

            Selam Berhe, they fooled us, yes. But how could they hang on to power without the blessing and backing of a considerable portion of Eritreans? Please, don’t tell me it is because of Badme these people are hanging with the worst internal oppressors Eritreans have ever seen; I don’t buy that tired excuse.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abraham,

            They fooled us until they get to power..I was in Eritrea in 2001 and the president had 4 hours interview with the private press, it was around June. Three months before the arrest of the G-15 and shutting down of all the private press and arrest all the journalist. They even had a picture with the president after the interview.

            One of the question they asked was with regards to Eritrean constitution and the upcoming election (was scheduled for Dec 2001) and what he thinks about the two term limit. He answer way, why it should be TWO terms limit, if it was up to me, I think ONE should be enough. He was always ahead and he answer was always to give you the answer you were looking for. How about multi party…we have made a resolution in our congress in 1986….etc.

            Then, came FEAR. That’s how they are in control now, they made everyone else disappear and now are in total control and they are ruling by FEAR.


          • Abraham H.

            Dear Berhe, yes, fear is one important aspect that is prolonging the DIA rule; esp. as regards those Eritreans who wish to see the regime gone. But I notice there are good portion of Eritreans who back the regime, and give it unconditional, uncritical, blind support. There is a dictator who is being worshiped as god, and whose words are repeated as Bible words by his staunch supportes both inside and outside the country. Many Eritreans, both hardline DIA supporters as well as those who aspire for other better system also buy into to the tired propaganda of the pfdj that Eritrea is fighting a war of survival against conspiracies comming from the U.S. and being perpetrated by the Weyanes. It is also not helping the situation when those Eritreans who have the freedom to arganise in the diaspora are spending their time fighting with each other rather than pausing a challenge to the regime.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Abraham,

            I don’t think we need to worry that much of those who worship the dictator. When his time is up, they are the first to abandon him and run for their lives. There is plenty of example and evidence to suggest that. For example, have you ever thought Ghadafi would have gone like that. What happened to those who worshipped him. Isayas is not in power because of the people who support or worship him. He is in power because he is in total control of the security / intelligence, the millitary and the money and the media.

            So to fight such a system, we have to find the weak part of that system and attack it piece by piece until it will crumble.

            Lucky for us, Isayas has not been able to create wedge successfully based on ethnic, religion or region. I can’t say there is any particular group which is ready to die to defend him.


          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Horizon: You are freely commenting on an Eritrean website from Ethiopia and you have been doing so even during Government media blackouts. A chameleon you might be but you are still a TPLF paid propaganda machine.

          • Selam K. Snake,
            Yes, i am commenting from an eritrean website, but remember, it is not a pfdj site. This is a free and democratic eritrean website completely beyond PFDJ control, however you people try directly and indirectly to make it look like a regime website. This is the big difference, and the main reason we too can be here. Therefore, learn to live with this fact. You can find your peace of mind in pfdj websites where the door is hermetically closed to ethiopians.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Horizon: You are mixing apples and oranges. From Ethiopia, you well know that some websites are accessible while others are blocked. And, even during during Government imposed periods of social media blackouts, you have been allowed internet access to make posts. Your identity is clear.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Kalihari,

            You are making a whole lot of assumptions. How do you know he is commenting from Ethiopia if I may have missed it out.

            How do you know, Ethiopia doesn’t allow access to AT. Not only for Horizon but may be for everyone else.

            What difference does it make if he is commenting from Ethiopia as member of EPRDF, or Ethiopian working in the US Embassy, or an ordinary Ethiopia who lives in west.

            I think because you have nothing more to show or argue about you are focusing on the the useless part of the discussion.


          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Berhe Y: Ask Horizon as he has inferred before that he is living in Ethiopia. And, yes it does make a difference in terms of credibility if he is known to be a EPRDF paid troll.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Kali,

            Personally I don’t think it makes a difference. If he was, his presence makes it more interesting to understand the thinking of the EPRDF government and hear their point of view.

            The way you are driving your argument and the boarder issue, who is to say you are not a paid PFDJ troll? I mean, for all the argument you were making, nothing but the boarder demarcation.

            I was hoping you would have something to say/add when Saay has taken the boarder issue. Based on real facts, and concrete evidence instead of the hypothetical, Ethiopia must withdraw and the US is against us, side of argument.

            Personally when able people like yourself, all they argue about is Ethiopia downfall, the boarder demarcation but nothing to say about their people misery in their own land, I am skeptical as why their agenda is. Sure the boarder, the US and Ethiopia are important but NOT compared to the misery our people are suffering under their own government. From a priority point of view, I would expect that should be list number one, and the rest should be way below, because NOW, it’s not in their (GoE) control.


          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Berhe Y. Sorry but I simply do not believe that the TPLF/EPRDF should be allowed to be process to, or part of the discussion towards, resolution of Eritrea’s internal affairs and problems. Options at this point in time are limited: 1) Ethiopia withdraws from Eritrean land that illegally occupies, 2) PIA/PIA PFDJ makes much needed Government reforms, 3) Change of U.S.A. stance towards Eritrea, and 4) Use of an outside neutral mediator or regional coordination bodies to engage Ethiopia and Eritrea in indirect communication. Of these no. 4 is the most plausible but nobody wishes to discuss it.

          • Thomas

            Hi Berhe,

            You might as well say in tigrigna, “Ane yigedid mis Snake zekudid”:) Koinu negeru:)

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Kali,

            Your wish that “I simply do not believe that the TPLF/EPRDF should be allowed to be process to, or part of the discussion towards, resolution of Eritrea’s internal affairs and problems.” is really nothing you can do about. You discuss Ethiopia internal problems as you wish, so who cares if someone wants to discuss or not. After all, it affects them directly as they are hosting thousands of Eritrean refugees (what even the number you agree to) and the people who live in the boarder are affected as well. Off course they will not be at our meeting and have a say in what we do…we just need to have confidence in our selves that we are able to manage our internal problems.

            The other lists you have are good..but do the need to happen in order? If so, does the one have to happen before the second can happen?

            Can they be done in parallel ?

            On the last point, is this something you are just proposing or that’s the stand of the GoE?

            Anan of UN assigned former Canadian FM, Axworthy to find a solution to the issue of the boarder and help find resolved the deadlock. Ethiopia accepted him but Eritrean refused. How is what you are saying now any different?


          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Berhe Y: Common man how can you be serious when you say that Anan assigned Canadian FM Axworthy to find a solution to the border issue? The United Nations is far from being a neutral entity in terms of Ethiopian and Eritrean relations.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Kali,

            The simple answer would be, to assign Haile DuruE or Saay and everything would be solved, just remove that resi Akat, named Isayas.

            The complex answer would be, to find a madotor from Mars, if the UN and Axworthy are not honest brokers.

            He wasn’t a FM when he was assigned, but I doubt you know who he is and what he has done at the world stage. Typical Hgdf, ab TraH meAkorka boreq boreq.

            Note: I have noticed how you ignored the important part of my comments.


          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Berhe Y: You miss the point. Irrespective of Axworthy’s credentials, he is not longer considered as a neutral entity once he has been assigned by the U.N. Secretary General.

          • Hi K. Snake,
            Do not take all the burden on yourself to defend the regime, because finally you end up confusing things. Although immaterial, I never said I live in ethiopia. As much as eprdf is concerned, I know the PM of ethiopia from the news, and nobody from the tplf. On the contrary, I know the ethiopian people, and that is what matters most to be interested in ethiopian politics. The opposite seems to be the case with you. You know a lot about the regime, and very little about the eritrean people.
            When I mentioned habeshas, I was talking of those habeshas north of the mereb who deny they are habeshas, simply because this makes them the same people with other habeshas to the south. How can I say that those who are not habeshas are what they are not? I was talking of the highland abyssinians, which inhabited parts of ethiopia and eritrea throughout their history. As much as oromos are concerned, you can find oromo blood in most ethiopians. This should help you calm down.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Horizon: You might live in the Netherlands for all I know. What I do know is that you endlessly glorify the TPLF and conditions inside of Ethiopia. So if you do not live there, then why are you doing it? What is your motivation? Are you unable to vilify PIA/PFDj without at the same time glorifying Ethiopia and the TPLF? Get real.

          • Thomas

            Hi Horizon,

            I said to myself I am not surprised when read you saying, “This has also been my problem, that sometimes I find myself supporting
            tplf without being aware of it, because of the things regime supporters write. Tplf supporters on the other hand must be sitting and laughing, as they see other ethiopians defending them on awate website. Peoplelike K. Snake think that they are working against tplf, but as you said
            they are having the opposite effect on ethiopians, because of the way they present their outrageous points.”. I would say at least you are an Ethiopian and it cannot be that bad if someone thinks you support tplf (other ethiopians). Look at me I am an Eritrean and I don’t even know who the tplfs are. I know nothing except I know they are tigrians and I heard they helped us to liberate our nation, Eritrea. That is all I know. However, people like K. Snake made me to act and talk like the tplfs. The reason is because they don’t want to talk about Eritrea, my country. I say NO body loves the tplfs more the likes K. Snake, Nitricc, Simon K, Blink and other commenters here. It is just a secret love towards the tplf:)

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Your Excellency K.H,

            Don’t be so sure about that Your Highness. Shoa was Tigrean Royal Family hiding place whenever there was a major disaster in the North.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Kim Hanna: So now you wish to pretend to be an Amhara instead of from Tigray? Nice…

          • Graviton

            Peace new shaleka amiche?

            why do you call anyone that challenges your ghedli delusion a TPLF?

          • Graviton

            Peace new?

            Na, the most important question to ask is “what’s the monster?”

          • Hi K. Snake,
            What do you expect ethiopia to do? Do you expect her to be an accomplice to the crime against humanity your regime is committing against its own people? Do you expect ethiopia to shoot them from the front as you shoot them from the back, rape the women in refugee camps as your officers rape them in sawa, get paid for human trafficking as your regime officials have made it a lucritive business. Even underage children are running away from the regime you support, and you ask ethiopia, why she allows eritrean refugees in. It seems that you will get satisfaction if more calamity comes upon eritreans, simply to support and keep in power the dictatorial regime. You need to do a lot of soul searching to appease your conscience.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Horizon: Ethiopia needs to take care of the mess in its own back yard first: 1) State of Emergency. 2) Mass imprisonment of more than 15,000 Oromos and 7,500 Amhara, 2) Economic rape and land grabbing by the TPLF, 3) Some 7.8 million facing starvation; 4) Some 500,000 internally displaced persons looking for food; 5) Half its youth drugged with Khat; 6) Horrible Human Rights record; 7) Some 500,000 Ethiopians to be deported from Saudi Arabia, 8) No freedom or press, 9) Controlled social media; 10) Country with the highest number of HIV/AIDs cases in the world; 11) Extremely high rates of gender violence; etc….etc….etc..

          • Hi K, Snake,
            The disdainful color with which you paint ethiopia, and your daily hate sermon towards this country is growing in extent by the day. Now, can you tell me how all these are going to get you badme you are whining for day and night?
            It is nice you do not have similar problems under shabia. Looking to the region south of the mereb day and night, to find out what is going wrong there so that they can rationalize the actions of the eritrean regime, regime supporters have become completely blind and willfully ignorant to things happening to the north. Self-deception is a bliss.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Horizon: The waiting game no longer favors Ethiopia. Eritrea can wait a bit longer and watch Ethiopia implode. Afterwards, it will be easy for Eritrea to take Badme from the TPLF thieves. The Government of PIA will pass but Eritrea will remain.

          • Mez

            Dear K. Snake,
            the key driving factor for the boarder stalemate, refugee crisis, or no-peace-no-war condition is inherently the Eritrean internal geopolitics; and that takes a lot of time to adjust itself.


    • Kalihari Snake

      Hi Hayat Adam: Eritrean refugees and Ethiopia’s illegal occupation of Badme are separate issues.

      • Hayat Adem

        K. Snake,
        who said they are? and who said they are not? I am talking about the refugees and you are talking about badime. That only shows our emphasis and priorities. there is a good book called: voice, vote and exit. it tells you about the stages of a sociopolitical crisis. citizens general exercise voting to indicate their interests and wills when in normal situation. citizens voice their grievances and concerns when they have unsettled worries that keep them awake in their sleep time. citizens exit (run away) when they think things are hopeless and can’t contribute in a meaningful way to turn them around for a better.

  • Hayat Adem

    Dear Friends,
    If you haven’t seen this report from UN on Eritrea, there are notable issues that may worth your attention. “He noted that half of all children under the age of five in Eritrea suffer from stunting, and 39 per cent are underweight.” Now 5 children out of ten are challenged of proper developmental growth and 4 of the 10 are under weight. This is not surprising but still worrisome. In the same report, Eritrean current population size is estimated to be only 3.5 million. This is against the backdrop of the assertion by K. Snake some days ago where he was telling us how under 5 children vaccination data was authentically used to project Eritrea’s population, placing it at around 5.2 million. This led him to believe that Eritrea’s population growth rate was one of rapid and healthy, hence questioning or disqualifying the claim of youth bleeding, aka exodus, in Eritrea.

    • TK4367

      Dear Hayat, the half of everything aka mrs fraction. How much do u know about refuges? I mean, do you have family

      members that identify themselves Eritrean? Or That are at the refuge camp or went through Ethiopia to come to US or EU?

      Have you spoken to them candidly as to how and who gets to migrate to US or EU? If you have which I am supremely

      confident you haven’t, you would find most of them are from Tigray masquerading as Eritreans. Worry not, MRs fraction for I

      have spoken to them. Trust me! What ? you don’t trust me? No problem, ask the white man, the Austrian ( ambassador) to

      Eritrea or Eu, I am not sure you will believe him. But seriously, most real Eritreans will tell you it is a huge problem.

      • Hayat Adem

        Hi TK4367,
        I am so close and connected to these issues. I have no doubts to what the real picture looks like here.

    • Kalihari Snake

      Hi Hayat Adem: Eritrea has always had problems with stunting/underweight and in a lot of cases it is not directly linked to food access; though improvement have been achieved over the past several years. However in Eritrea while GAM rates need to be brought down, there are no major problems with SAM rates as there is in Ethiopia where 7.8 million people face starvation and over 500,000 are now internally displaced.

      • Hayat Adem

        Hi K Snake,
        You haven’t reflected to follow on the figures’ incompatibility above. UN is putting the total population size estimate at 3.5 million. You told us earlier, based on projections and extrapolations, a different figure. That was your basis to assume Eritrea’s demography is not significantly affected by the reported outward migrations. When your pillar upon which your conclusion is built is challenged, you can’t gloss it over as if nothing happened, you got to say something to defend or redefine your realities.

        • Kalihari Snake

          Hi Hayat Adem: How gullible are you? You take an unquoted/unsourced figure of 3.5 million and simply run with it? UNICEF is probably the most active U.N. agency in Eritrea these days and on their website they indicate the current population at 5,228,000.

          • Hayat Adem

            K. Snake,
            Gullible, I am not. Why don’t you look at yourself? What do you give us other than tossing these numbers and telling us that they come from the UNICEF website; and then following them up with your own opinion of rapid and healthy popn growth? Did you quote? Did you provide a link?
            But I did and this was from the UN media serviced by OCHA, a UN organ, as well, on humanitarian issues that uses the same data, and similar analysis standards with the same general intent to that of the UNICEF you are referring to.

  • Semere Tesfai

    Selam all

    “Mr. Snake, could you tell me exactly which parts of Eritrean territories are under Ethiopian occupation? One such area I know of is the tiny border village of Badme, covering an area of under 1sq. km, and lying at a distance of under 2km from the border with Ethiopia.”
    Abraham H. yesterday here at Awate on Gedeb News

    “The lawyer “who won Badme for Eritrea was given a villa in Asmara which is valued more than the entire Badme area.” Look Saay: Badme, the village has an area of 700 square meters. The “badme agricultural region,” we believe it was ours, is awarded to Ethiopia. The lawyer actually didn’t win Badme for Eritrea, rather he swapped with the large areas of our land (that were not contested area) on the south central border with Ethiopia – that were part of Akeleguzay and Serae. Zegerm Eyu. I am always baffled when I hear my countrymen saying we win in the international court of arbitration.”
    Amanuel Hidrat five days ago – With Qatar Gone, Eritrea Stalls To Avoid African Peacekeepers

    Are these claims defensible? Do these claims have a scintilla of truth in them? Absolutely not, not even a tiny trace, a spark, an iota, a drop……

    I understand when young Eritreans like Nitricc says “Hey micheldais: amazing, you give 100s of KM of land of Gonder to Sudan but you can’t let go 2 KM of land that the court of law told you that doesn’t belong to you? Did you see the stupidity and absurdity of your leaders?”

    I understand when the Woyane agents lie, misinform, denigrate, belittle, spin……. about everything that is Eritrean with the intent to do harm to Eritrea and Eritreans. But – what I don’t understand is when a grown up Eritrean men who should know better make-up outlandish stories, unsubstantiated claims, wrong assertions that is potentially harmful to Eritrea and Eritreans. Anyway, this is the truth of it all.

    The size of the Badme triangle that is sovereign Eritrean territory conformed by the EEBC ruling – the Badme triangle region that is still illegally occupied by the Ethiopian regime is not a 26.5m x26.5m land (700 square meters). It is not equivalent to the value of a one Asmara building – no matter what a building in Asmara costs. It is not the size of a couple of square kilometers land. It is not an engulfed land of a small town like Tserona and Zalambessa…….. I don’t know how much of the Badme triangle Eritrean territory is still occupied by Ethiopia, but the Badme triangle area that is awarded to Eritrea by the EEBC is……


    Let me explain the size of the Badme triangle as briefly as I could. The land is between two big rivers (Mereb and Tekeze or Gash and Settit rivers). These two rivers are about 90 kms apart from each other. They both flow from east to west (to Sudan). The border is a straight line in an open plain that goes from from Mereb river (point A) to the Tekeze river (point B).

    There was never any contention on point A – which the coordinates are the confluence of Mereb Mai-Anbessa rivers. All the contention was on point B on the Tekeze river. And these are the facts about Point B:

    When Ethiopias’s Menelick signed the border agreement with Italy on July 1900, it was agreed upon with clarity that the straight line of the border (a) Passes west of Badme town, leaving Badme town exactly one kilometer inside Eritrean territory (b) Mount Ala Tacura will remain inside Eritrean territory, with the specific objective – “to keep the great majority of the Kunamas together inside Eritrean territory” (c) The straight line that borders Eritrea and Ethiopia will go from point A (confluence of Mereb/Mai-Anbesa rivers) to point B (confluence of Tekeze/Maiten (Tenn) rivers) – which EEBC moved it back to the confluence of Tekeze/Tomsa rivers (few hundred meters to the east that is). That is the current western Ethio-Eritrean Mereb-Settit border that is approved by EEBC.

    Now, let me give you the approximate territorial dimensions of the Badme triangle that is currently occupied by Ethiopia based on world map scale.

    A. – SIDE A:

    Approximate distance from the confluence of Mereb/Mai-Anbessa to the confluence of Tekezen/Tomsa rivers = about 90 kms

    B. – SIDE B

    Approximate distance from the confluence of Tekeze/Tomsa rivers to the confluence of Tekeze/Maiteb rivers = about 75 kms

    C. – SIDE C

    Approximate distance from the confluence of Tekeze/Maiteb rivers to the confluence of Mereb/Mai-Anbessa rivers = about 135 kms

    Therefore, if my math is right, the approximate Badme triangle area that is currently occupied by Ethiopia would be around:

    p = 1/2 (a+b+c)

    A = square root of p(p-a)(p-b)(p-c) = 3,182 square kilometers

    Semere Tesfai

    • Kalihari Snake

      Hi Semere Tesfai: You are indeed correct in that the amount of land in the Badme triangle that Ethiopia now illegally occupies is much larger then what most here reference. A lot of people tend to mix and confuse Badme village (the flashpoint of conflict) with land in the Badme triangle which the EEBC awarded to Eritrea. I have just switched computers, Lenovo to an Apple, and am struggling a bit with the mapping applications and unable to confirm your calculations. But for sure size of land involved in not insignificant.

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Hi Semere Tesfay,

      We have debated the Badme issue since 1998. I do not think we will add any value to the issue. We have said what we have to say. Now, not that I am interested to debate on it, but I want to clean some of your assertion and your misrepresentation to what I have said.

      (a) The issue was on the Badme the “village” not the “town” badme. We do not have a town called Badme. The Badme I known was the village not more than about 200 inhabitants. I am sure you know the ranges of population that makes a city, a town, and a village. I will not go to explain this, b/c for a genius guy who comes with a complex geographic calculation can not be difficult to find out. I will come back with questions on your calculation. The 700 sq meters you tried to play political foul was corrected when Abraham H. brought to my attention. I told him what I want to mean it, and that was 700 meters by 700 meters. it is in my comment that follows his. But Semere is Semere and has to do whatever that satisfy the regime.

      (b) Badme the village and it environs is different from the “Badme Triangle” the term used by the EEBC ruling. Why? Because, Badme Triangle includes more land beyond Badme and its environs that extend to the gash river. Badme and its environs is Badme the village and the badme region that extend from the Badme village to the border of sheraro – a vast farming areas where Eritrean highlanders came and made their second residences. Actual this is the area ELF and TPLF were claiming that lead ELF to be expelled by the joint forces of EPLF and ELF. You know as I know that Badme was left to TPLF and later to Ethiopia until 1998. Ethiopia had not any ambition beyond Badme and its environs until the Eritrean government take over the Badme and its environs in 1998. Ethiopia extended its claim up to the gash river once the case was sent to international court of arbitration and hence the Badme triangle. So haw Semere my argument was clear and specific. Ethiopia has not any document that backs it claim up to gash river (hence I call it uncontested area). The contested area was Badme and its environs in which we won on the village and lost the vast agricultural area of Badme region.

      (c) I do not know the exactly the land occupied by Ethiopia beyond Badme. What I know is Badme the village is under their control. And I do not think you know either.

      (d) I was laughing with your calculation. Do you know what kind of triangle is the Badme triangle? Right angled triangle, or isosceles triangle, or quadrilateral triangle? You can’t come simply with your own unconventional formula and tell us the area of the Badme triangle. Second the sizes of the sides of the triangle is exaggerated sizes that can be used for hyperbolic argument. Hyperbolic argument does not make you more nationalist and more Eritrean. So two hyperbolic statements of yours are (a) Badme is not a town (b) the approximate kilometers you use to calculate the area of the Badme triangle.
      (d) if you care about our youth who are kept hostages of the ploys of tyrant, you are challenged to come with a solution than becoming the echo chamber of the tyrant. We can not throw all our problems to Ethiopia. Wise up please. If we can not solve the problem of the border now, we can not hold the nation and its youth for infinite. (I might edit it later after work).


      • saay7

        Selamat Emma and Semere:

        I find myself in agreement with part of what you are saying, which is a different way of saying that I find myself disagreeing with parts of what you are saying.

        Before I get to that, I think what Emma finds grating about Semere’s views are shared by me: Semere has the opposite of the Uncertainty Principle. He writes as if he is carrying with him revealed truth and I have expect thunder and lightening to accompany his posts. For example, he presents the end points of the straight line that EEBC drew to mark the Eritrea-Ethiopia border in the Western (Badme) sector as if it was something completely uncontroversial and a literal reading of the colonial treaties. Well, if that was the case, why did Eritrea (and our high-priced lawyer) present three different positions for the southern end point?:

        Eritrea initially maintained that the river designated in the equally authoritative Amharic version of the Treaty is named the Maiten. A river of similar name, the Mai Tenné, joins the Setit at Point 8, some 87 km further east than the western Maiteb. From this confluence, Eritrea contended that a straight line runs northeast to Point 9. Such a line would be at an angle that, depending on the map used, varies between 13º and 16º. Eritrea later submitted that the boundary line subsequently established and maintained by the Parties was a straight line running from the confluence of the Setit and the Tomsa (Point 6) to the Mai Ambessa (Point 9). Such a line runs at an angle varying between 22º and 25º from true north. In its final submissions, however, Eritrea gave as the southern terminus of the straight line connecting to Point 9 what turn out to be two different locations.

        Consider this:

        The southern tip of the border line (Setit-Tomsa juncture) is: 14.11 N, 37.31E
        The northern tip of the border line (Mareb and Mai Ambesa juncture) is: 14.53N; 37.54 E
        And…Badme’s location is 14.73N, 37.80E

        The fact is that there were conflicting maps, similar-sounding names of rivers, same-name for river and mountain, etc, and both parties genuinely believed that they had sufficient evidence to support their claim. Our anger at one or both ruling parties should not cloud our judgement that these two genuinely believed in their claims.

        Emma, you are also right when you say that the two Shilalos and the fertile agriculture area has been awarded to Ethiopia. But you are wrong when you suggest that this is something Eritrea lost due to the huffiness of PFDJ: you can’t lose what was never yours. Emma, you are also mistaken when you claim that Ethiopia claimed land that it knew it didn’t belong to it: as a matter of fact, Ethiopia was so sure of its case it make only one claim: it was hoping that international law as it relates to length of administering an area would trump the conflicting maps. But the adjudicators weighed all the evidence and sided with Eritrea.

        Semere is right to say that the area awarded to Eritrea in the Western sector–when you overlap the claims of the two parties–is huge. But the fact remains that if the huge land was awarded to Eritrea, but Badme (town, village, hamlet) was awarded to Ethiopia, Ethiopia would have considered it a huge win because of how it had built it up for over two years of bloody war.

        (And Emma, it doesn’t matter whether a triangle is isosceles, acute, obtuse or equilateral: the formula for calculating area is the same and I think Semere did a good job estimating it.)

        Finally, there is nothing in the agreement, as the adjudicators kept saying, that would stop both parties to make adjustements–if both sides agree. But one party alone cannot adjust the final and binding* nature of the agreement. That’s where we have been stuck since April 2002: Eritrea claiming that Ethiopia is ignoring the “final and binding” nature of the agreement; and Ethiopia claiming that Eritrea can refuse to to negotiate but it can’t blame the EEBC on it, which doesn’t ban negotiations. Eritreans (3million), Ethiopians (90+ million) haven’t come up with one single creative idea to break the logjam in 14 years.


        * I wonder if people read the EEBC final statement that “final and binding” applies everywhere except… “The Delimitation Decision of 13 April 2002 is final and binding in respect of the whole of the boundary between the Parties with the exception of Tserona, Zalambessa, Bure, the Eastern Sector, and the rivers, to the limited extent therein stated.”

        • Semere Tesfai

          Selam Saay7 And All

          On my last comment, I gave the approximate size of the sovereign Eritrean territory (on the Badme Triangle) that is awarded to Eritrea by the EEBC ruling. Then, the follow-up questions that comes to mind would be (a) If there was no contention on point A, what was the cause for the bitter contention on point B? (b) How much land did Eritrea loose by the EEBC ruling from what it hoped for? (c) How much land did Ethiopia loose by the EEBC ruling from what it hoped for?

          And, there is no better place/time to answer this questions – than under Saleh A A Younis’ – this comment. Why under Saleh’s comment and why under this comment? Well……..

          1. – ንዝገበረ ወይ ግበረሉ: ወይ ንገረሉ – Give credit where credit is due

          The 1998 Eritrean “border” war fought by Eritrean giants and heroes at least in three fronts (a) Inside Eritrea by courage, soul, heart, blood, sweat and tears (b) In the corridors and lobbies of AU, EU, UN, SC and in capitals of many countries by our Eritrean politicians and diplomats – accompanied by capable lawyers, lobbyists, fiends, allies… (c) In the Diaspora community with organization, devotion, energy, money, time, and most of all by the best and the brightest Eritrean intellectuals who volunteered to do the right thing for the right cause.

          And one of our giant Eritrean intellectuals of the Badme “border” war, who was fighting toe-to-to in the battle of shaping public and diplomatic opinions was our young Eritrean kid named Saleh A A Younis. His words were our Eritrean voices, his words spoke what was in our hearts, in our minds, and in our prayers. His words are documented and archived in our heads and in our history books – so our children, grand children, great great grand children… can read them, study them, and learn from them. His words will live and guide – not just our children and grand children, but also other diplomats, researchers, students, politicians, journalists…… who care to know about our history – as well.

          We the low luminosity dwarfs taunt him here at Awate, not to challenge his intellect and his accomplishments, but, just to keep his brains from getting dull, and to keep him on his toes. That’s all.

          Thank you, young Saleh A. A. Younis for your service in the intellectual trenches of Badme. And thank you for winning the battle of Badme “border” war. In the thick of it all, you inspired us, you gave us hope, you made us proud…. And for all that and more, we all owe you debt of gratitude. And I Semere Tesfai truly believe, your intellect and the intellect of those who fought along your side at VisAfric, Dehai and Asmarino…. have swayed the EEBC ruling in our favor. Thank you all again.

          Meaning, let us Awatistas (hundreds of thousands of us) fund raise and erect a giant 500 feet tall statue of SAAY in the dusty hamlet of Badme. And his giant statue should be positioned facing east – assertively pointing his index finger (be careful!! not the other finger) stating “this is the direction where our enemies were coming”.


          Hey Saleh: guessing someone’s age is a tricky business. If I’ve bumped a natch-high your age, please accept my apology in advance 🙂

          Now that out of the way and got it off my chest, let’s answer the Badme questions.

          2. – What is the reason that there was never any contention on the Mereb/Mai-Anbessa side? And why was bitter contention on the Tekeze side?

          To tell you the truth, the reason wasn’t simply bad intent, expansionist attitudes, hyper-nationalism…. from the Tigrean side – not at all. I believe it was a combination of many things, such us:

          (a) The Mereb/Mai Anbessa area (south Seraye) is heavily populated area. The local governments, the farmers, the herders, the old, the young….all knew/know the border. There was always governing, zoning, districting, jurisdiction…… activities that gave constant awareness of the border to the locals.

          (b) The Tekeze area was remote, uninhabited, primarily used for grazing and hunting animals – and for hideouts of bandits, cattle-raiders, and outlaws – at least for the most decades before the Ghedlis – Ghedli brought politics emotions divisions and fire.

          (c) There are Tekeze tributaries with closely similar names that merge to Tekeze river. The famous two tributaries (rivers that merged to Tekeze) that created a nightmare for all from Ghedli years to EEBC ruling were, Maiteb and Maiten rivers.

          (d) Taking the Sudanese border (Tekeze/Khor Um-Hajer) as a reference point – Maiteb is a tributary of Tekeze about 35 kms from the Sudanese border (which the Ethiopians believed that was the point B on the Tekeze river) and Maiten is another tributary of Tekeze about 100 kms from the Sudanese border (which we Eritreans believed that was point B)

          (e) And there was, these 100 year old documents of names of places that were written by Khewajas, using Latin alphabets to write Habesha names of places that have ጠ ጸ ሐ ጨ ዐ. And those Khewajas who wrote the names of the places and tributaries in the region, using translators who came from some towns in far places, who may or may not spoke the languages of the local people who named the rivers and tributaries – where the only source of information for Ghedlis to identify point B and decide what land belonged to whom. These were some of the reasons, at least to mention some among many.

          3. – How much land did we loose because of the EBBC decision?

          According the EEBC ruling, Badme Town/Village is about 700-800 meters inside Eritrean territory. But since Badme town is very far away from the Tekeze river, the base of our triangle is going to be a lot wider than 700-800 meters. Therefore let’s say:
          (a) The straight distance from the juncture of Tekeze/Tomsa (current border) to the juncture of Tekeze/Maiten (what we asked for) is 5 kms. And let’s consider that as the base of our triangle.
          (b) The distance from the juncture of Tekeze/Maiten to the juncture of Mereb/Mai-Anbessa is 90 kms. And let’s consider that as the height of our triangle. Therefore the approximate area we lost would be:

          A = 1/2(b)(h) = about 225 square kms

          4. – If EEBC would have awarded all the territories Ethiopia claimed as its own, how much land would’ve Eritrea lost?

          We would have lost the whole Badme Triange area I commented-on before. Which is:

          A = √ p(p−a)(p −b)(p−c) = 3,182 square kilometers

          where p is half the perimeter or = 1/2(a+b+c)

          Now, could we Eritreans say, we lost territory on the Western front? Absolutely not!

          Semere Tesfai

          • saay7

            Selam Semere:

            You, Tzigereda, Mahmuday, SGJ, Emma are the confirmed former tegadelti in this forum who have bled for Eritrea and sacrificed a considerable part of your youth for. I did not and I could have.

            I say this to keep things in perspective: there is a huge difference between writing on the internet and hiking for hundreds of miles, deprived of food, decent clothes, shoes, ignored by the world, and the knowledge that u may never see your comrade forever after five minutes and you, yourself, may get maimed, killed…

            While I thank you for the compliments, if we were to make a list of 100,000 Eritreans who deserve a statue, I would not make it. And dear God please let’s put the statues where they belong and not in that reminder of a crazy chapter of our country.

            With that out of the way….stay tuned for my reply. Who knows, maybe we will have a breakthrough and, instead of bemoaning it or describing it, solve this damn riddle a few months after 15th anniversary of the ruling. Meanwhile, please read Abraham who makes a lot of sense on this topic (hint)


          • MS

            Dear SAAY, SemereT et al
            Thanks all for the inputs. Thank you Semere for the nice words you dedicated to Saleh Younis. He and all those who fought the intellectual and psychological part of the war deserve recognition. In my poor English, I would describe him as funny, extremely smart, humble/modest, thankful, and when it comes to fighting the foe, a formidable force….I know he is not feeling comfortable; he might be asking, “Where did he learn all these niceties, don’t I know the culture he grew in, where individual recognition was shunned?” While into it, let me ask all of you the following. AbrahamH, Emma included, I know the answers of nitrickay and blink, so they are welcome if they want to jump in. Any interested can join.
            The following are the five point peace plan brought by PMMZ after riling on the ruling of the EEBC, first rejecting it, then wabbling, and at the end coming with these so-called five points.
            Consider your self the head of Eritrean government,
            a/ how would you see it in relation to the court ruling?
            b/ if you accepted it, what would you exactly expect to talk about? How far would you go in bending the ruling?
            c/ hints: if both countries could solve their problems peacefully, why did they go to war? And then, why did they to the court? What does root cause mean to each of the parties and how are they going to solve it in a rush, how is it possible that both parties can defuse all their outstanding grievances and grudges while the border is waiting to be demarcated? Is not this clear that Ethiopia is holding the ruling and any move to go ahead with the court ruling as a bargaining chip to gain more than what the ruling intended? If Eritrea let the deputed border open for dialogue what is in there that binds Ethiopia from bringing other areas, because there is nothing concrete in the five point plan, it is an open ended proposal. Once you sit for dialogue, in principle, anything is open for dialogue. Ethiopia did not specify what it was that it intended to dialogue, exact physical locations or other issues.
            I think it was it was a smart move by Meles designed drag his feet as long as Eritrea and the world got exhausted about the ruling. He knew IA would make a strategic blunder, and that the world would be seized about IA rather than the EEBC ruling. And that did not take long when IA embarked in his hosting of Somali individuals the USA designated as terrorist. That was followed by IA confrontation of UN and the USA in other areas. Anyway, I would love to read what you make out it: consider yourself Eritrean head of state and tell me how your five point play moves would look like.
            Ethiopian five point peace plan (2004), almost two years after the EEBC ruling.
            1. Resolve the dispute between Ethiopia and Eritrea only and only
            through peaceful means.
            2. Resolve the root causes of the conflict through dialogue with the view
            to normalizing relations between the two countries.
            3. Ethiopia accepts, in principle, the Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary
            Commission decision.
            4. Ethiopia agrees to pay its dues to the Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary
            Commission and to appoint field liaison officers.
            5. Start dialogue immediately with the view to implementing the
            Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission’s decision in a manner
            consistent with the promotion of sustainable peace and brotherly ties
            between the two peoples.

          • blink

            Dear MS
            It’s nice you knew my Answer. You know for a fact isais doesn’t listen to his colleagues especially at that time. If he was some one who could listen , it was very easy but not now really. The dispute and the root cause, I am just missing something in between 1and 2.

            After the war Our first issue supposed to be to make our house in order , I mean the G-15 and also every thing about PFDJ.
            From my perspective the border issue supposed to be after we have done our homework.
            The man declined to have a meeting with his colleagues,destroyed every element of a functional government and all the mistakes he did. We are in this mess because Isaias was and is a blind in his head and eyes.
            He could have made a fake election and even cheat in the ballot box , how bad could that be?? He could allowed the free press , how bad could they write , , so many ifs.

            if I was a leader I would have dissolved the government and give the public every inch of their will on how and what kind of government they wanted.
            Set the constitution on a full speed ,after that I thought we could have matched weyane. The main mistake was the wrong decision he made internally, that is a treason we couldn’t forget.
            Why do weyane have 5 point plans, I think because they saw our house was not in order. This was known for every smart person alive in Eritrea. Even grandfather in RAHYA ABAY could know this.

            I believe we would have defended Eritrea under a constitutional government than under one man show.

          • saay7

            Selam Semere:

            Agreed, there was no controversy on the northern tip of the Northwestern line that separates Eritrea and Ethiopia on their Western sector (Badme front.)
            But, there *was* a great deal of controversy, very justified for reasons you gave, on when the southern tip of the Northeastern line is. And what I will say below is very important so allow me to go all Semere Tesfai and bold it, underline it and italicize it: BOTH ERITREA AND ETHIOPIA WERE WRONG.

            And this is equally important: they were wrong for very, very justified reasons.

            As you said, when you have natural boundaries like rivers, it is easy. So they were all clear on the river (Setit); the question was “Setit and the confluence of which river should we use as a pivot for the northwest line?”

            Maiteb or Meeteb or Maiten?

            EEBC said: Tomsa

            (Let’s go to page 14 of the EEBC decisions or what follows will be hard to read.)

            So, when Emma said Eritrea lost territories he is talking about the slice of triangle whose base is line Setit/Tomsa and Setit/Maiten and whose apex is Mereb-Mai Ambessa. (Remember, Eritrea had made 3 different claims and what it got awarded was not the last claim it made.)

            What Ethiopia lost (base = Setit river from confluence of Maiteb to Setit confluence of Tomsa; apex = Mereb-Mai Ambessa) is massive. Here Emma is saying (unconvincingly, in my opinion) that Ethopia’s claim was maximalist done for “domestic consumption.” He is also arguing that the land we lost is fertile agricultural area whereas the land Ethiopia lost is barren. ( I think.)

            In any event, before I try everyone’s patience, here’s what I think is important:

            EEBC does NOT forbid the two parties from dialogue and discussions to find lasting peace. In fact, it encourages them to do so. What is also important is if they are unwilling or incapable of doing that, then whatever the EEBC decision has made is final; it is so final it is virtually demarcated.

            Now, what is it that We The People can do to force our governments to solve this? We can either describe a problem, or solve it.

            Fact 1: Demand a census of the area under discussion. Have you noticed that neither Eritrea, nor Ethiopia is willing to talk about this land that they claim is sacred in every way? What are the names of the villages? Who lives there? How many people live there? What is the land used for? What churches, what community centers are going to be affected.

            For Ethiopia, it is reluctant to do is because it will remind the people (of Tigray) what they have lost and poke their wounds. For Eritrea, its reluctance to do so is because it will remind the people of… what exactly? Of its incompetence? Of its paralysis? Of its powerlessness? We already know that.

            Fact 2: In a world full of South Sudans, North Koreas, and an assortment of Iraqs, Syrias, Yemen’s and Central African Republic, a non-shooting war will never rise to the level of “we have to solve it!” in the international community. For the gov of Eritrea to “remind” the UN of its “moral obligation” is more useless and unproductive than skywriting at night. In a language nobody understands. This is not some theory: it has been tried for 15 years.

            The reason this was tried was not just to persuade “the international community” but because “the Weyane are on the brink of collapse.” We have heard this song and watched this dance for 12 years, since the 2005 Ethiopian elections (“Weyane abqiU iyu!”)and the people who make those predictions never pause and say, “wait, I have been consistently wrong and maybe I should give up this business of prophecy and find something else to do.” But they don’t.

            Fact # 3: (for Mahumday): Ethiopia’s 5-point plan is really a 1-point plan: we would like to dialogue. The other 4 points either it doesn’t mean them (a few years after the five-point plan, Meles said his goal was regime change in Eritrea) or they are meaningless platitude (“we accept in principle”–the last time we heard that phrase, Eritrea was accepting US-Rwanda plan in principle.) So what was wrong with Ethiopia’s 1-Point Plan? The tone was all wrong. It made no admission that it had repeatedly demanded that there would be no wiggle room in the Algiers Agreement because, it claimed, the Eritrean Government is not trustworthy. The right tone is, as much as politics allows (via intermediaries): we really screwed up; a literal interpretation of this agreement is politically untenable for us; please help!.

            So, Semere, when you say “did we lose territory in the Western front, in theory, no, but in practice, we have lost a lot, a huge opportunity cost. “When two tribes go to war, a point is all you can score” said some wise English man once.


            front is. Mereb-Mai Ambessa confluence

          • MS

            Selam SAAY
            “So what was wrong with Ethiopia’s 1-Point Plan? The tone was all wrong. It made no admission that it had repeatedly demanded that there would be no wiggle room in the Algiers Agreement because, it claimed, the Eritrean Government is not trustworthy. The right tone is, as much as politics allows (via intermediaries) to admit: we really screwed up; a literal interpretation of this agreement is politically untenable for us; please help!.” SAAY
            A brilliant summary. Thank you for that. This is what I wanted discussed the other day when I posed that question: what would you do if you were Eritrean Head of State? What would you expect the Ethiopians to bring to the table? Would you think issues of access to sea; alignment of Eritrea’s foreign, security, economic, domestic politics, etc be admitted as talking points? If yes to some why would that be an integral part of demarcating the border? I would expect them to save Badme for obvious political reasons, if they propose swapping swaths of land, and if you accept that as a price for peace, what would your bargaining strategy look like in maximizing your gains? What would the deviation tendency look like compared to the coordinates the court assigned? Let say, for a practical exercise, Eritrea sits to negotiate, do you really expect both sides to sort out the root cause?
            My position has been the following:
            a/ Only an earth shaking domestic or geopolitical quake will force both sides to sit down around the table.
            b/ Both sides need not sit down for the border to be demarcated, it has already been demarcated all is needed is for Ethiopia to write a letter to the UN SG that it has accepted the UN demarcated border (virtually), in this day and age I don’t think putting up physical pillars are necessary.
            c/ It would be wonderful if both leaders shook hands. However, that’s not going to happen until (a) is satisfied. For Eritrea, exploring Ethiopia’s “let’s talk” would not hurt, and it would help it diplomatically by returning the ball to Ethiopia’s court. If Ethiopia motive is to bend or circumvent EEBC ruling, it would be exposed, and Eritrea’s stance of “demarcation first” would have gained more attention.
            I brought this because I see the border issue and Eritrea’s internal issues coming intermingled. The government of Eritrea could not justify the lack of institutional infrastructure and what it entails of abuses of power and the endless term of national service on border. On the flip side, those who try to justify Ethiopia’s position should know that calling Ethiopia to abide by the agreement it had signed does not mean appeasing or supporting PFDJ. The query was not for you. It was for them. I was interested to see how they would have handled the situation had they been Eritrea’s leaders.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear MS,

            I was thinking to respond to your inquiries but I got busy.

            Let me tell you this story first. I think it was around 2006 / 7, I went to Ottawa with group of friends to discuss Eritrea violation of human rights etc with the Canadian government FM official at the African Desk. After our meeting was over we were taking the boarder and I think it was after Ethiopia 5-plan was tabled etc. He said to us, from Canadian government and that of the international community, they agree with ERITREA position and would not want to dialog the boarder ruling, and Eritrea is right to refuse, if it doesn’t want to dialog.

            I asked him, if this off the record, he said NO. We tell them everytime we have the opportunity to do so and in the settlement we make, they should abide by the EEBC ruling.

            As far as I can remember there hasn’t been any country who endorsed Ethiopia position of demand “dialog”, even the United States. The Canadian official said, Canada contributes about 5 million for the the peace keeping mission, and it’s our interest and the international community to see the boarder demarcated and the mission doesn’t become another cypress.

            So to get to your point, I think Eritrea was right to refuse and it had the legal on its side.

            The problem that I have with ERITREAN government / leader was:

            1) what was the reason provoking the UN and gave them excuse to leave
            2) why did they refuse to allow them the flights etc and making it impossible for the UN to blame Eritrea in equal terms. “Ethiopia should abide by the ruling and Eritrea should make the operation of the peacekeeping simple” or something. There was no reason what so ever for it. And they did it for three years. Year after year the UN made a plea and Eritrea refused.

            2) Why Blane the US at all for Ethiopia refusal ? Like denying entry to the diplomat, etc. Etc,

            3) why did IA refused to speak / see Anan when he visited Asmara. He send Askalu Menqorios tot he airport,

            4) why did he refused to meet anyone be it the US diplomat, Canadian former FM, assigned by Anan. There is no reason to refuse to meet, he could just made his point and say thank you very much, bye.

            In 2009, the game completely changed and instead of the SC talk about the boarder, they were talking about sanctions.

            I do not believe IA or his advisors are stupid enough they do not know this. Sometimes I think, the ERITREAN government looks like gave Ethiopia on purpose, the excuse so that the UN to leave without demarcating the boarder.


          • MS

            Selam BerheY
            Great points and I would add some more on the list you have made concerning Eritrea’s mishandling of the diplomatic side of the equation, and on top of it would be Eritrea’s confrontational wrangling with the UN and USA on Somalia issue. That, in addition to costing the country heavily in the form of successive sanctions, it also diverted the attention of international community away from Ethiopia. The party that walked away from its obligation became the party that was setting up and enabling the sanctions. Of course, we don’t blame Ethiopia, it had to work for its interest. While Eritrea appeared to have won the legal side of the matter (its claim of badme and the fact that the final border line is more in agreement with what Eritrea argued for), Eritrea lost the diplomatic side of it. That really pains me.
            Thanks again.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi MS: PIA has been a complete utter failure on the diplomatic side. And, the few limited members of his inner circle that are frequently called upon to engage in foreign affairs matters are equally incapable. Fresh blood is definitely needed in Eritrea’s foreign affairs stratagem. Given this said, it is incredible as you have mentioned, the way that the U.S. have manipulated the U.N. Security Council apparatus to the detriment of Eritrea.

          • MS

            Selam Kalihari Snake
            I agree on the ineptness of Eritrean diplomacy. I do definitely agree that Eritrea needs new blood in all spheres. I also agree on American role in shaping up UN and world opinion. I want you to mentally replay Haile Weldetensae’s video in Germany, which possibly put him in the cross hairs, in which he said that we ought to know the world and play according to established rules, etc.
            Questions for you: Having recognized that Americans will always put their interest ahead of others’ why does it surprise us that the USA will always support Ethiopia if it had to choose sides? Why do we treat American as an impartial body? Should not our politicians expect this and be prudent in navigated such convoluted world of actors and interests?
            Anyway, my point is could be summarized by a sentence that Haile made in that video: He said Hsabna ngber which could mean that We should know our weight and be cautious while navigating our way in world diplomacy. Confronting the USA in its vital interest such as fighting terrorism, particularly after September 11 is not smart. Of course it is a duty to confront it on vital national interest but not on issues like Somalia (Hosting individuals like Awey); at the end, we lose. What is your take?
            -Consider that the official position of the USA is for Ethiopia to implement the EEBC ruling.
            – Also consider that we both believe Ethiopia should implement it
            I’m just curious if we both agree on whether Eritrea did all it could.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi MS: No, PIA did not do all that it could to avoid Washington’s untoward stance against Eritrea and It is effervescently clear that PIA’s strategy to agitate the U.S. and Ethiopia thru the Somalia angle, clearly backfired.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Kali and MS,

            I can’t agree more. Back in 2008 before the US election of Obama, I think I was emailing

          • Berhe Y

            Dear MS,

            You wrote:
            “I want you to mentally replay Haile Weldetensae’s video in Germany, which possibly put him in the cross hairs, in which he said that we ought to know the world and play according to established rules, etc.”.

            I have watched that video many times, and I can’t believe how accurate and correct he was predicting what it would come. He even said, “weyane” will renegate on the agreement it signed but as long as the UN peace keeping are in, it will be a problem between “weyane” and the UN. When I think of EPLF past communications, and how mature and measured they were (diplomatically) compared to the circus show we have today, some how I feel, Haile was really responsible for that.

            Sometimes I wonder if we failed him. I mean the people really failed him. I think we should have campaigned for his release just like S.A. did for Mandela.

            Anthony Lake had said it correctly on the letter he wrote to Boston globe describing Haile Dure and his contribution to the peace negotiations and his knowledge of the power of diplomacy.



          • MS

            Ahlen BerheY
            Indeed, we failed them big time. Dru’E was not only among the top intellectuals of the leadership, but he also had human qualities that made him likable. He was an avid basketball player (yes basketball in the field, and his team was among the best); he was funny and an excellent storyteller. When I watch that video, I see nothing new but the same Haile DruE, cracking jokes and telling the audience the real deal. If DruE was on IA side you would not see them playing the clip that Eri=TV was playing, shame on them.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear MS,

            Soccer I can imagine but BB, never could have thought they played in Meda.

            It is really nice to know. I personally think being part of a team sport, really helps one character and in real world after words.

            I never met Haile Dure and I have never seen him seminars, except the one in Germany, and I think Asmarino had an audio recording some where in the US. By far he was the most gifted and the most logical and realistic speech that I have heard.

            I think our biggest failure, including the opposition and the intellectuals for not championing their cause and make it the one and only agenda to fight the regime.

            We were side tracked in all directions and in the process we lost focus on the target.

            Honestly speaking, 16 years later, we couldn’t come up with unifining manifesto, if we can call it that would bring the end of the regime but uniting the people and set us in somewhat smooth tradition.

            How I wish he was one of those in exile.

            People say, leaders do not matter, individuals are not relevant but it really is important. There wouldn’t be India without Ghandi, there wouldn’t be SA without Mandela, there wouldn’t be end of segregation without Martin Luther.

            What do you know about the Lucifer, interests other than disappearing people and conspiring in endless tenkol.


          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Saay7

            1.- ” Emma is saying (unconvincingly, in my opinion) that Ethiopia’s claim was maximalist, it didn’t believe its own claim, and it was done for “domestic consumption.” He is also arguing that the land we lost is fertile agricultural area whereas the land Ethiopia lost is barren.”

            I disagree with Emma. And to go even a step further, he is dead wrong. This is what we all in ELF believed from day one (a) The Mereb/Tekeze Ethio-Eritrean border is a straight line (b) The northern apex (coordinate) is Mereb/Mai-Anbesa (c) Badme Village/hamlet/town is one km inside Eritrea (c) we Eritreans don’t have any land claim beyond Tekeze river.

            Therefore, to make a straight line (accurate border line), all you need is two points. And we have’m. Case closed.

            The we’ve lost fertile land argument.

            We never had any. We can’t loose something we didn’t have. The whole Badme region, the Whole Western area from Badme village/Town, the whole Eritrean side from the straight border line is, dry arid barren land sparsely inhabited. Not only the land along the straight line is barren arid land but also the Ethiopian side until you reach past the town of Yirga is also dry uninhabited land. The fertile land starts past the town of Yirga, which is deep inside Tigray territory.

            Up to 1978, the whole Badme region and beyond – deep into LaElay and TaHtay Adiabo (past the town of Yirga) and into Shire – which is the fertile land that Emma is talking about, was predominantly inhabited by Eritreans from western Hamassien, western and southern Seraye, and few from southern Akeleguzay – Tigreans were very few in these areas. To mention few names of places that were predominantly inhabited by Eritreans: Adi-QuaQuat, Shimbelina, Sheraro, Denbe-Habella, TsaEda-Emni, MenTebTeb, May-Kuhli, Adi-Hageray, AdewAlla, Adi-Nebri, LaElay Adiabo……

            How and why the ELF/Woyane conflict started

            Prior 1978 (before Woyane came to the area) ELF was going deep into Tigray territory (those mentioned areas and beyond) to organize, recruit, and raise funds. And ELF cadres were welcomed wherever they go. The people hearts and minds was home, and they needed stability and security in their newly founded home. And ELF gave’m all.

            Then the Woyanes came and told ELF cadres you don’t have any business here, it is our land, and we are going to administer it. ELF cadres said, yes it is your land and you’ve every right to administer it, but we’ve also a large population to protect, to organize, recruit, and fund-raise. The Weyanes chose Eritreans who favored EPLF over ELF and they started harassing, arresting, killing, evicting, confiscating properties….. of Eritreans that they believe where supporters of ELF. And it got worse by the day.

            What was the the Woyane’s position regarding the Ethio-Eritrean border?

            I couldn’t say for sure. Because they never had any clear position – they were allover the place. Sometimes they were saying this is not the right time to raise border issue, border issue should be resolved after independence (Eritrea and Tigray independence). And sometimes they were saying, our border is clear: መረብ-ምላሽ. And if you care to know your borders, follow the Mereb river – not only Badme is ours but also Tesseney and ArbaAta-Asher. So take your pick!

            How to move foreword – negotiate or not negotiate on the EEBC ruling

            I believe border was never the central issue, it is not the central issue today, and it will never be the main hurdle in the future. The border issue is a done deal, it is irrevocable signed agreement, it is a finalized document, there is no turning back! We know it, the Ethiopians know it, the West knows it. There will never be another round of negotiation to alter the EEBC ruling. To change what?


            The eye of Addis leaders is not on Badme Triangle, or the other patches of lands that need to be demarcated.


            It is about Ethiopia’s role in the region, it is about Ethiopia’s unfettered access to the Red Sea, it is about Eritrea accepting Ethiopia’s leadership in the region, it is about Eritrea being a trusted loyal ally of Ethiopia in the region, it is about Eritrea downsizing its army to its size, it is about Eritrea willingness to accept security protection from Ethiopia – not from any other nation in the region………..

            Ask yourself: Why is it so painful (for the Addis regime and its educated elite) separating few ethnic Tigrigna villages from each other, when the whole Tigrigna speakers – millions of them – are separated from each other into two counties by choice, yes willingly forever?

            Semere Tesfai

          • saay7

            Selam Semere:

            Nothing like writing a letter long piece and then getting clear proof that the person you were addressing didn’t read it. I will assume that’s my fault and write it plainly:

            1. A line connects two points;
            2. A point (in maps) is an intersection
            3. In the case of the Eritrea border dispute,
            (A) the northern point was the interesection of Mereb and Mai Ambessa.
            (B) the southern point was the intersection of Setit and
            B.1 Maiteb (according to Ethiopia)
            B.2 Sitona (which was marked as Martebbe/Maeeteb in one of the 156 maps the two countries presented)
            B.3 Yet another Maeteb further east
            B.4 Tomsa
            B.5 Mareb
            B.6 Maiten

            Now, Semere if you tell me that you and all of ELF knew that the correct answer (Tomsa) without the benefit of referring to expert lawyers with their 156 maps, I tell you that you are the only one because the PFDJ and all it’s lawyers didn’t know and kept changing its story.

            On the Asab issue, while I agree with you that for many Ethiopians that is still lust unfulfilled (including the Ethiopian opposition), a government that claims to care for Eritreas sovereignty had an opportunity to shut down that argument (and still has) by accepting to demarcate the 90% plus of the border that is undisputed and that includes the entire eastern sector INCLUDING Asab.

            But in politics sometimes politicians appreciate talking about an issue more than solving the issue. And Asab falls right in that category.


          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Saay7

            1. – On the border demarcation, I agree with you 100%. I’m not here to defend the PFDJ regime. Personally, I don’t understand why the PFDJ government refused to demarcate the 90% of the Ethio-Eritrean border if it had/has the opportunity to do so.

            2. – On the straight line that goes from Mereb to Tekeze river, I knew reference points (landmarks) that every Eritrean Tegadalay knew back then. And these are the reference points – all equally important, all that must fall in line – in order the Ethio-Eritrean border to be demarcated based on the colonial boundary that was agreed upon, on 10 July 1900 between the governments of Ethiopia and Italy.

            And these are the reference points, and the facts, we all Tegadeltis knew then:

            (a) The coordinates of Mereb/Mai-Anbessa must fall within that straight line

            (b) the coordinates of any piece of land 1.000….Km east of Badme must fall within that straight line

            (c) the straight line must leave Mount Ala Takura inside Eritrea – with a clear objective – the great majority of Kunamas to stay together inside Eritrea.

            (c) The straight line must pass through the coordinates of the Tekeze river and some unknown tributary.

            Now, as a Tegadalay, if I’m given these concrete facts, how hard is it to have a pretty good idea, where the Ethio-Eritrean border ought to be? Without knowing the Tekeze tributary B1, B2, B3, B4…….Bn that falls within the straight line from Mereb/Mai-Anbessa, if the Woyanes are claiming my reference points as their own (Mount Ala Takura and Badme town) wouldn’t that ring an alarm bell? Of course it does.

            Saleh: knowing the above a, b, and c as a given facts – which we all knew since we were Tegadeltis, you don’t need point B1, B2, B3, B4…… Bn of a Tekeze tributary to draw a straight line with a 100% accuracy.

            All along, the Ethio-Eritrean border problem existed simply because (a) people were giving greater importance to the Tekeze Tributary – ignoring the other given (known) facts (b) because the Woyanes with their “we administered the area for decades” argument (instead of colonial boundaries) were not honest partners. And today, with their “we accepted it in principle” nonsense.

            Semere Tesfai

          • saay7

            Selamat Semere:

            Very impressive deduction and I agree with you on everything, Semere, except (b) above which is not mentioned in any of the treaties and is mentioned only once in the EEBC decision when dismissing Ethiopia’s claim of administration of “Badme Wereda.”

            I don’t know what scale of maps you had with Jebha; I was trying to argue that since the “straight line” is wholly imaginary, it would be hard to visualize unless you were looking at satellite maps with 1: 1,000,000 scale vector maps.

            Here’s a piece of tragic irony: perhaps the most decisive on where the Eritrea-Ethiopia border line should go were treaties describing the “Cunama” be part of Eritrea (well, they mean their very fertile land.) Thanks to historians like Munzinger, we know where the 100,000-200,000 Cunama (Kunama/Baza) lived in the 19th century. Largely to the post-war politics about whether their land belongs to Eritrea or Ethiopa, the Kunama are almost completely displaced from their country and exiled in Ethiopian refugee camps.

            So, on my list of our to-do things ought to be (since this discussion is about formulating solutions):

            1. Immediately accept the demarcation of 90% of the non-controversial boundary, INCLUDING Asab sector;
            2. Prioritize the right of return of Kunama to their ancestral land.


          • Berhe Y

            Dear Saay and Semere,

            It is really nice you guys are looking at finding solution and the details. Honestly I don’t know if there is anyone in the Eritrean government understand the details as you two are doing right now.

            Can I propose, the two of you represent Eritrea in the negotiation table? ትአምኖ ልኢኽካስ እንትይ ተሪፉ አይትበል፡፡

            However I think, I really doubt the sincerity of the Ethiopian government and it’s future plans towards Eritrea. We are making all assumption that, Ethiopia is genuine in it’s desire to resolve the boarder issue. Before you even go back to the Ethiopian government, other Ethiopians well meaning like Horizon, Amde and others have shown a lot of reservation in getting the boarder ruling implemented as is. They wanted to add more to the dialog like security, sea access etc..

            My biggest issue is, I think Ethiopia wanted a disintegrated and fragile Eritrea that it can manipulate and in the future help it break up so it can take advantage some parts of the country…. For example, the Kunama in the central region, the Afar in the Easter region…

            The fact that Ethiopia is doing very expensive infrastructure investing, rail way, port expansion etc..I think they have a plan to cutoff any future economic or other ties with Eritrea, as there will be constant animosity but they are able to fend off..because Eritrea is fragmented, divided and “a failed state”. It worked on the boarder issue they had with Somalia, started with HS, then Mengistu and continued with the current government. Have you heard any Somali talk about any land, issue with Ethiopia in the last 25 years..NO..because they have their internal problems, they are fragmented, weak and divided to think about Ethiopia. And Ethiopia does not mind losing economic or other ties with Somalia as long as it’s benefiting from the failed state.

            This I believe is the strategy of the current Ethiopian rules..otherwise, it make no sense for them to check mate IA and accept the ruling and move on with demarcation….


          • saay7

            Selam Berhe:

            In Ethiopia’s 2015 elections, there were televised debates with various themes. One of them was foreign policy. The issue of Eritrea came up and one of the “moderate” parties, Semayawi Party, accused EPRDF of making Ethiopia a landlocked nation. Mind you, we are always told how Ethiopians have moved on and the new generation, which doesn’t remember a time when Eritrea was a part of Ethiopia, is completely indifferent about Eritrea. But the Semayawi Party representative was a relatively young person. Is this a common sentiment or an anomaly view of a fringe group? I was trying to fact-check this with an Ethiopian I consider very reasonable and he told me, “well, we have moved on when it comes to Eritrea. But that doesn’t apply to Asab. That’s different.”

            The PFDJ (and to be candid, not just the PFDJ), has two reservations for why it won’t accept partial demarcation (partial = 90%). One, which is understandable but still wrong, is that if it agrees to 90% demarcation, the 10% will be forever forgotten. Given the risks, and given that 90% is closer to 100% than to zero and given that it would forever and ever take Asab off anyone with an itch, it should have gone for it. Specially when its ability to leverage international goodwill was at its zenith. The second reason is that the PFDJ is more interested in showing that the EPRDF is an outlaw regime than it is about protecting Eritrea’s interest. (I am not even acknowledging PFDJ’s third reason which is gura/nEket: Ethiopia and what army will attempt to occupy Asab? RSADO and which army will declare Afar land an autonomous region?)

            As for what is in the interest of Ethiopia…well, there is Ethiopia and then there are Ethiopians who live in the Ethiopia that borders Eritrea. And those who live in the bordering region and who bear the brunt of the existing policy are NOT indifferent to the so-called No War No Peace that they have to live with.


          • Berhe Y

            Dear Saay,

            The other day, I come to this Ethiopian guy page, his name is Afendi Muteki and the title is “የኤርትራ ህልም!”. it was one of the most beautiful article that I read. I wish the former Ethiopian leaders and politicians thought like this guy, he is another fanti I think. Even this guy, his wish is to see the country united sometime down the future..but willing and peacefully…

            I really do not think and there is a value in the story that these new Ethiopians grew up in country without Eritrea and it means nothing to them. By that argument, Eritrea which was under Italian colony for 60 years would have been a good reason for Ethiopians to move on.

            I think no matter who comes to power they will always will look for access to the sea that they wanted to own. Off all the neighbors, Eritrea happens to be the easiest target. Djibouti has the protection of France, Somalia is way too far from the center and for them to make it to the sea.
            There will be always Ethiopian artists like Teddy Afro who will remind the next generation how the country was great once and they will want to restore the glory.

            Honestly I do not blame the PFDJ for refusing to negotiate or accept Ethiopia demands any more. The only problem was, the PFDJ should be accomodating to all the medaitors and it should never have pick a fight with US or the UN and it should have waited patiently how ever long it takes. Second the PFDJ should get out of the destruction path it has put it self and should leave the people alone to have a normal life. In other words, it should think to forget Ethiopia and focus on itself, the country and the people.

            For example the 90% demarcation would not work if the intention of the Ethiopian government is not to implement. They will keep finding excuse and drag it as long as it takes, while showing to the International community progress..it’s like the game Israel plays with the Palestinian..let’s talk peace but it keeps taking more land and build houses in the settlement, enough it doesn’t get the International community criticize it but doing nothing.

            As far as PFDJ and IA is concerned, I think they are more than ready to settle the issue. For example, I think the offer Ambassador Cohen proposed (which was endorsed by Eritrea in secret meeting) is a lot more generous than what you and Semere are proposing. But Ethiopia just shrugged off, because it will involve a third party the US and others involved.

            As to the people, let’s look at it who is hurting the most:
            1) Kunama people: they are displaced from their lands. If they end up with Ethiopia, at least they get back their land and they live in their own lands. I think they will be better off, in my opionion being with Ethiopia than Eritrea.
            2) Afar People: I think they have suffered as well the most. All their lively hood has been totally decimated because of Ethiopia is no longer using Assab. I think, they would probably better off with Ethiopia rather than with Eritrea where the Eritrean government has displaced them and in competition with their resources, like fishing.
            3) Tigray people in the boarders: Sure there were few Ethiopians who are hurt who use to do business with Eritrea but I think most of them were able to switch to Addis and doing quite well. I also think the people of Tigray, never had it this good in their recent history (100 plus years) even though they lost access to Eritrea (what can they possibly miss in Eritrea, all low paying hard labor jobs for the most).

            I think Eritrea is really vulnerable right now and I don’t know what the future holds opinion, I don’t think Ethiopia will be better off even if they control access to the sea. I think they will benefit the most if Eritrea becomes a normal country and they establish to build a good business and economic partner and conduct their business in legal ways and means. They will benefit the most if Eritrea economic potential has achieved and they could be one of the preferred investors in the development of tourism, etc.. but we are talking about common sense …


          • saay7

            Selam Berhe:

            On the offer to demarcate 90% of the common border, like everything in life, there was an optimum time for it, and it was in 2002. When the issue was on top of the UN agenda. Now, well, you mentioned the Palestinians: the most leverage they had was in 1967. With every passing year, the offer they get shrinks….until the world gets to the point where it shrugs it off as an insoluble problem.

            With every year the the Gov of Eritrea waits for some miracle to happen (as far as I can tell, that is it’s only policy), Eritreas “border issue” joins the long litany of places that the UN is content with status quo.


          • Berhe Y

            Dear Saay,

            I think we are in the same line of thinking then. So what’s the practical solution for today then?

            The other day I saw a picture of a girl with the host of ESAT TamaN Beyene. She had a picture of Ethiopia map which include Eritrea. This time the current Ethiopian map was coloured with Ethiopian flag but the ERITREAN part was coloured with ERITREAN flag but it’s one map.

            All the PFDJite are going crazy and finally they figure out the plan of G7 was.

            Personally I think the boarder issue will never get anywhere unless there is:

            1) there is a change in government in Ethiopia, to what happens who knows.
            2) there is a full out war between the two countries

            Other than that nothing will change. What’s Eritrea should do. They should do what they need to do in their control, make peace with their own people and move on with life (kali) incase you are reading.


          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Saay7 and Berhe Y : My oh my…now you wish to compare Ethiopia’s illegal occupation of Eritrean land following a EEBC ruling with the Palestinian situation? Are you serious? SO, you think you can simply dismiss Badme as irrelevant with the passage of time? Yeah right. Time for me to go get a cold brew.

          • saay7

            Hey Kalihari:

            Before you go for a cold brew (because I want to help you get the right brew), here’s something that may blow your mind:

            This website that you are reading now, warned way back in the mid 2000s, that if the Gov of Eritrea doesn’t act prudently, it will be ignored like the Palestinians. That just as Palestinians cries of “Resolution 242!” are given a deaf ear by the UN, Eritreas “but it’s final and binding!” will also be ignored.

            And what has happened? Exactly. You might want to order an IPA for your brew: it looks like you need the kick.


          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Saay7: Be it mid-2000s or now, a comparison with Resolution 242 and the EEBC border ruling is simply inappropriate as they involve completely different scenarios. No IPA beer where I am at. I am a Kali that is not in Cali.

          • Hameed Al-Arabi

            Hayaka Allah Al-Ustaz Salih,

            You have washed him well but he is too shabby.

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Berhe Y

            “I think Ethiopia wanted a disintegrated and fragile Eritrea that it can manipulate and in the future help it break up so it can take advantage some parts of the country…. For example, the Kunama in the central region, the Afar in the Easter region…”

            Berhe: I don’t know for sure what is in the minds of Addis policy makers. But I know for sure, or to be safe, let me say, I believe heading down that road is not going to serve the best interest of Ethiopia and Ethiopians. Let me explain why:

            A. – A fragmented failed state to Ethiopia’s east, a fragmented failed state to Ethiopia’s west, a fragmented failed state to Ethiopia’s north could only lead towards one assured thing: a failed and fragmented Ethiopia.

            B. – A poor unstable state that lives on handouts to Ethiopia’s north, a poor unstable state that lives on handouts to Ethiopia’s west, a poor unstable state that lives on handouts to Ethiopia’s east, could only lead to an impoverished unstable Ethiopia that lives of handouts exactly like its destitute people around it.

            C. – In this planet no nation is an island. Any nation on this planet is as peaceful, as stable, as prosperous, as secure, as economically and technologically advanced as its neighbors. Ethiopia is not going to achieve economic miracle leaving its neighbors behind. Ethiopia will never, never never be an oasis of peace, stability, and prosperity in a (our) ghetto neighborhood. Whether we sink swim or ride the wave, we are all in this together.

            D. – Ethiopia is a landlocked country. Even in an ideal peaceful neighborhood, a landlocked country trying to rise to the top in this competitive world market, is like racing a marathon with your hands tied behind your back.

            E. – Dreaming and resenting about Assab, trying to bring Assab back by making life in Eritrea unbearable – so miserable Eritrea reaching to a breaking point is not in the interest of Ethiopia. Lets say Eritrea is punished so severely it became a failed state. Then the end-result would be the obvious: Ethiopia will have its proxy in Eritrea, Egypt will have its own proxy, Saudi Arabia will have its own proxy, Al-QaEda will have its own proxy…… Now, Assab on its possession or Massawa for that matter, will Ethiopia be safe secure and prosperous. Absolutely not.

            F. – For Ethiopia, the way to solve the PORT PROBLEM is to make the use of ports IRRELEVANT –
            through respect of your neighbors sovereignty and territorial integrity, peace, good neighborly relation, prosperity and finally economic integration. To make this point more clear, let me present you with two extremes.

            Extreme scenario #1. Let’s say the people of Somalia Djibouti Eritrea Sudan South Sudan Uganda and Kenya are war torn dirt-poor destitute people. And let’s say miraculously, Ethiopia is the only peaceful country in the middle of all this misery. That means Ethiopia has to use its neighbors ports 100% of the time to import and export goods and services – which is very expensive and not so secure.

            Extreme scenario #2. Now, let’s say the total population of Ethiopia’s neighboring countries is 150 million people. And lets say, they all are peaceful stable prosperous middle class countries – Sudan’s having the size of German economy, Kenya having the size of Great Britain economy, Uganda having the size of France economy, Somalia having the size of Italian economy, and South Sudan Eritrea Djibouti equally doing well. Super highways, fast trains, cargo and passenger plains moving from one country to the other 24/7. People, goods, services, business transactions moving from one country to the other freely 24/7. And in the center of them all – Ethiopia with the highest population and with biggest economy, is the biggest trading partner of each country – that amounts into hundreds of billions of USD each year.

            Now tell me: If Ethiopia would aim to achieve scenario #2, how much relevant would it be for Ethiopia having access to ports? Still relevent but not as much!

            Therefore it is wiser, cheaper, more beneficial, a lot more sustainable to do the right thing than not.

            Semere Tesfai

          • Selam Semere T.,

            What I would have liked to ask is, who could save eritrea from where her leaders are taking her, instead of what ethiopia wants eritrea to be. I really doubt that ethiopia wants eritrea to end up a failed state, but there is a possibility that the eritrean regime could make her one.

            Ethiopia has already two failed neighbors. In the case of somalia, a peaceful and economically functioning somalia would have augmented ethiopia’s economy through trade and cooperation, instead of having a diminishing effect as it has today. In the case of south sudan, ethiopia could have imported oil with less expenses, and there could have been an important trade between the two countries. A failed eritrea will be what we call “በእንቅርት ላይ ጆሮ ደግፍ” thing for ethiopia, from which she would gain nothing.

            The most dangerous factor for eritrea that could make her a failed state is the way the regime rules the country, rather than what ethiopia could do to harm her. The eritrean regime is undermining eritrea’s future, and with her young, the backbone of her economy leaving the country in droves, the meager economy serving the regime’s militaristic policy, and an external policy that does not serve the interest of eritrea, but on the contrary puts eritrea in a confrontational state against the world community, the danger is much more from its rulers than from ethiopia.

            The controversy I see in your comment is that at one point you say that a landlocked country is like a marathon runner who tries to run with hands tied behind the back, and lower down you say that a sea port is not a panacea for ethiopia.

            When the countries of the horn reach the economic level of today’s european countries (as in your scenario #2), when all countries together produce everything they need, and trade between them is facilitated by technology, even then a sea port is still necessary, because a country has to trade with the whole world and not only with its neighbors. The above scenario is more like a post year 3000 scenario, even that if these countries will ever achieve this level of development. The third world countries lost and will lose all the revolutions, industrial, computer and that of artificial intelligence, and their place in the the new world of AI is worryingly predictable. Therefore, they should at least cooperate to survive, instead of trying to destroy each other.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Semere,

            First let me clarify, by no means I and suggestin this will serve both people, specially Eritreans.

            Let’s be honest here and look at our own experiences. Eritreans from the lowlands decided, the hell with the union when their homes burned and destroyed and exiled. Did they care what happens to Ethiopia after Eritrea is separated. NO.

            Now put the people of Kunama and the people of Afar in the same shoe. What has happened to them under the current PFDJ regime is no different. They are exiled, their lands taken and they have no access to the sea and their livelihood.

            Do you think what happen to the rest of Eritrea as their first priority? I am sorry, being rational, the answer is NO.

            Ethiopia gives them alternative and restore their lively hood and much more. What is the difference between Tigrinya speaking Christian from Hamasien and a Tigrinya speaking Christian from Meqele?

            The same way the Ethiopians blaming Egypt, we will be blaming Ethiopia but the fact is those who are in charge, Ethiopians in the former and Eritreans in the later.

            I tell you the current PFDJ Christian leaders are the greatest liability for their people and their country. That’s why sensible people like you should see the danger that’s looming and do something about and removing the regime which is responsible.

            Kebesa are majority and live with it attitude is what got the Amhara in trouble in the first place.

            Had they been smart, they would have taken care the people of Eritrean lowlands and treat them well, then nothing would have happened.

            I was holding this thoughts for long time and I decided to let them out, because the desperate situation our country is in today.

            For Ethiopia, what ever the rest of Ethiopians the TPLF sins and crimes committed, will be erased for ever.

            And who is going to come to help Eritrea and stand with it?


          • Abraham H.

            Selam Semere, nice analysis. But it is always important for Ethiopia to have good working relationships with all its neighbors, no matter whether they are prosperous or not. Imagine all Ethiopian neighbor countries are going to go to the drastic measure of blockading the country, the way we are witnessing in the Arab gulf regarding Qatar. Qatar is somewhat lucky to have a sea outlet, But that would mean a completely isolated Ethiopia, as all its land borders and air space would be closed from the outside world. In that scenario Ethiopia would have no alternative but to go to war with its neighbors.
            Ethiopia is well underway in resolving its ‘port problem’, by expanding the existing ports in Djibouti as well helping build state of the art new ports in the country. The railway to Djibouti port is already finished, and other connecting branches are being built to the rest of Ethiopia. Djibouti is a secure country, thanks to the international super power military bases in the country, and it would do everything possible to integrate its economy with that of Ethiopia, which is the backbone of its economy, meaning that Ethiopia is guaranteed a secure sea port access via Djibouti.
            This means in the near future the rundown Eritrean ports are going to be rendered obsolete via a vis Ethiopian use is concerned.

          • Selam Abraham H.,

            I think that ethiopia’s long term plan is to create a good working relationship with all its neighbors. That is what she is trying to do with djibouti and kenya, but unfortunately cannot do the same with somalia, south sudan and eritrea.

            Blockading a country of 100m will not be an easy matter, for many different reasons, and let us hope that the relations of these countries would not come to that level.

            It is not only djibouti that is secure, but the international powers are practically showing by their presence that the red sea waterways are also secure for their ships, and no regional power, be it iran, ksa or egypt can tamper with it.

            What does eritrea really expect to see in the future? About 50 yrs ago when eritreans started the long journey, an economic miracle was one of their dreams. I really doubt if anybody ever sat down and examined and studied seriously how this was going to be achieved, and the possible difficulties. It looks like that wish was all that was needed.

            What would it take to be a singapore, an economic power of the region? Simply because the italians left behind some industries, it was not enough reason to grow wings and fly like the mythical icarus. Eritrea lacked the know how of a developed country, the manpower and the resources, to become the giant she wanted to be.

            Even today one is forced to ask, what does the regime expect the future to hold for eritrea for it to continue on the same course of destroying the land and its people? Does it expect that there will come a day when it will have its way through military power, supersede ethiopia in her economic achievements, or tame the 100m or so ethiopians? Nevertheless, it is not so easy to miss the dream of the regime and its supporters, which is ethiopia one day will implode. That is simply a wish, a possibility that exists equally for eritrea too. If it is mainly about the wounded ego of those who control eritrea, then there will be no cure for the abnormal situation.

            Ethiopia is the future power of the region. Its 100+m market is open to those who want to cooperate, and the ethiopian economy will be the anchor for all other economies of the region. It is better for eritrea to think about this before things get at the very nadir. Any other alliance with arab powers for example, as some people would like to suggest, which is not her natural place, it must be known that it will be at a price.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Horizon: Ethiopia is illegally occupying parts of Eritrea and Somalia. Is that Ethiopia’s plan to create a good working relationships with its neighbors? To simply illegally occupy them?

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Kalihari,

            Eritreans need to continually remind the UN and its Security Council about the illegal occupation of Eritrean land by Ethiopia.

            As far as Somalia’s problems with Ethiopia are concerned, let us leave it to the Somalis. We do not want to distract attention from our own urgent problems and also muddy the issues, do we?

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Simon: Agreed.

          • Yosief Tewolde

            Peace, Kalihari Snake,

            The fact remains.
            Before, Shabia gave Badme to Tigray.
            Then, HGDEF/PIA started a war against Ethiopia to claim Badme.

            The UN Boundary Commission may have allocated Badme to Eritrea, But its intransigence lets it down.

            Check me on Twitter @Ucf_Seber

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Yosief Tewolde: Sorry but we are not on the same line in this regard. During the armed struggle, there is no question that many EPLF fighters had seen or known about a the map of a larger Tigrai that included parts of Eritrean territory and this had been noted. However, there were obviously more urgent issues at hand at that time, and it was therefore not raised by the EPLF as a matter of contention. However, because EPLF members had seen the larger map of Tigray, can in no way or form be interpreted that they agreed with it or that there was ant formal tacit agreement between the TPLF and the EPLF on the matter. Since, after independence, the two governments were on very friendly terms, most of the border incidents were consistently being down-played by Eritrea, as the excesses of some border officials. However, Badme demarcations unilaterally performed by the TPLF started to bring the issue to the forefront. Badme was a border where Eritreans formed the clear majority on both sides for decades, movement had been fluid. For the Eritrean government or regional officials, the location of the border and what belonged to whom was never a question. Raising it as a point of difference, when other lofty objectives like breaking the trade barrier, creating the free trade area (FTA), moving towards economic harmonization were being discussed was simply seen as inappropriate and counter-productive. Unilateral actions taken by the TPLF during 1993 thru 1997 wherein farmers from areas long know to be occupied by Eritrean populations were forcefully removed and/or placed in detention, precipitated the 1998-2000 war.

          • Yosief Tewolde

            Peace, Kalihari Snake,

            Now, the TPLF say LET’S TALK.

            Based on your analysis above, this suggestion would have been accepted by the Eritrean Government without hinderance. Then again, let’s talk will raise elements like let’s practice ‘incremental Democracy’, a challenge to PFDJ/PIA.

            For definition of ‘incremental Democracy’, one may check Twitter @Ucf_Seber

          • Abraham H.

            Selam Horizon, I think aspiring to be the Singapore of the Horn of Africa was too much an aspiration; I call that ‘tir ilka dabista in Tigrinya’. Anyway, had we a sane gov ,we would have steered away from the endless conflicts and instead focussed on co-operation with all our neighbors. Also I believe that Eritrea, thanks to its strategic location at the entrance of the Red Sea, is well situated to trade both with the ME, and the rest of the world, without that having any negative effect to its relations with Ethiopia.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Abreham,

            Aiming to be the Singapore of Africa was not a bad vision at all. If you read the history of Singapore, it was a third world country when it gained it’s independence. And within 1 generation it become a first world country. It doesn’t have natural resources, or large population.

            The only difference is the first prime minister, although many consider him, sort of dictator, but he was a scholar of the highest level, first class graduate from Cambridge.

            The only reason why Singapore become world class economy was through high quality of education, law and order, good business practice and some how controlled government. The same party is still in power after over 50 years…and the first prime minster served over 40 years…and now his son (an intellectual on his own) is the current prime minster.

            There is a lot of similarities with Eritrea, in terms of location, population size, different ethnic group, multiple national languages (four), different religion and surrounded by larger neighbors both in population and size (Malaysia, Indonesia). I think Eritrea may even have a lot more significant better location compared to Singapore.

            For example, Ethiopia may not have publicly stated it, but it’s following the economic policy of China, almost exclusively, infrastructure spending, manufacturing, education, etc.

            And it’s not like we had to invent a lot of things..I mean we already had the know how what to do with what we had, may be it needs a little bit of expansion (tourism services, port services, etc).


          • Selam Berhe Y and Abraham H.,

            The same people who prophesied eritrea, the future singapore of africa, are ruling eritrea today. They have proved that they have no relation whatsoever with such concept through their isolationist, anti-trade and anti-peace stand.

            On top of what Berhe Y. said above, both eritrea and singapore started as small and underdeveloped countries, with little or no natural resources and a relatively small population. Singapore however was not only at the heart of a dynamic economic region of south east Asia, in addition it has always been at a crossroad for regional and world trade for a very long time.

            Contrary to the isolationist self-reliance economic policy of the regime that came to power in eritrea, singapore welcomed and encouraged foreign trade and investment, exactly what ethiopia is trying to emulate today through the so called developmental state economic policy, by inviting and facilitating fdi.

            The government of the PM of singapore was known for its smallness, efficiency and honesty, and due to the positive outcome for its people, one can characterize it as a benevolent dictatorship.

            We see two differing situations in ethiopia and eritrea, as I can understand. In the case of ethiopia, there is a government which says development now and democracy later, while in the case of eritrea both development and democracy are frozen, and no one really knows for how long things will remain so. In ethiopia the issue of democracy, good governance and human rights has created a bottleneck, so that the country cannot move forward normally.

            I do not know if it is possible that ethiopia and eritrea can ignore eachother and go their separate ways, and if eritrea can afford not to be part of the regional family of nations. I think that Eritrea rulers (present and future) should bring down the bar somehow to the level that fits eritrea, show that the country is ready to connect to others through trade, communications and the movement of people, if she is ever going to survive as a nation. Time will show.

          • Abraham H.

            Dear Horizon, DIA doesn’t have any good intesion about Eritrea. Every step he has been taking is to make sure the country goes down with him; he wants the country dies with him. Nothing more. My dream is to witness the demise of this evil man, the sooner the better. Then I hope there are not many Nitriccs inside the country after his demise, because that is definitely going to lead to blood shed.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Horizon: Going after PIA/PFDJ is fair game. But why at the same time do you ALWAYS glorify the TPLF and conditions inside Ethiopia? Anyone can look at your past posts and clearly see that you are a walking – talking TPLF propaganda machine. Ethiopia now has a huge fire in its backyard and you wish to treat it like a household BBQ.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Abraham H.: The first time that the U.N. World Food Programme tried to move food with the new Djibouti>Addis rail, half of it got stolen. Now tell me, why is that railway not functioning these days? Ethiopia getting its feathers ruffled by GCC presence in Eritrea while Ethiopia remains dependent on Arab league sea ports who can raise tariffs at any time they please. By the way, you got a fire now burning in your own back yard as the Oromos have again taken to the streets.

          • Abraham H.

            Hi K.Snake, according to what I read about the Djibouti-Addis railroad, it is not operational as of yet, expected to be so by end of this year. There was a stress test run in May 2017 with more than 30 trains at the same time according to Wikipedia, which proved to be a failure; there were some challenges with power supply in some parts of the railroad stretch. Also there is some challenges as to access routes to the lines, becasue such routes were not planned with the initial construction phase. But the authorities are working to overcomes these previously unforeseen challenges, and wish them good luck.
            As to the protests you mentioned they only indicate Ethioipians, unlike us Eritreans, have the courage to challenge the decisions of their gov; I’m sure their gov will deal with this in proper manner by addressing the grievances, just like what they are doing to solve the political, administrative, and legal issues by talking to the opposition groups.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Abraham H. : What you will never admit as you are a TPLF supporter, is that both Governments in Eritrea and Ethiopia are dictatorships. A huge difference is that Ethiopia’s dictatorship is the TPLF which is less that 6% of its overall population and it is the TPLF that is economically raping, land grabbing, and arbitrarily imprisoning thousands of Oromos and Amharas.

          • Abraham H.

            Hi K.Snake, I’ve always believed that both regimes are indeed dictatorships, I’ve always been clear on this and have supported and wished for the Weyane to reform their election sytem so as to allow for fair sharing of power. I believe they are currently working on this issue by engaging in negotiations with the opposition groups inside the country which decided to follow the path of peaceful struggle; and it is my great hope they come up with broadly agreed solutions, for the sake of the safety, security, as well as prosperity of the entire Ethiopian people and neighboring peoples.
            Having said this, Ethiopia is in a far better situation as compared to Eritrea (in fact beyond compare), regarding public institutions, constitutional rule to some extent, better justice system, freedom of speech to much greater extent, religious, and other freedoms, trade and economic freedoms, etc.
            In comparison Eritrea has :
            -no Constitution
            -no independent court system
            -not a single private press
            -no parliament
            -almost no private investment, businesses and trade
            -no freedom of speech
            -no freedom of organization
            -no freedom of movement, neither within the country nor travel into or outside the country
            -no private bank
            -no private exchange bureau
            -no university
            -an economy in shambles
            -no independent higher educational institutions
            -NO FREE PEOPLE- the people inside Eritrea are just like the private property of dictator Isaias, akin to the people of North Korea. Only way to extricate themselves from this imprisonment is to run away to neighboring Ethiopia, and Sudan often at the risk of losing their lives on the way.

          • blink

            Dear Saay
            One question sir, where do you stop with such policy of ancestors priority of your number 2 view? Are you sure you will have a practical policy to implement such things after Issaias??? Do you believe only the kunama are the once snatched their land ?? I am sure you wanted Asmara to be a super nice city expanding per day with beauty .

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Blink,

            Brother, what is wrong, Saay to say the displaced and exiled kunama to be back to their ancestral land? Isn’t it the right thing to demand the displaced part of our society to regain their ancestral land? How should we feel the grievances of any social group and respond correctly to address the issue of Kunama and others? Do you think because Saay spoke about Kunama, he forget about the others? I do not think so for a minute. The topic of discussion was about the border issue that include Badme and its environs. The kunama people who reside in that area were completely displaced and exiled in Ethiopia and hence Saay brought it the way he said it. I don’t see any problem with that. If others are snatched their land (which is true) then theirs will be raised when cases related to them is on discussion. This should not make you too sensitive. No one will be left behind when justice and rule of law start to dictate the lives of our people. Just keep yourself on the loop.


          • blink

            Dear Mr.Amanuel
            I was just asking saay if he thought the policy is practical, there is nothing wrong for people to come to their land and take what they claim for generations but PFDJ destroyed Eritrea to no return in this 26 years of craziness. I am saying such policy will be in a clash due to the fundamental change on the ground. Any government policy must be used to support people in need but with out getting in to conflict.Land policy in Eritrea was and is horribly dangerous to retreat from the PFDJ drunken system.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Saay (Aya Adi’U),

            I think you are the only person who understood my argument, whether we agree or disagree. You clearly explained my argument than myself. You are thankful for that. Besides (a) The three “facts” and “reasons” you presented in your argument as to why both countries must change their positions to resolve the stand off and break the stalemate are remarkable (b) Reminding this forum and awate readers emphatically that “EEBC does not forbid the two parties from dialogue and discussion to find lasting peace” and that “EEBC encourage them to do so” is very important for Semere and his likes to soften their position and focus on ideas that brings a lasting peace (c) I wish this argument was framed in an article format and placed in the front page of awate. My friend this is an impressive argument. Well done.

            Note: I am reluctant to use the latitudinal and longitudinal angles and degrees from the map in order to keep the general public to follow and understand our debates.

            Amanuel Hidrat

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Saay7: I do not believe that history will later treat either MZ or PIA kindly in regards to their diplomatic inability to avert war. A few comments on other points that you have raised: 1) Undertaking a census is impractical for a number of reasons to include Ethiopia strategically populating the area since the EEBC ruling and It would also simply be seen by PIA as a lame attempt to open dialogue in regards to implementation; 2) Rule of Law has no statute of limitations and that is irrespective of who calling the shots in Ethiopia and Eritrea; 3) If Ethiopia were genuine in wishing to have dialogue with Eritrea in regards to implementation, there simply is not reason for them not to place their ideas down on paper and to either directly and officially communicate them to Eritrea, or alternatively, communicate them through a neutral mediator. Their unwillingness to do so, lends great credibility that they also wish to expand discussions to include other issues such as port use.

          • Thomas

            Great analysis, Saay. Though, I think you have underestimated the number of Eritreans exiled when you put it to be tens of thousands. It is much more than tens of thousands, it is in the hundreds of thousands. In Ethiopia along we have way over 100,000 (let’s count the number of people including in Addis Ababa), in Israel (over 35,000) , in Sudan (a lot but counting after the badme war in the tens of thousands), in Europe (tens of thousands) and more. I agree with the concept but not with the number of exiled Eritreans after the border war. I think your sentence which reads needs rethinking, “We have allowed this to hold us hostage and the results have been catastrophic to us: socially (exile of tens of thousands),

    • Abraham H.

      Selam Semere T., just a small observation. You wrote “When Ethiopias’s Menelik signed the border agreement with Italy on 10 July 1900, it was agreed upon with clarity that the straight line of the border (a) Passes west of Badme town, leaving Badme town exactly one kilometer inside Eritrean territory”, how is it possible for the border to run west of Badme town, and at the same time leave Badme town exactly 1km inside Eritrean territory?
      And I’ve to say you quoted me very well, because that was exactly what I meant, the Badme village is not more than 1sq km of area. The rest of your explanation; I’m not sure about your reference points and whether Badme Triangle is the same as Yirga Triangle, etc, because as I see from the google map, a place called Yirga lies well within the Ethiopian territory; however I’m not sure how far the google map deviates from the eebc final map.
      And yes, you are right Eritrea won most part of its claim in that part of the border, meaning Ethiopia lost most part of its claim. The issue that I tried to rasie was how much of that area ruled to Eritrea is currently under Ethiopian occupation? I see that you don’t know the answer to this question as well, yet you’re trying to present it as if the whole region is under the Ethiopians in several other sentences. Most people speak that the Weyane must vacate Badme, without having an exact knowledge of how big territory is really under their occupation.

      • Semere Tesfai

        Selam Abraham H

        1. – ” How is it possible for the border to run west of Badme town, and at the same time leave Badme town exactly 1km inside Eritrean territory?”

        Yes you’re right. I should’ve said, the straight line that borders Eitrea and Ethiopia should pass one km EAST of Bame town/village (which now according EEBC is 800 meters I think), not WEST. That is a stupid mistake on my part. Remember, I said Tekeze and Mereb rivers flow from east to west….. anyway.
        Thank you, I will correct it in a minute.

        2. – “You quoted me very well, because that was exactly what I meant, the Badme village is not more than 1sq km of area. The rest of your explanation; I’m not sure about your reference points and whether Badme Triangle is the same as Yirga Triangle”

        Let me explain a little:
        (a). – Badme is a region and Badme is a town/village within Badme region – like Harrar is a region and Harrar is a town in Harrar region, The Amaras call Eritreans Tigre and we Eritreans have our own Tigre within us….type thing.

        (b). – Starting from the ELF years, the whole Ethio-Eritrean western border contention, was never was about a small village/town called Badme. It was about the whole Badme arid region that stretches from Mereb river to Tekeze river.

        (c). – The Bame region, from Mereb to Tekeze is a barren flat arid land. When one walks on that arid land, in the absence of modern gadgets, no one would know where the border of Eritrea/Ethiopia starts and where it ends.

        (d). – Since the locals where unable to see the border, people on the Eritrean side named the arid region Badme/Baduma plain, and people from the Ethiopian side (Tigray side) named it the region Yirga plain. To complicate things even more, this almost uninhabited barren arid plain overlaps and, goes deep into the two countries territories – and that is the reason the Ethiopians call it Yirga Triangle while we Eritreans call it Badme/Baduma Triangle.

        (e). – “The issue that I tried to rase was how much of that area ruled to Eritrea is currently under Ethiopian occupation? I see that you don’t know the answer to this question as well, yet you’re trying to present it as if the whole region is under the Ethiopians in several other sentences.”

        So what is your point? All, half, a third, a quarter what difference does it make? It is big enough – divisions of killer armies to face each other on both sides of the border. And Ethiopia doesn’t have the right to occupy even if it is one square inch of Eritrean land.

        Thank you for for engaging and thank you for all the respect.

        Semere Tesfai

        • Abraham H.

          Hi Semere T., thanks for the clarification regarding the Badme/Yirga Triangle; you said “And Ethiopia doesn’t have any right to occupy sovereign Eritrean land, even if it is as small as one square inch.”. Yes, this is right, but how do you make Ethiopia comply with the decision? By constantly crying ‘final and binding’, or by pursuing a wise diplomatic arena through listening to the Ethiopian demands, and eventually deciding your next step from there as well as working together with international bodies like the UN? Above all, there is no reason to exploit the border issue in order to hold the economic, political, and social development of the Eritrean people hostage.

  • Bayan Negash

    Selam again: Fascists failed architectural vision of Addis Abeba in 1936.


  • Bayan Negash

    selam to all,
    The following link might offer some insight to the connections between architecture and colonialism:

  • FSinibaldi

    El vivo canto.

    En la parte
    superior de la
    montaña siento
    una sombra
    y el candil
    candoroso que
    recuerda silente
    el brillante

    Francesco Sinibaldi

    • Holla F Sinibaldi,

      Cómo apropiado. Y cómo fortuitos a la suya realmente para ser saludado con estas palabras simples pero conmovedoras de su Señor Fratelo sinibaldi:

      “The live song.

      In the part
      Top of the
      Mountain feel
      A shadow
      And the lamp
      Remember silently
      the brilliant

      Missing the Awate community quite a bit I must admit, though I feel refreshed and rejuvenated to have personally outmaneuvered the metaphoric “missiles and mortar projectiles” which has morphed more like a nihilistic weapons of mass destruction. Yes, it seems that we have managed to engineer factories for the production of out own napalms and cluster bombs that indiscriminately obliterates all life AND ALL MEANING. The bi-polar ‘arms races has definitely been Top-to-Bottom with great success. And on the global scale parallels amplifying the absurdity of it all where anomalies and the extreme absurdities are the norm that fit perfectly into the curves of continuous or discrete mathematical functions in abundance as the foundations that are the fundamental laws and pillars of humanities harmonious coexistence with God and one another are forsaken and scoffed at seemingly.


      “In the part
      Top of the
      Mountain feel
      A shadow
      And the lamp

      In the Tuesday weekly gathering, amidst my Brothers in Christ at Cornerstone Baptist Missionary in East Oakland, rather candidly did the Reverend Brother taught and reminded all of us the lesson: “it is by the Grace of God that we are saved. By virtue of our sins we are guaranteed suffering and damnation for we are born sinners… Salvation is not due to any of our deeds or works. Salvation is attained by God’s Grace and Mercy.”

      And here I read “…And the lamp Candid..”

      “…y el candil
      candoroso que

      Seguro! Damas y caballeros, judíos y gentiles:

      “…En la parte
      superior de la
      montaña siento
      una sombra
      y el candil
      candoroso que

      Calle y la Llave de Oro es la vida cuando viviendo con el Candi Christo. Con Dios a toddo paises del mundo. Cuidades de Eldorad en paz como Rio Dejinero, Roma, Mecca Medina, Medein, Mexico, Buenos Aires…Englatera…Istanbul y Jerusalem; Tambien Syria y Yemen, Massawa y Mekele, Keren y Gonder, Aqurdat y Bahredar, Barentu y Gambela, La Nueva Rosa Addis Abeba y Asmara vivir en paz.

      The French Philosopher Voltair put forth a HYPOTHETICAL argument: “Si Dieu n’existait pas, il faudrait l’inventer” (“If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him”) – Epître à l’auteur du livre des Trois imposteurs, Voltaire, 1768

      Now quite many, including my Captain Saay7 have come to the erroneous conclusion the progressive French Philosopher Voltaire is an Atheist. En contrair mon Capitan Profesore SaliHaldeen AA Younis. . El profesor Voltaire sólo estaba sintiendo la sombra una cima la montaña superior. I contend, Voltaire was, in the spirit of the University of Notre Dame Paris, challenging oppressive impostors as he was a formidable force in actualizing equitable justice, fairness and liberty for all. Voltaire’s Candid surely was a catalyst advocating Liberty for the Americas for both “Poor and Destitute Huddled Masses” of Europe, the Indigenous Natives of the America that sparked and ignited the Intifida at Boston Harbor.

      No Taxation without representation uprising by the work force, the poor and huddled in New England …. …. y Nueva York, unlike Old Yorkshire which means walled city, is to always remain inviting and WITH OUT A WALL the huddled, destitute and oppressed masses to till, to work and build The Creators Kingdom.

      In the City of Brotherly Love on July 4th 1776 Independence was declared to usher the continuous progressive march towards “Liberty and Justice for all”

      In John 15:12, Love One Another as I have Loved you commands us our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.

      Of Bits and Bytes… Two Years later, in 1778 Voltaire passed on to the next life to meet The Creaort. Allah yrHamu.

      I ask the reader to take notice of my Avatar. This past week of USA’s Independence July 4th week, I attended the Eritrean Soccer Tournament at Burrell Field in San Leandro, CA. I can confidently state that it was the BEST I felt as an Eritrean in SEVENTEEN YEARS. E.S.T. ’17, Seattle, Vegas, Virginia Team Keren, Oakland Team Wedeb, Mineapolis Team Deneden…and Antioch’s Team Selam as well as San Jose’s Team Eurqui, simply AWSOME!
      The HIGHLIGHT being the iThree Salespersons – Their Average aged Five Years Old girls took turns in narrating their fund raiser sales pitch.

      The Magical Powers of The iThree – Eritrean STand on ’17 your will have to make sure and read on
      AmEriGiantSE Azilo40 Agnieya40 – Children’s Book Publications. August Rush ’17. Change Your Narrative!

      Meanwhile GitSAtSE’s epistles to HEAT THE ENGINE for AuAuAugust Au Rush 17ers….
      1. The Pillar Amde who must return before August Rush. The Ethiopian Soccer Tournament of 2017 in Seattle… Oh Yes like Kevin Durant’s Nike Poster caption states: We can “DEBATE THIS!” Incidentally, in EST ’17 Oakland, Team Asseb was present. No to WALLS Sire.
      2. To Tegadalit Hayat Adem, I will gladly entreat you and Tsigereda to a Haja Barda/Leslasa from the Dukan at the Foothill of Enda Gaber in Gejeret Abi. I recall, in 1976 purchasing magical marbles with my Two TaErifa’s I kept safe all the way from Hilet Sudan, Teseney, Barka and throughout the long Haji Hassan Bus ride, despite not having pockets on my yellow shorts or soxs on my shebeT wearing little legs. I admit, the shopkeeper ladies turning me away because they did not recognize TaErifa as Eritrean (okay Ethiopian minted, back then) monetary unit almost brought be to shock and tears. Hey, perhaps we will go to Godaif and shop for several Bini Koyo too… Wize Hippo Fanti Ghana and Abi will gladly rid the Alligator Skin shoe [HARGETSE] and MaHmuday welll welll MaHmuday “The Best” SaliH I doubt will ever take off the Shida sandals of his foot. I have seen him skying the slopes of Aspen in his Hzbzwi Serawit Harinet Eritra issued Shida this past November 2016. And in January of 2017, in his Shida and a Kushuf, he was seen coaching Minneapolis Team Denden Hockey Team on a frozen lake at 30 degrees below Zero. No, I don’t think he will accompany HargetSe skin Tor boots wearing Gashe Abi to Binni Koyo Factory in Godayif. Congratulations to the Asmara and Asmarinos for winning the World Heritage Designation.
      3. Speaking of MahHmuday “The Best” SaliH, I just want to point out Bits and Bytes mathematics to Mr. SaliH Johar Ghadi. You see SJG, The Eritrean Revolution is a lot like France’s Resistance. Vivez longtemps la liberté. Haraka and Eritrea’s Ghedli ignited by a bunch of renegades spearheaded by the Gentleman Scholar and Statesman Hamid Idris Awate on September 1st, 1961 is to all Eritreans and Ethiopians as The French Revolution is to Western Democracy, i.e. France, USA and Great Britain. Two Hundred Years after the French Revolution of 1789 sealed the fait of the monarchy, Fenkil in 1989 uprooted Africa’s Napoleon expansionist ethno-domination. The decapitated holes ridden King of Kings Massawa Palace will surely be in the running for Africa’s and world heritage. As it is as symbolic as the Statue of Liberty in Nueva York. Theme is NO WALLS.
      And besides, whatever happened to the Kerenino Vs. Asmarino rivalry. Shouldn’t Mr. Ghadi author for Keren as a world heritage designation over Asmara and Massawa? Mai DeArit… Hellllloo Mai DeArit! Where is my brother Gheteb the Adulusian these days….Roi de la montagne Daniel Teklehaimanot, I suppose I will have to encourage to take lead for KEREN. Yes the King is Dead. Long live The King. Long Live Ngus Keren. Vive le roi de la montagne! Longue vie à la France. Vive la résistance! And Long Live the ALL Eritrean and Ethiopian Peoples GHEDLI!
      4. Long live the fighting Irish! And in the spirit of University of Notre Dame Paris, in Barka Abay Teseney, Awate University shall KEEP THE TORCH OF LIBERTY LIT! And Mon Capitan Saay7, Mon professeur personnel Panglos de Candid I tell you NOW THAT I GOT DIBS on being the CHANCELLOR OF Awate University Hilet Sudan Teseney Campus and Gerset, Barka Main Campus. The Narrative Imperative WE SHALL “DEBATE THIS” TOO! Marathon 26.2 Milestone in LESS THAN TWO, The August Rush deservedly PUTS Medina Teseney as the First African City World Liberty Heritage. Theme is no walls. Besides Saay7, don’t you have to build A.U. or manage with tes a Gaba Jeloti factory, or peel some Karneshim Fries Dnish Wise Awol Hippo snacks with Fanti Ghana. Garri and pounded yams with my fish head eggusi for yours truly.
      5. And Halib AAkaat AArkobkobay mayy tsrha glnsste with Ayyatat Amanuel Hidrat and Ismael AA, we shall indeed
      climb Gobo Adal e

      “En la parte
      superior de la
      montaña siento
      una sombra
      y el candil
      candoroso que
      recuerda silente
      el brillante
      sabor. ”

      and reminisce about AdobHa Congress, Emba Hade Denden …as well as 1977.. The Eritrean Sparta 200 Plus one…
      AyresaEnayan SebAAn ShewAten. the 77ers….. Happy July 4th Month to the ’76ers.

      August Rush is afoot to the ’17ers!!! Make a STAN on ’17! Theme is NO WALLS! Change to the Narrative Imperative!.

      Abu Ashera Weapon X – Evolution!

      Thank you Fratelo/Padrino Francisco Sinibaldi for El Vivo Canto! Obrigado!

      “Yo soy un hombre sincero
      De donde crece la palma,
      Y antes de morirme quiero
      Echar mis versos del alma.”

      Yes I plant White Roses en Jenero y Julio!!!

      The August Rush for the Au is ON LIKE DONKEY KONG. Au yeah yeah Au Au… Monkey Mon Mon! 499 against ONE. You inspire me MON!

      AmErigitSAtSE Azilo40 Agnieya40
      Children Books Press


      • My Brothers and Sisters at Awate and beyond…

        Hopefully I have made up for my long hiatus and shall keep you all from missing me for another Month or so… August Rush Marathon 26.2 yes UNDER 2. oF bITS AND byTES!!!


        • Berhe Y


          Good luck with the run..you will be the world record holder…will be watching…


        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Hi Solomon,

          I will spot you from tens of thousands of runners. Where is this marathon and when will it be? Good luck anyway.

        • Nitricc

          Hey; TsaTse; well, bring the beef home then. It is very good idea you are involving in such good things. Well, let me give you a little advice. train your body to switch its energy consumption from Carbohydrates to fat. I think you have enough time to complete the conversion. if you decide to follow through, let me know. personally I have attained a fitness that is clinically difficult if not impossible through the use of fat as primary energy source.

  • blink

    Dear readers
    Massawa will get its recognition but I can’t imagine some people expected Massawa supposed to get it ahead of Asmara .
    To be fair to the critics of this article, instead of this small grievances article the writers were capable of writing new article about Asmara but they choose to show their tribal grievances by saying “Asmara was awarded to be listed in world Heritage for its buildings that were built by Mussolini’s Italian Fascist colonizers less than a century ago, and are affectionately promoted as “Art Deco”. “Nothing indigenous about it.”

    So the writers of this article has nothing to celebrate about it but they have strong held negativity about any thing that done by People that their name don’t looks alike .
    It is a shameful reality of our own small world. We can not even be happy about the potential Asmara got. They choose to search their old article to memorize their stronghold ugly side. It is simply beyond any point that they even make it 17.sq km and nothing more than a playground of kids.

    Did they bring this article to show their joys about Asmara or to tell us that Asmara has nothing to show ,it was built by fascist Italians and is 17 km Square??
    Would they be nice to Asmara if Massaw was given the same recognition at the same time or they would write about the ancient beautiful
    Mosque in Akurdet and and make their grievances too , no one knows really.

    This article is simply an article that simply states ” Asmara is built by Italians and Massawa was built by sheiks and Turkes, the Massawa builders looks like us and the buildings represent us than the cathedral in Asmara.
    What they forgot is that Asmara has beautiful Mosques too. We love Asmara not for the sake of its building but for its diversity and for its nice society ,where we do not question some once religion and also ethnic background.

    Let’s not be diggers of grievances against each other because if you continue to go that road , the road will take you to more darkness and you will die with it.

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Selam Blink,

      Actually, you make it look worse. In your critics you sound that you do not like grievances. In a diversified society grievances are an expression of disatisfaction to the injustice that is looming in the society by the power holders. Grievances are the tools or mechanism for correcting the flaws of injustice in the governing body in particular and in the society in general. Open grievances should always be welcomed to improve the behavior of governments and societies. Showing grievances should not be construed with an envy to an achievement of something. What I see in the grievances of the piece is – there were not equal study and expose to our cities and historical places. It wasn’t about Mosque nor about cathedral. Look the scholars (if they are at all) that made to the committee to make study, as if we do not have scholar from the other have of our social make up. Doesn’t this in itself bring grievances? So Brother do not dislike the aggrieved to ventilate their grievances. Instead we should ask ourselves how to address grievances that makes us look good and makes us respectful to each other to remain united. Now look your comment and what did it contribute to address their grievances? Grievances come and go depending how we handle them. We should be smart, wise, and knowledgeable to address our differences and our grievances in whatever shape or form it comes upfronts.


  • Ahmed Raji

    The Isaias regime’s crimes against Massawa’s cultural heritage, including the demolition of many buildings of historic importance, are well documented. (Fortunately, a more expansive demolition plan did not come through). That being said, the recognition that Asmara has just received is well deserved. I can’t say enough of how this unique city, Asmara, grew on me day by day during the years I lived there (the same effect that Massawa had on me).
    Massawa is more than qualified to join the list of world heritage sites and more deserving of immediate attention (given the state of its most significant buildings). Yet, Massawa’s merit need not be pitted against that of Asmara or any other site. The case for Massawa should be made independently of any claim that Asmara’s triumph was undeserved.

    • OOMA DC

      Great observation Ahmed. Awate’s investigative report is real work and true. It’s really hard to understand why GOE does’t want to promote Massawa. Then you ask yourself what happen to UNESCO ? Don’t they have full time stuff to do the research and find out. It looks to me PFDJ lobbyists worked day and night to get the Asmara recognition.

      • Abraham H.

        Dear OOMA DC, Asmara is the first Eritrean city to be inscribed in Unesco; that is a good first start, and let’s also hope other attractions and sites follow like Massawa, Qohaito, Metera, Adulis, the Massawa-Asmara railroad with its impressive tunnels, bridges, and meandering tracks that wind up along the picturesque Eastern escarpment.

  • Kalihari Snake

    Hello All: If it were true that all of Eritrea’s youth have left or are leaving the country, why then is its population rapidly increasing?

    • Hayat Adem

      Hi K Snake,
      1) ” If it were true that all of Eritrea’s youth have left…” This is your claim, never heard from anyone else all the youth have left.
      2) “why then is its (ertrean) population rapidly increasing?” This ‘rapidly” also sounds your claim, yet needs to be substantiated by the claimer. What is your reference for the rapid increase rate?
      3) What has been reported is 4k to 5k people, mostly the youth, male and highlanders are leaving Eri every month. these are figures from the UN and other neutral bodies. Monkey said it is not 4k but 2K. The journalis who hear that response from monkey exclaimed ” ya Allah!”

      • Kalihari Snake

        Hi Hayat Adem: Eritrea’s polio vaccination campaign provides good data capture on children <5years of age. WHO uses data on <5 year old children to extrapolate overall populations. Data on <5year olds is used at an interpolate factor of between 17-to-20% meaning that <5 year olds represent between 17-to-20% of the overall population. Any way you cut it, Eritrea's population has a healthy growth even though YG Parrothead supporters here wish to give the impression that it is only the elderly, disabled and weak who are remaining in Eritrea.

        • Abraham H.

          Hi K.Snake, you seem to have some tidbits of information about the otherwise reclusive DIA regime. I’ve two questions for you:
          1-Has the DIA regime ever conducted any census about the size of the Eritrean population, at least those living inside the country?
          2-Why wouldn’t the regime disclose the population number of the country to the public, if it has the data?

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Abraham H.: You should not even have to ask that question as you well know Eritrea is being illegally occupied by Ethiopia, with frequent small-scale offensives still being launched from the Ethiopian side, and a substantial number of it citizens are militarily deployed.

          • Abraham H.

            Hi K.Snake, what you replied is what is called in English a lame excuse or ‘ebara miknyat’ in Tigrinya. I don’t see any relation between the issues you mentioned and the DIA regime not publicizing population figures. Btw, didn’t Yemane monkey tell the UN that Eritrea’s population is under 4 million recently?
            By now, it is very clear that the pfdj and its staunch supporters resort to the hiding narrative of ‘occupied territories’ if and whenever they are confronted with issues of good governance, human rights, democracy, justice, etc. Mr. Snake, could you tell me exactly which parts of Eritrean territories are under Ethiopian occupation? One such area I know of is the tiny border village of Badme, covering an area of under 1sq. km, and lying at a distance of under 2km from the border with Ethiopia.
            Has the DIA regime ever published any maps that show which parts of the Eritrean territory that are under Ethiopian occupation?

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Abraham H.: Performing a population census is impractical when a substantial percentage of your population have been militarily deployed and part of your country is being illegally occupied.

          • Abraham H.

            Hi K.Snake, there is nothing new you said here from your previous comment; it is all the lazy and cynical reason of ‘illegally occupied land’. I also asked you to mention any occupied Eritrean land, except the tiny dusty village of Badme, which you failed to present.
            Is it really worth it to enslave and sacrifice the Eritrean people because the Weyanes could not vacate that tiny village of 1sq km area; which anyway was under their control with the blessing of DIA for all the years after Eritrea’s independence?

          • blink

            Dear Abraham
            Have you read the new Forbes article about Ethiopia , please visit it.

          • Abraham H.

            Selam Blink, I’m not in the business of comparing and contrasting my country Eritrea with Ethiopia. I’m first and foremost concerned with the dignity and tranquility of my Eritrean people.

          • Nitricc

            Abraham stop laying. You don’t give a flying hoot about Eritrea. Aren’t you the one who is busy defending the weyane day in day out. Come-on now, at lease grow a couple and make a stand. what a wishy whasy.

          • Abraham H.

            Nitricc, the keyboard general, haha. I told you before many times, why don’t you go to Eritrea to serve at least a fraction of what your peers are forced to spend thier entire youth serving your master DIA. I can assure you, he may have use for you, at least as a cannon foder or fenji regach:))
            I know you don’t even have the gut to join your ypfdj friends in their pfdj archestrated luxury tours of ‘zura hagerka’.

          • Nitricc

            Abraham; at least call for the legal demarcation of the border and then I will consider you to be half Eritrean. why do you defend the weyane? Your hypocrite nature is out for all to see. if you are a just person then you can’t oppose to a just verdict i.e. the border decision. you must call for unconditional implementation of the EEBC. I know you are too busy running behind Hayat and the weyanes. what a shame.

          • Abraham H.

            Hi Nitricc, it is very amazing to see how entitled you feel to give or take nationality from others. To me, you’re nothing but an abscure internet troll; please know that I don’t need your verification for my Eritrean nationality. At least , not from someone who is on the record defending one of the worst dictators in Africa, Mengistu.

          • Nitricc

            Abraham; who is internet trolling? lol, aren’t you who out of all gossiping about Melles’s death? I was amazed you gossip like a talkative teenage girl. who cares what killed Melles Zenawi? oh oh, I got you, I forgot Melles is your master and it pains you to bring it after all this time. Dude, have self respect. The truth is you are known weyane admirer and your character can not allowed anything what is good for Eritrea. By the way, to tell the truth and to defend are two deferent things. you smear Eritrea in order to paint a rosy pic to your weyane that is defending. I said Mengistu never got the chance to show what can do, that is the truth. it is even more true when it comes to your Tigray.
            When Mengistu came to power, your TPLF were already in Dedebit. Mengistu never had any chance to work things out. That is the truth and take that to the bank. Just look from your own Tigray and Weyane. He never had any chance.

          • Abraham H.

            Hi Nitricc, I think I’ve engaged you enough for this time, so just keep trolling:))

          • KBT

            I think you win against this woyane apologists, he is quiet now

          • blink

            Dear Abraham
            Neither do I but I asked because you tend to give a beige picture about it , I asked you just to have your perspectives on that.

          • Abraham H.

            Dear Blink, I see that you’ve edited your question from yesterday, which was about something you read in Forbes about Ethiopia, to the Badme issue. I wonder why you did this, I thought you’re an honest person.
            Anyway to answer your ‘new’ question which is a hypothetical one, I simply don’t know. What I believe and hope is for the border and other disputes to be settled peacefully. There is no reason whatsoever to squander the lives of thousands of people because of ‘border conflicts’.

          • blink

            Dear Abraham
            No the question was there as it is , what I did was remove the additional question that I inserted after I thought it was inappropriate for the two lines to be together. I was not claiming any thing and it has nothing to do with honesty. That being said your Answer to my question looks not only bogus but luck honesty because the borders were settled by court after bloody war. What I asked was if you believe weyane will give in to the international court agreement. You see that was my question.

            The term honesty you used was simply a cheap way of saying other things and I choose not to entertain such

          • Nitricc

            Hi Blink, there are few things you need to know. You will get nowhere with those two weyane stooges, namely Thomas and Abraham. They will do anything to defend their master Weyane. just yesterday thomas was all out in defending the dedebit woman but when you cornered him, he asked you to present the proof that you insulted the Ethiopians. then when you pushed further, then he asked you to read your post. I was laughing at Thomas’s dumb responses. What i don’t get is this, it is perfectly fine to oppose the government of Eritrea and its system but why support, embolden and defend the Weyane? I don’t get it. I wonder what the weyane do for those two lost souls. they are here defending TPLF day and night. I don’t think you make any progress with those two. They could have oppose PIA and its system with out trashing the country and the people but hey, they could be paid agents, who knows?

          • blink

            Dear Nitricc
            I was not shocked Thomas raised the insult issue and Abraham the honesty thing , I mean how do they say that ? Except for the known reason of protecting one person who is known a hybrid of compulsive and pathological lair of this forum.

          • Hayat Adem

            Alright blink,
            You are over killing this thing. I don’t think you are serving any purpose other than echoing yourself. Get over it, my friend; tell us something that you haven’t told us and something that worthies our attention. I don’t need anyone to protect me. I am not in a protection territory. If I were, you are not the kind of person I would ever be concerned with.
            You had a thing of honesty with Abraham and handle it separately. If you can’t, just admit and move on. It is like IA would say “it is CIA who had us to go to war against Ethiopia; it is the Langlely that is supplying questions to journalists who interview us..” It seems you are taking it from their book. I mean, is it not enough for you that have learned about our villages names from PFDJ and you thanking them that? You need more lessons from them? gih!

          • blink

            Dear Hayat
            You are feelings it and it hurts deeply that is why you are searching for something that you can feel ok. I have nothing to settle with Abraham , none. You are reduced to unrecognizable thing of the past. If you ever mentioned any number , villages and events pls remember there are people who will verify your claims, so make sure you have good sources. Unless there will never be any manufacturing of villages or numbers.

          • Hayat Adem

            Oh blink,
            I am not searching anything. You have it there and you were being asked about your first question and changing it totally. Then when asked you just said you edited it while removing and replacing it was a different thing. While, I completely understand that it could be within your right to change and replace a question, the answer you give him was what have trapped as a dishonest person. You could say, I changed it because I could. What you said is I edited it to improve. Now i wouldn’t have minded about that as well. But you inserted me in your followup answer as if Abraham is questioning your character in order to help me. Got it?
            I think you have a wrong take in this cheap shots. You think you are hurting me., It tells about your intentions than about its outcome. Me, a thing of the past? And you think you can do that to me? Is that what is running in your head and hope you are doing when you are boring everyone? Look there must be two conditions for that to happen: you must be smarter than me and I must come here for petty reasons. None are the case. I am beyond your reach. And now you are tattering like a broken tape. That is what I think of right now.

          • blink

            Dear Hayat
            if you edited the question or remove it (the question is changed ) , it is up to me to do it or not and as i informed Abrham , he already replied my question , he should have asked for the original question if he is interested .

            Now there is one thing clear with you , you were over confident with your numbers and manufacturing of villages .From psychological stand point , when people lie they became agitated if confronted but what they forget is that , their seconds pride became a poison , Over-Confidence Provides Comfort just for some time until the truth pop up, but It hurts accuracy.You think you are intellectual and over reach yet you lie , How is that possible with out hurting yourself. Sahay and you lied and you did not corrected your mistake but you go on to run with confidence .To excel at any task of telling a story or even in your own life , you need to have an accurate understanding of your your story or skill level if you are thinking other professional life. For example, If you think you’re an excellent singer, but in reality you aren’t, it will be very difficult for you to make any improvements in your singing. So most compulsive liars always think they are untouchable with their twisting of facts of events yet they lose with a single truth.
            Hayat you have a problem of lying especially when it comes to Eritrean revolutions , you change your personalities as it goes. It is a very sad thing to watch some one who is admired by many of her followers yet she got caught lying. The American cyclist is (Armstrong) is ahead of you because he admitted his cheating and lies but most importantly he became familiar with his character and seek help.

          • Hayat Adem

            Well, for sure you are so rude and annoying but i don’t have a problem to engage you that means anything to you. I am seeing through your feeds how boring, dishonest and cheap you can be. But that is up to you. If you want to keep on playing more into that risking every remaining integrity you have, if any, it is your call. be my guest.
            there were two men and were whirling insults at each other. One happened to be one eyed. He was the first to call the two eyed guy, “you blind!”, and then the other guy was quick to respond “you knew it..I was going to say that about you, but you said it for me.”

          • blink

            Dear Hayat
            It is not my problem , because you entered the lie territory with out a return passport , i offered to give you a bail out by saying you are making a mistake but you insisted to die with it. Now no pass for return.
            When speaking at a low level of abstraction, others have a fairly good idea about what is going on.
            By comparison, speaking at a high level abstraction obscures the details. “Exercising” can include many different activities, whereas “running 5 miles” is more descriptive and concrete. SO you have been lying in an abstraction: it is not that i am rude it is simply that your value requires such ,When you started your comments in this forum many people advised you about truth you did not listen but when you lie on a high level abstraction you have no where to go. Even now you can go back to my advice that i listed but yet you are overconfident on your ability to maneuver things, poor hayat it will kill you inside. apart from your joke about the blind , here is a life long advice for your character to return to a normal live Be real. You can not just go on lying and manufacturing things because having such fundamental beliefs challenged, leaves people feeling uncertain and out of control— “How did this happen to me?” am i that cheap , and at what price .

            Not only does uncovering deception shatter your fundamental beliefs, but it also destroys trust with many other friends you have, even though these people like sahay are like you. For example When a spouse or romantic gets caught in a lie, it raises suspicion, which causes people to re-evaluate their partner as well as their relationship (“What else having you been lying about?”). I mean it is every thing. That is why you are sleepless to make sure your lie goes off but i am her to tell you that many people knew you lie and have zero evidence about all these things you said about.
            There will never be an easy run for you if you make lies .

          • Abraham H.

            Selam Blink, Really? the question was there as it is? No, sir; your first question was about Forbes and Ethiopia, then all of a sudden you changed it, actually not edited, but changed the question completely to about the prospect of the Weyane leaving Badme after DIA. I was kind of surprised to see the change later on, and that is why I reacted the way I did. I think it was much easier for you to ask me your second question in a new post, instead of completely changing your original question.
            Anyway, I tried my best to answer your second question, a hypothetical one, because we never know even whether DIA would outlive the Weyane or the reverse, or whether they will settle the issue before anyone of them is gone. In any case there is no option but to settle the border dispute peacefully based on the EEBC decision, and the two sides have to co-operate with each other and with the body ultimately responsible for the demarcation for its smooth implementation.

          • blink

            Dear Abrham
            I think you forget that you replied to my question , here it is, if you can not scroll down , you said the following :

            “Abraham H. blink • 2 days ago
            Selam Blink, I’m not in the business of comparing and contrasting my country Eritrea with Ethiopia. I’m first and foremost concerned with the dignity and tranquility of my Eritrean people.”

            You see it is easy and i tend to not go out of my way. You gave hayat the benefit of a baby cry for milk. she tough i manufactured things like her dream village and numbers .

        • Hayat Adem

          Okay K Snake,
          First you said “rapid increase”; now you are saying “healthy growth”.
          Rapid is when the population doubles itself in 25 to 30 years. Healthy is when a good balance is maintained between gender and the age groups, social balance is maintained among the different ethnic groups and the growth rate is harmonized with the availability of resources and services.
          Now stay put and let’s finish this discussion that you started. Based on that polio data of under 5, and using the extrapolation you were referring to, tell us where the population size stands today and let us know how rapid and how healthy the growth rate is.

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Hayat Adem: A real time population estimate of Eritrea today would be 5,455,135. Eritrea’s population growth rate for 2017 is estimated at around 2.17% meaning that it should add around 120,000 people by end of year. To note that ‘rapid’ and ‘healthy’ growth are of course contextually defined.

          • Hayat Adem

            Hi K. Snake,
            2.17 is not rapid and you have shown nothing to buck up the healthy aspect. And there is nothing to contextualize around and about the concepts of “rapid” or “healthy” when it comes to their demographic essence. They are applied as standardized indications of trend, in other words, they are not country or situation specific.
            Let’s move to your other point regarding your figure of 5.5m population size of Eritrea. I’ve sen such number in different online presentations. I personally am at loss which figures to believe. There are censuses conducted since 1991, only inferences.
            One top official from the Eritrean regime told Gebru Asrat in 1996 that Eritrean population was 2.7 million then. For a population to double itself in 20 years, it has to grow over 3%. That cannot be the case here in Eritrea. Almost no country’s population has ever reproduced itself that fast. Also, as recently as a year or so ago, another top PFDJ official, also known as Yemane Monkey, told the world Eritrea’s population is less than 4 million. So, do you outright reject Yeman’s report? Do you think he is not informed enough about the basics of Eritrea’s demographic rudimentary?

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Hayet Adem: In developing countries anything above 2% in generally considered as rapid whereas in developed countries the percentage is much lower. One can criticize the PIA/PFDJ regime on many counts, but public health is not one of them and Eritrea’s population is generally healthy. I will not comment on population figures of the past reported through hearsay. Now go back and chew your Khat.

          • Hayat Adem

            Hi K. Snake,
            There are few funny things you said here.
            1) What Yemane monkey said is counted as a hearsay
            2) You understand healthy population growth to mean public health
            3) That population trends are defined differently for the developed and the developing
            What is PFDJ reduced to? It used to rally sophisticated elites behind it when it was EPLF. Now it is being supported mainly by the ghetto boys like Nitricc and clueless people like yourself who ignorantly venture in to areas of discussion that warrant some level of understanding with a mekHete mood!
            And what is it you have with this thing called khat for you to have been repeating it incessantly? Any wistful affection that you have been unable to shake it off?

          • Kalihari Snake

            Hi Hayat Adem: It is obvious that you are having difficulty in understanding words when used in different contexts. Please feel free to use ‘rapid’ and ‘healthy’ is whatever way pleases you cuz I really don’t care. Now go run and chew some more Khat.

      • Kalihari Snake

        Hi Hayat Adem: A half a million Ethiopians now in Saudi Arabia, mostly women, many now with half cast Arab children, face deportation. If things were so great in your ‘rose garden’ Ethiopia, why then did they all go to Saudi Arabia in the first place?

        • KBT

          Selam Kalahari
          Hayat is a desperate mouthwash of the criminal tplf regime she and other are allow in this forum to vilifie eritrea and our people ,justifies our suffering and denigrate our mighty and dignified fighters in this forum who claim fighting for the cause of eritrea it’s a great shame.
          The good think is soon the criminal tplf regime will be removed for ever. Awate ne hafash

  • MS

    Dear Gedab News
    You are right in trying to bring Massawa to the spotlight. I am sure it will be next, and I’m sure it is in the pipeline. You are wrong when you reproduce your report on Massawa, 14 years old, to counterbalance Asmara’s induction to UNESCO world heritage club. The experts disagree with you that that era’s architectural designs belong to Mussolini. They say, and I agree, that those cultural heritages belong to humanity. If you to contend that Asmara art decor belongs to Italy, one may counter argue that Massawa’s art decor also belongs to the Turkish and Islamic arts one that era. What is missing is that culture, arts and architectural expressions cross political boundaries. Cultures borrow, copy, assimilate..from each other. And for that, we feel connected to each other. I think you have made a tremendous blunder. God Bless you.

    • Dear Mahmuday,

      As you know, besides gathering dust, archives are references that are brought up to give depth/background to a subject.

      You started by “You are right in trying to bring Massawa to the spotlight.” and ended your comment with “I think you have made a tremendous blunder.”

      You also wrote: “You are wrong when you reproduce your report on Massawa, 14 years old, to counterbalance Asmara’s induction to UNESCO world heritage club.”

      Nothing was reproduced. You can speculate but it was brought up to offer a background for a meaningful debate. It was written 14 years before UNESCO made its decision. It’s fine if you do not think it is relevant, you just can’t call it “blunder”.

      “the experts disagree with you….”

      If it helps, please remember that the investigative report was done by “experts”, stock-holding, qualified experts.

      The “art deco” sales pitch is based on what was built during the rule of Mussolini. Are you contending that? Do the experts also contend this? There is nothing to agree or disagree on that fact!

      Was there a need for “Turkish and Islamic arts of that era”? Would you call the art deco “Italian Christian art”?

      In case you do not know, many ancient buildings in Massawa (never heard anyone refer to them as art deco, except you) were owned by indigenous people, unlike the so-called “art deco” buildings.

      Finally, you wrote, ” I am sure it will be next, and I’m sure it is in the pipeline.” How sure Mahmoud?

      Dear Mahmoud, UNESCO is not the ultimate thing if only people would own their properties, maintain them and trade them freely. UNESCO is not the ultimate thing if communities of free citizens can manage their public and social buildings under an elected, representative government. It’s difficult to understand why the archive article irritated you!

      • MS

        Selam AWate
        Thanks for the reply. I can only speak up my mind, and I think juxtaposing Massawa’s 14 years old investigative report with Asmara’s yesterday inscription in UNESCO world heritage in the spirit your introductory remarks painted, was not right. If the intention was to the effect of “We welcome Asmara’s inscription in UNESCO world heritage, but here is also a forgotten story that needs immediate attention….”, I would not criticize your reposting of the article.
        Speaking of art deco, it was an artistic and architectural renaissance, it was a fashion of that era, Mussolini did not create it. It was not limited to Italy. Mussolini happened to come to power when that movement picked steam. I don’t need to remind you that arts and artistic expressions, literature, architectural designs, and decorations come and go in waves, just like the fashions that hit the market periodically. It may originate in Europe and travel eastward, or vice versa. The Islamic decorations blended Roman, Greek, and indigenous artistic features. That’s why I concluded my comment by summing it up that cultures give and take, and if let alone, they do so peacefully and without the intent to be prejudicious or subjugating. Massawa inhabitants don’t call it art deco, but they express it in their own tongue. The typical Asmara dwellers are proud by the beauty of their city, I heard them saying “Asmara beautiful/Asmara xbeqti”, only the very few who care about architecture and arts may refer to it as art deco. Similarly, Massawa has been sung and been called the pearl of the Red Sea. The very few may care about the fine details of architectural designs and decorations.
        My comment may have been edgy, please forgive me, I will mail a file to smooth out the rough edges. Ustaz Ahmed Rajji articulated the gist of my thoughts, and for that I thank him.

        • Saleh Johar

          Ahlan Mahmoud,
          Our in house diplomat did articulate it nicely–yours was a sorry of militant:-)

          They say, if you do not find a book you like, write it. What was not written 14 years ago, you could have said it in plain non-confrontational and non condescending way.

          Talking about myself, I had a problem with the way the group was formed, and except Emma who stayed true to his principle on diversity, no one wants to raise the real issue but trivial matters. There was no comparison between Asmara and massawa but some preferred to read it that way. Honestly, I really do not care for anything that happens I. Eritrea if it doesn’t help removing injustice and if the regime exploits it to buttress its power grip. But that’s me and will notchastize anyone fornot sharing my feeling. We all have our own weight scales and we should learn to live with them.

          Thanks for realizing we sometimes need to file our comments to make them smooth. That is brilliant.

  • Robel Cali

    HI all,

    The irony is Massawa is the city in Eritrea most likely to make the UNESCO list, ahead of Keren, Adulis and other places.

    All of Asmara is a UNESCO world heritege site ( a rare event for an entire city to be one). Let’s see if Eritrea can repeat that with Massawa.

  • KBT

    Selamat kulukhum.
    It’s sad that some believe there is inequality among eritrean faith, distortion ,misrepresentation, dishonest, lie this is the only contribution you have, it is very good that people like stay out of the country.

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selam All,

    “Scholarship Compromised by Politics and Lack of Diversity” does really strikes to the core problem of the regime. It somehow reminds me the report of Ahmed Raji that disclosed the lack of diversity in all civil service employments and in the ranks of the Eritrean defense forces. Does these really reflect the unity of our social groups?

  • Abrehet Yosief

    Selam Gedab News,
    While this is a very important topic to discuss, I cannot help but fill chills when I think what Isayas will do the more we talk about buildings and heritage. He has emptied the city of Massawa which now resembles a ghost town. Who knows what he might do the more people talk about these buildings. Sigh.

    • KBT

      Selamat abrehet
      Please sister why you don’t shut your mouth for once ,Asmara is not empty, massawa is not empty, eritrea is not empty, you are empty of hope, Bado Bado

      • Abrehet Yosief

        Selam KBT,
        Really? ብኽሳዳ ደጊፎም እንተ ኣላሃይዋ ዘላ መሲሉዋ። Anyone who has hope doesn’t call others “Bado Bado”.

        • KBT

          Selam abrehet
          Well I am wrong to call you hopeless, you are malevolent, from tigray you
          Can wish it’s empty so your fellow can loot as you guys are well known for that we’ll invite you to come and see for yourself, you the risk right.

    • Robel Cali

      Hi Abrehet,

      Massawa is a small town, not a major city. Why do non-Eritreans think a city divided by three different locations and unberable heat can house huge population? Massawa’s population has grown from 25,000 to 40,000. Most people do not come out in the day time in Massawa (sorta like phoenix, Arizona in the summer time). So again, non-Eritreans who never been to Massawa, Massawa is not a big city. It’s a small town with a population that varries depending on the season due to the unberable heat.

      • Abrehet Yosief

        Dear Robel Cali,
        For those who know Massawa as tourists that is how it would look like. A place whose population varies depending on the season. Alas, you don’t know Massawa. The inner cities, Edaga, Twalat whose population sits outside in the evening and socializes together. Those are no longer there (or very few are left). Once the diaspora tourists leave, there are a few bars that stay open hosting the young agelglot who finish their drinking with the most horrendous fights. And the article is in fact referring to that small historic part of the town built during the ottoman times. And I see that you stated that it is most likely to get on the in the UNESCO list next. Glad to hear that and I wish you all the best in that work.