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Get Prepared Before The Flood Arrives

In the Senhit region, all the way to the West, there are rock mounds, there are ancient conical tukul-shaped pyramids covered in fist size stones scattered in many places. They are covered in black stones, rarely with white. I discovered they were graves of notable warriors or clan leaders. The locals told me the colors of the stones depend on the revenge status of the buried person—they cover the graves with white stones if the death of the person is avenged (blood cooled), and with  black if it is not avenged. In the old times they used to insult clan members whose ancestors’ tombs were covered in black: “go whiten your ancestor’s grave before you talk to me.” Pride!

Once asked a man if he can identify his ancestors’ grave and whether it is covered with white or black stone. In surprise he replied, “these are ancient traditions, no one knows who is buried in the grave … it’s folklore.” Well, the supremacists of today despise anyone who doesn’t know his abowatun emewatun (male and female ancestors) as if they know theirs. Blood feuds are the cause of many conflicts and then clan members will not rest until they take revenge (it doesn’t matter if one’s relative was the victim of the aggressor).

Most of the time the relatives of a murdered person would seek revenge by killing any of the killer’s relatives–the closer the relative the better. It’s pride. However, in time the society developed a mechanism to resolve such problems in village councils where blood feud is  traditionally resolved by a payment of retribution money or by offering a girl to marry into the family of the killed person–thus, a poor girl given away even against her will. If the marriage produces a child soon, the blood of the two parties is intermingled and cements the reconciliation.

In the Bedouin culture around Jordan, male members kill their own relatives, even their own children though they rarely kill their males. If a girl is caught in what’s considered an immoral act by the society, like dating a stranger–a man who is not legally married to her–she has brough shame to her family and any family that has pride must kill the girl and restore the honor of family. Though the tradition of honor-killing is as prevalent as it used to be, it is engrained in the psyche of the people to the extent that governments fail to punish the perpetrators. That tradition of blood feud is still alive in places like the “European Albania.” Watch a video of a young  boy who stayed locked in his house for seven-years because people were waiting to find and kill him as a revenge for the killing one of theirs.

Albania was an isolated communist country and its leader Envar Hoxha [enver hoja, 1944-1985)  left behind a closed militarized country. It’s only in the early 1990s it become a relatively normal country after many years of totalitarian rule. And though Albania is just a fourth the size of Eritrea, (about 11000 sq miles) the communist government invested heavily in building 173,000 bunkers all over the country to deter real and perceived enemies. Since then, Albanians have transformed the useless bunkers that they now use as  living or business spaces and entertainment.

Abyssinian Vendetta

The feud in Abyssinia has developed “beyond life for a life,” into group vendetta. They have been doing it to each other for over 800 years—throughout the rule of the so-called Solomonic kings. They vilify enemies by insulted them repeatedly and depict the targeted people as monsters to create a negative perception of the other, condition and agitate the common people. Once the ethnic gaps widen, the waiting extremists take revenge. Ask anyone why they hate the other and you are in for a long soliloquy of real and perceived grievances, sometimes centuries old, wrong perceptions imprinted in the mind in bedtime stories, spiced up with biblical quotes, superstitions, bigotry, hypocrisy and the usual thirst for  blood.

Some people hold centuries-old grudges and believe it is their responsibility to avenge their imagined ancestors’ grievances. Such thinking is irrational because as a backward society, neither the Abyssinians or the others have a tradition of keeping family records—which even if they had, it should be used as a historical material and not as a cause for civil strife. How could someone  depend on selecte-hearsay? It’s likely that the ancestors of someone who believes his ancestors are the victims could have committed the crimes. However, many boast of their claimed family linage, and confidently count to seven ancestors (just repeating names) with no mention of their ancestor’s race, tribe, birthplace or anything else except word of mouth laced with superstitions mythologies. Worse, pseudo scholars perpetuate such ignorance. It’s interesting to see them run a DNA test that would really confuse many of them when they discover their genes are far removed from their perceived ancestry or race.

Grave of Black and White stones

Going back to the vengeance, just like the physical white and black stone covered graves in Senhit, the Abyssinians have such imaginary graves in their minds. And that is why they continuously seek to avenge an imaginary ancestor they whimsically picture in their mind. Meanwhile, others who went through such fresh-in-the-mind atrocities that they vividly remember, do not make such noise or scream of vengeance.

This is the 21st century and Such claims are futile—everyone is just an individual life and can only prove what they are, here and now. No one can be a victim retroactively by simply claiming selected ancestry they can’t prove. Even if they can, there are modern laws that all civilized societies should follow and that must be the arbitrator. Worse, some people think God has sanctioned their ugly actions—too bad God will not come on social media to declare He has nothing to do with their brutal deeds.

International Criminal Court

Initially, perpetrators of atrocities and cruelties have a long leash; gradually they begin to believe they will never be accountable. But metaphorically speaking, images of the black stone covered graves are imprinted in the minds of the victims who aspire to change it with white stones through a civilized, legal, and reconciliatory process. It’s only that the leaders of the East African region prevent the establishment of a genuine rule of law and justice to protect themselves from accountability. It’s time the International Criminal Court acted to stop the perpetrators of the crimes who must face the ICC tribunal.

The leaders of the genocide committed in old Yugoslavia faced the same ICC for the crimes they committed in places like Srebrenica. The Radovan Karadzic (serving 40 years prison) and Slobodan Milosevic who died in 2006 while in trial–the first ever sitting president charged with war crimes, and others who exterminated communities as if they were an ant colony. Finally, they were held accountable though it was too late for the victims. But it is the only proper way to remedy to rehabilitate wounded societies.

The long arm of international law must visit the blood-soaked Horn of Africa and a serious work is needed to make that a reality.

Snack (Kefo Hllekum—Kef Haalkum)

I have been learning Musned whenever I had the time  memorized the alphabets,  I am also typing it on my computer thanks to the free fonts that I downloaded. Now you can also download it from this link if you wish. Alternately, you can just search “upload Musned fonts.” But remember, the lots who ignore science and technology and cling to superstitions and empty bravado, the “we are the children of Solomon lots “didn’t develop it. A  little humility is badly  needed.

I am also presenting to you a Yemeni language that is an offshoot the Sabic language. I found striking similarities between it and the Eritrean Tigrayit  language which is much closer to Geez. So, here is today’s “Moqwaseyi” (snack), the Sabaic Musned fonts–note Musned, Arabic, and Sened, Geez are similar (root word is Sened–document). And he is what it looks on the computer:

msnd az ab Hws dst Arb zlw kaltat zmAblw ny Tnt nY sbwyn msnd zbhl ay::

Note: originally it had no vowels and was written from right to left, Geez is credited for expanding the alphabets into seven parts and adding the vowels to it.

Learning requires peeling off prejudice from the mind and considering yourself a student, not an expert when you are not. Learning requires sharing knowledge and helping others. There are many subjects that people can learn on their own; knowledge is no more monopolized and if one tries, it is all out there, for free. What is needed is training on the methodologies and other technical aspects of learning. I strongly believe that ignorance is our main enemy and that is why I will keep providing those who want to learn more with information. No one can teach us anything unless we are willing and ready to learn. That way we can help in protect our own mind and that of the others from being poisoned.

Is that a Deluge?

A flood is building in the Horn of Africa and we should expect serious political changes– we better be prepared and not caught unprepared. If not, others will impose their solution in the Horn of. Africa and it might not be what the stakeholders wish for. In the upcoming episodes of Negarit I will tell you the information I have and my personal views on how to prepare and deal with it. Eritrea has not been in such a risky turn as it is now. It is on the agenda of the countries that surround it in three rings: 1) immediate neighbors, 2) the larger region, and 3) the rest of the vested world countries.

Until then, as usual, stay steadfast, alert, open-minded, Eritrea focused and importantly, positive minded. I have no doubt Eritreans will overcome any trouble thrown at them though the cost is becaming unbearable. This time, the risk of the floods is unlike the past.

I can’t say more about that at this moment, but I will in the coming few episodes.

About Saleh "Gadi" Johar

Born and raised in Keren, Eritrea, now a US citizen residing in California, Mr. Saleh “Gadi” Johar is founder and publisher of awate.com. Author of Miriam was Here, Of Kings and Bandits, and Simply Echoes. Saleh is acclaimed for his wealth of experience and knowledge in the history and politics of the Horn of Africa. A prominent public speaker and a researcher specializing on the Horn of Africa, he has given many distinguished lectures and participated in numerous seminars and conferences around the world. Activism Awate.com was founded by Saleh “Gadi” Johar and is administered by the Awate Team and a group of volunteers who serve as the website’s advisory committee. The mission of awate.com is to provide Eritreans and friends of Eritrea with information that is hidden by the Eritrean regime and its surrogates; to provide a platform for information dissemination and opinion sharing; to inspire Eritreans, to embolden them into taking action, and finally, to lay the groundwork for reconciliation whose pillars are the truth. Miriam Was Here This book that was launched on August 16, 2013, is based on true stories; in writing it, Saleh has interviewed dozens of victims and eye-witnesses of Human trafficking, Eritrea, human rights, forced labor.and researched hundreds of pages of materials. The novel describes the ordeal of a nation, its youth, women and parents. It focuses on violation of human rights of the citizens and a country whose youth have become victims of slave labor, human trafficking, hostage taking, and human organ harvesting--all a result of bad governance. The main character of the story is Miriam, a young Eritrean woman; her father Zerom Bahta Hadgembes, a veteran of the struggle who resides in America and her childhood friend Senay who wanted to marry her but ended up being conscripted. Kings and Bandits Saleh “Gadi” Johar tells a powerful story that is never told: that many "child warriors" to whom we are asked to offer sympathies befitting helpless victims and hostages are actually premature adults who have made a conscious decision to stand up against brutality and oppression, and actually deserve our admiration. And that many of those whom we instinctively feel sympathetic towards, like the Ethiopian king Emperor Haile Sellassie, were actually world-class tyrants whose transgressions would normally be cases in the World Court. Simply Echoes A collection of romantic, political observations and travel poems; a reflection of the euphoric years that followed Eritrean Independence in 1991.

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  • Haile S.

    Selam Saleh and Awate People,

    Leaving aside our delicacies, i.e history and story-telling into which I reflexively bite, one of the serious core messages you brought need to be highlighted:

    You said ” Some people hold centuries-old grudges and believe it is their responsibility to avenge their imagined ancestors’ grievances ”

    You said it succinctly and beautifully. As you well know, we are confronted with much serious non-fictional Avengers or Superheroes popping through the free media everywhere in our society feeling like they found an enlightenment or revelation overnight.
    Here is a poem in refering to such acts entitled:

    Vengeance, ሕነ – መሳርይኡ? ጸለመ ጠቐነ

    ጠቐነ’ያ፡ ጠቐነ፡ ጠቐነ
    ሰብ ዘጸልም ካይመዘነ
    ኣፉ ዝኸፍት ካየመዛዘነ
    ፎእ፡ በካሊ! ሓሳዊ ዓጢነ!
    ልኻይ ዘየውጽእ እንተተሓቖነ

    ዝመስሎ ጀግና ፈዳይ ሕነ
    እንድዒ ናይ መኣስ ዘመነ
    መን ፈሊጥዎ ነገሩ ከምዝኾነ
    ካብ ፍልጠት ኣይኮነ ወይ ካብ ስነ
    በዚ መጸ ዘይብሃል ዝተጎልበበ ጭካነ

    ሰብ ዝኸስስ ዝውንጅል ካይተማሕጸነ
    ወግሐ ጸብሐ ምስ ተበኣሰ ምስ ተቓረነ

    ኩሉ ጊዜ ምስ ኣጋነነ
    ዝፍለጥ ብምባል ኣነ ኣነ ኣነ
    በሃል፡ ብዘይካይ፡ ኩሉ ዝማእመነ
    ጽሩይ መሳሊ፡ ውሽጡ ዝመንመነ

    ሓሓሶቱ መሪጹ ዝኸዘነ
    ከክፍኡ ኣርዩ ወሳሲኹ ዝኸሸነ
    ንጽባሕ ክጥቀመሉ ክፋእ ዝደጎለ ዝኸደነ
    ቀተለ ‘ተዘይኮይኑ ዘይመርጽ ኣድሓነ
    ብዘይካ ንነበልባል ንኻልእ ዘይምነ

    እንታይ መዓቱ ‘ዚ ኹሉ ፈተነ
    ጉድኣቱ ትፈልጦ ኣባኻ ምስ ሃቀነ
    ኣህዛብን ሃገርን ከፍርስ ምስ ፈተነ
    ቤተ ሰብ፡ ኣዕሩኽ፡ ፍቑራት ምስ በታተነ

    መድሃኒቱ ምፍላጡ ዝሰብኮ ሃይማኖቱ
    ኣጠማምትኡ ኣዘራርብኡ ጽሕፈቱ
    ዘይምትላል ብምእራጉ ወይ ብንእስነቱ
    ዘይምምጽዳቕ ብመስቀሉ ብማዕተቡ ብኣጉል ፍልጠቱ

    • Saleh Johar

      Hi HaileS,
      I believe the moment we realize that specific structural problem of our culture, most of the chaos will be solved.

      Thank you for you awareness about that.

  • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

    ሰላማት! ካብ ምዕራብ ኣመሪካ

    ሰላም ዶ ዕግርግር
    ይኸብር?

    ክትዕቅቦ
    ክትክብክቦ
    ከተጠጥዖ

    ሰላም ካብ ፍራንስየም ይኸብር
    ሰላም ካብ ታንግስተን ይተርር
    ሰላም ካብ ማንጉስ ይምቅር
    ድሙቕ መጻኢ ሂወት ይሕብር
    መርገም ‘ዩ ኣብ ዕግርግር ዝነብር

    ናይ ሰላም ቅልጣፈ
    ከም ብርሃን ይሕንፈፍ
    ኣብ ምድሪ ይውንጨፍ
    ኣብ ባሕሪ የንሳፍፍ
    ሂወት ዕግርግር ፋራ
    ሂወት ሰላም ግን ሓሪፍ

    ሰላም
    መንፈስ ፍጡራት የቕስን
    ምሕዝነት የሰስን
    ኣብ ዕግርግር ዝነብር ግን
    የሕዝን

    ዋጋ ዕግርግር ዕንወት
    ዋጋ ሰላም ግን ሕውየት
    ሽሻይ በረኸት
    ናይ ርጉእ ናብራ መሰረት
    ካብ ዕግርግር የድሕነና

  • said

    Greetings,
    Interesting article reported in NY Times of today :In Sudan Border Town, Desperate Ethiopians Find ‘Second Mother Country ’ Tens of thousands of Christian refugees, fleeing the violence in the Tigray region of Ethiopia, have been given a warm welcome by the residents of a sleepy Sudanese town : Hamdayet “We are brothers.”
    Mr. Laul, 48, said “The Sudanese gave us an excellent welcome,” “Sudan is like our second mom nation. They’ve finished every little thing they will.” please see the link
    In Sudan Border Town, Desperate Ethiopians Find ‘Second Mother Country’ – Godfrey Times

    • said
    • Reclaim Abyssinia

      Selamate Awate Community,

      It is an interesting article, but the fact is a bit shocking to learn that the people who fled their country and the home had to travel further because no one wants them in their nearest neighbour.
      This is the shocking truth ….. “We knew we would be welcomed here,”

      Here’s some Getem from me, hopefully, my Tigriga getem make sense. Please feel free to edit it if you want to improve it.

      ዐድና ጥቃ ገምገም ባህሪ
      ኮሚሻታቶ ኔራ መንበሪ
      ስራህና ተሳጊርካ ባሕሪ
      በልጺግና ብናይ ወጻኢ መምኸሪ
      ሓሪፍና ክይንቃለስ ብበትሪ
      ክተት ኢልና ክንቃለስ ብብዕሪ

      ጎራብትና ክሞቱ ብጥምየት ብበትሪ
      ናUN ሕጊ ሂቡና ዓዲ ብቀትሪ
      አጽቂጥና ከይነስግሮም ናብናትና ምድሪ

      ከይትድምሮና ምስትዮም ማዕከልቲ
      ንሕና ፈቂድናለና ክትመጽኡ ናብናትና ገዛውቲ

      Cheers,
      Reclaim

  • Haile S.

    ሰላም ሰብ ዓወተ

    ጻውዒት ንርእሰ-ክርፍስ

    ሰሪሩና ዘሎ ካይተወገደ
    ንኸይንደማመጽ ኮታ፡ ሓመድ ዕደ
    ሰይጣን ኣይኮነ መልኣኽ፡ ኣይኮነን ካብ 2ኦም ሓደ

    ንዑ በጃኹም ይውጽኣልና
    ንደገ ንበሎ፡ ይኺድ ካብ ከብድና
    ነጉርዕ ንቐንጥጦ ጨምዲዱ ዝሓዘ ቆርበትና

    ዛዕጎል ደርበይቲ፡ ጠንቆልቲ፡ ገይሩ ዘትረፈና
    እንትርፊ ሕማቕ፡ ጽቡቕ ዘየርኢ ኣብ ህዝብና
    የማን ጸጋም ወረ ወዲ-ወረ፡ ኣዚሩዎ ሓንጎልና

    ቦታ ሂብናዮ ዝሰረተ ኣባና፡ ከማና ዝጸለመ፡ ዝሓጸረ፡ ዝነውሐ
    ሰላም ኣይህበናን ካይወጸ ካይተቦንቆረ ካይተምሐ
    ቦሎቕ ቦሎቕ ዝብለና ደጋጊሙ ወግሐ-ጸብሐ
    ሕምብርቲ ዘጠምት ጅማውቲ ኣሲሩ ዘይፈትሐ
    የማን ጸጋም ካይንጥምተሉ ክሳድ ዘኸውሐ
    ኣብ ውሽጥና ሓዲሩ ዘስፋሕፍሐ
    ቅድሚት ካይንስጉም እግሪ ዘኸርፍሐ

    ንሱ ዶ ይኸውን እዚ ተሓዝ ቆለ ንሱ?
    ጥራይ እንተዝኸ’ውን! ቀሊል ነበረ ፈውሱ
    መሪጽካ ብሓንቲ ጸላም-ደርሆ ምድንዛዝ መንፈሱ
    ግዲ የብልኩምን ሰብና ዘሕደሮ ኣለዎ መርዘን ነናይ ርእሱ

    ዓበይቲ ደቀቕቲ ተሃዋስያን ዘይብሉ መለዓሊ
    ካብ መርዚ ዝተቓመመ፡ ዘይኮነ ካብ ቆጽለ-መጽሊ
    Metabolic? No, ክትንክፍ ኣይክእልን ኩሉ ህዝብና ክፍሊ
    Genetic ዘይኮነ፡ ጸላእቲናን ሃገርናን ዝበልዎ፡ ካብ ሱርና በካሊ

    ካይከውን – እዚ መታለሊ

    ሓንጎፋይ ኢልካ እተሕድሮ ኣብ ውሽጥኻ፡ ኣጉል መዕንገሊ
    ሃየ ዘየብል፡ ሰባኺ ጥራይ ዝገብር፡ ኢ-መስተውዓሊ
    ጻዕዳን ጸሊምን ጥራይ ዘርኢ ክልተ ዝሕብሩ ስኣሊ
    ናህካ ገዲፍካ ንኻልእ መሕሰቢ ኣኾብላሊ
    ብህይወት ንዘሎ ኣግዲፉ ዝተምኒ ንዝሞተ ጠሊ

    • Hashela

      ሞኾስተር

      ሞኾስተር ሒዞም፣ ፈከሩ ከባራሩና
      ማይ ከይነስነሱ ኮስቲሮም ፈጠሩ ዶሮና
      ንግዚኡ ኣንሳሒብና
      ዛሕሊ ኣትዪዋ ገዝኦም ገሃና
      ግርም እንቛዕ ተመለስና
      ምቖትን ዕምቀት ድመልኦ ትንታነን ሒዝና

      • Haile S.

        ሰላም ሓሸላ፡

        ትማሊ ናብ ሳልሕ ዝጨሓገርኩዎ ኣንቢብካ’ዶ
        ካብ ሓሸላ ናብ ገለብ ክንደይ ይውድእ ክትከዶ?

        ኣብ ወረቐት’ሲ ይመስል ተርክበሉ ሸንካ
        እሓስብ ነይረ ብዛዕባ ተፈጥራዊ ሓወልቲ ክሓተካ
        ዝስማ ጓል-ሃጸይ/ንጉስ ብወረ ወረ ገለ እንተሰማዕካ
        በል ኣካፍለና ብዛዕባ እቲ ከባቢ ፍልጠት ዘሎካ

        ንስኻ’ውን እንቋዕ ብደሓን ተመለስካ

        • Saleh Johar

          HaileS,
          ኣነ ውን ሃጺጸ ንራ ብሓሸላ ሓቲተዯ:: ሽማ ጥራሕ’ዩ ዝፈልጣ ይመስለኒ:-)
          ካብ ሓሸላ ንገለብ 70 ኪሎመተር ኣቢሉ እዩ:: መገዲ መዓልቲ ንምኩ መራሻይ ደብረሲና ኣቢልካ:: ቀረባ ኣይኮነን:: ብኣጀርበብ ኣቢልካ ውን ደሓን መገዲ’ሎ

          • Hashela

            Selam Saleh

            I know the area very well. My aunt is married to a ብሌናይ!

          • Haile S.

            ሰላም ሳልሕን ሓሸላን፡

            ጥቓ ገለብ ዝብል ሓበሬታ ኣብ ጽሑፍ De Rivoyre ዘይኮነ ኣብ ናይ ጣልያን ዝጸሓፍዎ እየ ርእየዮ። እቲ ጸሓፊ መን ምዃኑ ክዝክሮ ኣይከኣልኩን። ግና ኣበይ ቦታ ከም ምዃኑ ኣጆኹም ክንበጽሖ ኢና።

          • Hashela

            ሃይለ

            ዓድና ምስተመለስና፣ ከባቢና ጽቡቕ ጌይረ ከላልየካ’የ። ንሳልሕ ካኣ ምሳና ክንልክሞ’ና። ከም ጻጸ ሓንቲ ምገዲ ጥራሕ’ዩ ዝፈለጥ መስለኒ 🙂

  • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

    ሰላማት

    ሕኒኡ ዘይፈዲ
    ወዲ ኣድጊ

    ብጸሊም እምኒ ይጽቀጥ
    ብሰንኪ ቤተሱቡ ሕምቀት

    ሕኒኡ ዝተፈድየ
    ጻዕዳ እምኒ
    ኣብ ርእሲኡ ተራእየ

    ጸጽብቑ ንጻዕዳ
    ጸሊም ኣፍሪቃዊ
    ተረካቢ ዕዳ
    ሓንጎልካ መሪታ!
    ምሕጻብ ከድልያ ‘ዩ
    ብባራኪና

    ንሱ’ውን ጻእዳ ጥራይ ከይከውን

  • Haile S.

    Selam Saleh,

    You are a great story teller. I enjoy reading you. Here are my three additional snacks (ጠዓሞት) on vengeance.

    1- De Rivoyre, a french who extensively travelled in the 1850s in Bogos & Mensae regions talks of so many things, among which is the black and white burial grounds you well recounted. On the vendettas that prevailed there, one story he heard standed in his mind: Two close friends went hunting wild boars. When they found one, one of the friends throws his spear. But, unfortunately, the other friend was running too close to the animal and was hit by the spear before it reached the animal. Although mortaly hurt, the dying was able to tell people that it was his fault, a pure accident and not a deliberate act of his friend. Despite this, moments after the burial the deceased family started claiming vengeance and were adamant for any peaceful resolution (ጋር ነብሲ). The refusal and the war of vengeances that followed resulted in the death of 11 people. So I presume 10 of the 11 are white. The remaining one black.

    The ending of blood feud through arranged marriage is called ጋርን ጓልን. Coming to current event, in the new initiative for the formation of a government in Exile (GIE) one way to appease the tension between the followers of the two movements is to apply ጋርን ጓልን. ELFers need to give their daughters or granddaughters to EPLFer sons or grandons, just an idea!

    2 – I had a relative living in Humera in the early 70s (Begemder/Gonder province then) who told us this: If a male Wolkeit arriving home learns a family member was murdered, he just mourns outside in the yard pronouncing the word of grief few times, doesn’t go inside his home, asked his wife or mother to give him whatever instrument (spear or others) he has and doesn’t return before venging the deceased. This need to be confirmed by Admassie (I hope you are well and wish you all the best).

    3- I overheard this from my mother talking with relatives when I was little. A respectable man in her village (woreda Segeneiti) was looking for a convinient time to venge the murder of his brother. One day while riding his mule he met the killer coming loaded from the market. The vengeful descended from his mule announced to the killer he was spearing him for killing his brother; and he did. As a sign of a kill for vengeance, he made cuts between the fingers of one of the hands of the dead man. Now, I am not sure if leaving a physical sign of vengeance (cuts between fingers) on the killed body is the usual practice and/or it was done to signify that his brother was killed by the hands of that man.

    Finally Saleh, can you say something about ወለት-ሃጸይ? ጓል ሃጸይ (the king’s daughter) a big natural-stone statue** near Gheleb of this beautiful lady (apparently from the Zague dynasty) that the french de Rivoyre talks extensively about in his book. I want to hear it from you our indigenous historian, instead of me trying to translate the long story. He wrote everything his talkative😁 story teller Mensae guides and companions were telling him.

    ** one italian writer also talks about it with some indications. I try to find it on google earth and had the impression of seeing mass of stone near a river bed east of Gheleb. Please give directions.

    P.S. I couldn’t find a good english equivalent of መቋሰዪ. The closest I found is trimmings.

    • Saleh Johar

      HaileS,
      ትሕሽዎ ዳኣ!
      Honestly I never heard of Rivoyre, very interesting. Roaming in the region, my best friends were the elders who gave me insights about the folklore and other lived history. I am grateful to all of them.

      Out cultural poverty is made worse because we never had a chance to translate many stories about Eritrea and it’s people. When I read stories I didn’t know about, I wonder why it’s not common knowledge! Translations are important. Pls share links if you find rare materials. But the stories I know seem to be the same with what Rivoyre wrote. But I have boring details that I cannot present in the limited time of my episodes. I with we were at home discussing this in literary saloons and clubs.

      I have been in Gheleb but my knowledge about Gaul taxied is limited. Now you aroused my curiosity. But I do blame myself for not taking advantage of my connection to the Kentibay Aftai family. I know the whole family and was very close to martyred Ibrahim we’d kentebay. Sometimes we take our relations for granted. I feel sorry for not using it properly. I will definitely look into the story of gual atzie

      Thank you Haile

      • Haile S.

        Selam Saleh,
        I will come later with reference and talk a little about Denis De Rivoyre and his interests in the region.

        Where is GheTeb, he sounds from Gheleb. And Hope? They should know about ጓል ሃጸይ or ጓል ንጉስ. If there is ጓል ንጉስ in the area, then any relation to ሽማ ንጉስ ላዕላይ and ሽማ ንጉስ ታሕታይ, not too far from there!

        • Saleh Johar

          HaileS,
          No GheTeb is not from there. I don’t think Hope knows about it.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Saleh

            Here is the reference I talked about.

            Denis De Rivoyre. Aux pays du Soudan, Bogos, Mensah, Souakim. 1885. Plon Paris.

            De Rivoyre was a french traveller with military baground. He developped interest in the red sea area and visited among other regions, the massawa area till Halay in Akele Guzay, meeting and staying with Abba Di Jacobis, the Italian priest who re-introduced catholocism in Tigray and Eritrea. He also visited expensively western Eritrea, as we mentioned this morning. His book above documents that visit. De Rivoyre along another more official (Comandante Russel) envoye to Abyssinia were both pushing to obtain a colony around Adulis, before france established itself in what became Djibouti. I have talked about this plan here in the past. All his visits on the area is related to this interest, although his writing feel like an ordinary visitor and talented writer of wide social interest.

            His other book is: Mer rouge et Abyssinie. 1880. Plon, Paris

    • Berhe Y

      ስላም ሀይለ: ሳልሕ: ኤማ

      እዚ ዕላል ዓድና ከትዕሉሉ ጥራሕ ከተዕልሉ ከለኹምሲ ከጥዕመልኩም::

      የቅንየልና ስለ እቲ ኩሉ ትምህርትኹም::

      Haile and all,

      What do you know about the book Ferdinando Martini, who was the governor of Eritrea, wrote titled “ il diario eritreo, volume I, II, III and IV”, apparently it is his master piece.

      Has this work translated or studied, at all?

      https://anglicanaaste.bidinside.com/en/lot/536/il-diario-eritreo-di-ferdinando-martini-a-/

      Berhe

      • Haile S.

        Selam Berhe,

        I haven’t read Il Diaro, but I did his other books with different titles. I don’t speak italian, but with the help of google translate and my knowledge of french, I manage. Based on what I read, I confirm his writings are a masterpiece documentary on Eritrea just before and after it became Eritrea. Although I am not happy the way he treats the various Eritreans with the dignity they deserve (he exiled and killed most of them at the end), what we know about them is largely from him. His books, to my knowledge, were not directly studied and translated. But most of the tigrigna and other language history books that talk about the events around that period and the photos that we know of of these patriots and people are based on his books.

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selam Abu Salah,

    Thank you for the remindful historical thoughts you share with us in your Negarit-117.

    ተማሂርኩም እልካና እሞ እወ ተማሂርና:: እንተኾነ ግን: ገለ ካብተን ቃላት ዝገለጽካየን አብ አተራጉመኤን: አነ ከምዚ ዝስዕብ አተራጉማ እንተዝህልወን ምሓሸ ይብል::

    Snack = ጣዕሞት
    Additive = መቋሰዪ

    Regards

    • Saleh Johar

      Hi Emma,
      I didn’t think of it as a direct translation but anything close. But the name of the segment is መቋሰዪ.

      On the second point, I never say ተማሂርኩም it is ተማሒርኩም :: how could I teach people like you?

      you missed the explanation for that ending phrase. So here search for Negarit 20 and watch it. You will know why I say that 🙂

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Abu Saleh,

        I think I have missed this episode (Negart-20). I went back to it to listen to the story. Thank you for the correction. Second, if we are learning from the series episodes of your Negarit, it is still ተማሂርና አሎና እንተበልና ካብ ሓቂ ዝረሓቀ ኣይኮነን:: In any case, now I know the story. It is a very interesting story.

        On the words: I was trying to say “snack” is closer to “ጣዕሞት” than to “መቋሰዪ“. So it is okay if I understand what you want to convey.

        Regards

    • Hashela

      Selam Amanuel

      I believe your English translation of መቋሰዪ is not universally accepted.
      If I am not mistaken a better translation of መቋሰዪ is side dish. ጣይትን ቕጫን መቛሰዪ ጸብሒ እዮም። With a lot of good wills, additive can be translated as መወሰኽታ። ንኣብነት፥ “ጣይታ ወስኽና” ወይ “ጸብሒ ወስኽና”

      • Peace!

        Hi Hashela,

        Ema ሓወይ ደሓን እዩ ትግርኛ ብዙሕ ኣይመልካን እዩ መስለኒ በቐዳማይ ን”ኣይታንቲ” ብታንቲ ኢሉ ኣምቢቡ ክበልዓኒ ደልዩ LoL :: ካብቲ ዘተሓሳስበኒ ግን ንመለስ ዜናዊ ካብ ዓቐን ንላዕሊ ምውዳሱ ካብዘይ ምርዳእ ከይከውን::

        Peace!

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Peace,

          You edited it from ብታንቲ to ኣይታንቲ:: second ኣይታንቲ ዝተለቃሕካዮ ቃል እዩ:: ትግርኛ ኣይኮነን:: Third, since Abiy came to a picture you are influenced by his lies and became a lair.

          • Peace!

            Hi Emma,

            ብዘይኮነ ሰብ ምውንጃል ሓጥያት እዩ ብፍላይ ኣብዚ ዘለኻዮ ዕድመ:: ብዛዕባ ሓሶት ካኣ ኣቦታትና እንታይ ይብሉ መስለካ ደድሕሪ ኣድጊ ዝኸደ ጥራጥ ለመደ:: ብሓሶት ናይ ሕዉሓት ዕንኪልል ክትብል ኣንፈትካ ካብ ተጥፍእ ዓመታት እዩ ኮይኑ ወላ እቲ ናይ ሀገርካ ጉዳይ ሓዲሱካ ካብ መሪሒነት ተራ ናብ መባእታ ተማሃራይ ኢኻ ተቐይርካ ሙሉእ ማዓልቲ መብርሂ ክትሓትት ሰብ ጦቕ ተብላ ዘላኻ:: Dr Abiy ካኣ ከም መለስ ዜናዊ ብህይወትን ንብረትን ኢርትራዊያን ኣይሕተትን እዩ እንዱሑር ምስ ኢሰያስ ተዓሪኹ ኢልካ ትኽሶ ኣለኻ ናይ ወጻኢ መራሒ ንናይ ዓዱ ረብሓ ኣቐዲሙ ክህብ ንቡር እይ: ንስኹም ካብ መጀመርያ ከምኡ እንተትገብሩ ኣብዚ ኹሉ ሽግር ኣይምውደቕናን ግን ንህውሓት ክትሙጉሱ ግዜኹምን ሓይልኹምን ብኾንቱ ኣጥፊእኩሞ::

            Peace!

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Peace,

            ንድኻ አተሓሓሳስባ ዘለዎ ሰብ: ብወያነ ዝተዳህለ: ኣብ ክንዲ ብሽግር ህዝቢ ኤርትራን በቲ ኣራዊት ዝኾነ ስርዓት ኤርትራ ዝዛረብን: ወያነ ነቦይን ነደይን ካብ ኢትዮጵያ ሰጉጎምለይ እንዳበለ ዝቁዝም ለይትን መዓልትን: ገለ ቁሩብ ሓሳብ ቶኺብካ እርዳእካ ኢልካ ኢኻ ተሰናብቶሞ: እርዳእካ ዝሓወይ::

            ኣብ ርእሲኡ ድማ ንዓይውን ስድራቤተይ ተሰጉጎምኒ እዮም:: ግን ከአ ተቃላሳይን ፓለቲከኛን ሰብ ኣብ ስድርኡን ቤተሰቡን አየተኩርን ስለዝኾነ:አብከምዚ ዓይነት ቁዘማን: ምጽራፍን ዘተኩር ሰብን ንልዙብ ክትዓት ዘተዓናቅፍን: ይርዳእካን ምሕረት የውርደልካን ኢልካ ኢኻ ተፉንዎ:: አቦይ ከምዚበለ: አደይ ከምዚ ኾይና: ዓይነት ዕላላት ኣብ መድረኽ ፓለቲካዊ ክትዓት ቦታ የብሉን – ዝስቆረካ እንተኾኑ:: እቲ ወያነ ዝብል ጸለመ ከአ ዘመነ-አምጸኦ ናይ ጎዳና ዘረባ ስለዝኾነ: ዓቅምኻ ብእኡ’ዩ ዝውሰን:: ናይ ሓሳብ ሰብ አይኮንካን ዝሓወይ: እሞ ቦታኻን ዓውድኻን: አብዚ ኣይኮነን::

          • Peace!

            Emma,

            ሓቅኻ ነይርካ እንታይ እሞ መራሕቲ ኣግዲዖምና ብቑርብ ናይ ጁባ ሃገሮምን ህዝቦምን ዝሸጡ ኣጏኒፎምና ዕድል ኣይገበርናን:: ድሓን ሕጂ ግን እቲ ዓውዲ ንቶም ተባዓት ሀገራዊያን ግደፈሎም ንስኻን ከማኻን ዝኣመሰሉ ተጠላቒኹም ኢኹም ዶ/ር ኣቢ ከማን ተወሊዱ ኣራኺቡልኩም ካብዚ ዝኸፍእ መርገም የለን:

            Peace!

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Peace,

            Talk about the Eritrean worriers that are still fighting even from their prison cells than talking about your nightmares you got from the Wayane. Here is ትኳቦዊ መልእኽቲ ንናይ ሎሚ መዓልቲ:: አይተስዋሕዶ::

            https://youtu.be/8YNLWsretyQ

          • Hashela

            Peace, Amanuel

            ከመይ ሐዲርኩም ደቂ ዓድና

            ናትኩም ፍቅርን ዕርክነትን’ሲ ፍሉይ’ዩ። ዋላ እቲ ቆዮቛኹም (ቆዮቛ ወራዙት) ክትሰምዖ ጥዑም ።

          • Peace!

            Hi Hashela,

            ምስ ኤማ ሓወይ ንሱ መለስ ክብል ኣነ ዓገብ ክብል ዓመታት ኮይኑ ንዝኾነ ፐርሰናል ኣይኮነን ከም መዛዘሚ ድማ ሓደ ማዓልቲ ሻሂ ወይ ምሳሕ ጋቢዘ ዕላልና ምስወዳእና ኣነ እየ peace! ኢለዮ ክሃድም እየ:: 🙂

            Peace!

          • Hashela

            Peace,

            ሓደ ካብቲ ምእለያ ዘይብሉ ምስ ምጥፋእ መሪሕነት ወያነ (RIH) ዝትአሳሰረ ረብሓታትን ጥቕምታትን፣ ዕርቅን ምትሕቁቛፍን ኤርትራውያን እዩ። ዕርቂ ክአ ቅድመ-ኩነት ንሓበራዊ ዕዮን ቃልስን እዩ!