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Supremacists Agitating for Violence Against Eritrea

It is with great dismay that I hear the beating of war-drums by some segments of the Ethiopian intelligentsia, apparently aiming at steering public opinion towards war.  Their writing and talks are reminiscent of the past regimes of Emperor Haile Selassie and Colonel Mengistu. Yes, like the leaders of these two regimes, some nostalgic individuals, the likes of journalist Tamrat Negara (interview with Sheger Times Media), are openly instigating Ethiopians for the invasion of Eritrea. Their goal appears to be grabbing the port of Assab or totally undoing the Sovereignty of Eritrea that was earned by thirty years of bloody armed struggle.

These nostalgic people appear to fantasize war as if it will be a simple affair, almost like a weekend picnic to Eritrea, espousing exactly the misleading stance of the two past regimes who drove hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians into a bloody war. In fact, Emperor Haile Selassie never explained to the people of Ethiopia the main reason for the Eritrean resistance, if not providing fictitious explanations such as rescuing Eritrea from the incursion by imagined Arab countries. He never informed the Ethiopian people that Eritrea was a federated country to Ethiopia, guaranteed by the United Nations, with its own Constitution, Parliament, Government and Independent Judiciary system, where the people elected their representatives and the three wings of Government ensured a democratic political system. The Emperor never explained to his people that Eritrea, the former Italian colony, should have been an Independent State after the end of the Second World War, just like the other two Italian colonies, i.e., Libya and Somalia. If it was not for the shenanigans of Haile Selassie and his allies, Eritrea would have been an Independent country immediately after the end of the Second World War. The Ethiopian people were also not aware about Emperor Haile Selassie’s sinister maneuvers to destabilize the democratic setup in Eritrea by undertaking economic and political sabotages, intimidating and arresting Eritrean politicians and outright killing of prominent figures who espoused the freedom of their country and people. After ten years of precarious coexistence under a federal framework, where the Eritrean population practiced peaceful resistance, the despotic move of the Emperor did away with the Eritrean flag, changed the name and form of Government and introduced a number of undemocratic rules and regulations. This prompted the Eritrean nationalists to change the peaceful resistance to an armed struggle that was launched in September 1961; just a few months before Haile Selassie annexed Eritrea in 1962.  The armed conflict went on for thirty years.

Once in power, Colonel Mengistu also continued with the disinformation campaign of Ethiopians stating that it was the Arabs who were trying to capture Eritrea, and that the freedom fighters were few bandits who need to be captured and tied up with ropes and brought back to the Government. He even provided innocent Ethiopians with ropes for that purpose, and most of them perished in a war they never foresaw.

The Government of Mr. Meles Zenawi also fought a war with Eritrea, but the declared motive for the war was the protection of Ethiopian borders, and not the seizing of land or tampering with Eritrean sovereignty. Of course, the war was a stupid one, instigated by conceited people from both sides who refused to dialogue for peace, opting instead for armed confrontation that killed over one-hundred thousand young people from both sides. To make things worse, Meles’s party aggravated the war by introducing an illegal and cruel decisions to expel innocent civilians of Eritrean decent, even though many were Ethiopian citizens, who lived in Ethiopia for several generations. Another malicious element of Mr. Meles’ government was his refusal to recognize the border commission’s decision without any precondition that led to a no-war no-peace situation, thereby providing the Eritrean dictator an excuse to delay the introduction of democratic reforms.

Eritreans were subjected to many cruelties by Ethiopian Governments, of which the bulk of the Ethiopian population was not aware, including the act of Emperor Menelik who decided to mutilate about four hundred Eritrean prisoners of war of Adwa in 1896, by cutting off one arm and one leg of each individual; while, at the same time, decreeing that all Italian prisoners of the same war should be treated well and kept safely. The reason for this harsh decision by Menelik was apparently due to his anger against Eritreans for fighting on the side of the Italians, which is totally irrational as Eritrea was the colony of Italy, and its people were the subjects of the Fascist rule. As such, they were under the mercy of the colonial power, and were forcefully drafted to fight for Italy’s colonization programs in Libya, Ethiopia and Somalia. The irony of the matter is that, it was Menelik himself who recognized the now Eritrean territory as an Italian colony by signing the Treaty of Wuchale in May 1889!

The above is meant to refresh people’s minds of the belligerent stance of the past Ethiopian Governments, who deliberately hindered Ethiopians from obtaining the true facts about Eritrea and fed them instead with bogus information to suit their bellicose agenda.  It seems that the present nostalgic people are trying to revive the same sinister attitude, that is feeding the Ethiopian people with false information and hopes, then take them directly to war. These people deliberately overemphasize the simplicity and certainty of victory of war and dismiss any rational argument. For those who were intoxicated with owning Asab, it is a clear-cut position: just go and grab the land at any cost, not even minding the international laws of which Ethiopia is a relevant member and an ardent supporter.

In his interview, Journalist Tamrat said openly that Ethiopia should invade Eritrea, and should not care about what the United Nations would say. Such an arrogance is dangerous. It is also a delusion. Tamrat is talking as if Ethiopia is a superpower, and trying to imitate Russia’s action in Ukraine, which is considered by world community as illegal. Don’t mislead people, Tamrat. Ethiopia is not a rich superpower like Russia; and you do not represent the God-fearing and peace-loving people of Ethiopia. Remember that you come from a developing country which in 2019 had 8.3 million people needy of food assistance, normally to be obtained under multilateral and bilateral assistance. Are you suggesting diverting funds from social and economic development towards your war, thereby aggravating the situation of the poor people? Are you also intending to send the children of the farming and working classes to die in your war, like what Emperor Haile Selassie and Colonel Mengistu did? Wise men say that only the starting time of a war is known, but not its end. I would have expected young people like you to be involved in alleviating people’s sufferings and addressing the unfortunate social unrest that is surfacing in your country. By the way, what makes you think that you will be able to start a war, win it and live in an occupied country peacefully. I know your hypothesis, when you thanked President Isaias for weakening Eritrea over the past thirty years, implying that the country cannot defend itself now, and that you can walk-in easily. Please, remember that there is no an easy war nowadays. Even though you may not care it will be the children of the masses who will die and suffer and that is very cruel and irresponsible.

There are also some subtly formulated self-styled legal arguments that aim to justify the snatching of Assab.  For example, former air force General Abebe Teklehaimanot, says that the Ethiopian Government has the right to revoke the Algiers Agreement, as Eritrea has violated the security zone. Further, he asserts that the Government should demand for the international recognition of Ethiopia’s right of access to sea. What right? Demand recognition of access to sea for whom? Access to sea under what arrangements?  This argument lacks some logical base. The only country that can give access to Assab and other ports in Eritrea is Eritrea itself. This country has won its independence by liberating its land and people militarily in May 1991; and then in May 1993 formally legalized this independence by a popular plebiscite supervised by the UN, in which over ninety-eight percent of the people voted for independence. Besides, what has the sovereignty of Eritrea to do with the Algiers Agreement which was signed in 2001 to regulate the unfortunate war between two sovereign countries?  This is clear misinformation campaign, because there is no legal base that gives a country the international recognition of land of another sovereign country.  This would amount to recognizing the grabbing of Ethiopian land by the Fascists in 1935 and of several European countries by the Nazis during the Second World War. No, land of a sovereign country cannot be violated by other countries if this world has to continue to exist in peace.

Fortunately, the majority of the Ethiopian people are peace-loving, and will not be misled by some nostalgic individuals. In addition, thanks to the ease of communication, the nostalgic group will be exposed by the Ethiopians themselves, hence they will not prevail. In fact, both the people of Ethiopia and Eritrea should be vigilant, and not allow governments or adventurous individuals or groups to take them to war. We have had enough of wars. We don’t hate each other, why should we fight? Eritreans do not hate Ethiopians, although they hated and dreaded the two regimes that led us into a thirty-year-old armed conflict. We also sincerely believe that the Ethiopian people do not hate Eritreans. There are touchy and remarkable stories of sympathy displayed by Eritreans towards the Ethiopian soldiers immediately after the end of the war in 1991; as well as similar sentiments expressed by Ethiopians during the expulsion of Eritreans in 1998/1999.

We do have a common enemy in our region, which is poverty, and we need to fight against it together. Both countries have many people suffering from hunger, malnutrition and poor health, and we have the duty to alleviate their sufferings by addressing their challenges. Once a democratic rule is installed in Eritrea, these two countries should cooperate and fight poverty by helping each other to achieve higher level of economic and social development.

Many people write and talk about the need for Ethiopia to use the port of Assab, and there is nothing wrong with that. In fact, until the war of 1998, Eritrea had let Ethiopia use the port of Asab at will. It was only the no-war no-peace status imposed by Mr. Meles Zenawi, and the refusal to dialogue by both governments that hindered the use of the port of Assab. There is no reason why Assab cannot be used by Ethiopia under a clearly spelled out agreement that is mutually beneficial to the two countries. What seems to worry Ethiopians is the security of use of the port for the long-term; and what seems to bother Eritreans is the surfacing of aggressive ideas that put into question the sovereignty of Eritrea on Assab. But there is no doubt that these worries could be addressed effectively if the two countries start an open and sincere dialog by declaring a goal for achieving a win-win situation. The recent agreement reached between Prime Minister Dr. Abiy Ahmed and President Isaias Afeworki, is hailed as a major breakthrough by the war-weary people of the two countries, who believe peace is finally at hand. However, as time passed by, the level of the initial enthusiasm is dwindling, mainly because people are concerned about the sustainability of the agreement as it lacks transparency. From the Eritrean side, there is a mistrust of the one-man show and decision, as portrayed by President Isaias, on a matter of paramount importance such as peace agreement with Ethiopia. The mistrust originates from the popular perception that President Isaias may not deliver an appropriate agreement. This popular impression was formed following the President’s statements that were deemed not congruent with the widespread sentiments of the general public. The people know that a half-backed agreement could become a cause for friction in the future. Therefore, there is a need to solve the domestic political problems in Eritrea, and then send representatives of a democratic Eritrea to discuss/negotiate openly with the Ethiopians. Dialogue between these two sisterly and democratic countries will certainly lead to a peaceful coexistence among the people and create conditions for solid cooperation in addressing the current developmental problems and in improving the standard of living of the people. War between these two countries has been tried, and was proven to lead to misery, sorrow and overall impoverishment. Let us become the promotors of peace and development of these two countries and of our region. The dark years of war should remain history – no turning back.  No arrogant pretentions of an easy victory! No delusions of ending Eritrean Sovereignty!

About Prof. Araya Debessay,

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  • Miriam

    Hello Everyone,

    An interesting commentary by an Amhara activist criticizing Tamrat, starts at about 20:00 in the video.

    Best,

    Miriam

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5haawraw48M&feature=youtu.be&fbclid=IwAR39Ocaf5oEUU2CRToPYlcy-ZKpQuNZKee-N3Xg5ikDven52rlMNxzvbvRI

  • Hashela

    Dear forumers

    I decided to bring a part of the exchanges I had with Abi to this section of the page. Simply because it reveals the all too familiar and disturbing pattern of black racism toward its own race.
    After several exchanges, I wrote to Abi: “Now, I have to go and teach more receptive and inquisitive minds. Disappointingly but not surprisingly, no black or brown
    person is among them!”
    Abi responded by saying “My hope is those people with more inquisitive minds
    don’t walk around you to see which chelada family you belong to. I hope they
    don’t call you “gorilla “ behind your back.”

    Hi Abi,
    Here is my response to you, Abi, and the likes.

    No question, racism in white dominated, elite universities has destroyed the career of so many promising black and brown academics. If I care so much about what you wrote, I couldn’t have come so far in my academic career. The fact that standing in front of the best PhD students at an elite, white dominated university I guide through and teach them the complexity of the natural world at a level they haven’t taught before devalue the core idea of prejudice (black inferiority) if they have it. This gives me one of the several satisfactions that comes with my profession and public engagements.

    Couple days ago, you said that your son is about to go to a medical school
    at an elite university. I sincerely wish him all the strength he needs to academically
    and socially flourish despite the pervasive and punishing racism that certainly
    exists there. More importantly, I hope that your promising son develops a
    protective shield from his father’s racism toward his own race.

    • Abi

      Hello Hashela
      Why didn’t you bring the whole (unedited) conversations ? The whole thing started when you compared Ethiopians with Cheladas.
      The last exchange you conveniently brought to the front is where I expressed my hope that none of the wise people you teach will never call you a chelada behind your back as you proudly call Ethiopians in their faces.
      Now, who is racist here?
      For your information, I care less who you teach or what you do for a living. You can be a college professor or a dog sitter. I don’t give you a pass when you compare us with a chelada. You will get it back tenfold. I don’t allow it anymore. Just yesterday The Genius Al Arabi called us “ retarded people “. Yiakil!! Enough is Enough!!!
      Don’t you ever mention my son. You Parasite !
      You called us chelada
      I called you a parasite.

      • Hashela

        Hi Abi

        the only accusation I can make toward myself is that I wrestled with a pig that obviously loves mud.

        • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

          Dr. Hashela,
          If I may, you are dealing with 110dB SFDR below your peak level. Why would you want attenuate that much power [in your case knowledge]?
          ጻጸ ካብ ድቃሱ ክትስእ ተራእዩኒ።

          • Hashela

            ሰላ ምሃንድስ
            ቁቡል ማዕዳ!

        • Abi

          Hello Hashela
          I make sure that pig remains parasite free.

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Selam Dr Hashela,

          ክትዕ ቁምነገራዊ ሓዘል ኮይኑ ኣብ ዘይርኣየካ ግዜ አስፍል ኣቢልካ ምልጋስኮ አሎ’ዩ:: ጥዑይ ክትዕ ‘ሓቂ ይኹን ሓሶት’ ካብ አተሓሕዛ በሃሊኡ ኢኻ ተለልዮ:። Let us recognize that all comments are not debatable, and therefore, our engagement should be selective in order to be productive and educative. Just sharing my view.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Emma,
            I agree.

            Dearest Hashela an Abi. Thank you for highlighting the wonderful fascinating bleeding-heart-monkey (another name for Gelada) and stopping the “bleeding”. Please allow me to say so.
            BTW, it is unfortunate it doesn:t exist in Eritrea. I think it still exists in south-western Tigray.
            Recently I was watching a youtube video on a legendary story about a monkey called Gonay in Eritrea near Tera-Rmni and asking myself if it was a Gelada. But based on the story and what we know of the present wildlife distribution in the area it looks like it was a baboon and as the narrator in the video was saying.

          • Hashela

            Selam Amanuel
            I agree, timing is evertything!
            ለትሪና (ለትሪኖ) ሓዲግትካ ምስ ሓለፈት፣ ኣብ ፎሮብያ ን24 ስዓታት ፈዝው ትብል።

  • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

    ሰላማት ሰብ ዛዕጎል

    ታሪኽ ዝ ኣመነ
    ሓቅን-ዘይሓቅን ኣብ ርእሲ ክሳዱ ዝጸዓነ
    ዝኾነን ዘይኮነን ንዳጋነነ
    ናይ ክንደይ ርእሲ ምሰባኻነ
    ሓቂ ምስፈለጠ
    ‘ቲ ጭጓር ዳንጋ ተጠሊዑ ሓዘነ

    ብሰብ-እዋን ታሪኽ ተተሪኹ
    ሓቀኛ ዛንታ ብሓያላት ተሓኺኹ
    ድሕሪ ቁሩብ ግዜ ይተርፍ መኺኹ

    ደሓር ሓደ ጻዕዳ ከምዚ በለ
    ——–ነዞም ዓዃይ
    ——–ከምዚኸማይ
    ይንገረና ከምዚ ኔሩ ‘ናተባህለ

    ጽንሕ ኢልካ ግን
    ‘ቲ ታሪኽ በደቂ ሃገር ምስተነግረ
    ሓመድ ድፋጭኡ ንካ ተገምጠለ
    ወይ ተረገም ሃይለ!

  • Selam All,

    The discussion on the port of assab seems to linger on for days. We can discuss about it for as long as we like, but it seems that nobody can convince anybody otherwise, which is only logical.
    The horn of Africa and the whole continent in general, will continue to suffer from the legacy of the infamous Berlin conference, and the works of the latecomer to the scene of colonization, Italy. No African leader was there, when even the ottoman Turks and the USA were called to participate in the three months long conference in Berlin for the partition of Africa. Not even the emperor of Abyssinia, which was supposed to be the ruler of an independent and not colonized country, was invited to voice his opinion, if what they were doing was right or wrong. When the sultan of Zanzibar (if i am not wrong) asked to attend the conference he was simply ignored.
    It was one of the innumerable crimes committed against Africans by white people. Colonial borders imposed from the outside by those who divided the cake without knowing anything about it, resulted in ethnic groups being divided. Big countries were blocked from the sea, small countries were made owners of multiple seaports without even having a hinterland, the main aim being to block others from the sea. No one took into consideration the wish of the local population, then and now, if they want to be divided or not, etc.
    Can colonial borders be taken as the end of history of the boundaries of African states, a fait accompli? That is a million dollars question. Or, is it a time bomb?
    Throughout her history, Ethiopia had the will to her historic and natural rights to the sea, but did not have the power to materialize it, which cannot be interpreted as abandoning her God given rights as any country that is a short distance from the sea (only a day’s walk on foot from her border for that matter).
    First, the ottoman Turks and their emissary Egypt, then Italians and finally tplf/eplf, and we have the present day conundrum, which will continue forever.
    The artificial borders created by European colonial powers are said to be one of the main reasons for African wars. It is also said that in actual fact, all over Africa borders exist on paper and not on the ground, because they are not guarded and they mean nothing to the local population which crisscross it daily without thinking at all about it.
    African leaders were afraid to open the Pandora’s box of African boundaries in the 1960s, nevertheless no one seems able to seal the box for good, which in my opinion is impossible, and hence new countries are created, South Sudan, for example. The problem of Sudan is due to lamping together and forming a huge non-viable country by the colonizers. We saw the result, the creation of the state of South Sudan, and it seems that the problem is not yet over.
    Can populations live divided for ever, or can a big country be blocked from the sea forever? The problem is what governments want and what their citizens want may not coincide, now or in the future, and especially where gross injustice was committed (whoever may have committed it). There is no way to make the people live with injustice.
    Finally, the irony in ethiopia’s case is that tplf which fought tooth and nail at the UN, world capital cities and on Ethiopian media to rationalize the landlocked status of Ethiopia, is now speaking of a sea access for Ethiopia, through its media mouthpieces. This is an issue that will continue to pop up throughout generations until it gets a logical conclusion. Unfortunately, it will do a lot of harm than good.
    Maybe, tplf had the sinister plan that as long as assab is not going to belong to greater tigray, it should be of use to no one. Ethiopia will not accept the status quo, unless used by ethiopia assab is redundant, as tplf itself proved it in practice, and governments may accept the situation but not the people, and no one knows who will cut the Gordian knot.

    • Nitricc

      Hi Horizon; skipping all hoopla, what you and denqoro Tamrat forget is, for Eritrea the simplest job to do is a minuscule push toward ending as Ethiopia we know today. You are already there, just a little push. My point is don’t take for grantee Eritrea’s good will for one and strong Ethiopia. At the end of the day, Eritrea and Eritreans will do what is best for them. What gets me is you people never learn!!!! No one said you can’t use Assab and Assab is Eritrean and it will be Eritrean for ever and ever. The choice is clear, lets work together in peace or go kiss Djibouti azz as you have done for the last 27 years. You should know one thing; No Eritrean will compromise on Eritrea soverjunity; Never!

    • Berhe Y

      Hi Horizon,

      It’s so hard to reply to all the assumption you have made. You are speaking as if the break up of Africa that was done by super powers, was intentionally to weaken the supper power of Africa by denying access to the sea.

      What ever they did, they did it for their own economic advantage with out considering the African people which include Ethiopia.

      My guess is, the Europeans probably didn’t think it’s worth the efforts to conquer Ethiopia, not because they didn’t have the power and the capacity to do so, but because of it’s difficult location, geographically speaking to worth their consideration.

      What I mean by that is, the highlands starting from Eritrea all the way to Oromoia, is high about the sea level with very high mountains and terrain to make a good use.

      Like Haile S. explained, the main trade Ethiopian lords conducted was selling slaves and that’s the only access to the sea was used for.

      The first king of Ethiopia ever to set a foot in the red sea is, Haile Sellasie and that was after Eritrea federation.

      Otherwise Ethiopia claim to Eritrea is as good as a claim to Somalia or Djibouti.

      Please refer to Saay article at Eritrea Digest from Eritrean point view and prospective.

      As to TPLF and their interest, I think it’s because they have nothing to lose. They are not in power in Ethiopia and if the people of Amhara or Oromo fight with Eritrea, sooner or later it weakens both so they will have a good chance of coming back as strong and scavenger what’s left.

      I think Miriam point when she said “Once Isayas is gone, Eritrea will not stand as one nation and Ethiopia will take over Asseb” etc. This was always the plan for TPLF since 2001.

      1) Make Eritrea weak by no peace no deal and force the young to leave.
      2) Work with International community to weaken and alienate Eritrea to make it a failed state.
      3) Weaken the Eritrean opposition and make them “useless” by interfering within them so they are not ready to pick up arms or ready to take over power once PFDJ is deposited.

      Listen to the interview Memhir Muluberhan said “They told us to wait until the young are all left and then the IA regime will collapse. But it it possible for people to leave and finish? he asks”.

      Now the above strategy doesn’t seem to work as much….at least the sanctions and isolation, etc..

      They are after their other plots.

      1) Tigray-Tigrigna, Agazian to create division among Eritrean ethnic lines.
      2) When that failed, they go to their next plan…that is enrage Eritrea by getting the guys like Tamerat and the network, Shegar Times to create confusion and division by instigating fights among Eritrean and Ethiopian people.

      And if we look at the outcome, I can say they think they may have successed and it’s working according to their plans…so they think….

      But in reality, this will not happen, at least from Eritrean point of view. It’s reinforcing the Eritrean people resolve, not to ever trust anyone but themselves and stay united.

      Horizon,
      If I were you, I would worry about Ethiopia and what it’s future will be.

      Berhe

      • Selam Berhe,

        The ancient kingdom of Axum had the port of adulis through which it traded with the known world of the times. When Islam invaded the region in the seventh century and the port of massawa and the whole region was seized by Muslims, Axum was cut off the sea, lost its lucrative trade, and its collapse was inevitable.
        When the Solomon dynasty came to power (thirteenth century) Islam had consolidated itself in the coastal region forming sultanates. Nevertheless, Emperor Zara Yacob came to power in the fifteenth century, he fought to create access to the sea and he established the so-called Bahre Negash (ruler of the sea).
        One of the agreements of Emperor Yohannes with the British to give them passage through his territory after their defeat in Sudan was to have free access through the port of massawa on top of munitions. Therefore, it is difficult to say that HS was the first to set foot in the waters of the Red Sea.
        About Ethiopia disintegrating; we have been hearing this since the time of the derg, when liberation wars were raging in all directions. Ethiopia is still around. This time as well, it will not be any different. Ethiopia is too precious to be lost.

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Selam Horizon,

          Why are you regurgitating on old history when there were no countries with defined boundaries. How do you want to claim Adulis when there were no Ethiopia at that time to begin with? Ethiopia is known to the world as country since 1890 when Europeans start the partition (specifically the Italians and the French) to the modern countries of today. Modern Ethiopia was curved by the treaties on the era of colonization. Talking about legendary history before the formation of African countries does not help you to your argument.

          • Selam Amanuel H.,

            Let me ask you the same question. How do you claim Adulis, Massawa and Assab when these ports existed before the existence of Eritrea? Eritrea is the creation of Italy, while Ethiopia is the continuation of the Axumite Kingdom, latter Abyssinia which culminated in Ethiopia.
            Can you tell us which countries existed with defined borders 200 yrs ago? Ethiopia was known as Ethiopia internally by its people. The Arabic term Abyssinia was used by foreigners. History of the region did not start in the late 19th century with the coming of the Italians. You see what you are saying about Ethiopia is not new. It is part of the old propaganda.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Horizon,

            The ports are inscribed with in modern Eritrea that was curved during the partitition by the colonizers of the region. The history of Abyssinia and Axumites is the history before the formation of nation states. I didn’t claim the ports before the formation of the African countries. That is why I am telling you your argument does not hold water.

        • Paulos

          Selam Horizon,

          I must say, I agree with you. If you ask a serious scholar or an authority on Ethiopian history, there is a general consensus where if any, the greatest Kings with in the annals of history were Kings Ezana, Yikuno-Amlak, Amde-Tsion, Zera-Yacob, Menilik II, and Haileselassie. The parameter here is their assertive and powerful personality and prioritization unity of Ethiopia.

          That said however, the most energetic and effective who stands among the said Kings was the Medieval King Amde-Tsion who was also perhaps the first King who set foot on what is known as Eritrea today. This was certainly in the 14th Century where according to historians, “The name Ethiopia itself was given a meaning which raised it from a mere designation of a country to the level of a religious concept to a melding of the authority of church and state.” And it was Amde-Tsion who played a key role in the elevation of the two said pillars.

          More over, historians tell us that, the legends and traditions of the Solomonic dynasty became so firmly anchored in the mentality of the population since then [since the reign of Amde-Tsion onward] that the country was able to withstand and survive the gruesome trials it had to undergo in the following centuries including the Italian invasion in the late 1890s.

          *To go back to the reign or years of Amde-Tsion, his first successful campaign were Hadiya, Damot and Gojam where he established his authority in 1316-17. He then turned to Tigrai. During the fall of the Zagwe dynasty, many Semetic Christians from Last had migrated northward and established themselves in the North-Eastern Tigrean highlands. These people welcomed Amde-Tsion’s army and supported his efforts to subdue the recalcitrant rulers of Enderta and Tembien. During the Zagwe period a power vacccum had developed in the Eritrean highlands and coastal region which Muslims from Dahlak Islands and the settlements in the coast tended to fill. Egypt had lost control of Yemen, but was trying to regain it and Red Sea trade was affected. The still substantial Christian communities of the region [Eritrean Highlands] welcomed the reassertion of imperial power [Amde-Tsion], for it ensured a smoother flow of trade.

          Trade was important to Amde-Tsion. A prime purpose of his conquests was control of trade routes which connected Massawa and Zeila with Tigrai, Wollo, Shoa and the Southern highlands.

          *It was taken from Taddesse Tamrat’s classic book, “Church and State in Ethiopia 1270-1527.”

          Paul Henze’s book, “Layers of Time. A History of Ethiopia.”

          • Abi

            Paul
            You said “During the fall of the Zagwe dynasty, many semetic Christians from Last had migrated…”.
            Do you mean Lasta instead of Last? I’m talking about Lasta dynasty.

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            Sorry, you’re right. I meant to say Lasta.

          • Abi

            Paul
            when you provide a history lesson such as this one, please remember the likes of Berhe, Amanuel H, Nitricc and other readers with a little or no history knowledge. You are messing up their mind.

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            I don’t have any problems with that to be honest with you where the fact remains: we are the same [one] people but two separate and independent sovereign nations. It is as simple as that!

          • Selam Paulos,

            Thanks a lot for the broad and in depth explanation of the history of the region (today’s Ethiopia and Eritrea). The problem of both people is denying facts that have always been there, not since yesterday but deep in their history, from the time they created communities, shared similar languages, script, religion, and culture.
            I find it difficult to reach a logical conclusion as to what is at fault. Nevertheless, the struggle for power seems to have been the root cause of all the problems between the habesha elites yesterday and today, which throughout the years has become irreconcilable. Unfortunately, it has become destructive for both people.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Paulo,

            Do you actually think or believe there is truth to “Solomonic dynasty “ as its told by Kibre Negest.

            I get it, fir example, the Ras Teferian think, HSI is God, and there is nothing wrong with it. But we know the facts.

            So this “Solomonic dynasty” is it any different than what the Rasta believe?

            Berhe

          • Paulos

            Selam Berhino,

            I don’t think the question is any relevant whether someone believes in it or not. Rather, the question ought to be, why is it so much powerful so much so that it was able to cement a strong national consciousness and identity? Perhaps because for a reason that has thus far eluded historians and academics alike, mythologies and legends are part and parcel of the human collective condition.

            Nordic, Roman and Greek mythologies are not any different than the Ethiopian psych where they are taken for the origins of their respective history. If you go around and ask any Ethiopian if they truly believe in the authenticity–if it has any–about the ክብረ ነገስት, I don’t think you will make any dent at all, precisely because, it is part of their identity where they perfectly know that they can not prove it otherwise.

            I was trained in the Life Sciences and when I read in the Bible that Methuselah lived to be 900 years old, I believe it despite the fact that my training tends to prove it otherwise, simply because it is a realm with in the leap of faith. And it gives me deeper meaning as well. The power of mythology could be seen with in that respect where it has given societies deeper meanings and again, ክብረ ነገስት is not an exception either.

          • Abi

            Paul
            I told you to be careful when you discuss any history that happened before 1950. I really don’t need Berhe hawey lose his mind.

          • Berhe Y

            Thank you Paulo,

            What you said make sense, I didn’t mean to put you in a spot.

            Personally I think as habesha and ERITREAN and African, its is something to be proud of, if one believes or not. The fact that people where writing such a story, over 500 (I think how old it is) is to be celebrated.

            You are right, all the ancient stories we read are of the similar purpose. I think the problem is, when such story is used to subjugate others and use it as a means of Devine intervention to rule others or force others to believe.

            I have a Canadian friend (of French and English) decent (Anglican and Catholic mix) that I use to work with. He was married to a black catholic women of Trinidad decent (both were born in Toronto). They were not devote believers but average middle class family.

            Somehow he found an Ethiopian guy and got introduced to Ethiopian Orthodox which is attended by the Ras Teferrians. He become so devoted, and ended up baptized with his younger son where he invited me to attend. His baptism name is TekleHaymanot.

            We don’t work on the place now, but he text and reminds me and pass his best wishes when it’s some of our religious events.

            I know he was reading kibre negest and I think he was learning Amharic and geez as well, as he asks me every once in a while fir some translation.

            He would really, really would enjoy your company.

            I really respect his devotion and believe, sometimes I make fun (for example we use to go to lunch and he would order green tea where I eat, because it’s Wed / Fri). I use tell him, you know our tSom (fasting) is a means to save / limit on all the food items that’s considered expensive / luxury, like meat, eggs, milk, butter etc.). I tell him, since such food is not a luxury, you really are not depriving your self, so there is no need.

            He would laugh and tells me, I am going to hell.

            Sometimes to he piss me off, forwarding me pictures of HS, with Ethiopian map that include Eritrea etc.

            When I tell him, it’s not correct, I think he knows how to get me going, laughs and says, you are the same people anyway, which I don’t dispute.

            His ultimate dream is to go and visit Ethiopia and all the religious places, such as Lalibela and Axum etc., which I hope to do one day, after I visit the whole of Eritrea first.

            Berhe

  • Haile S.

    Selam Awate People,

    Instead of commenting on specific topics discussed by forumers in the last few days, allow me to say the following in bullet-points: ኣትፍሩ፡ እኔ ኣልተኩስም!

    – Eritrea and Ethiopia, as far as their boundary delimitation is concerned are the result of scramble for Africa that the kings of Abyssinia, Yohannes and Menelik, participated indirectly through their territorial and commercial negotiations with Britain, Italy and France. Yohannes started his negotiation with Britain (also mediating for Egypt) and continued with Italy. Menelik continued the negotiation with Italy and signed a commercial agreement with France on building a railroad from french Djibouti to Addis Ababa with the french administrator of the colony Leonce Lagarde.

    – Despite his two success against the Egyptians, Yohannes agreed to limit his territories to the side of the escarpment. Two of his exigences in the peace agreement were: arms import to Abyssinia should flow freely through Egyptian Massawa and Egypt should continue nominating and sending a Patriarch to Abyssinia.

    – The final territorial delimitation between Eritrea and Ethiopia was negotiated between Italy and Menelik with notification of Britain.

    – The final territorial delimitation of Djibouti was negotiated between Britain and France on one hand and between Italy and France on the other with notification of Britain. Menelik had no say in all these. No one knows or no one presented a document on the “illusive 99-year lease of Djibouti by Abyssinia to France”. Even researchers who studied Djibouti colonization don’t mention anything like this. The ‘lease ghost story’ sounds like a well crafted ruse to cover up a feeling of guilt by Ethiopians that should never have been felt in the first place. If there was a signed lease document, and if Ethiopia signed such paper with full knowledge it was voluntarily handling its chance of controlling an outlet, present day Ethiopians would never ever drop their claim after discovering their king had handled freely “their territory” with time limited lease. የቆቱን ኣወርድ ብሎ የብብቱን ጣለ የሚል ኣነጋገር፡ እዚህ ነገር ላይ መሠረት የለውም።

    – A lease is a lease and would have been respected by France no matter what. France used to control a leased small territory (Kwangchow Wan) from china for 99 years and returned it in 1946. It had also miniscule territories in Nigeria leased from Britain for 30 years and returned them at the end without renewal to Britain.

    – Djibouti started as French colony following negotiation between the french Fleuriot de Langle and the locals. The agreement was sealed for 10000 Thalers to sell Obock to the french by sultan Abu Becker during his visit to Paris in 1862. Later the colony expanded during Mr Lagarde.

    – At that time Abyssinian (Ethiopian) leaders had no particular ambition of controlling the sea. As long as they had commercial access, they were satisfied. At that time abyssinian leaders had other ‘bigger’ fish to fry inland. A sea fish never came to their mind.

    – Abyssinia and its rulers since the fall of Axumite period were satisfied with their distant relationship to the sea. They never wanted to conquer, control and use the red sea by themselves. When friction arises with Egypt for some reason, their main focus has been the nile, the throat. Owning the source of the Nile in the heart of their land was a godsend instrument of bringing Egypt to its knees. However, the threats were never used and could not be implemented anyway. Bluffs were pronounced on occasions to assure the constant supply of Patriarch from Alexandria.

    – The red-sea-mania that we see recently is since Hailesellasie and now since the vexed & enraged ego ended with Meles. There is no reason and need to go for arms again. Eritrea has the sea to serve its biggest client, Ethiopia. Eritrea and Ethiopia should live as sisters. Whoever, tigrigna speaking in Eritrea or amharic speaking in Ethiopia’s is at the helm of each of each country, it is an internal problems of each. Arousing ethnic tension to create division within Eritrea has been tried by TPLF for the last 2 decades and is being actively tried by its media presently, nothing new! It is not going to work and will end nowhere.

    I am including 2 references on the foundation of Eritrea and Djibouti; sorry they are in french. Other mentioned points’ sources can be easily be found.

    Clément de La Jonquière. Les Italiens en Erythree. Quinze ans de politique coloniale: 1897

    H Brunschwig. Une colonie inutile: Obock (1862-1888) – Cahiers d’Etudes africaines, 1968 – JSTOR.

    • Teodros Alem

      Selam haile s
      U r somehow right but the whole countries that u mentioned r occupiers, not the owners of the land and ethio- eri boundaries were created by European occupation/ minilek/ yohannes and federation/unity and by eplf/ eprdf.
      The point is, any countries boundaries can continue to change from another occupation or independence(when indigenous peoples in charge on thier own land).

    • Yohannes Zerai

      Elam Hailat,

      I Thank you very much for adding some interesting and helpful factual information to the ongoing discussion/debate and for providing references to sources thereof.

      I want to comment on a couple of points you raised in your post:

      1. You wrote, “At that time [i.e. the colonial control of Djibouti by the French] Abyssinian (Ethiopian) leaders had no particular ambition of controlling the sea. As long as they had commercial access, they were satisfied. At that time abyssinian leaders had other ‘bigger’ fish to fry inland. A sea fish never came to their mind.”

      This comment is consistent with 19th century Ethiopian political history which was characterized by endless wars driven by rivalries and conquests among feudal kings and lords, that briefly ended when one party was vanquished only to start again when the victor was challenged by a new rival or had the urge to embark on another conquest. Given this reality, Abyssinian strongmen were too engrossed in consolidating and expanding their fiefdoms — and were, therefore, too inward-looking — to have ventured farther afield on a large scale and in a meaningful way.

      This was exemplified by the succession of power that occurred in Ethiopia during a period that straddled European colonization of Africa. Emperor Yohannes came to the throne by undermining Emperor Tewodros only to be similarly undermined himself, a few years later, by Emperor Menelik who succeeded him. Both these succession-intrigues were all planned and executed with the collaboration and support of colonial commanders in the region mainly those of Britain and Italy, respectively. In short, the “goodies” the kings needed — both weapons & ammunition as well as whatever commodities they required — were provided by the colonialists in the region, and the kings/nobility were able to focus on their infighting while accommodating the colonial benefactors. So, given these facts, why should one expect them to have used ports! Have you ever read anywhere about Tewodros or Yohannes having importied anything (e.g., weapons and ammunition) themselves from European countries friendly to them?

      2. The facts you presented in connection with the colonization of Djibouti (and the references you provided in support thereof) put that history in the context of the regional geopolitics of the time in a way that duly takes into account the interaction between colonial powers and indigeneous forces/entities. Consequently, your comment gives a more truthful account of how things developed around that issue. This is in stark contrast with the practice that is invariably employed by revisionists who take isolated events (or fragmentary accounts) out of context and lace them with their own emotions, biases and delusions to write their own version of “history”, and then use it as a basis for making outlandish claims and reaching at outrageous conclusions. What is even more surprising is their assumption/expectation that the revisionist history which they peddle will turn out to be more credible than the publicly-available documentations of authentic facts and history about a given issue.

      Thank you

      • Haile S.

        Thank you Yohannes,

        I don’t recall reading something like that with those two kings. Time permitting I will later check and say something about it. The relationship of ethiopian leaders to europeans or whites (Ferengi) was a little different before, during and after the scramble for africa. To continue…

      • Hashela

        Thank you Haile, Thank you Johannes

        It is the result and fruits of our multi-generational struggle and our victorious emergence that our rich and long history is now researched and written by our fact-driven historians, archeologists, and paleo-anthropologists. This is a nightmare for ደንበ ዘረፍ-ዘረፍ for several reasons. Confronting evidence-based reconstruction of historical events in the Horn of Africa with the fairytale of Ethiopian rulers makes the latter look like a bunch of myopic Cheladas that cannot look beyond the small meadow from which they are consuming grass roots and juicy grass seeds (ኩዕንቲ).

        • Abi

          Hello Hashela
          The Cheladas will do fine as long as they manage to get the parasites off their bodies.

          • Hashela

            Hi Abi

            As Haile S. can confirm, the host-parasite relationship in Geladas is characterized by mutual consumption.

          • Abi

            Hello Hashela
            The host-parasite relationship didn’t work for both. All types of parasites should be quarantined not to cause any harm to the Cheladas.

          • Hashela

            Hi Abi

            We need send to a 101 class in parasitology. For a selfish reason, parasites, highly evolved organisms, do not kill their host.

          • Abi

            Hello Hashela
            A 2nd grade science class is good enough to avoid parasites. They almost always attack their hosts.

          • Hashela

            Hi Abi
            The avoidance techniques you have in mind is most likely rubbing with cow dungs and cow urine. A scientifically deeper scientific understanding of parasites, their evolutionary history, their persistence, and survival mechanisms leads to a more peaceful coexistence.

          • Abi

            Hello Hashela
            My understanding of the perceived parasites is not that much different from other parasites. Due to mutations, the above mentioned characteristics of the perceived parasites have changed.

          • Hashela

            Hi Abi

            Therefore, from your side a dynamically adaptive behavior is required. For nature is cruel; she mercilessly punishes stagnation and bountifully rewards adaptive evolution.

          • Abi

            Hello Hashela
            Recently the Cheladas adopted a policy of avoiding any contact with parasites of any type. Quarantine parasites away from the Cheladas is found to be effective.

          • Hashela

            Hi Abi
            Biologically, isolation is a slow death (extinction). For the sake of their own survival, the Geladas should climb down from the Semien Mountains and adapt to the dynamically forming, new geopolitical landscape, meaning reality defined by international laws and normatives

          • Abi

            Hello Hashela
            The King of the MountainCheladas along with their variations rule the whole animal kingdom. From the tip of the mountain all the way to the valleys and everything in between, they rule the land. You can call them cheladas, baboon, monkey…
            It is the invading parasites that need to be quarantined, isolated and eventually extinct.

          • Hashela

            Hi Abi
            Now, I have to go and teach more receiptive and inquisitive minds.

          • Abi

            Hello Hashela
            My hope is those people with more inquisitive minds don’t walk around you to see which chelada family you belong to.
            I hope they don’t call you “gorilla “ behind your back.

          • Teodros Alem

            selam hashela
            Speaking of geladas, i didn’t know eritrea has gelada monkeys, in youtube i have seen eri geladas in one of eri highlands and i can’t believe my eyes, what did u guys do t to hem? U can tell the places where they live is extremely so harsh from thier faces and body. i think u need to find and.look at it, i think it is onel the way to massewa from asmera.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi TA,

            Looks and appearance is so important to you, that you make up your mind. This is not the first time you said something like this.

            You are probably mean it in funny ways, I can assure you we have not done anything to them.

            If they live in harsh environment, it’s just nature and different species adapt differently, I am sure Dr. Hashela will lecture you.

            But I am glad you admitted, there is another world outside your little village:). I am surprised you didn’t say, the geledas are Eritrean, but you might if you find them attractive, quoting your 3000 years hatew qetew, I mean history.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            “ከዝንጀሮ ቆንጆ ምን ይመራርጡ”! ይላሉ የሃማሴን ጀጋኑ

          • Teodros Alem

            abi
            snitch, that is the good one, but i didn’t mean to compare them but u real can tell they settled in wronge place, that is the thing cross my mind when i first see them on youtube.

          • Teodros Alem

            selam.berhe
            No, is not important to me except if she is beautiful.
            No they the same geladas, i heard they live strating from north shawa highland all the way to eri highlands, same species.
            When was the last time i talked about 3000 years of priest/”debetera” history? i don’t even care if it is true or not but believe it or not i don’t even like it, but i use it when u use it.
            u guys r the one obsessed with culture and history, which some of it, is not even originally from u and there is evidence everywhere.

      • Haile S.

        Selam Yohannes,

        Continuing on the question you asked, frankly it is a subject for research by a social science student.
        As I said, I don’t recall reading pais import of arms by either of the kings from European countries. However, the two kings were known to writing letters asking for relations and arms. Yohannes has written letters to Britain. Principally most of the arms came from the neighboring arabian merchants and countries, mostly in exchange for slaves (the slaves trade that went through this route is huge and horrible). For example De Cosson, a British who visited and stayed with Yohannes, cites James Bruce saying Mikael Sehul use to export more than 500 slaves at a time to Arabia in exchange of arms. Apparently Massawa was a gate for slaves out – arms in. The peace agreement between Yohannes and the Egyptian Khedive assuring the entry of arms without restriction shows how important arms was above many other imports. After the opening of the suez canal European arm merchants came in masses to the area, among them many french. There are some of them blamed for trading slaves, but the payment must have included, I assume, in gold as well.

        Abyssinian lords/kings use to get arms through these and others ways. The arms were not always of good quality and the gun powder used was locally made or mixed with local material. For these reasons arms needed repairs. There were skilled locals and immigrants (greeks, armenians …), but were not many. Most importantly, any white who penetrates the country was considered skillful in arms and military skills. For this reason the powerful lord/king will keep this person as a quasi-prisoner. Before the half of 19th century, it was difficult for such person to leave Ethiopia. There were other reasons for such retention, but just this because of the subject.
        Following the opening of the Suez Canal, interest on find land for concession by europeans grew and locals were more than tempted to cease land they “owned” or believed they owned against firearms and money. That was the case with Wube’s nephew Negoussie who dreamed on becoming a king. While he was in the jungle hiding away from Tewodros I, he started negotiation with the french mediated through missionaries for such exchange of the Adulis area.
        Best

        • Yohannes Zerai

          Selam Hailat,

          Thank you for your comments (the one above and an earlier one) both of which provided additional information and clarification in connection with my rhetorical question “if the Ethiopian kings had imported anything including weapons and ammunition themselves from European countries.” The question was perhaps not properly worded to effectively convey the point that I was trying to emphasize; but the element in the question that reflected my intent is the word “themselves”.

          As you would agree, if we were to simplify the basic nature of the interaction between colonial powers and indigeneous forces in Africa to its barebones essentials, it can be expressed as follows: Colonialists offered weapons/ammunition and money in return for acquiesence of the local authorities (kings, lords, chieftains, etc.) to their land grab and territorial expansion expeditions. (This of course does not include situations where the colonial powers had decided to control an area through direct military action).

          Returning to the specific case of the Ethiopian kings, the weapons/ammunition that they acquired in abundance through cooperation with colonial powers must have been (i) derived from storage of weapons that the latter had amassed in the region, or (ii) secured through direct shipments made from Europe for that specific purpose. Either of these acquisitions had surely involved weapons/ammunition that transited, at one time or another, through ports (Massawa, Egyptian ports, or any other ports in the region). It is obvious that these acquisitions were arranged either by direct agreements with colonial authorities in the region or through the involvement of intermediaries that included European travelers, explorers, missionaries, traders, envoys etc.

          Realities were essentially the same when it came to trade. Slaves, products, articles of trade left Abyssinia, and firearms and commodities were brought into the country most of which may have passed through Massawa. But this two-way regional trade was carried out by European, Arab and Asian merchants.

          So it is obvious from the foregoing that the Abyssinian kings and their dominions/empires did send items of trade outside the country and did receive other articles from outside. But all that exchange was effected by external or foreign players. In other words, Abyssinian dominions/empires certainly produced materials that were sent to distant destinations through Massawa, and received other materials that came in through Massawa from distant sources. Conclusion: In their passive role as recipients of war materials (or as senders and receivers of products), the Abyssinian kings and their empires were indirect and secondary users of the port of Massawa. And certainly, they could not have owned, controlled or managed the port. It was this argument that I tried to hint at by my inadequate question that asked if “abyssinian kings ever imported weapons themselves”

          Thank you

          • Haile S.

            Selam Yohannes,

            Sorry for not grabbing this part of your quetion. Yes absolutely! You answered it perfectly. What I can add is:
            – merchants or delegated merchants transported the goods and slaves, but No Abyssinian resided there. I haven’t come accross an Abyssinian residing iin Massawa as commercial agent. However, there were plenty of Bannians (Indians) who worked for themselves and served as commercial agents. There were Europeans and others as you mentioned.
            – the merchants must speak Arabic or have a translator (locals of the red sea coast, a Saho for example) among them. It was the langua franca of the area. As soon as you start descending below Asmara or Halai, you need that language if you are to reach Massawa.
            – The seals of Abyssinian kings had an arabic inscription. Both Tewodros and Yohannes seals had. With Geez inscription only, any letter would not make it beyond the escarpment.
            – on the following point I am deviating from the subject matter, but not completely as it applies to Massawa too. In addition to the ports, there was Caravan route from Gondar Gallabat to Egypt through Sudan. Only well connected Arabic speaking delegation or group will make it to Cairo or Alexandra, provided it has enough slaves to sell or distribute on the way. No Abyssinian would venture outside his highland alone or in group without risking to get hunted and sold as slave. Abyssinian slaves, especially women were highly sought and expensive. European painters when including a slave woman in their paintings, they usually identify her as Abyssinian slave. There are many examples of this. I will link one or two on the weekend, Discus allowing.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Yohannes and Awate people,

            As promised in my comment below, here are images of Abyssinian slaves that I briefly mentioned last time. Linking image from gallery of images is frequently blocked by Discus; therefore, instead of linking, please type yourselves “Abyssinian slave paintings” on google and search images. Here are four images that you can easily identify among the first rows.

            – Abyssinian slaves resting at Korti by Louis Haghe

            – Black and while engraving of a Abyssinian slave by Wilhelm Gentz

            – The Harem: Introduction of an Abyssinian by John Frederick Lewis

            – Slave with a baby by Emile Prisse d’Avennes.

          • Yohannes Zerai

            Selam Hailat,

            I thank you for providing — in your last two posts on the subject — additional information that is consistent with the historical facts and observations I presented in my earlier comment on the matter at hand, and for directing us to some interesting images which supplement some of that information.

            I believe that there are some truths and practical considerations that we should keep in mind as we discuss/debate the current subject. It is, of course, intellectually stimulating to read, gather and integrate documented facts on a subject and use them to argue and debate issues with revisionists. However, no one should have the illusion that doing so will bring revisionists around to a different point of view. Because, more often than not such a turnabout is an impossibility with this group of people — and for reasons not hard to figure out.

            You see, it is not for lack of documented evidence or facts about specific historical events, developments, conditions, realities, etc. that revisionists choose to engage in the exercise of rewriting history based on distortions, misrepresentations, deceit, denials and falsehoods. Rather, it is because they are on a mission of promoting a selfish, illegal and unjust agenda and, therefore, strive to mislead people so as to garner public support that would allow them to turn their their wishes, dreams and plans into reality.

            Given these facts, little is to be gained by directly engaging such people in endless and circular debates. What would be more effective and productive is to instead get involved in writing and public-speaking efforts that shield the public from the deceitful manipulations of revisionists by (i) exposing the distortions, half truths and lies that the latter are in the habit of spreading and (ii) laying out hard evidence and documented facts of the matter that the public can verify independently.

            Thank you

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Selam Hailat,

      The 99 years of leasing Djibouti to France by the Abyssinian rulers is a new untold historical agreement in the politics of the Horn so far. It is a new light on the current conflicts in the Horn that could help us to shape our debate. That is why we can boldly say that there could be no politicking without having good grasp of history. Thank you for adding new element to our debate.

      • Selam Amanuel H.,
        There is no proof that such an agreement was ever signed by Menelik or anybody else. Wish somebody provides us with some sort of evidence.

      • Haile S.

        Selam Emma,
        I talked about it because someone brought it up in the discussions. It was something that was quoted frequently during the Djibouti referendum. And we hear it sometimes like now in this forum. As I added in the post scriptum, it has no foundation other than the concession given for the construction and exploitation of the rail between Djibouti and Addis Ababa.

  • said

    Selam Bardavidi
    No man in the whole world can change the truth. One can only look for the truth, find it and serve it.-Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945)
    Let me clarify it and sorry for long respond . You read it completely out of context .there is nothing to indicate in any way or shape .not even a hint do I favor communist system ,not in the past for sure and not today certainly and I am totally against Godless dictatorial communist system . It never personal against whoever want to believe any system. , very often I put Reference quotation .it is not necessarily it about the quotation, some time it is random . I often make quotation from famous people ,from Bible and some times from Quran as below in regard justices etc. It is not about me and what I had to write . I’ve resolved myself to the fact nothing I write will change anything in this present Eritrean situation .Eritrean have being and are on a path towards a painful future. Eritrean faced with a relentless onslaught of pain and suffering for very long time. The readers of this site are most certainly a minority in this warped, ugly , corrupt, arrogant ,ignorant , selfish and hypocrite society. Some work hard and are tireless. They work to see justice, liberty and freedom in Eritrea . some of us coalesce on this because we want to be among others who believe in justice ,equality freedom from IA dictatorial communist government.
    What do you expect from PFDJ,its origins are one people one heart , its origin is from far leftist communist wing ideologue in the age of dictatorships back in the 1930s. a kind of primitive savagery. The states treated their citizens with brutality and oppression , in its extreme level of viciousness reminiscent of the Middle Ages in the interest of preventing political dissent, IA and his cohort believe that any sign of weakness would raise questions about their own mighty power. They are frozen Marxist, and Maoist posture with intersectional themes and in an old-fashioned Communist. Violence alone is the mediator. Lenin said the same and he and Stalin practiced this doctrine as did chairman Mao and the bloody Derge (Mengistu ), The present Eritrean regime is continuation of the same ideology and similarity of the right of Ahmar to rule Ethiopia, which feudal Ethiopian kings and emperors have expanded and subjected and conquered lands to south and enslaved many diverse ethnic groups. Eritrean Unionist who helped The feudal King Haile Selassie to annex Eritrea , who ruled iron fist Ethiopia from early 1930 to 1974.
    EPLF/PFDJ successful establishment on the ruins of a collective dream for a free and open Eritrea whose tragic death Eritreans at large have been mourning for the last 28 years .one learn from history of the French revolution of 1789 and the American revolution of 1775
    EPLF founded mainly on the principal of the communist manifesto and fascist of Russian revelation of 1917 and the Moist Chinese revolution of 1949 – the murderous EPLF/PFDJ regime in Eritrea are made of identical clothes of Moist and Stalinist masse murderous regime

    PFDJ are of same communist school . That resulting deaths were enormous in their short history . the most dangerous ideological phenomenon in the history of mankind. It glorifies dire poverty, the complete and total state control , and mass death. The PFDJ wants to destroy Eritrean civilization, based on Christianity and Islam , the deep rooted traditional family, and equal citizenship and the freedom and liberty. The Massive and gigantic atrocities in the Lenin-Stalin Soviet Union, and Mao’s China. It is a fact that various Communists killed more than 100 million people, not including 2nd world wars. its despicable offspring IA , since EPLF dictatorship had its origins in communism and socialism ideology. idea of EPLF a proletarian revolution proved very ridiculous and impossible to put to work. This vey horrific battle that confronts us today.
    These sad faces and voices are silent heard on the streets of Azamara s and small towns, among the downtrodden and tiny affluent classes alike. The discontent is also echoed and encouraged .the repression, cultural , social religious alienation and economic hardship and Those grievances are daily fact, This is not a secret. The promises of the EPLF/PFDJ ,falsely sought to shore up the nation’s right of self-determination and human rights ,was meant to happen and the realities of everyday life in the country. Long are gone the days of dream to come. with no correspondence with the realty and facts of life. The disillusionment of Eritrean hard core Leftist with both the Soviet Bolshevik and the Chinese Moist experiments. Naïve Eritrean intellectuals and pundits, trying to bring communist idilogy and ideas of utopia and that was increasingly synonymous with totalitarianism and the reign of oppression . Eritrean as people were dreaming that they could build a just nation, the short live spirit engulfed the entire nation and brought with it an enduring sense of great empowerment and sense of achievement . the pride in dignity with which Eritrean people asserted themselves, and the determination manifested in their short history-making and created a new nation thatone dat will continues to exercise its freedom ,independence , Justice, equality, equity, audacity, creativity, and confidence.
    As reported When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, pundits offered a variety of reasons for its failure: economic, political, military. Few thought to add a fourth, more elusive cause: the regime’s total loss of credibility.
    This hard-to-measure process had started in 1956, when Premier Nikita Khrushchev gave his so-called secret speech to party leaders, in which he denounced Josef Stalin’s purges and officially revealed the existence of the gulag prison system. Not long afterward, Boris Pasternak allowed his suppressed novel “Doctor Zhivago” to be published in the West, tearing another hole in the Iron Curtain. Then, in 1962, the literary magazine Novy Mir caused a sensation with a novella set in the gulag by an unknown author named Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn.
    That novella, “A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich,” took the country, and then the world, by storm. In crisp, clear prose, it told the story of a simple man’s day in a labor camp, where he stoically endured endless injustices. It was so incendiary that, when it appeared, many Soviet readers thought that government censorship had been abolished.

    From inception I see the EPLF/PFDJ as a Communist Party or as simply another manifestation of the KING H.S. and Derge administrative cast that has ruled Eritrea . since Independent its break of unification in 1991 For IA present and contemporary Eritrea is the continuation and development of historical Mama Ethiopia, he inherited ,It doesn’t represent areal and sudden change and a just mutation.it is continuation of oppression of an evil government that oppresses its good people. For IA and his die card minion and sellout Unionist. For IA, Eritrean had similar history is same like Mama Ethiopia , in which capo di tutti capi IA government and the core people of his supporters are shaping each other. They’re loyal to their Mama Ethiopia . is nothing but a necessary evil. The idea of public trust and subsidiarity that’s fundamental to democracy is unknown to the IA and his die card minion , an intolerant, anti-democratic, unsustainable—can be stopped before it is too late. IA and his well known minions opportunist. relatively small number. power hungry. low morals, highly corrupt apparatchiks decide how to ran the nation to the ground, built upon a crumbling foundation. they wield immense power and control over the country ,exerting their near monopolistic control and maintain their control, power and riches. is a testament to their worthlessness and sleaze. PFDJ economic monopoly and fraud scheme, used to mislead the masses and enrich themselves and has created a heads they win tails we lose economic system. and the minion reward themselves, satiated and enriched and they becoming filthy rich in the process by selling Eritrean gold production to their pocket . For 20 year the money piles up in bank accounts of Eritrean oligarchy. which is still playing out today. we are just ordinary poor people, powerless with no desire to do injustices to any one let alone.
    IA is the personification of evil. He had the complete control over all levers of government. With his obedient minions small cadre of unelected, unregulated, unaccountable Mafioso thugs allowed to use the massive power of the state to rule over the poor soul of Eritrean people, at same time enriching themselves and their acolytes? the PFDJ supporters still do love their incarnated king IA . So do the hard core warmongers and the statists, and Communists and leftists of every rotten variety are with IA
    the silent majority are different . The average person in Eritrea is just trying to live their life, earn a living if they can , support their family, and try to achieve some semblance of normality and happiness during their short stay on this doomed land,

    Eritrea as nation it is one man’s version. IA personalities were not unknown in our short history. Everyone knows that. and yet, in case we haven’t noticed, the fact that IA in all our faces like no king Haile Selassie , no dictator Derge, no General, no Eritrean entertainer, no performer ever is hardly come close .IA was well person. obvious to everyone and much was known. And to be expected. At some level, it’s not even complicated. .IA damaged Eritrea in ways that may take a generation to undo. a failed country, clock stopped frozen in time for more than sixty years, nothing to account for. for the last 29 of those years, Eritrea has been in an economic Bermuda Triangle, unable to move forward economically and unable to take advantage of opportunity presented.
    It is quite a Struggle to gain the conscience of the Dominant Forces of the regime that are Committed to the DOCTRINE of Equating Anti- Eritrean It was long ago EPLF dominant forces while quite revealing, deeply disheartening of the chances that the powerful movers of the powerful and outreaching and can one day break away from dogma, myopic deep self-righteousness and reconcile with the detached Universal Values of Justice, Freedom and the Upholding of the “Dignity of Man” as apply, irrespectively, to all mankind.
    In the New Testament, ‘Matthew 25:40: Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me.

    To make few quotation in regard remedy .The Quran praises those who always act “in the light of truth” and tells us: “Perfected are the words of your Lord in truth and justice”. It tells us also: “Behold, God enjoins justice and good actions and generosity to our fellows…”, and it commands us never to let hatred lead us into deviating from justice: “Be just! That is closest to God consciousness”. This, of course, applies to all believers who must fear divine justice if subjective factors or personal emotions lead them to deviate from the path of justice
    In the Christian tradition St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that, among all human pursuits, “the pursuit of wisdom is more perfect, more noble, more full of joy” than any other human enterprise. the Quran itself recognizes the reality of human weakness. Those who are injured are permitted to take retaliation but they are reminded at every turn that it is better to forgive and to seek reconciliation. Muslims are commanded to return good for evil, thus breaking the vicious circle of animosity; “to do good to those who have injured us” in the words of one of the classical commentators on the Quran.

  • said

    Greetings,
    Revolution is impossible until it is inevitable. Leon Trotsky.
    Loud Thoughts on the Institutionalization ‘Culture of Popular Solidarity’
    We have quite few Eritrean Intellectual and statesman that I found it quite valuable with the entailed revelations in a rare account of a witness insider relating the political events in an intellectual analytical context that serve as a good source of knowledge and further analysis. However, in particular, I found it both inspirational and encouraging or discouraging ,a term predicting the long-term future of Ethiopian , this as it is coming from the horse’s mouth of a very politically savvy hands-on seasoned politician; this, where they referred to Ethiopia’s future as an exclusivist dyeing Ethiopian Amhara supremacists and the old historical Ethiopia State of King Haile Selasse was totally untenable. In realty description Ethiopia “As an anomalous entity condemned to oblivion that cannot be sustained on the merits objective realities.” Ethiopian faces many eternal problem. , over coming religious, ethnic and political affiliations. Tolerance and freedom is absent and to make a successful democratic transition. Yes Ethiopia has experienced impressive economic growth in the past 10 years but it has not led to any real substantial improvement in living conditions of the masses. With new Dame some change will improve the economy today only a third 33 per cent of the population has electricity and 20 per cent can access the internet, well below the Africa average.
    Ethiopia’s triple transition is complicated by economic inequality and unequal access to opportunity, much like the challenge.
    At PM AA 43, he is the youngest leader on the world’s youngest continent, one greatly hope PM AA is seriously putting Ethiopia on a path to be a genuine leader of this broad-ranging change. Near economic collapse, with little infrastructure, sort of dysfunctional institutions, staggering external debt mainly to China. A government is overly bloated civil service, and a culture shaped by decades of desperation, continuing violence and dependency of grant and help from western government

    PM AA will be facing discontent when regime were unable to meet the high expectations of a people too long subjected to the real poverty trap and an certain future . coming election one of many PM Abiy’s most immediate challenges in all honesty and transparency how to manage this pressure in the lead up to national elections. It will not never be easy and one most key ingredient for success would be to separate ethnic politics and faith from electoral politics. That strongly requires unwavering commitment to transparency and true democratic reform . Ethiopia is basket case but it faces a change and a test case for seeking sustainable inclusive growth that embraces and respect regulomes freedom individual cultural and ethnic origins. Mr Abiy has proposed a realistic and forward-looking programme. I call on Africa and the international community to back

    Ethiopia is in a Continuous Time-Buying Mode that the Eritrean in their shortsightedness and the committing of ceaseless blunders are gratuitously offering to Ethiopia the precious time.in1950th and 60th, It is the Eritrean s’ Weakness and repeated serious political and strategic blunders that are buying Ethiopia the time at each and every crucial juncture. IA is the biggest friend to Abiy.
    Simply I am referring to a few examples in this context, Eritrean unionist foremost, gross stupidity and ignorance handling the Ethiopia – Eritrean relations at the time ; as well King Haile Selasse huge disaster of the invasion and colonization of Eritrea concluded that with the current grossly misplaced imbecility – following on the Dictates of Washington – to “Setup Ethiopia as the Existential Enemy of the Eritrean ” in lieu of the increasingly aggressive adhering “Western Imperialist- nexus’ Hegemony.”
    The loud mouth ,an ultra elite arrogant Ethiopian debates and arguments were predominately self-congratulatory, myopic and self-righteous hardly what one needed to hear on their own Ethiopian disintegrating if they look very carefully where the country is heading. And that its actions and foreign policies determine the state of affairs of the horn of Africa and peace with Eritrea. All you could hear from old school , high ranking military generals and important Ethiopia politicians debating Eritrean issue among themselves. How they forget their beloved King Haile Selassie was punt an end by Colonel Mengistu and how It was a farce of a trial, barely an hour long, held in a kangaroo court, but the verdict was already decided. The red revolution had triumphed. But had it. uprising was a bloody. still teach a vital lesson: don’t let the revolution be co-opted. Nowadays, millions youth are yearning for justice and freedom burns much more brightly than ever Ethiopia .Brave young demonstrators demand the end of corrupt and tyrannical regime controlled by TPLF /EPRDf. Past and present Ethiopia regimes are far more resilient than they appear, even when some of their leaders are executed. They sense what is coming and they plan ahead and people are doomed, With false promise . New liberator TPLF 1991 marked less the much destruction of the old system than its entrenchment, albeit in a new incarnation just the same lasted 28 years . for TPLF Political power matters little when you can simply help yourself to a nation’s wealth ,when you owns a state-. TPLF grabbed what it can . Numerous high-ranking TPLF officials became extremely rich extremely very quickly in the land of poor people and misery .Ethiopia, It was witnessing this wholesale plunder. PM Melase determination to centralise economic as well as political power once he was fundamentally elected as prime minister. Ethiopian people’s revolted and uprising brought down the regime. And much of the army, police and security services stayed put Today one have to be very carful regime sacrificed the certain leadership, but they would keep their power and privileges, regime networks of old party officials, and the brutal Securitate secret police, essentially still ran Ethiopia. The reformist prime minister AA played a smarter game of politics . There, a understanding “handshake transition” saw the ruling party agree to cede power without much violence to PM AA. .For the Red Derge revolutionaries in 2073 and 1991 , 2018 like their predecessors , the key to regime change is simple and the same take over the capital city and occupy the centre of power and hold it, for as long as it takes. at whatever price.
    However, all been said, one very important recent strategic peace agreement blunder that have committed buying Ethiopia Eritrea leader valuable time. Agreements with PMAA is tantamount to a huge step towards the “Consolidation of IA’
    Considering the seriousness of the political and strategic blunder .absent all the sincere popular protests rejecting the Deal, more specifically by Eritrean diaspora ,the Civil Societies and Human Rights organizations’ organized marches and the information campaigns; however, all proved ineffective and to a No-Avail.
    The main reason, in my view, that caused the failure of the civic societies in diaspora to stop and cause the annulment . Eritrea is subjected to most unprecedented ruthless rules by a very ruthless Eritrean regime which ban all forms of popular protests and demonstrations, all this despite organized marches and demonstrations in Ethiopia , sadly lie in the absence of a well-embedded and a well-observed Culture of “Popular Mumani3a & Solidarity” that all the State institutes and apparatuses, organs of the Deep State, collaboratively susceptible to participation in the consolidation of normalization of relations with, Ethiopia are failing to imbibe and instill in the average citizen,

    In view of this reality, it is incumbent on the none governmental civic societies and Human Rights Organizations to circumvent the complacency and the collaborative State official apparatuses and media towards normalization of relations with Ethiopia , by the civic societies and human rights organizations to take the initiative instead upon themselves to fully assume responsibilities to developing and seeing the implementation of a well-conceived strategy and a plan to foster and consolidate a sustainable long-term popular rejection of normalization with Ethiopia with its Nexus’ hegemony, going further by consolidating the foundations of a “Culture of popular Awareness and Solidarity.”

    The none-government civic societies’ initiative should aim at the reprioritization of the national goals and objectives; the launching and implementation of a well-thought through comprehensive Strategy and a Plan that ought to systematically deploy all means accessible towards the furtherance of the edification of a true resistance .This entails the creation of conscious educational and awareness programs; organizing and civil disobedience initiatives as warranted by the nature of the challenge intended to foster initiatives of normalization of relations with Ethiopia and flagrantly joining in initiatives that consolidate Ethiopia nexus’s hegemonic plans and initiatives.
    The civic societies, and as an essential complementary initiative, ought to educate the public to follow a culture of self-sufficiency, significantly containing and cutting down on the culture of consumerism, imports of unessential goods that perpetuate the indebtedness and budget imbalances which enhance dependency on the conditional largess of donor Western powers. This with the objective of increasing societal harmony; the fostering of communal equality and fraternal co-existence that mitigate the ills of a class society. All that requires profound reorientations and transformations that run contrary to the long-tolerated IA sectarian deep state and status quo agendas and aberrations, including, foremost, the economic dependency on the conditional largess of the hegemonic forces and the handouts by the Western vassal region’s rich client states including the GCC countries .
    The Campaign should aim at the reprioritization of the national goals and objectives besides the pursuit of conscious policies and strategies to strengthening closer cooperation and the systematic building of closer ties with the progressive forces in the Western countires and Asia region, mainly countries considered rival to the Western hegemonic powers.
    In the absence of regime changes at the ballots through non-violent true democratic means, the Active Civil Societies need to think more creatively to circumvent and supplant the state’s stifling powerful control of the media, the organs of the dissemination of information and the state’s political cultural biases. The civil societies can capitalize on methods and means that are increasingly rendered more varied, readily accessible and quite affordable – thanks to the governing requisites of the continuous evolution to knowledge-based societies and the preponderance of the social media revolution. These facts provide civil societies with ample resources to increasingly assume control of the Eritrean public agenda. In Conclusion, to sum it up, “Once there is a Will, there will be a Way.”
    Eritrea Civil Societies taking the initiative for the public to assume control of their lives and destinies would put an end to double-standard and channel the interests, goals and public priorities towards the edifying of “Culture of Popular Solidarity’” with all its attendant requisites of discipline, transparency, accountability and good governance.

    • bardavidi

      Hi….Said……..Thanks for the Point of Discussion But,There is no Society or State that does not have to go thru many Problems during a time of Growth and Development……It takes time and work to overcome………You seem to be Stressing on the Negative of what they are going thru rather than the Impressive Positive aspects of it………It might have something to do with your Quotation of Leo Trotsky,s saying………After all Trotsky is not worth mentioning in any manner………The Ideology he was aspiring for is what ate him up at the end………. He did not know the difference between Good and Evil…….Translation……..Communists do not have a Gauge for Morale Values and that is why they failed over and over again………Their Foundation was built on Sand and not Stone and that is exactly why they came apart during Turmoil and so did he………..Selah

      • said

        Selam bardavidi
        Sorry I thought it was Spam ,I responded to you as above, it is a different answer that you won’t see in the above . It would ruin the narrative. Today china is very different than the above ,it a mix of capitliesm and central power control by the CCP (Chinese Communist Party)
        What has become of moral discourse, in the present flux of the world order? Who owns it? We can set aside the phenomenon of fake news and social media manipulation, which feed on moral discourse like vultures, but do not generate it. What do global audiences care about, and who do they believe? The West has dominated the post-war narrative with its doctrine of liberal values, arguing that not only were they right in themselves but that economic success itself depended on their application. Two developments have challenged those claims. The first was the West’s own betrayal of its principles: on too many occasions the self interest of the powerful, and disdain for the victims of collateral damage, has showed through. The second dates from more recently: the growth of Chinese capitalism owes nothing to a democratic system of government, let alone liberal values.Nearly every single dynastic change was the result of peasant revolts; foreign invasions, for the most part, toppling what was already unstable. as reported Even as recently as the final dynasty of the Qing the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) saw more Chinese dead during this period than the Japanese ever inflicted, with estimates up to 30-40 Chinese million dead. Throughout Chinese history, nearly all of its bloodiest conflicts coincided with dynastic changes. The CCP (Chinese Communist Party) of today has not negated these same factors that plagued Chinese civilization repeatedly throughout history. We should not expect that the Chinese could escape their history any more than we could.China has internal ethnic tensions, over-centralization of the federal government, massive corruption, massive pollution. There are many reasons why China won’t become a superpower in the foreseeable future.

  • Miriam

    Dear Sir, there is no need at all for Ethiopians and Eritreans to be enemies, but circumstances set us up to be enemies. Ethiopians can not be landlocked just because the Italians conquered Assab area and integrated it into their colony Eritrea. You can see the Ethiopian point to view even if you disagree. It makes no sense for Ethiopia to accept being landlocked. No one in ethiopia is interested in conquering Eritrea ie Asmara, Hamasien Keren etc. What for? Anyway our discussion is useless, things have changed, and Ethiopia as you knew her, ie Amhara dominated Ethiopia is dead. So not sure why you are upset about an irrelevant journalist’s statement. BTW, never mind Eritrea, he is about to loose his capital city, Addis Ababa, soon to be called Finfinae. Eritrea is different too, and who knows if Eritrea will survive as a state? Will Ethiopia be around in a few years? I don’t know. We will probably end up in the similar situation like the pre-italian era..warring, squabbling regional Abesha fiefdoms.

    • Berhe Y

      Hi Miriam,

      There was no time in history in today’s Ethiopia has ever existed as a country controlling Asseb, Massawa or the Red sea. Asseb, Massawa was as far as Berbere Somalia or Mumbasa Kenya or Djibouti to the Ethiopian abyssinian kiings. Ethiopia didn’t become land locked because Italians conquered Asseb. They were landlocked all through out their history.

      Why isn’t Ethiopia making claims to that part of the Red sea or Indian ocean.

      Today roads and links of Ethiopia including access to the sea was created ALL of it by Italy.

      So the claim that Italy controlled Asseb out of Ethiopia is totally false.

      Now, Eritrea has no interest in denying Ethiopia access to the sea. But Eritrea is a sovereign state and it should be left alone.

      The only people who have the power to change this reality are the Eritrean people as have done in the 50s. It turned out to be a very bad and costy experiences and I don’t think the Eritrean people have any desire to repeat that experience.

      Eritrea is going to stay as a country, there is nothing that will change it. Ethiopia should worry about itself and should leave Eritrea alone.

      Berhe

      • Teodros Alem

        berhe
        stop acting as if u have a say on it, we all know u r nothing to assabe or even to asmera, no body is talking about adigreat or adawa.
        ur argument is the same argument like Derg, derg used to argue the same way on behalf of ethiopia and now u saying same thing except ur argument is on behalf of eritrea but same argument. history, sovereignty crap.
        i can tell u this, right now u occupied asseb but i can tell u things will charge for sure. nasty.

        • Berhe Y

          Hi TA,

          So at the end of the day, you are waiting for opportune time to come and take over.

          Basically you are exactly like Tamrat guy, he just said it publicly.

          And every Eritreans knows this.

          I am Eritrean and I have a say in my country.

          Berhe

          • Teodros Alem

            selam berhe
            forget who u r, we all know ur heart and mind.
            u argument is like “if u have power come and get it like we did” kind of argument.
            U literally saying sovereignty, history back us up so it is ours, derg used to say same thing, it is historical ethiopia and its ethiopian sovereign land. u both r occupiers.
            come up with another plans.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi TA,

            I told you for thousands times, it’s Eritrean land. And the Eritrean land includes the people of Asseb.

            Like I told you, the people of Asseb, Massawa and other costal parts of Eritrea, wanted Eritreans independence same as other parts of Eritrea (if not more) so I don’t if you get this or not.

            I told you, and by the way, all Thu’s Zeraf, Zeraf is nothing but “zehmqo aleni betrey habuni”. Why don’t you bitter Djibouti ?

            But you are coward because, dijobuti has the protection of France.

            Derg was Eritrean people enemy, so I don’t know what tat I have to do with Derg.

            Berhe

          • Teodros Alem

            selam berhe
            Re-read ur own response to mariam, even though u r not eligible to be in the army because of isem, adigreat, adawa reasons, u r the one saying zeraf zeraf.
            I will tell u million times ur argument is same argument with derg and i tell u million times u have no say on it and it is mainly afar land .

          • Miriam

            I actually was NOT saying that the Italians took Assab from Ethiopia. I believe at that time of the European invasion of East Africa, Assab was part of an Afar Sheikdom. The coastal areas in Eritrea has always been contested and under different jurisdictions. Depending on the time, some areas were under the jurisdiction of the Axumites (as we know), but also the post axumite kings, including Amhara kings of the middle ages through their local allies. It also fell to the Turks. Truth be told, Assab is part of the Afar homeland. It does not “belong” to Amhara or Tigrigna speakers. We are thieves insisting it belongs to us. I am just saying that Assab, the closest port to the heartland of central Ethiopia is important to Ethiopia economically.
            There is no reason why the tigrigna speakers of Eritrea should hold the coast all to themselves at the expense of central Ethiopians (Amharas, Oromos, southerners) just because they were gifted it by the Italians. Ironically, had Menelik lost the war, the Italians might have incorporated Afar into Ethiopian empire, and after liberation, we might have had a port just like you guys. An Ethiopia without a port will always be a destabilizing force for Eritrea. It’s not worth it for Tigrigna speakers of Eritrea (the movers and shaker of Eritrea) to suffer for Assab, to insist it is yours when it is yours because the Italians gifted it to you. Come to think of it, does even Massawa belong to Tigrigna speakers? We Amhara and Tigrigna and other highlanders (ie. Abesha highlanders) are thieves, stealing the coast from the indigenous nomads of the coast. Are we not? Thieves should share for the sake of peace. In either case, if (that is a big IF) ever Ethiopia gets her act together, it would be a piece of cake wresting Assab from Eritrea. The Arabs will shut up because of GERD.

            Good point about Djibout and the French.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Mariam,

            Please don’t try to guilty trap me. As an Eritrean, my wish is my country people, be it afar, saho, Tigre, Kunama or anyone else to live in peace in his her own country freely.

            I have no desire to steal anything from anyone and I have no appreciation others to do the same. The Afar people of Eritrea, as far as I know, bleed, died, fought to help free a country called Eritrea. That’s what I know and as long as they wanted to be part and parcel of Eritrea, no matter what they are my people and Aseb is my country.

            In case you have figured it out, Eritreans do not care who is where from, the people are first and the land is second, at that’s what they fought to build.

            Race, ethnicity, I should benefit at the price others, I am sorry belongs to you.

            And this exact reason why, Ethiopia who had the whole Africa, gambled to lose, for I don’t even know what, to be honest with you.

            And we have been victims of that stupid obsession, greed, close mindedness for the past 70 plus years. It’s not going away, it keeps coming back.

            HS, Derg, EPRDF and their entire policy revolves around, destroying the ERITREAN people peace.

            Look, we didn’t make the rule, that’s where the colonial masters decided to breakup Africa and make up countries.

            I don’t a special rule needs to apply to Eritrea and just get over this obsession and move on and make peace. No body has a desire to “chock you up” but respect people’s desire to be free.

            Berhe

          • sara

            Dear ato berhe,
            a new comer to the forum is spewing the usual bad intention of our
            southern neighbors elite…. i dont understand the obsession they
            have of grabbing others property be it land or sea..and the worst
            is every things is seen from ethnic perspective.

          • Miriam

            Dear Sara, it is very easy to understand. Free access to the sea.

          • Hameed Al-Arabi

            Ahlan Miriam,

            Ethiopians fought to get the Red Sea, but beaten. It is not wise to attempt again what they have done in the past. I advise them to seek outlet in the Indian Ocean or Djebutti or it seems they are afraid from France, Kenya and Somali. It is better to look for their needs in the Indian Ocean. In fact, those who encourage them to look towards the Red Sea, they just want them to guad for them Israil.

            Moreover, all present maps of the countries in Africa and many parts of the world are made by colonizers. If we applied old maps, Ethiopia will lose Oromo, Southern Ethiopia, Ogaden, Beni Shengol and Afar, they will be confine to the Amhara area only.

            Al-Arabi

          • Miriam

            No, Djibouti is our back up, safe outlet. It will have to be Assab because Assab was once part of Ethiopia, we have Afar citizens, Assab is very close to Central Ethiopia

          • Hameed Al-Arabi

            Ahlan Miriam,

            “Djibouti is our back up, safe guaranteed but expensive outlet.” say it aloud you are afraid from France. All your logic is a jungle law logic. According to this Medieval Age thinking, anyone who feels power will claim and attack others. The moment you feel powerless you are submissive the same as that with France. your logic is built on confiscate the property of the weak and run away from the strong ones. This logic doesn’t work with Eritreans. You have tried and failed and you will fail again and again. Eritreans defeated you though you were backed up by the west and east. The same lesson or worse you will take in the future if you don’t drop this looting mentality.

            Eritreans afflicted by an evil neighbor, very retarded neighbor who doesn’t learn from history and no hope on the horizon to be civilized.

            Al-Arabi

          • Miriam

            Selam Al Arabi-

            Eritrea because of the law of the jungle when the powerful Italians and French snatched and colonized the lands by defeating the weaker local people. There is no reason for Ethiopia to accept the gross injustice of no access to the sea due to the past jungle behavior of the Europeans.

            “Scared” is not the right word, France is not a cruel country, and France and Ethiopia are in very good terms. It is a matter of calculation.

            Dergue decided not to claim Djibouti because Ethiopia will loose POLITICALLY so why even entertain a military conflict? France is a major western superpower with a seat in the UN security council, and so the UN will never recognize Ethiopia’s claim. The UN will impose economic sanctions against Ethiopia and France will embargo the port with her navy.

            As I wrote again and again, Ethiopia lost Eritrea because the government over reached and fought for all of Eritrea. Don’t forget Eritrea lost the Badme war. There will be no major wars between Eritrea and Ethiopia, both are exhausted and both peoples are in friendly terms. I think what will happen is that after Isias, Eritrea will no longer be a stable state, and Ethiopia will just occupy Assab without much resistance and with the support of the Afar.

          • Hameed Al-Arabi

            Ahlan Miriam,

            ” France is a major western superpower with a seat in the UN security council, and so the UN will never recognize Ethiopia’s claim.” Again you proved the jungle law mindset.

            ” after Isias, Eritrea will no longer be a stable state, and Ethiopia will just occupy Assab without much resistance and with the support of the Afar.” here also again you confirmed your jungle law mindset. You are happy to attack the weak, shame on you. In Eritrea, we defend and support the weak. Really, we are two different peoples.

            Al-Arabi

          • Idrisawate

            ‘Dont forget eritrea lost the badme war’. I would like to remind you failed to capture assab, while suffering over 100k dead with 200000 plus wounded. You will never be United like you was then. Our ports have too much value.Act civilised like al-arabi is telling you, any attempt to get territories that arent yours through war will only elongate others suffering.

          • Nitricc

            HI Miriam gual Adi grat. what is funny is, you are shopping for shoes while your leg is being amputated. Forget Eritrea, Ethiopia is exploding. right now, at this moment there is massacre happening in Dredawa. your country is going down hill. Regarding Asseb, well, you had your chance in 1998 and 2000. that was the time in your history were unites and strong, even then Eritrea beat your azz and sending your generals crying like little girl. people like you, handicapped who can do nothing but talk will keep Eritreans sharpened. keep it coming it is good for Eritrea and Eritreans. did you see how useless slap one united all Eritrean regardless their political difference? exactly. it is good for Eritrea.

          • Abi

            Hello Al-Arabi
            The Ethiopians you proudly dismissed as “retarded “ and proudly declared that they don’t have any hope for civilization, are hosting your people.
            I hope every Ethiopian back home is reading your comments and see the mindsets of Eritreans.

          • Berhe Y

            ስምዒ እስከ ምርያም፡

            ምሽ መለስ ዓሰብ ንግመሎም ማይ የስትዩሉ ኢሎ ንዕስራ ዓመት ዝአክል ብዘይ ዓሰብ ትኸዱ ነርኩም፡፡ ሳላ ከምኡ ዝገብርኩም ዶ አይኮነንን፡ ኢኮኖሚኹም ዓብዩ፡ ሓንሳብ ንቻይና፡ ንሓሳብ ደቡብ ኮርያ ከነርክበን ዶ ትብሉ አይነብርኩምን፡፡ እይታይ ሓድሽ ነገር ተረኺቡ፡፡

            ብተወሳኺ ድማ 4 ቢልዮን ዶ አጥፊእኩም፡ ኤልክትሪክን መገዲ ባቡርን ዶ ንጅቡቲ አይሰራሕኩም፡፡ ሽዑ ዘይከበረ ድእ ሕጂ ከመይ ገይሩ ከቢሩና ትብሉ፡፡

            ብወገነይ፡ በዚ ውጥም በቲ ውጥም ትብሉ ዘለኹም፡ ነገር ምትኽታኽ ኮይኑ እዩ ዝስመዓኒ፡፡ ብፍላይ ድማ፡ ሕጂ እዚ ነገራት ናበይ ይኸይድ ከም ዘሎ ስለ ዘይተፈልጠ፡ ንኤርትራ ድማ አብቲ ናታትኩም ዕንክሊሊል ንምእታይ እዩ፡፡

            እንተድአ አዲስ አበባ ክትጠፍአኩም ከላ ሕራይ ኢልኩም ተቀቢሉኩም፡ ንዓና እንታይ ግበሩ ትብሉና አለኹም፡፡

            ደሓን ሽጣራኹም ኩሉ ፈሊጥናዮ አለና፡፡ ካበይ ይመጽእ ከም ዘሎን፡ እንታይ ዕላማ ከም ዘለዎን፡ ከይ ደቀስና ዝሓለምናዮ ኢና፡፡

            በርሀ

          • sara

            dear sister,
            many have said before you , and they ended up no where except to
            bring agony to the poor people of the region….and you being a new
            participant in theses august forum, it became for most us a surprise
            of 2020.——- btw, where you live they say there is no free lunch……
            therfore no free access to the sea .

          • Hashela

            Selam Abi

            Poor Berhe, you guys are keeping him busy. The wise Eritrean said: „ let alone to be colonized by Amhara, colonizing them is troubling and chaotic. You know, some sheeps are easier to herd than the other. Kudos to TPLF for having you under tight control for 27 years and giving you a home work that requires 100 years to solve. Unintentionally, TPLF did Eritrea a favor

          • Nitricc

            Kudos to TPLF for having you under tight control for 27 years and giving you a home work that requires 100 years to solve. Unintentionally, TPLF did Eritrea a favor

            SAY No more. I will be very surprise if Ethiopians past this election season. First and for most Oromo will eliminate with in. mark my word. I lough when they talk about Asseb and Eritrea. Ethiopia is going to hell but they can’t see it.

          • Hashela

            Selam my patriotic brother

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Nitricc
            It been a while since u comment here,
            do u know the poltical ideology of oromo poltical parties? The likes of OFP , trust me they r not there to hurm ethiopia, they r there to protect what they think oromo interest, so if they win, which they will not, but if they win nothing bad will come out and am sure they will have a stronger stand on assab then the current one.
            Regardless of oromo pltocal parties, the people of oromos r diverse and the very most have a feeling of ethiopiawenet the same way the amharas do.
            Election will be won by 3A party, how do i know? I know because i know how they conduct election .

          • Nitricc

            Hey Teddy; I didn’t say they will harm Ethiopia, I said they will eat each other out like no tomorrow. Tell me one thing an Oromo political party achievement? None!
            new look at the least and you tell me.

            List of Oromo political parties
            The parties
            Oromo People’s Congress.

            Ethiopian Social Democratic Federal Party.

            Southern Ethiopia People’s Democratic Coalition.

            All-Amhara People’s Organization.

            Oromia Liberation National Party.

            Ethiopian Democratic Unity Party.

            Afar Revolutionary Democratic Unity Front.

            All-Ethiopia Socialist Movement.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Nitricc
            U right , the point is some of them r there to help distract each others and the other point is, u know how the election conduct, example let us say there r 15 opposition against 1 gov party , who ever get the higher number out of the 16 parties , 1 will win. all the 15 opposition will distribute the opposition vote against 1 gov parties. plus the turn out of the people who oppose the gov is less.

          • Abi

            Hello Hashela
            Thanks for your help.
            The wise guy is not wise enough to know Ethiopian history. No one colonized the brave people of Ethiopia. He is a typical arrogant Eritrean.
            The rest of your ዝባዝንኬ is expected of ALL Eritrean elites with a bellow average mental capacity. The only favor tplf did for Eritreans is sending them to refugee camps like a well behaving herd.
            It is practically impossible to put “wise” and “Eritrean” in the same sentence. Arrogant, I agree.

          • Hashela

            Hi Abi
            why all the bitterness. It is not healthy at a personal as well as at a national level. I wonder whether you would still be so bitter, if you and me enjoy Injera and mess (honey wine) together, as neighbors occasionally do.

          • Abi

            Hello Hashela
            I’m not bitter at all. I’m just helping you understand that tplf , unlike your convictions, did not do anything that is considered favorable to Eritreans in general. If you consider abusing Ethiopians for the last 27 years, and continue to do the same for the next 100 years as a favor, all I can say is that you are not wise. You are just repeated what the wise Eritreans said during the historic referendum. You are the flip side of Tamrat.

            One day I will visit masawa . I don’t think Eritreans are welcoming people. Do you know how many times we are told to stay away from this website by the wise and nationalist Eritreans?

          • Nitricc

            The wise guy is not wise enough to know Ethiopian history. No one colonized the brave people of Ethiopia. He is a typical arrogant Eritrean.

            Hey Ras Abiy; I don’t think there is more confused society than the Ethiopians. you keep saying that Asseb belong to Ethiopia and Eritrea is part of Ethiopia, then you turn around and declare ” No one colonized the brave people of Ethiopia” But the truth is Eritrea was colonized for 60 years. My point is if you believe that Eritrea is part of Ethiopia i.e. since Eritrea was under colony so does Ethiopia. But the fact is you keep saying Ethiopia never colonized underlines the fact that is Eritrea never been part of Ethiopia, if she was, no Ethiopian will say Ethiopia never colonized. but for confused people, anything is possible.

          • Abi

            Hello General
            I was looking for your playoffs predictions.
            For confused people being colonized is a badge of honor.
            That is your collective Purple Heart.

          • Nitricc

            Hey Ras Abiy; I haven’t followed this season. I was out of a country for a couple of months and I lost all the connection. However, I had the chance this past Sunday to watch both games and the super ball victory goes to the chiefs. I know every one is crazy about the 49ers but chiefs get this one.

          • Abi

            Hello General
            I’m also for the chiefs.
            Welcome back, General.
            Were you on a witness protection program? You made dangerous enemies fighting the dedebit crew.

          • Miriam

            Hi Hashela

            Your are right about TPLF and the homework.

            TPLF had an easy job with Amharas because the Amhara masses accepted TPLF for many reasons (too long to go into that) and found them useful. Everything went downhill between the two because of Wolkiate.

            TPLF did do Eritrea a favor. EPLF is doing Ethiopia a favor.

          • Hashela

            HI Miriam

            A correction if I may: Isu is doing Ethiopia a favor

          • Miriam

            Dear Berhe,

            You said

            “Look, we didn’t make the rule, that where the colonial masters decided to break up Africa and make up countries”.

            Exactly!!

            That is why Amhara consider the Eritrean State-notice I said state-as an enemy state, the middle finger the Italians left Amharas.

            And Abesha Ethiopians will never accept what the colonial masters did, cutting central Ethiopia off completely from the Red Sea.

            Afars did not support independence from Ethiopia. They were never asked. You Tigrigna speakers have got to stop insisting you speak for the Afar and the other non Tigrigna communities. Sheesh, you are just as bad as Amharas with your chauvinism.

            Haile Sellassie and Dergue were wrong for opposing Eritrean independence. What they should have done is focus on gaining Assab ONLY. Haile Sellassie’s problem was he genuinely thought of Tigrigna Eritreans as family on account of orthodox religion. He also wanted to make peace with Eritrean Muslim. He did not hate Muslims. As it turned out, his mother was a Muslim, a secret he kept from everyone. But his minions were feudal religious bigots and he was trapped in his own moronic feudal system. In either case, this is all irrelevant now.

            Anyway, Assab will always be a sticking point between Tigrigna of Eritrea and Amharas. How all this will play out I don’t know. Both Ethiopia and Eritrean states are in trouble right now, basket cases.

            Hell, we might loose Addis Ababa to the Oromos, never mind gaining Assab.

            As for Eritrea, you have an astute leader. Like Janhoi, Isias knows Eritrea is a fake state and fake nation. That is why he has the whole lot of you locked up or exiled.

            What a mess we are all in.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Miriam,

            I think you need to fix your own mess and let worry about our own mess. When I said colonial powers, I was referring to European powers and how they broke Africa up, Eritrea case is no different.

            What happened to “አሰብ ንግመል ማይ የስትይሉ”.

            I don’t know who said it but one wise Eritrean said “አምሓራ ይትረፍ ክገዝእኻ፡ ክትገዝኦም ጸገም” i didn’t believe it but I started to think he has point now.

            Do what you have to do.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            Please translate what this wise Eritrean said.
            የቀንየለይ ሀወይ

          • Hashela

            Selam Abi
            Poor Berhe, you guys are keeping him busy.
            The wise Eritrean said: „ let alone to be colonized by Amhara, colonizing them is troubling and chaotic. You know, some sheeps are easier to herd than the other. Kudos to TPLF for having you guys under tight control for 27 years and giving you a home work that requires 100 years to solve. Unintentionally, TPLF did Eritrea a favor.

          • Teodros Alem

            selam berhe
            Ali Abdu was the one said ” let alone to colonize by amhara, colonizing them is troubling” and he was right because feudalism in ethiopia was troubling and colonizing amhara is impossible troubling, so he is right except he should to colonize by feudal ethiopians or feudal amharas than amhara and we know it is ur poltical strategy to equal ethiopia with amhara and he knowingly or unknowingly learn it from u guys.
            Yes assab is still a water hole for camels, it doesn’t have use for the benefit of the eritrean public.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi TA,

            I don’t think Ali Abdu said it, unless he is repeating someone elder who said it (during federation) times.

            My father use to quite his mother (my grand mother) saying:

            Mengisti Amhara AmTa tiraH eyu Zibil.

            When we say Amhara, we mean who ever is in charge of Ethiopia who is using Amharic as their language.

            We didn’t know the difference among them.

            I am quoting, and quoting as I heard it. I don’t have to qualify it and interpreted what he meant or not.

            It doesn’t matter, what ethnicity he is. It means Ethiopian.

            Didn’t one of your professor, use to make an argument there is “no ethnic group called Amhara” and arguing with Melles.

            Berhe

          • Teodros Alem

            selam berhe
            I first heard it from Ali Abdu, ur father and mother used to be ruled by amharas all of thier ……life, there is no way they can say that.
            I mean. u said u guys r “habesh” right? Learn the history of habesha(Abyssinia) .

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Teodros,

            I think you need to read your history. The first time we saw an Amhara is when the king come invited by the Eritrean people in 1952.

            Enough of this circular argument. Eritrea is free and independent country paid by the sacrifice of her sons and daughters. We have a nation called Eritrea that tie us all together for the same purpose and for the same reason.

            Let’s move on. Do what you have to do and we need to do what we need to do.

            Berhe

          • Teodros Alem

            selam berhe
            HSi time is not history history, there r a lot people alive untill now who can tell u what it looks like at that time, am talking about history.
            eritrea(tigragna) might be free but there r people who needs to be free from u guys, so don’t speak on behalf of others.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            ሰላም በርሄ,

            ምስ መእሰሪ ዘየብሉ ማእዶት ዝውንኑ ሓሳባት ግዜኻ አይተባኽን::

          • Teodros Alem

            selam aman h
            Am just argue same way u used to pretend to argue about “social groups”, even though u use it for ur narrow tribalism and am for ethiopia.
            why is that u acting like a big babies any ways.

          • Teodros Alem

            selam berhe
            Ok, man my bad i was responding for other saying about amhara feudals. The problem is i don’t read the whole thing , my problem i assume by reading a little bit but don’t translate it with the comment i did with that junky videos, they r two different.

          • Alem

            Hello Berhe,
            I heard the saying “አምሓራ ይትረፍ ክገዝእኻ፡ ክትገዝኦም ጸገም” being attributed to Welde-Ab Welde-Mariam, an Eritrean from Axum!
            Best

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Miriam
            Where have u been all this years, when abi and horizon dog abused the good name of ethiopia.
            what u said above is excellent but don’t listen to berhe, he is just wannabe.

      • Abi

        Hawna Berhe
        ምነው ወንድምዓለም በዚህ ወደብ ምክንያት እንቅልፍ አጣህ?
        ጋዜጠኛውን ከአገር መሪው መለየት ከተሳነህ ችግሩ የመነጨው ካንተ ከወንድሜ እንጂ ከታምራት ወይም ከቴወድሮስ አይደለም::
        አቦ ተረጋጋ! ምንድነው ይህ በኢንተርኔት መርበድበድ? ጦር እኮ አላዘመትንም::
        እዋይ!

        • Berhe Y

          Hi Abi,

          I am not. I am just responding to what was said and written.

          Aren’t you the guy who jumps up and down every time you read someone said something that you think is negative towards your country.

          What can one say, about incorporating Eritreans map in the timqet celebration in Gondor.

          My reason is to spell out the fact as I understood them.

          Just to get on your nerve and that if it Teodros, all this “we were never colonized” story that we hear, I come to believe, it’s not because Abisinia was strong and able to fight them, I think it’s because colonizing passing through Eritrea was geographically not worth it:)

          TA is confusing that (the story he was told) as if it means, he was super power of the 19th century.

          Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            You will never get on my nerves.
            The fact that Ethiopia avoided colonization is because of people like ራሥ አበበ አረጋይ:: People like him joined the patriots movement ( አርበኞች ግንባር) to defend the country.
            ራሥ አበበ ጣልያኖችን በዲሞፍተር እንዳርበደበዱት ሁሉ ዛሬ ደግሞ ጋዜጠኛው ታምራት በተውሶ ድምፅ ማጉያ ጀግና መሣዮቹን ኤርትራውያን እያርበተበታቸው ይገኛል::

            Tell the Eritrean delegation to bring their own map.
            እስከመቼ ነው በኢትዮጵያ ካርታ የምታጌጡት? ትንሽ አልበዛም?

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            You know what I went to see, Eritrea and Ethiopia in a soccer match.

            I will bet 2-0 for Eritrea.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe

            You talking about Eritrean men team against Ethiopian women team?
            I say it is going to be a tie.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            Aren’t you being a little misogynistic. I don’t want you to get in trouble with your Queen and Abrehet.

            Let’s consider that a bet, if they don’t run away in half time that is.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            Never knew the camels run that fast! May be they are running for water at half time.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            I guess you didn’t see the latest cecafa championship.

            Here is my wild guess.

            Alex Isak who plays for Sweden national teal will score in Euro2020.

            One of these players will be signed up with European team.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            Isn’t Sweden in Europe already?
            My geography knowledge is extremely poor. I used to think Assab was in Eritrea.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            Just remember what I said. Looked up.

            Forgot to include the link.

            https://youtu.be/vD-fMgsErg4

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            I don’t think you ever watched European soccer. It very physical for these kids to succeed. You remember Gedion from Arsenal? I watched him only on friendly games. His passing was superb! He couldn’t survive because of physical demand.
            I suggest you stop watching girls soccer.

            Why is the last name of all the players Eritrea?

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            I was watching Liverpool vs Man U today.

            Alex is born in Sweden and he plays in Spain and he is with national team. He is the next Zlatan :).

            Off course not all of them can make it but there are a couple. Rebel I think is his name his got the height and the physical to build on. Both are over 6 ft.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            Rebel is his name? It must be a typical Eritrean name. የሽፍታ ነገር!
            I hope some of them will make it to the higher league in Europe or Asia.

            Liverpool is already a champion. Let us see if they can make it undefeated just like the Arsenal team from years ago.

          • Teodros Alem

            selam berhe
            Am not by any means trying to undermine the eri team but
            except somalia, Djibouti, south sudan and Eritrea( i know defection hurt the eri team), none of the other countries represent by thier main national teams, they just send thier junior teams, ethiopian premier league is way way tougher than cecafa.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Teodros,

            Ethiopian premier league. Tir Elka Ukayle. They can’t come up with another name (EPL).

            Is that way Ethiopia didn’t participate, because it’s too easy.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            I think Ethiopians copy everything from Eritrea.
            Red Sea football club is the current champions of EPL ( Eritrean premier league). I like your originality!

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            Must be I had no idea it’s called Eritrea premier league. The reason I commented was when I heard ETV news in Amharic referring to it as “የኢትዮጵያ ፕሪምየር ሊግ)”.

            Anyway i was trying to divert to soccer but, you deal with one guy another one pops up. I can imagine your thanks giving long weekend dealing with your Eritrean relatives…

            I think I agree with you and Sara, please go on with the “build a wall” project.
            I like you man, take care.

            Berhe

      • bardavidi

        Hi …..Berhe……..Those are good points you mentioned and I will add one more to that………Previously I Stirred up emotions with my comment on this subject. on an Ethipoian media outlet……….Was not Djibouti Ethiopia,s territory that Menelik Leased for 99 Years to the French in exchange for the Rail-Road ……like Hong-Kong to the British…..???………If they have any Bankable sense they should have the Right to claim it instead of dreaming about Assab which for them is Suicidal…………Selah

        • Berhe Y

          Hi bardavidi,

          Very good point. ዘሕምቆ አለኒ በትረይ ሃቡኒ

          Once we get rid of our dictator at home, I think Eritrea should look into getting in some alliance in the long term. Not that they protect us, but leave us alone.

          Berhe

          • sara

            ato berhe, … why look too far for alliances…. we are on the road
            to join the arab league and eventually the islamic conference….
            that will make a paradigm shift in the region.
            then we will see who will talk the talk.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi sara,

            I am all for that. As long as we find peace.

            Berhe

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam sara,

            Join the Arab League and the Islamic conference?

            Insanity. Jumping from the frying pan into the fire.

  • Paulos

    Abination,

    It is all a matter of perspective, including historical landmarks or watersheds. Consider for example when the Emperor fled Ethiopia for exile in UK. Some took it as an act of cowardice and some reasoned that it was a wise move lest give the enemy a total victory if the Emperor was surrendered.

    However, some brave men and women were left behind to fight back in clandestine and in rebel activities. And of course, as you know they called themselves ኣርበኞች. And their leader was Dejazmatch later Ras Abebe Aregai. Before the Italian invasion, he had been Chief of Police in Addis, as such, he wasn’t new to clandestine activities including in the country side as he cracked down on ሽፍቶች till he became one himself.

    He frustrated the Italians as he was not only hard to track down but every time he loses a battle or his men, he would arrange a meeting with the Italians to give himself up but in the meantime, he would buy time to regroup and attack. His tactics worked and his reputation made it to the ears of the Emperor. And when the war was over, the Emperor made him not only Ras but became the first Prime Minister of Ethiopia.

    All was not rosy though, there was this stain in his life. As it happened, when the Tigreans rose up against the Emperor in 1942 and when they took over the entire Mekele city, it was him who asked the British who were stationed in Aden, Yemen for their bombers to reign on the Tigreans and the British obliged and turned the city into a rubble. Not only that, Ras Abebe attacked the Tigrean rebels who retreated to ውቕሮ [Yea that town where Fantination owns a bunch of Condos] and killed many and the rebellion was put to rest till it came back again in 1975.

    Ras Abebe was made the Governor of Tigrai for a reward after he “pacified” the province. Thing is, poetic justice had it that, when the two brothers as in Girmame and Mengistu tried to overthrow the Emperor in 1960, the Ras was killed during the shootout as he tried to contain the coup d’etat. Wouldn’t you say, Samuel has a point? I say, he does.

    P.S. I will be away from the site [Awate] not sure for how long but till then as we say it, ሰሰናዩ!

    • Teodros Alem

      selam paulos
      When the emperor came to addiis ras ababa was the one line-up his army and welcome the king, the king and ras ababa used to have communicate during the 5 years resistance war, ras ababa mother father(grandpa) is ras gobena dacha.

    • Abi

      Paul
      ራሥ አበበ አረጋይ የጀግኖች ጀግና ነበሩ::
      እሳቸውን ያበቀለች ምድር አሁን አገር አጥፊ ተምች ይተራመስባታል::
      “አገር ሲያረጅ ጃርት ያበቅላል” ይላሉ የአቢኔሽን ተወላጆች::
      ሞገስ አስገዶም አብረሃ ደቦጭ ዘርአይ ድረስ አብዲሣ አጋ ….
      Samuel has no point at all. He is just mad because he is not stealing anymore. ማጅራት መቺ ብጤ ነው::

      Enjoy your sabbatical. Don’t make it too long. Your Students are waiting…

  • said

    Greetings,
    Thank you Prof. Araya Debessay, for your well thought of article . your humanist messages and the objective stand on the issues of the great humanist.
    The Amhara supremacists
    while most honestly and conscientiously exposing the hard reality of the powerful forces within Ethiopia and Amhara supremacists proclivity to readily brandish Damocles Sword ,this group and now claiming victim and playing Anti- Amharisem at the slightest objective criticism of Amhara s racist practices, these forces are myopically, mostly inadvertently, providing the cover and justification for the perpetuation of Injustice and the Colonization, as the Cause of Justice & the Cause of Freedom are Universally Inseparably Indivisible.
    There are few person at awate site with highly inquisitive thinkers with insatiable curiosity for knowledge who is endowed with an analytical mind touching on nearly every aspect of human life; cutting across varied cultures, ethnicities and varied geographies;
    It rarely one can gain a new insight into the working of the average of different ethnicity race and faith Mind set and ect.
    “Reinforced Lamentations” seemed to me the poignant common thread that distinguishes the peculiarity of ethnic Mind that Reinforces the Race, Identity and the uniqueness of any race across varied cultures and ethnicities.
    “Reinforced Lamentations” appeared to me where the secret lies of the vicious circle of reinforced eternal sense of self-victimization, jealously guarded that seems to only be compounded by an over consciousness of being collectively targeted as the adherents of ethnicity and as communities. The general re-invocation of the threat of Anti- ethnic at the slightest of insinuations or incidents rendered a protective mechanism to forestall potential harm, that is readily brandished, is reaching at times paranoiac proportions rendering Anti-racism a doctrine on its own.
    As Example the Anti-Semitism rendered a Doctrine has unconsciously, rendered the Jews as distinct of all the human race enduring an eternal collective sense of insecurity that makes it incumbent on world societies by legal obligations to be perennial conscious of the fine lines that could be interpreted as intentional, prejudicial and potentially collectively harmful.
    As Example in the same way Anti-Amhar as a perceived pre-emptive system of protection, it equally, in my judgment, further Reinforces in today time , a sense of alienation, uniqueness, cohesiveness that is perennially instilled in the never diluted boundaries of an average Ethiopian Amarah ’s mindset.
    “Reinforced Lamentations” compounded by the safeguards of the Anti- Ethiopian Amarah new Doctrine tend – in my detached objective analysis – to elicit permanent consciousness of the age of the Amhar prominence of Ghetto mentality ,never open to others with open mind , of the sharp divides of the “They” and “US;” forever the alien .One comes to the conclusion reasoning arguments of the above narrative – correctly or incorrectly deduced – that Reinforced Lamentations, bringing forward in a near systematic fashion the collective anguish and collective pains of past memories, further reinforces a sense of Mistrust and Alienation; reinforces the thicket of the Divide of the “They, the Amhara ,” the “Rest of Ethiopian of many ethnicity.
    As in the conclusions of the late erudite Israeli Jewish scholar of Hebrew University, the late Professor Israel Shahak, in his epic writing, “Jewish History, Jewish Religion: The Weight of Three Thousand Years,” 1992, as he relates that the edification of the State of Israel, the creation of a Jewish State is tantamount to the eschewing of the emancipation option of the Age of “Enlightenment;” of the “Coming Together” of the huge ocean of humanity; but instead, the edification of Israel is a trip back to the “Ghetto” of the Separation and Jealously Guarded sense of distinctiveness and uniqueness of the Jews of all the human race.
    The Ethiopian revisionist, the epitome of a never-ending process of “Reinforced Lamentations” serving both, as the source of cohesiveness as well as a source of alienation that appears forever present in the deeper psychology, in the chambers of the average Amhar mind, forever holding back melting in the seamless wider universe of the “Whole, of the All of Us.”
    Amhara supremacists was the Eureka awakening me to the above succinct conclusions – my perfect privilege as a detached objective thinker – right or wrong, that for me as an Eritrean I can relate to as I live fully their implications.

  • Samuel

    Selam Abi and Horizon,
    Specially Abi, you keep saying “the Great King HS”. Well, as Ethiopian myself can I ask you what has king Haile Silasie (HS) done to Tigray (economy and education)? Some Ethiopians and few singers try to paint how great HS was but that was to hide his crime he has committed to many Ethiopians. I have discussed with many Ethiopians who has fondness for Menelik, HS and Derg about the following but they never answered in a factual way. When you respond please remember this, the combined years of HS and Derg reign is 57 years (40 + 17 years). What have HS and Derg done to Tigray in 57 years?

    Can you speak about the intentional marginalization against Tegaru (Tigray) during HS and Derg? The marginalization was both in education and economy. There was no single college, university or training center in Tigray during HS and Derg, why do you think that was? During HS and Derg there was a college in Gondar, there was university in Bahirdar, there was Teacher’s Education College in Dessie, Haramaya University, Addis Ababa University, Jimma Teachers College, Jimma College of Agriculture, Urban Planning College (Ecole) in Addis, Arba Minch University, etc. But, WHY wasn’t any university, college or training center in Tigray? have you ever wonder Why? Can you please fairly respond why both leaders (HS and Derg) didn’t bother to open any kind of college, training center, even high school in Tigray? Do you see how your great King HS and Derg has discriminated the Tigray society?
    Just FYI there were only three high schools in the whole Tigray (Atse Yohannes in Mekelle, Nigiste Saba in Adwa, and Agazi in Adigrat), just for comparison today there are more than 250 high schools in Tigray.
    What has the Tigray people done to experience that much marginalization during the previous leaders? Honestly, it make me sick to hear Ethiopians talk about how great HS was, I even heard Derg was better than EPRDF.

    My question to Abi and Horizon is why do you think there was no college, university or training center opened in Tigray during HS and Derg?
    Regarding economy, why do you think there was no single factory in Tigray? Do you see/understand the intentional marginalization of Tigray people? To be honest with you if TPLF and EPLF wasn’t successful then we could have been lost as a society, it was by design, that design was orchestrated by Menelik, HS and Derg.

    You may not agree but it was real on the ground. You many not respond me back but at least you will read it and learn who HS and DERG were. I don’t even want to discuss about the bombardment of Mekelle (70 bombs were dropped) and Raya (48 bombs were dropped) by the order of HS with help of British Royal Air Force. Derg was just Evil….

    Today in Tigray there are 4 State universities, many private universities, more than 20 colleges, many training centers. Many factories and industrial zone. Do you see the difference? Just remember, there are more than 40 State universities in Ethiopia opened during EPRDF regime, 36 of them are in Amhara region, Oromia, Southern, Afar, Somalia etc. it is distributed across Ethiopia states, but during HS and Derg even though there were colleges and universities opened, there was none in Tigray, why? This was ONE of the reasons that caused to start the struggle. I hope you are taking a lesson how Tegaru were badly sidelined during HS and Derg.
    I don’t think most Ethiopians understand that kind of marginalization has taken places in Tigray, but I am speaking the truth, I have lived it, I hope you don’t bring excuses about this.
    Some Ethiopians keep saying Tigray – Axum is the symbol of Ethiopia, the oldest city in Ethiopia, bla bla, how come HS couldn’t even open any high school in Axum? You know I have to stop here, the crime done against Tigray and its people are endless but one thing is certain, Tigray will never ever…..

    Many times when a mistake is made, some people try to pretend that it did not happen. They attempt to defend or try to cover it up, which leads to additional mistakes. Admitting a mistake is one step to cure the wounds. The crimes done by Menelik, HS and Derg were painful, as Tigraway it makes me to work hard and make a difference for my community. There are bad individuals out there who say HS and Derg were better than EPRDF, but if you never been thru Tigray people life you wouldn’t understand it. Yes, EPRDF has arrested and killed Ethiopians but compare to Menelik, HS and Derg, EPRDF was an angel.

    With all due respect, when you respond please focus on the education and economy in Tigray during HS and Derg. Don’t focus on some of the talking points. Once you respond the facts then we can discus whether EPRDF was an angel compared to other previous regimes or not.

    Thank you!

    • Abi

      Hello Samuel
      How about if you forward your question to Meles The Lion?
      Have you noticed how many times you mentioned Tigray? Sickening!!
      Get out of your dip hole of ethnic BS and report back before end of the year. You need to cleanse yourself from ethnic BS before you call. Now, all operators are busy dealing with other important issues.

      • Paulos

        Abination,

        Hope I am not being paranoid or anything but if some Awatistas are suspecting that the Samuel guy could be me, it is not 😂.

        On NFL, I agree Kansas City could come strong but I think it is 49ers who will win it this time. Brady said in news conference that he is not retiring but not sure if he is coming back with the same team.

        P.S. Will tell you later on a story about one of your heroes a certain “Ras” but brace yourself for the story could bring a twist onto Samuel’s valid lamentation.

        • Samuel

          Selam Paulos,
          Regarding the NFL playoff, I am rooting the Packers, well, that will be against the 49’ers. Good luck.

          Thanks,

          • Paulos

            Samuel,

            Well, it could be anybody’s game actually.

            No sweat, Abi is a chill guy, He has just been under attack on all fronts 48 hours at a stretch. In fact, the Forum should applaud him for holding out that long. I am sure, if Mengistu has been following the debates, must be very proud of Abination.

          • Abi

            Paul
            አንታ ነግራም
            With you by my side I can handle almost any adversary.
            አንዱን በቴስታ ሌላውን በቡኛ
            እናጋጨዋለን ቀልድ አናውቅም እኛ!!

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            Sure thing ma bro. Anything for you. We belong to the future not to the past where the past is limited to a lesson so that we resist lest it is replicated.

          • Abi

            Paul
            In the immortal words of Kokobe, I love you.

        • Abi

          Paul
          I’m truly disappointed that you are paranoid. I know you for years. You can come with a different nick if you want. I need only one reading to pick you out.
          Getting ready for the game. The beer is cold the grill is hot.

      • Samuel

        Selam Abi,
        You proved me right, individuals who have fondness for Menelik, HS and Derg will never be truthful to the atrocity committed against Tigray. Asking the economic and education marginalization of certain social group isn’t “ethnic BS”, when it fits to your narrative you will appreciate certain group but when it is against your interest you will label it as “ethnic BS”. Why was the Tigray people sidelined that much economically and educationally for 57 years? Was it by chance? Or somehow they forgot the existence of Tigray? It was intentional.
        My intention wasn’t to get an honest response from you but just to share for others how much the Tigray people were discriminated during Menelik, HS and Derg. Have a wonderful day.

        Thanks,

        • Abi

          Hello Samuel
          Find me any region that was not marginalized.
          Not interested in ethnic BS.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Ras Abiy,

            From your statement all regions were marginalized. If all the regions were marginalized, then who was the marginalizing group all those years? Because If there is marginalization there is always certain power who narginalize them. Try to answer to his questions rather than name calling.

          • Abi

            Selam Ato Amanuel
            You know Ethiopia better than anybody else. Why don’t you help me find any region that did better than others. I’m listening.

          • Samuel

            Selam Amanuel Hidrat,
            Upton Sinclair once said, “It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his salary depends upon his not understanding it”.
            Even though we are talking about Tigray during HS and Derg but Abi has jumped to talk about TPLF, which has nothing to do with the core message above. Somehow he seems to care more about Tigray than I do.
            As I have alluded earlier, if the government was able to open a college/university in Addis, Jimma, Gondar, Bahrdar, Dessie, Alamaya, etc, but somehow it couldn’t able to open ONE college/training center in Tigray in 57 years is hard to comprehend.

            Thanks,

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Samuel,

            Ras Abiy is known on deflecting issues when he has no answers to offer.

          • Teodros Alem

            selam samuel
            First is it not 57 years, HSI alone including as “alga warash” rule ethiopia for about 60 years .
            2nd, forget biulding universities or college, it was even hard to feed the famine people in tigrai, plus war at derg time.
            3rd, right now the percentage of tigrai students that join universities in ethiopia is less comparing to HSI time, am talking about percentage.
            4th, sometimes 4 is less than 1.
            100×4 is lessthan one number 500 or 401.
            5th, the good thing about federalism is u mange ur own internal affair by ur own local taxes so there is no way u gonna blame 3A for the future.
            6th, looting will not gonna be there any more so don’t confuse looting with development and forget about abi or horizon dog, it is website, u will never know who the hell r they , they just doing doging.

          • Miriam

            The war prevented feeding Tigray, as Tigray was controlled by TPFL, and the government can not send food to areas controlled by TPLF. This is an inconvenient fact.

            Not only were there many Tigray students in all universities, they were also in the elite high schools in Addis Ababa. On scholarship, like Meles Zenawi. Did not much of the leadership of TPLF from Addis Ababa University? The elite that ruled Ethiopia under Haile Sellassie did not care for the poor of Ethiopia regardless of ethnicity, and Tigray was no worse than Wollo. Gonder University was in Gonder, but preference was not given to Gonderes. It is just a locatio. Tigray was in better condition than the Oromos because at least they were governed by their own elite (Ras Mengesha Seyoum) and in their own language. Tigrays in Addis Ababa and Amhara region were accepted as brothers and well respected and integrated into their society because of their common religion. The two peoples were close and Amharas never had any negative feelings to Tigrays. Dergue was at war with TPLF and EPLF due to Eritrea, not because of anything to do with the people of Tigray. Its one thing to accuse Amharas of cultural chauvinism, but you choose to insist that Amharas have always been the enemies of Tigrays. It is a shock to Amharas to find out how Tigrays see them. No that they know, the relationship can never be the same.

          • Teodros Alem

            selam miriam
            i gree in most of it, u right, that was the feeling of amhara people towards eri and tigrai at the time, but i didn’t choose to insist that amharas have always been the enemies of tigray, they(tigraians) r the one repeatedly say that and they r the one declared war to hurm amhara PEOPLE, not just the gov of mengestu, am just responding for thier hate and enemy comments.
            And u r very right when u said “the relation can never be the same” and i don’t want to be the same.

          • Abi

            Hello Samuel
            I admit there was no university in Tigray. That is a fact.
            There was no university in
            ወለጋ
            ኢሉባቦር
            ባሌ
            ወሎ
            አርሲ

            These is the list of colleges and universities
            Bahirdar Pedagogy , Polytechnic
            Gonder Medical school
            Jimma medical school
            Arbaminch water technology
            Alemaya agricultural institute
            Awasa agricultural institute ( 2 year diploma)
            AAU (Addis Ababa)
            Debrezeit Veterinary college
            Asmara University

            The question is were you prohibited from joining one of the colleges just because your ሽፍታ brothers were fighting the government? Actually you were allowed to join any university with less GPA.

        • Selam Samuel,

          You are right when you speak of the injustice to tigray under the two governments. Nevertheless, the injustice was towards all ethiopians. It was more of a class phenomenon than due to identity. Identity became an important factor, after tplf/eprdf arrived in addis. Today in the ethiopian society, people are targeted for their identity sake than due to their class difference.
          If we ask ourselves why the coup d’etat of the 1960s happened, why university students came out to the streets with the demand “መሬት ላራሹ”, or why “ኣብዮት ልጆችዋን ትበላለች፣ ቀይ ሽብር፣ ወዘተ” led ethiopians to revolt against the derg, we will find a similar story all over the country. It could be worse in tigray for different reasons, the revolt, for example, nevertheless, it is difficult to say the situation was much better in other parts of ethiopia, economically and development wise.
          When ethiopians revolted against both the emperor and the derg, it was mainly to solve these socio-economic injustices under which ethiopians lived, to rectify the class difference and the gross inequalities. The problem therefore was much less an identity or ethnicity issue then.
          Unfortunately, tplf/eprdf came with amhara is the enemy and even ethiopia is not meant to be rhetoric, unless ethnic federalism was implemented. Therefore, instead of social harmony it brought social division, with hate and vengeance towards amharas and even ethiopia, and instead of rectifying the injustice which was not only to tigrayans, but to all ethiopians all over the country.
          If we speak about development during the emperor and the derg, it was about addis we can talk of, rather than other part of the country.
          The majority of Ethiopians did not have any problem with tplf when it came to power, but on the contrary it was tplf that had a big problem with ethiopia and the amhara ethnic group. A government should be a government for all without exception, tplf was not to be. You may say tplf was the victor and therefore it had no need to win the hearts and minds of ethiopians, which made it to become authoritarian. That was the biggest mistake.
          Finally, whatever was constructed by tplf/eprdf, it was the result of the collective action of the ethiopian taxpayers. All these constructions and developments you mentioned above are by borrowed money ethiopians are going to pay.
          Therefore, yes the people of tigray were victims as other ethiopians were, maybe more due to the revolt they carried out, and tplf/eprdf lost hearts and minds of the ethiopian people when it came with arrogance and vengeance and tried to correct one injustice with another.

          (P.S. I have to post here because your first comment was marked spam and i could not post there).

          • Samuel

            Selam Horizon,
            Thank you for acknowledging and recognizing the injustice during those regimes. I have seen some Ethiopians pretend as if nothing happened during those regimes. When we acknowledge the injustice then we are opening a window to move forward for better tomorrow, it puts us one step closer to have a better country.
            As you have said it “the injustice was towards all Ethiopians”, but it was worst in Tigray. The economy side I do agree it was towards all Ethiopians with some exceptions, but the Education part was very well intentional. If the government was able to open a college/university in Addis, Jimma, Gondar, Bahrdar, Dessie, Alamaya, etc, but somehow it couldn’t able to open ONE in Tigray in 57 years is hard to comprehend.

            Thank you again for understanding.

  • Paulos

    Selam My Good People,

    Neo-Liberalism, what is it? To be more precise, what is Liberalism? In fact, to be more accurate, is there any difference between Liberalism and Democracy? If we consider the last enquiry, we venture into philosophical threads where Liberalism is natural and as old as the intelligent Man, where as, Democracy is a social construct borne out of historical and social developments. In short, Liberalism is personal or individual freedom, where as, Democracy is “one Man one Vote” when ideas compete to reign on political power.

    As we see later on, the inherent contradiction between Liberalism and Democracy consumed great thinkers and political figures for centuries where finding the balancing scale between the two remained elusive if not almost improbable till we were introduced to the “Road to Denmark” in the last two decades or so.

    If the crux of Liberalism is individual freedom–Man’s unbridled freedom to do what he wills, how does the philosophical torque of Man’s self-declaration transitioned into the realm of economics where by the very idea of Neo-Liberalism came to the fore? To be more precise, Liberalism morphed from its pristine nature of owning freedom [Freedom from any constraints as in constraints of moral or religious values] into the freedom of possessing the material world as well. And hence, Neo-Liberalism parted from its predecessor when it found itself to be a Chimera of philosophy, politics and economics as well. To see the transition in clarity however, we need to see the developments in Economic history.

    I am sure most of you, one way or another, have heard of St. Thomas Aquinas. The unusually obese 13th Century Franciscan Monk who is mainly known as the Monk who baptized Aristotle. The reason being, him and Albert the Great are credited for translating the Greek Classics as in Aristotle’s works into Latin which changed the European thought ever since. Moreover, St. Thomas Aquinas synthesized Aristotle’s* central ideas about the immutable “Form” into Christian Theology which became the central dogma in Christian thought. If the world we live in, he said is a mere reflection of a hidden and perfect “Form”, it is not only an illusion but it doesn’t have inherent meaning or value either. He went on to say that, by the same token, market prices as in goods and services do not have inherent values but they are subject to individual whims and choices and hence, “Subjective Theory of Value.” St. Thomas Aquinas, “Subjective Theory of Value” had to remain buried unnoticed for over six centuries till the High-Priests [Adam Smith and David Ricardo among others] of Classical Economics emerged in the late 18th century.

    The Classical Economists, typical products of their era focused more on Land [Capital] in tandem with human Labor as the sole source of production and pinned their central tenet on the idea that price of a product is determined by the labor invested in it and the cost incurred to produce it. As we can see, the Classical Economics is far from in tune with the 13th Century, “Subjective Theory of Value.” It wasn’t untill Rene Descartes’, “Analytical Geometry” was introduced into Economics when Economics was reborn into “Neo-Classical Economics.”

    Typical of the Enlightenment credo, Man is taken as a rational being driven by reason, as such, the Neo-Classical Economists theorized that, Man makes rational choices including in consumption of goods and utilizing services. The rational choices devoid of emotions determine market dynamics through Supply and Demand whereby price is determined as well. This is the central idea in “Neo-Classical Economics” which is still the accepted Economic theory to this day.

    To be fair to the Classical Economists however, particularly to Adam Smith, we can see that, Neo-Classical Economists borrowed Adam Smith’s “Invisible Hand” as the hidden force that calibrated market dynamics through Supply and Demand. If prices are subjected to the Consumers’ need to maximize utility and Firm’s need to maximize profit, goods in essence do not have inherent values and thus St.Thomas Aquinas, “Subjective Theory of Value” was reborn in the central idea of “Neo-Classical Economics.”

    Right after the birth of “Neo-Classical Economics”, the economic history got convoluted so to speak simply because other factors got involved—lack of financial institutions and hegemonic competition among nations. Central banks were owned by private citizens in tandem with the Gold standard gave rise to the Great Depression in the late 1920s, for instance. Remedy for the Great Depression of course, Keynesian economics proposed state intervention in a bid to maintain Full Employment where his theory is centered on the idea that it was the Aggregate Demand that drives the economy going as opposed to Aggregate Supply.

    The obsession with maintaining “Full Employment” ignoring its inflationary effect persisted through the decades ahead including in the 70s. In between however, when State intervention with in the market dynamics became more palpable than ever including when Labour Unions, Trade Unions, Professional Organizations among other interest groups with in the Left Leaning Political Parties became more powerful, certain segments of the society felt the erosion of personal or individual freedom where the State was seen not as a power which stands for the protection of the Common Good but as a protector of Leftist agendas instead. It was in light of that consternation that in the late 1940s, a group of notable academics including the famed Libertarian and Economist Milton Friedman and the Philosopher Karl Popper among others gathered in a resort Swiss Spa known as Mont Perelin and set forth the central tenets of “Neo-Liberalism” and the group were later known as the “Mont Perelin Society.”

    They declared that, Western Civilization was in danger and resolved not only to restore back the core idea of Liberalism which is personal freedom but economic freedom from State intervention as well and hence the suffix “Neo” in “Neo-Liberalism.” It was a long time coming however, when the credo was to be translated into practical results when wealthy men and women in the Western World started to pay attention what the Mont Perelin Society had in store as they put it to restore Western Civilization back into its rightful place.

    The opportunity arose when Salvador Allende was democratically elected in Chile in the early 70s but remained a threat to wealthy Western investors when he nationalised practically all the private sectors and was killed and replaced by Chilean technocrats who had been trained for years at the famed Chicago School of Economics where Milton Friedman had been the leading figure with in the school.

    In the meantime, in the late 70s, Europe including North America were going through severe economic downturn otherwise known as, “Stagflation” where inflation and unemployment rate were in double digits when under normal circumstances, inflation and unemployment are inversely proportional to each other instead. The reason for the Stagflation was Keynesian thought and the decades long uncompromising focus on maintaining Full Employment no matter what the market signals show including runaway inflation. As such, when Margaret Thatcher and Reagan came to power in 79 and 80 respectively, vowed to contain inflation by ignoring the double digit unemployment rate.

    More over, both dismantled all the Left Wing political institutions including Labour and Trade Unions and other associations. What’s more, financial institutions were given a free reign to lend money where regulation was out of the question. And it marked the real birth of “Neo-Liberalism.”

    When the unregulated financial institutions loaned the cash hungry Third World countries, they were later told to structure when they defaulted and later the demand to structure became a mainstream policy otherwise known as, “Structural Adjustment Program.” Some daring leaders of the Developing countries however, refused to board along with the Neo-Liberal demands and opted to veer off to the East instead where loans are given with no strings attached.

    I mentioned on the above, the inherent contradiction between Liberalism and Democracy. To put it briefly, in the late 60s, particularly in the US, the generational changes which was more palpable in the colleges, for instance, was expressed when the students demanded for social solidarity among all the segments of the society but they also demanded for personal freedom, freedom from parental control and educational institutions as well. As we can see, the demand for personal freedom cuts deep into the credo of the “Neo-Liberals” and the demand for “Solidarity” rings a bell into the Left Wing political parties. It would take the skill of brilliant politicians as in Clinton and Obama, for instance to reconcile the two in the decades ahead.

    *Aristotle borrowed the idea of the “Form” from Plato.

    • Abi

      Paul
      This is Diamond!

      • Paulos

        Abination,

        You’re very kind. Glad you liked it. Thanks ma bro!

        • Abi

          Paul
          This is one of the comments I will remember forever.
          If you remember ( I’m sure Papillon remembers it) there was an awatista by the name Gebre some 6 years ago. One day he was discussing “ system theory “ which I will never forget. Of course, you will never forget the genius by the nick crocos and his jaw dropping comments specially in genealogy ,Law and similar things. And there is Ras Abi who contributes nothing, I mean absolutely nothing!

          You should make it a habit to come with this kind of gem every Friday night. We need something for the weekend. Some of us need more time to digest this kind of stuff.
          Enjoy the playoffs.

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            Of course, good times. I remember. Who do you think gonna win it this time? I am thinking 49ers. I can’t believe Brady is out.

          • Abi

            Paul
            I’m dying to see the Kansas attacks against 49ers defense.
            You think Brady will come back with New England jersey? I haven’t followed football news for a while.
            Where are Saay Nitricc haqi ( the guy who sleeps watching the game) and other football experts ?
            Go Kansas!

  • Haile WM

    hello Prof. Araya.
    the likes of this Tamrat don’t understand that nobody gave us our independence, we fought hard for it. Tamrat was saying that Eritrean forces should not have weapons other than sticks… Someone should remind him and his likes that its’ not sticks or weapons that fight, its peoples determination goal and vision. but history repeats its self because humans have short memory and do not learn from past.

    Some in the forum say Iseyas gave us our independence, some other say its Meles that gave us our independence, and I really smile.. how simplistic or how convenient. Some others even say it was haile silasie that gave us industrial parks in asmara and we were better off with him and at that point i stopped smiling i was chuckling.

    • Hashela

      Selam Haile

      Referring to the last paragraph of your post, it
      is designed to belittle and ridicule of our collective and unprecedented
      achievements. We should not underestimate the corrosive nature of their lies
      and we must decisively and tirelessly confront them with our true and historic
      achievements

    • Peace!

      Hi Hailuwa

      Tamrat and his likes do not know anything about war or violence the poor Oromos have been dying for them for centuries despite their racist and demonizing mind-set toward them. But now things seem to have changed the 30+ million of singers, azmaris, Tamrats, and runners may have to report for duty if they wish to go for it. And as for the TPLF/Agazian/Meles gangs, it has already backfired and the hate toward TPLF is now at all time high in almost all genuine Eritrean public discourse.

      Kemzei Halif Yelen Eziwun Khalef Eyu.

      Peace!

  • bardavidi

    Hi….all…. WHAT IS SUPERIORITY……..In Education,Technology,and Economic capacity……….???Ethiopia has over 40 state sponsored and 50 Private Universities Churning out over 200k Graduates annual of which 75% in Engineering,Science & Technology…….Eritrea….0……Ethiopia has over 110 Billion Economy Growing at 10% annual while Eritrea,s Presumed to be 500 Million of which 50% is run by Teklai manjus,Fillipos,and Hagos Kisha ……..Ethiopia has come from having the 8th to the Largest and most Profitable Airlines in the Continent to Eritrea,s non-existent………Ethiopia is Indulging with a Home grown Financial Venture to engage in world class Projects such as GERD and ESA…….while Eritrea braggs about 5 acre ponds as Public projects….. Ethiopias Space Agency has sent a Satelite to Space and is working for another one in 2022 while Eritreas is struggling to get 10 fighter planes on air……0…….on and on and on…….A striking difference between State sponsored Socialism and Free wheeling Capitalism just in 25 years………..This is just an Icing on the Cake…………Selah

    • Paulos

      Bardavidi,

      I am sure it is a dandy feeling for Ethiopians and a let down for PFDJ sycophants but in reality it is not free-wheeling Capitalism as you put it but a State led Capitalism instead—highly bureaucratic State at that.

      • bardavidi

        Hi……Paulos……I would not say a State led Capitalism…….Since capitalism by nature is a free-enterprise undertaking by Individuals/Entities but, requires state cooperation thru regulation………By the way it only takes 300 Birr and 2-weeks to get a License to operate and that beats any Bureaucratic compications South of the Sahara or any where in the Area……….Check the Ernest and Young-Dubai Report its much more detailed and Narrated than I can present…………Selah

        • Paulos

          Bardavidi,

          Technically, the Ethiopian economy started to take off in 2005 where it had been stagnant for over 50 years. As such you can’t say free-wheeling Capitalism for 30 years where I would agree with you would be when the bureaucratic bottleneck got loosened up 15 years or so ago.

          • bardavidi

            Hi..Paulos…..You are right………. it takes a lot of Trial and Error to get there But, somehow the wheel was still spining and that is what counts……..Just imagine 15 Years of that without DIA in Eritrea………Selah

          • Paulos

            Bardavidi,

            Shifting…..I kinda like your nickname [Bardavidi]. It sounds like name of a Bar [Hope you’re not saying duh!]. Just curious though, where is it?

          • bardavidi

            Yeah……..It is a Bar but not where you drink……..like in Hebrew/Aramaic……means a Son…….When your first and last Collide that is what happens……….Selah

      • Abi

        Paul
        The freewheeling capitalism started in Eritrea during the Kingdom of His Excellency HS. The Good King helped establish the first Industry Zone in Eritrea from 1964-1968. In just 5 years 35 manufacturing industries were established. He did not do the same in other parts of Ethiopia. Of course, the ungrateful bunch who suffered from affluenza during the great years of Eritrea will never tell you this fact.
        ( ገንዘብካ ሀወይ)

        The first industrial zone probably in Africa was established in Eritrea during the Kingdom of the Great King.
        Now that makes you Superior!!!

        • Paulos

          Abination,

          The King bribed and appeased the few Eritrean elites where the majority lived off the Italian colonial legacy including major infrastructures as in heavy industries, transportation systems, power grids and the like.

          • Abi

            Paul
            It was not the few Eritrean elites who were gainfully employed in the Industrial Parks all over Asmara area. It was general public. I’m talking about the industrial park that was established after the colonial masters defeated. May be the ungrateful lots still remember the leftovers from the Italian masters.
            Just google “ industrialization in Eritrea “ and educate yourself .

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            Everything you are saying is full of BS, but you have been saying this all the time and no matter how much evidence is presented to you, you will never believe it. The same argument you made about Eritrean people fight for justice. Yes, there were Eritreans who were doing well dudring HSI and Derg in Addis Abeba, mostly because they had learned trades under the Italian colony and setup business in Ethiopia.

            Eritrea in 1952 (before the federation) was the second industrialized country in Africa (second to south Africa). As pers Tekeste Negash book: the Eritrean economy as per Eritrean chamber of Commerce was composed of the following:

            “The Eritrean Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture was overwhelmingly Italian as late as 1959. Out of the total membership of 328, 249 were Italians; the rest were non-Italians e.g. Arabs, Indians, Greeks, Jews (Consolato d’Italia, 1959:8). Although we do not have the precise numbers, the Eritrean
            members could not have been more than a dozen”

            The first Eritrean parliament created the most comprehensive economic policy to springport the Eritrean economy by creating very conductive environment with well thought plan and policy.

            “The position of Italian economic predominance was further strengthened by the policy of the Eritrean government through its generous loans and purchase
            of shares. The initial capital of 400,000 Ethiopian dollars for the glassworks company which was run by the Mellotti family was provided as a loan by the Eritrean government. Other companies which had long-term and low interest loans from the government were the palm dum company (200,000 Ethiopian
            dollars), the Tabacchi ceramic factory (100,000 dollars), SAIDE (300,000 dollars), the Casciani sisal fibre company (300,000 dollars) and the sweater (industria maglieria) company (100,000 dollars). Through a share holding policy, the Eritrean government provided the Barattolo textile company with fresh capital of 315,000 dollars between 1956 and 1961. About thirty per cent of Barattolo’s capital was provided in this way by the Eritrean government. Other companies which were able to get off the ground thanks to the readiness of the government
            to buy huge shares were the Asmara sack company and the African Matches and Paper Factory (AMAP) which were to supply both Ethiopia and Somalia during the 1960s and 1970s. Out of the initial capital of 500,000 dollars, the Eritrean government bought shares for 42,000 dollars (Government of Eritrea, 1962)”

            From then on down the hill…

            Berhe

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Berhe,

            I like statistically based (figures and numbers) argument. Whether he accept it or flatly denies it, you gave him the figures that he should learn about it. Good argument. I was laughing when he said HS built industrial park in Eritrea. Strange!!

          • Haile S.

            Selam Berhe,
            Well said! Superb! And through whose hand was the undoing of that Eritrea economy and federal administration started? Non other than HHI’s son-in-law Bitweded Andargachew Messai and his representative in Eritrea (እንደራሱ).

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            I’m impressed by your rebuttal. Even a hidden rat will agree with you.
            Now, don’t stop discussing only up to 1962. Please continue enlightening your wide up voters discussing throughout the 60s including Asmara Expo 1969.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Abi,

            Expo is not “Industrial Park” if you are talking about Expo. The expo in Asmara is not like the Adama Industrial Park in Ethiopia. If that helps you to distinguish between the two.

          • Abi

            Selam Ato Amanuel
            The Asmara expo was a display the products of the industry parks. You can give it any name you want. Fact is there were 35 factories established in just 5 years.
            Your problem is you take everything literally. I’m not comparing the Asmara and Adama parks. I’m showing the magnitude of the industrialization under the Geat King.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Ras Abi,

            There is no “Industrial Park” in Eritrea. Period. The names are given literally to what they are signifying for. You can not use them as you wish for your baseless argument.

          • Abi

            Selam Ato Amanuel
            As I said earlier, I give you my blessing to name it anything appropriate. How about Industrial Boom in the mid century Eritrea?
            We don’t have problems in naming. The fact remains the same. Eritrea was flooded with manufacturing industry during the Great King.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Ras Abi,

            I hope you know the difference between “factories” and “industries”. In case you don’t know it, here it is: factories are single units while Industries are segments. In other word, Industries comprise of multiple factories that produce multiple products. The reason I am explaining to you, is to show you that there were not and are not Industrial plant in Eritrea. There are only single factories in Eritrea. I don’t know why you are making these ridiculous claims. Take the statistical number that Berhe gave you and rest your case. When we debate “words and terminologies extremely matters.”

          • Abi

            Hello Ato Amanuel
            Thanks for the correction. Read it as 35 ፋብሪካዎች:: when you put them all together, although in different locations, they amount to or equal to at least two industrial parks by today’s standard. Again, I care less what you want to name them.
            Why do you take Berhe’s claim at face value and not mine?

          • Yohannes Zerai

            Selam Abi,

            Your earlier statement that under “ The Good King, … in just 5 years 35 manufacturing industries were established” seems to have provided the seed for a contentious debate. But, getting a little bit into the details of the matter may perhaps help clarify things and narrow down differences. So, would you please identify the five LARGEST industries (out of the 35) that were established in Eritrea during that 5-year period?

            Thank you

          • Abi

            Hello Yohannes
            Good point
            Here are the three large factories and three small ones in dollar value in those years.
            Cement factory—9,000,000.00
            Ethiopian fabrics—6,731,917
            L.T.C.A ( cotton hosiery—5,933,905

            Ethiopian stocking factory—60,000.
            Women dress— 65,928
            Cement handwork—65,150

            The total investment was 38,211,214.00 . This in today’s value is USD 238,717,401.00

            Thanks for engaging.

          • Saleh Johar

            Ras Abi,
            You bled this topic dry now it’s lifeless.

            Yes, Eritrea was better off during the fifties and sixties but that is left over from the Italians. Janhoi has nothing to do with it. During the Derg times, all the Italian factories were confiscated and they renamed them Ethio-this and Ethio-that. That is what happened to Baratollo textile factory, Elaber’ed Agro-industrial farm and Ali Ghider cotton plantation and others in Tekreret. Mostly Italian companies established during the colonial era

            For instance Sopral, I think it is the one known as INCODE, is an Israeli company that slaughtered about two hundred heads of cattle every day. Basically, it was a cattle buying firm and when Janoi started to kill the villagers and razed their humble homes to the ground. There was no people left let alone cattle. Don’t argue with me specially on this cow steal company. It was in my home town and I know all those who worked there. If I find my list, it would be more interesting. It is a list of closed factories left by the Italians. The English and Haile Selassie cooperated to loot a dry dock, that they sold to Pakistan or South Africa, a cable (yes, like the one in Switzerland 🙂 which they dismantles. It run from the port of Massawa to Asmara.

            You have no argument from me that our economy was considered the best in the region and it was poised to shoot to the sky. Then Haile Selassie happened and everything was turned into rubble and padlocks became prominent. . For one thing, we had a robust labor union and when that was banned, you can guess what happens to the factories they worked in. Dear Abi, whatever you say, don’t credit the monsters who ruled us.

            Please don’t because that would make you look cruel and insensitive. Maybe you can revise such history a few decades from now when all of us who lived the era are gone. Not now, please.

          • Abi

            Selam Ato Saleh
            I brought the topic for discussion and it is only natural if I bled it lifeless.
            I think there is a dangerous bug in this nation that everybody is suffering from comprehension problems.
            The discussion is not whether the fact that changing the name of ሆፕ ወፍጮ ቤት to ሳለህ ወፍጮ ቤት is a crime or not. The point is as long as the business is functioning and the profit goes to the same person, name changing is not an issue.
            I’m not saying you are better off with the Italian leftovers or not. Some appropriate leftovers others appreciate new things. To each his own.
            The discussion is whether the Greatest King helped establish those factories or not? Of course, you can deny the fact.
            Factories shut down due to several reasons . Shortage of raw materials, skilled labor, unable to function due to some ሽፍታዎች create havoc in the area…
            Now I have provided the list of some of the factories His Majesty generously provided to his people in Eritrea. Some have been long closed others are functioning. Business is like that. No surprises here.

            Thank you for admitting that Eritrea was better in the fifties and sixties. Although the fifties are not in the discussion, you and I agree regarding the sixties.
            Have a nice weekend.

            .

          • Saleh Johar

            Ras Abi,

            “The discussion is not whether the fact that changing the name of ሆፕ ወፍጮ ቤት to ሳለህ ወፍጮ ቤት is a crime or not”

            Don’t walk on the street when there is a walkway 🙂

            You know my issue is not the changing names, but you trying to attribute it to the wrong guy based on the names. You cannot say Saleh established the “ሳለህ ወፍጮ ቤት” when he didn’t. You should not give credit to the one who snatched it and forget the one who established it. Now give us a list of the factories he dismantled, the villages he eradicated, the people he exiled, and the destruction he left behind. It’s good to celebrate what you perceive as accomplishments, but you must not forget what is unforgettable.

            Thank you anyway but at this point I am afraid it is becoming circular. Tena YesTelegn

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Saleh Johar
            I think we all know what kind of gov and system of HSI gov and i think we know what emperor means.
            We are talking about a system that considered the whole people of the country as a servant of the king. even the “ras”, the “dej azenach” and so on consider themselves as servants of the king (ye t’ekel Asheker).
            The system that we talking about is Any thing that has been done in the country considered for the pride of the king, not for the benefit of the people.
            I think in eritrea case i think it was a little bit different because of colonization, I think they used bribes to win heart and mind of eritreans, that even was for the pride of the emperor kingdom, not for the benefit of the people.
            When eritreans transfer from asmera to addis for the gov job, they were number 1 in line to get a gov own houses, which the rest 13 “provinces” don’t have a chance to do that.

          • Yohannes Zerai

            Selam Abi,

            Thank you for promptly providing the information that I had suggested may help clarify the matter being debated and, hopefully, even narrow the gap between the opposing stances expressed

            The exchanges you have had with Forumers on the subject and the ease with which you produced the “numbers”, the “dates” etc. and identified some of your sources precisely indicate that, not only have you done your info-gathering work, but also formulated your lines of argument. That certainly is worthy of compliment.

            In contrast, I have yet to look into the subject with the level of detail you seem to have. So, I will take the time to do my own study where I will even use the info you provided as an input. Yes, yes I Know; by the time I complete my study, the debate will have moved on to other topics. But that will not be a problem; because my purpose for doing the study is not to debate with you on it, but rather to check the FACTS of the matter for my own sake.

            One quick comment on the info you provided: Unlike the company SOPRA, the other names on your list are generic names or function names rather than actual names of factories (e.g. Women dress, National Soft drink). Others may be different informal names for the same outfit (e.g. Ethiopian fabrics vs Ethio Textile). These make it difficult to check the accuracy of your claims.
            ————————

            Now, let me share a couple of historical facts that may help you have a more accurate perspective of Eritrean realities of the time.

            1. What you claim to have happened in Eritrea during the period 1964-69 — “35 industries in 5 years” — is not just an economic progress; not even just an economic boom. It must really have been an economic miracle that probably was unmatched even in European economies of that period. During that same period, Ethiopia itself was suffering from a moribund economy; and strangely, the nobility, the intellegentia (whatever its size at the time), the military and the population in general failed not only to overthrow the “Good King”, but to show even the slightest protest against this gaping disparity — gross injustice, really!

            And the “ungrateful” Eritreans seem to have been acting equally strangely: they were being given the gift of a world-class economy where jobs abounded and standard of living soared; and yet they found it in themselves to throw away all that fortune and, instead, opted to go to the bush to either get killed or lead a miserable life!

            2. The period 1964-69 you say the “Good King” was building 35 industries in Eritrea curiously coincided with the period — 1965-69 to be exact, and particularly the year 1967 — when the Ethiopian Government followed a Scorched Earth policy (mostly in the Eritrean lowlands, but also in remote locations of the highlands) with its army burning villages, executing suspected sympathizers of ELF, massacring people gathered in markets and in social occasions while its air force bombed villages suspected of hosting armed rebels. This was a desperate government effort to control the growing power of the armed struggle and increasing public discontent. Indeed, because the situation was getting out of control for the government, it finally had to declare a State of Emergency in parts of Eritrea in 1969! You are telling us that the Hell that the Eritrean people lived through in those years AND and the gift of Heaven that the Ethiopian government brought for them somehow coexisted, occurring simultaneously and in the same place!

            Thank you

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Yohannes,

            Yes Yohanness, those years were indeed the hells for the Eritrean people – burning their villages and their properties, hanging suspects in the open markets to scare the public, and killing their livestock. I remember vividly in 1965 when I was in a high school – the Ethiopian army took all the livestock of the Saho tribes in Akeleguzay, brought them to Serae, slaughter them in to pieces of “Guzi” and forced the villagers to buy it. How the “evil king” can be the “good king” at the same period of time (1964-1969)?

          • Abi

            Hello Ato Amanuel
            Funny thing is you didn’t go north or west to join the armed struggle in those years.
            Rather, you took a bus towards south ( I’m sure you told us about your journey) where the evil king resided.
            Some years after that you kissed the evil King’s shoe upon graduation and started working in Addis. I believe people like you encouraged the king’s actions.

          • Hashela

            Selam Amanuel

            Thank you for your eye-witness narrative.

            Knowing that ጉዚ is a communal and, in most case, a celebrative act where people reaffirm their bond and care of each other, it is extraordinarily cruel and sinister to declare ዘመተ ስጋ as ጉዚ. It demonstrates that then and today, Eritrea’s enemies do not shy to employ a break of taboos to sow seeds for a lasting damage between our communities.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Hashela,

            Other than the heinous and inhumane act taken against our people by this evil king, and is also worth mentioning is the seeds of mistrust he planted between the two religions, which is still affecting us in the fight against our despot. The king was evil in every aspects of his character. The “evil king” was never a “good king.” የዋጋ ብረሳ የተወጋ አይረሳም::

          • Hashela

            Selam Amanuel

            … and to make things worse: it seems that our despot was an attentive student of the evil king (ውዓግ)።

          • Haile S.

            Selam Yohannes

            The seriousness with which you handle topics is admirable. Abi equally serious as you, got the information from Zkre Lbona’s article at Asmarino’com here linked: https://asmarino.com/articles/2054-asmara-expo-69-the-lost-age-of-industrialization-in-eritrea

            The author of the article got the information and a table he/she included in her/his article entitled “New Industries Created From Jan. 1964 till August 1968” listing 35 ‘miracles’ from this reference: The Executive Committee of Asmara Expo 69; Asmara Expo; Il Poligrafico P.L c, Asmara, p.35.

            Now, whether this was a brochure listing exhibitors or actually listing new industries… is in question.
            You need to find this reference to know what exactly it says. Skepticism is in order at a time where every publication was dedicated to his grmawinetachew and every credit is given to his highnesses.

          • Yohannes Zerai

            Selam Hailat,

            First, my sincere appreciation for your generous remark.

            Thank you for sharing the link for the asmarino.com article which served as a source for the statistics and arguments that Abi presented in his earlier posts here. I had in the past read a few of Zekre Lebona’s writings and this particular article was one of them. However, that happened quite a while ago and all I remember is reading through it quickly and coming out with an unfavorable opinion on it.

            I had no particular reason at the time to want to go beyond that and to fact-check its contents and claims. I now have good reasons to read it again but, of course, more thoroughly and critically this time around. In the process, I will aim at identifying and picking out the distortions, misrepresentations and non-truths that the article weaves into a deceptive and misleading story meant to buttress the revisionist narrative that Zekre Lebona and hi/her friends are in the business of advancing.

            Thank you

          • Abi

            Hello Yohannes
            Please come up with a nice article on this topic. We can always continue discussing this kind of topics anytime.
            Thanks

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            Finally it’s good you were able to share the list. I think you have heard many people including me, that Eritreans were treated better by the Derg than PFDJ.

            What you have listed, I have no reason to doubt it, but what I can tell you is their are in addition to what already existed and not the “first industrial park” created in Africa.

            For example, Deni day had fruit farm in Eritrea lowlands and it use to export 3500 tones to the Middle East. The textile factory, bara tole had over 600 employees and over 2000 cotton farmers. There were over 1000 sweater making small business in Asmara alone. Both sourced their row material from ERITREAN lowlands. Saleh also gave you incode (meat packing) where it sourced its cattle from the lowlands.

            So couple of points:
            1) Eritrea industry wasn’t started with HSI, it was way before him.
            2) Eritrea economy was a third of the whole Ethiopia.
            3) Asmara was the second largest city during the federation next to AA, with a population of 500 thousands.

            In today’s example, if like you are saying Hong Kong vibrant economy didn’t exist until communist China come over?

            Even that, as it was shown before, Italians and other business people were supported by heavy investment by the first Eritrean government.

            So what if HSI continued that, since he abolished the ERITREAN government.

            The years you mentioned (64-69) in particular were, he was burning the people and the industry which was the heart land of Eritrea industrialization,

            The best analogy is like, EPRDF building a factory here and a factory there in hawsa but it burned the people of Sidama and made the coffee industry now existent, and the people exiled. Will the Oromo people should be greatful?

            Now even if we take what you listed as is, so what is 38 million investment in 5 years?

            HSI government was getting paid 20,000 US a year by the US for kagnew station.

            Ethiopia was using the port of Djibouti until the federation and it switched to Assab.

            By todays dollar we are told, Ethiopia spends 2 billion in port fees to Djibouti?

            Can you please figure out how much HS was saving by today dollar.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            We are not discussing what happened before 1964. Yes, the Italian colonial masters started the industrial revolution in Eritrea. His Majesty intensified the progress by opening more factories.
            We are not discussing sources of raw materials.
            We are not discussing ቃኘው
            We are not discussing how much we pay for using Djibouti ports
            My focus is on the expansion of factories in Eritrea during those years. You are untitled to call it industrial zone, industrial park or anything for that matter. My guess is Asmara was one huge industrial park. It is like planned community where you work and live in the same area. This helped the factory workers in beautiful Asmara not to drive to work . Can you imagine the traffic congestion!
            I don’t know Asmara to pin point the exact locations of the factories.
            May be you can help us in this regard.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            “I don’t know Asmara to pin point the exact locations of the factories.”

            I thought your queen was suppose to visit Eritrea by now. I hope she does and your are welcome as well. You can experience first hand.

            I like this girl videos, here is asmara. It’s not the “industrial park:”

            https://youtu.be/YTk_DUBeVHw

            Here is another footage of Eritrea highlands.

            https://youtu.be/LBZiqJDESr8

            Going back to your argument,

            You said “We are not discussing what happened before 1964.”. May be you forgot how you started this whole thing or I must have misunderstood you badly..but to remind you…

            “The freewheeling capitalism started in Eritrea during the Kingdom of His Excellency HS. The Good King helped establish the first Industry Zone in Eritrea from 1964-1968. In just 5 years 35 manufacturing industries were established.”

            All I am trying to argue with you is, it’s not the case. Eritrea manufacturing was well established well before the annexation of Eritrea.

            If you really want to make an valid argument, perhaps you need to research more.

            Here is a good start:

            Ethiopian Economic Policy in Eritrea: The Federation Era Araya Tsegai, 1984.

            In any case…this whole Ethiopia experience was nothing but a mess for Eritrea.

            The good thing is, we have the manual and we will revive it once we get rid of our dictator at home.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            I hope one day Eritrea will be like Singapore or Japan…
            The question is how are you going to remove the dictator when you are busy hammering a journalist who has only a pen and a borrowed mic?
            Forget about it! Look at the number of articles and interviews just in the last 30 days.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            Thank you for the best wishes. You are welcome anytime.

            That’s a good question and that’s what what we need to focus on.

            For one thing we can learn from you guys and how the young qerro crippled EPRDF government with the support of the diaspora media.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Selam Ato Amanuel
            The Asmara expo was a display the products of the industry parks. You can give it any name you want. Fact is there were 35 factories established in just 5 years.
            Your problem is you take everything literally. I’m not comparing the Asmara and Adama parks. I’m showing the magnitude of the industrialization under the Geat King.

          • Haile S.

            ሰላም ኣባ ትልቁ፡

            You read too much into the ghostly “cardiac memorabilia” in Asmarino.

          • Abi

            ጋሽ ኃይለ
            Numbers don’t lie. 7 factories every year for 5 years.
            Outstanding achievement by any standard.

          • Haile S.

            ኣባ ትልቁ፡

            Don’t look at the numbers, look at the calligrapher. I also read this calligraphers’ hallucination about the direction of a plane-shaped building in Asmara known by the name Fiat-Taglioro. ወይ ጉድ! ያወራው/ያወራችው ሲደግሙትም ያሳፍራል!

          • Abi

            ጋሽ ኃይለ
            I can only look at the numbers. I have seen the list along with the amount of investment and dates of establishment.

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            “Gee we’re in a tight spot” is the famous line in the eternally funny comedy movie, “Oh brother where art thou.” You gonna have to call for a back up. I am sure Horizon will reach out. Everyone is ganging up against you. This is a test of character for you and let’s see how long you can hold out solo in an “enemy” territory 😂.

          • Abi

            Paul
            I’m used to teaching unruly students. I’m helping you guys unlearn some of the false teachings of the false prophets.
            ተልባ ቢንጫጫ ባንድ ሙቀጫ!!!

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            There you have it. I called Horizon for you and if his is challenged, will try to reach Amde, the intellectually heavy weight guy. You got to give me some credit here where I am putting my credibility on the line where I am already suspected of being an Eritrean born to Tigrean parents 😂.

          • Haile S.

            ሰላም ፖል፡

            ፈሳዊኡ ጨናዊኡ ዝብሃል ምስላ ዶ ትፈልጥ?

          • Paulos

            Hailat,

            I knew you would be the first to respond to my comment.

          • Haile S.

            ፖል፡
            ንወዲ ጉራዕ ወዲ ኩርባርያ ይፈልጦ!

          • Paulos

            Hailat,

            In my days, it was ንኣዝማሪኖ ወዲ ሹቕ ይግጥሞ!

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            ሳሕብታት:
            ከምዝሎም ከይኮነ: ኣብ ዓድና ድማ ንወዲ ኦክላንድ ወዲ በርክሊ የሽክዖ ይበሃል ኔሩ!

          • Abi

            Paul
            I love you too
            I don’t need a help from a heavy weight Amde .There is a group of 35 heavy industrial establishments backing my argument.

          • Abi

            Paul
            Now that class is dismissed, I like you to know that you have earned a large line of credit with me.
            Use it sparingly.

            Next class will be on “Expansion of Secondary and Tertiary level education in post colonial Eritrea”.
            Please find a UNESCO article written by Dr Fasil GebreKiros on the same topic and prepare yourselves.
            5 extra points for lively discussion will be rewarded at the end class.
            As SGJ used to say to Eyob Medhane, “Now, off to the library!”

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            That should be even more interesting. And I will go ahead and comment on “Neo-Liberalism” hopefully tonight, God willing that is.

          • Abi

            Thanks Paul
            Eagerly waiting for the piece. Please be mindful for there are still diehard communists at Awatenation.

          • Selam Paulos,

            I really do not have much to say on this topic. One thing I remember though, is that a long time ago, i think that YG had said that the factories that were left behind by the italians were sustained by ethiopian capital, and he even mentioned in his article what Abi said about the 35 industries built in 5 yrs. Hope i remember right.

          • Abi

            Hello Horizon
            I’m glad you stayed away from the war front. We don’t need two people teaching the same course.
            አንድ ራሥ በቂ ነው::

          • David Azzad

            Hi Horizon
            You probably are thinking of an article published by Zekre Lebona on Asmarino com on April 4 2014 under the title
            ASMERA EXPO 69: the lost age of industrialization in Eritrea

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            I was not trying to limit the argument until 1962. What prompted me to reply to you is, when you said “Industrialization in Eritrea started in 1964-1969” but that’s not the case.

            But I think you need to read is what HS was doing in the ERITREAN lowlands.

            But it is mute point to you.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            I don’t necessarily disagree with you when it comes to the COC report. 328 is a little high number. Thing is Chamber of Commerce register almost every business that operates in the city. It registers from a factory that produces cement to a corner newspaper stand or even a small መደብር that Paul used to steal candy from.
            Now, go back and enlighten the mass up voters the industrial revolution that happened in Eritrea championed by His Majesty.
            አይዞህ አትፍራ

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            Those are mostly Italian owner factories as we called them growing up and we know their names, their location and what they produced.

            Are you saying Asmara had only 328 business.

            Can you do me, can you please share these “industrial park” list. I am sure, if there were any, their names will gives it away.

            Let me tell you something, it’s people like you who were in charge that mess things up for everyone.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            We are just discussing what happened during the years 64-68 regarding industrial boom in Eritrea. No need for artificial anger here.
            You see, people like me protect you from herd mentality. I’m sure you know there is almost always another side of a given story. I said His Majesty invested heavily in Eritrea. You are saying it is the colonial masters did the good deed. I’m not saying the Italian colonizers did not opened factories of several types. You can defend, worship, elevate the Italians until kingdom comes.
            “ጃንደረባ በጌታው ብልት ይፎክራል”
            Come back to me after a shot of your favorite መሎቲ ኮኛክ. It helps to clear the foggy mind .

          • Hashela

            ሰላም በርሄ

            ጸባ ስተ! ኣሓጉሽካኒ።

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            I would say Berhino is the most nationalist Awatista and a good hearted person I have come to know on this great Forum. As you can see he is fighting you and getting up from the floor when the referee in the ring was going to call it a knock out. That is the thing: you push them, they push you back harder. That is precisely Tamrat and the Dergue before him failed to internalize about the Eritrean character.

            You cited Wiki to make a case and he went on to an authentic source and presented you with figures and numbers—Tekeste Negash. A source paradoxically from a man who never believed in Eritrea independence, credible source nevertheless.

          • Abi

            Paul
            This one is a little bit too light by your Standards. I call it Paul-light or maybe Polite.
            Actually, I found the information at Asmarino. Go ahead tell me Asmarino doesn’t believe in Eritrean independence.

        • Simon Kaleab

          Selam Abi,

          I, as a poor Eritrean, did not experience the ‘great’ king’s generosity; nor did very many Ethiopians.

          • Abi

            Hello Simon
            Exactly my point! It was only the ungrateful Eritreans who benefited from the unmatched generosity of the King.
            He should have invested in Ethiopia rather than throwing his resources into an endless pit of ungrateful lots.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Abi,

            So, based on your claim, the king was incompetent and not great.

          • Abi

            Hello Simon
            I don’t call him incompetent. The Great was trying his best to win the hearts and minds of the ungrateful lots. What he miserably failed to notice was that the people do not possess neither hearts nor minds.

    • Abi

      Hello bardavidi
      Superiority is calling others አድጊ
      Superiority is calling others አጋሜ
      Superiority is cursing in Italian

  • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

    ሰላማት ዓዋተ

    ዓሰብ ወይ ዓሰብ!
    ተባእሲ ‘ለኺ ሰብ
    ብሰንክኺ ክንደይ ኲናት
    ኣየወ! ‘ተትርእዮስ ክንደይ ናይ ሰብ ምጽናት

    ኤርትራ የሕዋትና ‘ዮም ይብሉ ከምዝፈተውና
    ጽንሕ ኢሎም ድማ ዓሰብ የኛ
    ክብሉ ይጭድሩ ሕሉፋት ነፍጠኛ
    እዚኣስ ነይ ጥዕና
    ጸገም ኣለዎ ዶ ክንብል ‘ቲ ኣምሓርኛ
    ‘ንታይ ደኣሞ?
    ጠፊኡና ‘ኳ ሎምስ ትቑንቊኛ

    ወዮ! ንሕና ከይንገድፍ
    ኣበደን! ንብል ብሓይሊ ዘግድፍ
    ግን ዘይመሃር ዓሰርተ ግዜ ክነድፍ
    ወረ ዘይዓርፍ
    ዓሕ! ከምዚሎሚ ከይኮነ ኤርትራ ኣብ ትሕቲ ህግደፍ

    ኩሩዕ ህዝቢ ‘ምበር’ዩ ኔሩ
    ንዓመጽቲ ናብ ሓመዶም ኣንገርጊሩ
    ነቶም ዓሰብ የኛ ነው ኢሎም ዘዕገርግሩ
    ወረ ረሲዖሞ ድዮም ከምዝባህረሩ
    ብሰውራ ኤረትራ ከምዝሓረሩ
    ግን
    ‘ንታይ ‘ዩ ጸገሞም ዘይመሃሩ?
    ደሪፍካሎም ‘ዶ ኔርካ ሓቀይ ወዲ-ገብሩ?
    በጃኻትኩም ‘ቶም ትፈልጡ ንገሩ
    ሃየ! ሓብሩ

    ኣቡኡን ኣባሓጎኡን ኣብ ኤርትራ ተሪፎም
    ብሰንኪ ስሰዐ ኣብ ዘይፈልጥዎ ዓዲ ረጊፎም
    ሕጂ ድማ ዘራፍ! በለ ወዲ-ወዶም
    ወል! ይምጻእ ኣብ ኤርትራ ምቕባር ካብ ኮነ ልማዶም
    ወዲ ኤረይ ፈሓረሎም ‘ታ ጉድጓዶም
    ኣይኣኽለናን ካብ በሎ ዓዶም
    ኣይንሰምዕን ካብ በሉ ጎዳጉዲ ኤርትራ ይፍረዶም
    ‘ንታይ ‘ሞ ክንብል ናብዛ ሓመዶም!

    • Haile S.

      ሰላም መሃንድሻ፡

      የኛ ትኹን ናይና ኩላ ሓንቲ ንሳ
      እዛ ኣሕዋትኩም ኢና እትብሃል ስያሳ
      መቕርብና’ውን ይጥቀሙለን ብትኒዕ ብሞሳ
      ፈትዮምና ዘይኮኑ፡ ስለዝደለዩ ናይ ባሕሪ ዓሳ
      ገመል ከነስትየሉ ዝመሓልዎ ብዘይ ጣዕሳ
      ንዐኦም’ውን ትምልከት’ያ እዛ ወቐሳ

      ልቢ ኤርትራዊ ኣይኮነትን ክንዲ መርፍእ
      ንሳ እኳ እንተሰዓምካያ እልል ኢላ እትጠፍእ

      • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

        ሊቀ-ሃይላት
        ሓዲ ምዃንካ ካብቶም ናይ ፍልጠት-ዓንተራት
        ፍሉጥ ‘ዩ
        ግን ሽሽ ከይሰምዓና ገብሩ ኣስራት [no offense here]
        ‘ተዘይ ተታኺሱ ኣብ ዓራት

        ክጠውይካ ‘ዶ ቴስዓ-ዲግሪ ?
        ‘ንተኾነና መምሃሪ

        ናይ ሎሚ ዛዕባና
        ከምትፈልጦ ትጸገም ኣብ ዝባንና
        ኣንታ ክንደይ ሓስም ዓዲ-ጓና?
        ናፍቖት ምበር ቀቲሎምና
        ሓጠው-ቀጠው ዶ ኣብዚሐ? ማዕለሽ ያ ኣኹና

        ከመይ ጌርና ኤረትራና ነገርባ?
        ኩሉ ዜጋ ከተክል ሓባ! [ባቃ!]
        ፍሩስታለ ኣሎኻ ‘ዶ? ሓንሳብ ‘ባ
        ሃገርና ክትልምዕ ብኽባ
        ቆጽሊ-ብቖጽሊ ኣብ ዝሓለፍካዮ ኩርባ
        ከመቕጽበት ንኣማዞን ከነርክባ
        [ባዕደል ኣምብሬዛ]
        ልምዕቲ ኤረትራ ንመጻኢ ወለዶ ከነ ረክባ
        ከነመጭዋ ከነዕምብባ
        ፍሽኽ-ዕልል-ዝልል ዘበጠቶ ኣፍልባ
        መርሓባ! መርሓባ! ሰልሶ መርሓባ!

        • Haile S.

          ሰላም ምሃንድሻ

          ‘ቶም ዝውሰኹና ኣብ ልዕሊ ህግደፍ
          ኮይኖምና በእንቅርት ላይ ጆሮ ደገፍ
          በቲ ኮነ በቲ ስኢንና መዕረፍ

          ወ-ሪ-ዱ-ኒ ኣነ ሓውኻ ሊቅና!
          ዝኾነ ኮይኑ መጀመርታ የቐንየልና*
          የወርሓልና፡ የዓመተልና፡ የሰንችረልና
          ክብረት ይሃበልና፡ ካብ ምዓሙቕ ልብና

          እምበኣር እቲ ዓቢ ሕማምና
          እቶም ዝገዝኡ ዘለዉ ሃገርና
          እንዳበሉ ኩሉ በጽፋርና (ብናቶም)
          ሓጋዚ ተራ-ዜጋ ወጻእተኛ ዘይብልና
          Bardavidi ዝጽሓፎ ኣብ ላዕሊ ርአ፡ ጥራሕና ተሪፍና

          መንዩ ዝበለ ሱፐርዮሪቲ
          ስራሕ ዘይብሉ፡ ዝሰኣነ ወዲ-ኣይቲ?
          ዝነብር ክኸውን ኣለዎ ኣብ ናይ ባዕሉ ብዓቲ

          ህግደፍ ዝገበርዋ ቁ_ነገር ሓንቲ
          ኣእዋም ካይትቖርጹ ካብ ላዕሊ ካብ ታሕቲ
          ብመጠኑ ተመሊሱ ናይ ኣራዊት ኣባይቲ
          ግና እንዶ’ኮይኑ ካይቀረብካ ዕንጸይቲ ተካእቲ
          ……
          *ቅነ = ክልተ ሰሙን

          • Paulos

            Selam Hailat,

            የሰንችረልና? That is classic. How about Eon?

            You got to cut ወዲ ኣፌ some slack for he is Eco-Friendly Dictator [EFD.]

  • Semere Tesfai

    Selam Prof. Araya Debesay

    “The Government of Mr. Meles Zenawi also fought a war with Eritrea, but the declared motive for the war was the protection of Ethiopian borders, and not the seizing of land or tampering with Eritrean sovereignty”

    You’re dead wrong! The war might have been declared and fought (by the Woyanes) under the pretext of border dispute (for PR consumption); but for sure there wasn’t any ambiguity about the Ethio-Eritrean borders for a whole century prior to the advent of the Woyanes. And it is disappointing to hear from someone with your caliber, justifying the 1998 Ethio-Eritrean war with such false equivalence (“instigated by conceited people from both sides who refused to dialogue for peace”) from someone with your caliber. The war was never about border dispute . It was all about access to the Red Sea. Let me elaborate on that:

    A.- The 1998 Ethio-Eritrean war was instigated, provoked, triggered and fought precisely to achieve the exact objectives Tamrat negara stated.

    B. – The EEBC final and binding court ruling was rejected precisely to achieve the exact objectives Tamrat negara stated

    C. – The two and half decade of “no war no peace” policy was enacted to achieve the exact objectives Tamrat negara stated.

    D. – The formation, financing, arming, training and hosting of opposition organizations that have non-converging and irreconcilable parallel objectives – some with secessionist platforms (to join their Afar brothers as an ultimate objective) was adapted to achieve the exact objectives Tamrat negara stated – of course Tigray’s territorial expansion as an icing on the cake.

    E. – And the Meles/Woyane worshipers of the Eritrean opposition, the Woyane cadres that were flooding this Awate website masquerading as Eritreans under different pen-names
    were making the exact same arguments (some to this day) the exact objectives Tamrat negara stated.

    The point: What is new? Tamrat is not the original thinker of ‘ቀይ ባህር ለዘልኣለም የኢትዮጵያ ድንበር ሆኖ ይኖራል’. According Ethiopian media ኣሉላ ኣባነጋ is. Tamrat is not the original thinker of ‘ኢትዮጵያ የኣሰብ ወደብ ካልተሰጠች፡ ኤርትራ ለዘልኣለም በሰላም ኣትኖርም’ fantasy. Every Ethiopian ነፍጠኛ born after Alula Aba-Nega has claimed that – and look were they are. And life will go on as they cry ቀይ ባህራችን.

    We as Eritreans – irrespective of our political differences, our primary job is to believe them and take them seriously when they say these things – because when they say it, they really mean it.

    Semere Tesfai

    .

    • Abi

      ሰላም ወንድም ጋሼ
      እንዴት ከርመሃል?
      ነገረኛው ነገረ ከምሽግህ አፈናጥሮ አወጣህ ምሽ?

      • Semere Tesfai

        ሰላም ጋሸ ኣቢ

        “ነገረኛው ነገረ ከምሽግህ አፈናጥሮ አወጣህ ምሽ?”

        ኣይ፡ እዚህ ኣዋተ ያሉ ነገረኞች መቸ ኣነሱ። ያንተው ናፍቆት ነው ከምሽጌ ያወጣኝ።

        በመሆነ፡ ደህና ከርመሃል?

        ሰመረ ተስፋይ

        • Abi

          ወንድም ጋሼ
          የኔ ናፍቆት እንኳን ምሽግ መቃብር ያስፈነቅላል!!!
          የአዋተን ነገረኞች ለኔ ተዋቸው:: አንተ ብቻ አትጥፋብን:: ጭር ሲል አንወድም::
          እኔ ደህና ከርሜያለሁ:: ህዝበ አዋተን ማስተማር ገደለኝ እንጂ..
          ልዑል ራሥ አቢ

          • Semere Tesfai

            ሰላም ጋሸ ኣቢ

            እንኳን ደህና ከረምክልኝ፡ እንኳን ለአዋተ ነገረኞች ቻልክልኝ። ኣሁን ኣርፌ እተኛለሁ። ኑርልኝ።

            Ras Abi, It was pleasure conversing with you. Please say hi to my sister and the Ivy League University students/graduates that are the pride of every human race.

            የኢርትራ ደም ያለው ልጅ መቸም exceptional አንጐል እንዳለው ኣያጠራጥርም 🙂

            Again thank you for all the respect, was pleasure conversing with you.

            Semere Tesfai

          • Abi

            Thanks Uncle Semere
            The Ivy League guy is heading to a medical school. እግዚአብሔር የተመሰገነ ይሁን!
            አንጎል ከአባታቸው ቁንጅና ከእናታቸዉ ወርሰዋል::
            Stay around

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            Your son is going to Med School? Congrats bro! Awesome. God bless!

          • Abi

            Thanks Paul
            Awesome is right!

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Gashe Abi

            “The Ivy League guy is heading to a medical school. እግዚአብሔር የተመሰገነ ይሁን! አንጎል ከአባታቸው ቁንጅና ከእናታቸዉ ወርሰዋል::”

            I thought ቁንጅና was from you. Sorry.

            Congratulations! Behind every successful child there are parents who cared and invested in their child/children in every step of the way. Congratulations again.

            Semere Tesfai

          • Abi

            ወንድም ጋሼ
            እናንተ ወደ ጫካ ስታፈተልኩ እኛ ከተሜዎች ቆንጆዎቹን ጠለፍናቸው::
            Thank you for all the good wishes and encouragement.
            I really appreciate your kindness.

    • Paulos

      Selam Ato Semere,

      Glad you’re well and welcome back. During your hiatus though, I was really hoping you would have “Road to Damascus” conversion after the man at the helm spilled all the beans when he said, ካብ ሕጂ ንኔው ክልተ ህዝቢ ኢና ዝብል’ተሎ ታሪኽ ዘይፈልጥ ጥራሕ’ዪ. When that was not enough, he said ኣይከሰርናን and ካብ ሕጂ ንኔው ንስኻ ኢኻ ትመርሓና. And in his recent Christmas trip to Addis, he said, ሰለስተ ወለዶ ብዘይምኽንያት ተጣፊኡ.

      • Semere Tesfai

        Selam Paulos

        “I was really hoping you would have “Road to Damascus” conversion after the man at the helm spilled all the beans when he said, ካብ ሕጂ ካብ ሕጂ ንኔው ክልተ ህዝቢ ኢና ዝብል’ተሎ ታሪኽ ዘይፈልጥ ጥራሕ’ዪ.ንኔው ክልተ ህዝቢ ኢና ዝብል’ተሎ ታሪኽ ዘይፈልጥ ጥራሕ’ዪ. When that was not enough, he said ኣይከሰርናን and ካብ ሕጂ ንኔው ንስኻ ኢኻ ትመርሓና. And in his recent Christmas trip to Addis, he said, ሰለስተ ወለዶ ብዘይምኽንያት ተጣፊኡ.”

        First thing first: good to hear/read you Paulosay. That out of the way:

        1.- “ካብ ሕጂ ንኔው ክልተ ህዝቢ ኢና ዝብል’ተሎ ታሪኽ ዘይፈልጥ ጥራሕ’ዪ.”

        You’re making too much out of something that is not. It is a political speech, and try to look at it from that perspective. As a young Tegadalay, I remember hearing (on radio) Mengistu Hailemariam making a similar speech in Khartoum – ካንድ ወንዝ የምንጠጣ፡ በችግራችን የምንረዳዳ (mentioning the time king Haileselassie went to exile)…… ኣንድ ህዝብ ነን speech. But after Mengistu Hailemariam’s ኣንድ ህዝብ ነን speech in Kharoum, there was never a “Road to Damascus conversion” moment in Ethiopian elite as far as I can remember. But, but, but …………….
        Just curious: do you believe the current Woyane’s የሕዋት ኢና claim? If you do, you’ve a convert.

        2. – ” Isaias said ” ኣይከሰርናን” during his visit to Ethiopia.”

        After thirty years of bloodshed, sixty five thousand martyrs, about a million of our population displaced and exiled, we claimed – WE WON. If I’ve to guess, you would have criticized him if he would’ve said “ከሲርና ኢና” as well. But again, if I’ve to guess, he was trying to be optimistic about the future. That’s all.

        3. ” President Isaias said ካብ ሕጂ ንኔው ንስኻ (ኣቢ) ኢኻ ትመርሓና.”

        If you don’t have any problem America claiming to be the leader of the “free” world. If you don’t have any problem USA being the leader of the Western World, then you shouldn’t have a problem with the very concept of – Ethiopia being a leader of the Horn region and Isaias being a team player under the leader of Abiy Ahmed. Afterall, the very concept of integration is losing your absolute sovereignty for security and economic prosperity.

        4. – President Isaias Afewerqi said ሰለስተ ወለዶ ብዘይምኽንያት ተጣፊኡ.”

        I don’t believe there is any person with his/her right mind who would disagree with that perspective.

        Semere Tesfai

        • Paulos

          Selam Ato Semere,

          I actually didn’t know you were a ተጋዳላይ. As we say it in this part of the world, thank you for your service. Really. I just turned 50 and may sound a lame excuse if I say, I was too young to join ገድሊ when I in fact opted to pursue my education instead. Call me selfish and opportunist if you wish.

          Perhaps, my accusation about what Isaias pitched during his stay in Addis may have been taken out of context but as much as it is too sensitive, why can’t he say it in such a way where the ኣብ ጥቓ ትኪ ዘሎ ቖልዓ ኣይተብኪ carries the wisdom of the day.

          As for the Weyanes, sure we are one people but in fact with a double dose but, we are two separate and sovereign nations or countries. And to my knowledge, the Weyanes never said, we are one nation.

          • Abi

            Paul
            ጋሼ ሠመረ ተስፋይ was an ELF ተጋዳላይ:: ተስፋውም ሠምሮ አገር አስረክቦሃል::
            Pay attention please!

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Paulos

            1. – “I actually didn’t know you were a ተጋዳላይ.”

            Yea, I’m a decade plus older than you.

            2. – “Why can’t he say it in such a way where the ኣብ ጥቓ ትኪ ዘሎ ቖልዓ ኣይተብኪ carries the wisdom of the day.”

            Some say there is a difference between Tegadalay and a politician – which they say he is still more of a Tegadalay than a politician. Honestly, I don’t know!

            3. – “As for the Weyanes, sure we are one people but in fact with a double dose but, we are two separate and sovereign nations or countries. And to my knowledge, the Weyanes never said, we are one nation.”

            Sorry, I don’t buy that. የሕዋት ምዃን is not conditional. If what they are claiming was real, ሕውነትና would’ve been the same when they were in Addis and after they were driven from Addis to Meqele.

            Thank you for engaging and thank you for all the respect.

            Semere Tesfai

      • iSem

        Carro Paulo:
        Paraphrasing you, after you gave us the IF treat and you took a leave from here, I was hoping that it is impossible, impossible for PFDJ/AI disciples to entice them with facts in their fact free genes.
        you are hopeless dreamer, hopeless dreamer is supposed to be good and I say it in a positive way and strength of the gangsters, our own gangsters is they are have no dreams, they have nightmares and their act on their nightmares, while we the hopeless dreamers, act on our dreams. But dreams are vanity like the Grate Lawrence of Arabia said.
        See how our gangster is sanitizing, canonizing his master, see how he quotes Mengistu H from all the people, see how he tells you IA lead Eritreans to independence, when we know, when we know Eritreans were better off before independence in many respects. IA brought nothing to Eritrea except forging a career for himself and implementing his nightmares on Eriteans
        I know my words are harsh to words your debater* and it is atypical of me in normal situations and I hope you do not perceive me as that, but sometimes we have to call things as they are

        Debater*; Like our mothers used to say, do not mention his name in the morning or night when referring to the devil, I am refraining from mention names of the enablers of our torment

  • Mez

    Dear Dr. Araya D,

    An interesting perspective and write-up. the topic you gave is “Supremacists Agitating for Violence Against Eritrea”.
    1) your core analysis revolves around an apparent junior journalist named in your first paragraph. You almost instantly elevated him to the “spokes person” level of segments of the “Ethiopian intelligentsia”. I doubt if you may call this guy a supremacist, and could call him in plural in present tense.
    1.1) Waw, with just this guy as a representative “mover-and-shaker Ethiopian figure”–no additional interview, data, or discussion from others to corroborate or reject, you portrayed the situation as dramatic.
    2) after a lot of history class, your write-up starts to windup by mentioning “From the Eritrean side, there is a mistrust of the one-man show and decision, as portrayed by President Isaiyas, on a matter of paramount importance such as peace agreement with Ethiopia”, as an apparent–but clear–refusal of the peace accord between PIA and PM AAA.
    3) in your last lines by stating “there is a need to solve the domestic political problems in Eritrea, and then send representatives of a democratic Eritrea to discuss/negotiate openly with the Ethiopians” you seem to postpone any peace agreement (with Ethiopia exclusively) to the future generation indefinitely.
    3.1) And your above statements would imply to me that you may prefer the “No-war-no-peace” state of affairs which lasted close to two decades–as the best remedy between the two countries for the foreseeable future. Very sad to say the least.
    4) It seems to me you just stopped short of rejecting the the comprehensive peace agreement between PIA and PM AAA.

    Thanks

    • sara

      selam Mez,
      Thank you for the deciphering what was written, , i didn’t realize it has those things in-between when i read it yesterday..

  • Haile S.

    Selam Professor Araya,

    I prefer and agree with your last long paragraph. Our beaks should peck on the “dinosaur’s” egg. On the Negera guy, he is just simply Meles-Z’s incarnate ghost on the drawing board. Nothing new. He said everything his missed leader tried on the ground.

  • Abi

    Hello All
    ኤርትራውያን ነፃነታቸውን ተበድረው ነው እንዴ ያገኙት? ምንድነው ይህ ሁሉ መርበድበድ?

    እዩት ተመልከቱት የግዜርን ታምራት
    በጦር ያመጡትን ነፃነት በብዕር ሲፈቱት
    በብድር የመጣ ያልተከፈለበት
    መሆኑ መች ገባኝ ዕዳ የበዛበት
    መጨረሻው የት ነው የእግዜር ታምራት
    አህያውን ፈርተው ዳውላውን ሲመቱት
    ኢሱ ከአሥመራ በሳቅ ሙትት!
    ታምራት! ታምራት! ታምራት! ታምራት!

    • Berhe Y

      Hi Abi,

      Please see this similar to how Israel see any attempt at its existence. They collectively respond in unison. It’s not that we are “scared” but to send clear message, for him and others like him.

      Never again.

      Berhe

      • sara

        selam berhe,
        what is ato abi saying to respond in that way? need help .

        • Berhe Y

          Hi Sara,

          You are Abi favourite so I will ask him to write it in English for you.

          My understanding in what he says “why are you ERITREAN’s scared of this guy. You are acting that you got your freedom as if you borrowed it but having paid the actual price”.

          Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            I’m impressed!!
            What you missed is Isu is laughing while you beat the crap out of Mr Tamrat. This by itself is ተአምር (miracle).
            What is very offensive about this person is he didn’t acknowledge the source of his comments. He definitely copied almost everything from comments that have been posted at Awate for the last several years.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Abi,

            You there is a saying in Tigrinya “HabaE quslu HabaE fewsu”, roughly translated, “one who hides his sickness, hides his cure”.

            Awate.com has been God gift to Eritrea. You see, as long as it’s done with civility, everything that is of public interest needs to be public. That’s how we are going to refine our political discourse and develop culture of tolerance, political maturity and build just and democratic Eritrea in the future.

            We may have put our our dirty laundry for everyone to see and judge, but it’s the only we can solve our problems.

            Just imagine if we didn’t have awate, what they political landscape would have been. If we depend on PFDJ, and they’re hardcore evil supporters, what would have been spared from infighting among us, with point of “no return”.

            We Eritreans have real experience on how IA manipulated a sector of our population to stand and support him by making a sectarian divide with his “nhnan elamanan” manifesto, to dived Eritrea along ethnic and religious lines.

            I can say with high probability that, it has been shattered and there will not be anyone left to pick up on that.

            The few that are left, now that they have no where to go, are going crazy with their Tigray-Tigrinya or agazian and I heard new one yesterday “Tigray south and Tigray north”.

            I wish Awate.com will Eritrea’s publicly funded independent news organization for eternity (just like those in western democratic institutions). It’s our garantee to peaceful existence in the future.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            Awate is a gift of Gadi not God. Stop comparing The Almighty with a Human being. Oh my Gadi!!
            My point is whatever አይተ ነገራም ነገራ said is not his own. It has been said repeatedly by the big shots of Awate for years. My question is why all these panicking when the same thing said by the unknown individual?

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            Gift of Gadi. You are right. I like it.

            I think the way he he said is probably has more to do it. I don’t recall anyone said in the past “we will make Eritrea outside world to come through Ethiopia” and they will have their own “olympic team …with his laugh…

            One Ethiopia youtuber predicted…he soon will know what it means for the comments he made…

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            I think the Tigrinya saying is wrong. The correct saying is
            በሽታውን የደበቀ መድሃኒት አይገኝለትም::

          • sara

            anta hawna berhe…
            thank you for the translation, as for “Abi favourite”
            well, sebay gual kubur endu zebahal abadna… n haftna knbil
            cordiality becomes necessary.

        • Paulos

          Sara,

          Of course, you didn’t ask for my help or opinion but I would suggest you make an effort to learn the beautiful language Amharic as much as you made an effort to learn Arabic.

          • Abi

            Paul
            አይተ ነገራ ነግራም ሃቁን ቢነግራቸው
            ጀጋኑ ደቂ ኤርትራ ሽንት አመለጣቸው
            መከራውን አየ አቢ ሊያፅናናቸው
            እባክህ ዻውሎሴ መፍትሄ ስጣቸው
            የችግሩን መፍቻ ቁልፉን አምጣላቸው
            ነገረኛው ነገራ አይደለም በላቸው
            ምነው ሁሉ ነገር ታምራት ሆነባቸው?

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            There is this guy who has a video channel and he has written a book as well. I never got the chance to read the book where the title if I am not mistaken is ዘርኢ ኽርዳድ. Of course, it is about Isaias Afwerki. His latest video is about of course Isaias and he went on to say that, Isaias has magic powers for he consults ጠንቋዮች. In fact, he says Isaias has always been consulting and frequenting ጠንቛይ ቤቶች in a pitch dark at night when everyone is asleep. And the guy says, he has a proof and evidence to that effect.

            You can see how bizarre it has gotten and how Isaias has taken the center stage in Eritrean psych! I wouldn’t be surprised if some are already convinced that Isaias Afwerki is immortal. Perhaps, Tamrat should be excused when he said, የሚገርም ኣገር ነው!

          • Abi

            Paul
            I have heard the same story about Menge and Meles the Lion. They both rumored to have used outside councils.

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            Oh Meles the Lion too? How come he is no longer alive then? His ተንቋይ must had been a fraud and a scammer. Have you seen the classic comedy movie, “Death becomes her”? The price of immortality.

          • Abi

            Paul
            የመሌም ባለቤት በዚሁ ጉዳይ ትጠረጠራለች:: May be her outside council send Meles to the wrong destination.
            I haven’t watched the movie you mentioned. Is it good? Good like Awate good?

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            It is an old movie and it is not that great but if you’re a big fan of Meryl Streep, check it out.

          • sara

            selam ato paulos,
            i speak 4 Eritrean languages, Arabic is of-course one of them,
            and one foreign language (basic English) … do i need more?
            but inshallah given a conducive situation i will try to learn one ethiopian language.
            thanks for the advice.

          • Paulos

            Sara,

            Experts tell us that, Afro-Asiatic language gave rise to three main languages as in Cushtic, Semetic and Omotic. And there is of course one “loner” parent language independent of the Afro-Asiatic–the Nilo-Sahara language.

            Cushtic is branched off into Somali and Oromifa, Bilen [I think maybe Aya Saleh or Hailat can correct me], and Agew. Semetic branched off into Gurage, Harrar, Amharic, Tigrinya and Tigrait. Omotic is branched off into mainly the regions around the Omo River as in Welayta, Haidya and Kembata. And the loner parent language Nilo-Sahara branched off into Anuak, Neur and Kunama [Again I am not quite sure and guessing about Kunama.]

            Why am I telling you this? Well, perhaps, we should make more effort to learn the languages closer to home than distant languages.

          • Teodros Alem

            selam paulos
            1, closeness is more about similarity of mindsets, similarity of values about life and everything that u share commonly.
            2, seeing sara here in Awate, i think she is by far closer . closer than those excellent speakers, the like of meles, tesfaye gabreab , etc. I think she doesn’t want no body to mess to her country and the vice versa.

  • Paulos

    Selam Professor Araya,

    It is rather a lengthy article of a Wiki type to walk someone through Eritrean history 101 when someone is a neophyte to that part of the world but I must say I am disappointed and perhaps Tamrat in his second interview was up to something when he seemed to remind us of a crucial issue where we have to direct our anger towards Isaias instead. And I dare say he has a point.

    You said, “….the [Badme] war was instigated by two conceited people….” Really? I wonder why is it incredibly difficult for you to say what the whole world has already established as a fact? A fact that it was Isaias himself single handedly instigated and started the war for a reason only known to him where the rest of us are left to speculate ad infinitum.

    Could it be the reason then people like Tamrat do not take us serious when they doubt if we were to meet Isaias in person and would we man up and look him in the eye and confront him with what he has done to Eritrea including for starting the war? Ghandi once said, “If a man wants to change the world, he should first start with himself.”

    Respectfully!

    • Idrisawate

      Yes because isaias was the one that produced fake maps that encroached on others sovereign territories. Donkoro

      • Paulos

        Idris,

        I might be Don but certainly not Koro.

        • Abi

          Paul
          Don like Don Quixote? I kind of agree.

      • Peace!

        Hi Idris,

        Perhaps you are new to this forum Paulosay is one of the top professors of science at awate university. He deserves RESPECT!

        Peace!

        • Paulos

          Selam Abi Seb,

          You should see me laughing. ሸታሕታሕ? ንስኻ እንዲኻ ቅራፍ ባናና ትድርቤልና ዘለኻ፣ ኣነ ሓውኻ ግን ገጢመካ ስለዘለኹ helmet ጌረ’የ ዝዛወር ዘለኹ.

          ፓቸ ዓርከይ ኩሉ ሰናይ እዩ! ጥዕና ጥራሕ! ወዲ ኣፌ ምስ ጠለዐ ኣነን ንስኻን ብፍሑግፍሑግ ክሳዕ ንኸይድ ክንጨርም ኢና! ግሩሽ ግን ጽዒንካ ምጻእ ኢኻ እተን ኣብ ጁባይ ዘለዋ ከይውሕዳ.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Dr Paulos,

            ኣንታ ዶክተረ ናይ መስተ ሰብ እኳ ዘይትመስል:: እንተዘይ ተጋግየ ምስቲ ፕሮፌሽን ናትካውን ዝኸይድ አይመስለንን:: ኣብርእሲኡ ድማ መጻሕፍቲ ዘፍቅር መስተ ኣፍቃራይ ክኸውን አይክእልን’ዩ::

          • Paulos

            Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

            As you can imagine, when we were growing up, smoking cigarettes was swell and cool. Peer pressure had it that, I started smoking cigarettes at age 16 and in college the addiction got worse because of the stress level. It was incredibly hard but I quit cold turkey when I turned 40.

            The stuff we kid about with Abi Seb is just Asmarino lingua if you will where it is just a joke. Of course, I drink occasionally but I must say that, it comes with peer pressure as well where all of us get exposed in teenage years including the first ten years there after.

            There certainly is a sort of a stereotype where academics are taken for teetotaler but that is far from the truth. It is across the board.

          • Peace!

            Hi Paulosay,

            ኣነውን welding goggles (ናይ ሳንዳትርሺ) ገይረ እየ ዝዛወር ዘልኹ ኩሉና ሓደ ኢና ግዲብልካን

            እቲ ኻኣ ጸገም የለን ኣይወገፍኩን ፍካ ኣሎ ጥራይ ከምገለ ጌርና ንዚ ሰብኣይ ንኻርጆ:

            Peace!

          • Berhe Y

            አቱም ቡሩኻት ሰባት

            አብዚአስ ቁርብ አቅኒኹምና፡፡ እዚ ቁርሱስ ሰብአይ ይኽድ እምበር ምጭራም እይኮነን ካልእ ክንፍትን ኢና፡፡

            እይትረስዑና ግን፡፡ ዋላ ንአማኒኤል ህድራትን ሰመራ ዓንዶም ክንልክሞም ኢና፡፡

            ሓቂ ትሓይሽ፡ አነውን ብዙሕ መስተ አየዘውትርን እየ፡ ግን ሓሊፈ ሓሊፈ፡ መሎቲ አረቂስ ጨጥ ምባልሲ ደስ እያ ትብለኒ፡፡

            በርሀ

          • Paulos

            Selam Berhino,

            Obviously you and I have differences of opinions on number of issues but that is healthy and we should cultivate it till it matures into an institution where by post-PFDJ Eritrea is founded on. Our differences will endure including when you and I run for public office where the Eritrean voters will be the ultimate judges. When that day comes, you, ፓቸ and any Awatista who would want to join us–ለማናይ ከይሓርአ ደርሆ ከይነቀወ ክንጨርም ኢና! ኣብ ኣስመራ ወዲ ዕንዳ ስለዝነበርካ በርሂኖ ዓርከይ ተኸዘነ ፍሉስ ይህልወካ’እዩሞ ተማላኣዮ’ኢኻ፣ ከምዛ ትሪኤና ኣነን ፓቸን ዝወገፍና ቺስታታት ኢና።

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Paulo,

            I don’t know about being wedi enda, but anything for you and peace.

            Trust me, there is nothing I want as far as political life is concerned. What I really wish and hope to do is, Eritrea Adey, keSebuqan, kKuHlan, kwequTan, kulu 100 Kab 100 bneSa.

            If you become a political candidate, any awatista for that matter, including those I oppose their views at some point or another, I will support them all the way, without any condition, because of their mastery of debate, tolerance and enlighten they have achieved at AT university, unless I have to chose between two awatista, then I can chose as per their views.

            The only difference that I think I have with you is, I want us to focus on our selves, by our selves, without mixing our country politics by others no matter how attractive and interesting it seems.

            For example, one time I think you said, our people unity with Tigray, Eritrea to provide economic opportunity, and the people of Tigray to provide political leadership or something. Sorry I am quoting from memory (I don’t have iSem/Abi memory bank) but you get the idea. When Eritrea have people like you, Saay, Gadi, iSem why on earth do we need political mercenaries, who will be there for their own interests and benefits first and for most. If this type of thought is coming from an average half Mengedi, I can understand but from our own, the very best among us, who has mastered all knowledge, but did he forget what Machiavelli said about mercenaries. I beg to differ.

            In our recent history, for the past 130 or so years, the only time we had enjoyed, relative peace and in destiny of our own affairs, was during our first four years of our own parliament. We need to go back to that.

            This year my focus was to areas that benefit Eritrea and to fight the qurS sheTan. Ezi duhul fiTret, gave the interview at sheger times (ab shigir dea ayewSayo ember) on Jan 2nd and it has been a busy couple of weeks.

            So with this I want to end ezi halewlow, and stay put for little while, I have lots of catching up to do on my work. And if I offended you in anyway, please forgive me.

            Remember, I still owe you breakfast, and dinner and anything in between when you are in town.

            Until next time.

            Berhe

          • Paulos

            Selam Berhino,

            What a beautiful footage! Thank you for sharing.

            As a nation, we are going through trying times and we become prone to despair and hopelessness and probably that was the reason I said about the political leadership and economic cooperation. Desperate times they say call for desperate measures.

            Look around Berhino! We got no one. No one to look up to. No one who could inspire us and tell us better days are ahead. We have no a leader or Moses if you will who descends from up the mountain with a clear roadmap on how we bring our nation into normalcy and away from the dark abyss, the nation whose price is the blood of a generation. It is slipping away right before our eyes. That is precisely the reason, we say stuff that was unthinkable decades ago and we suggest if it could work this time around. In sober moment however, I agree with you, Eritrea is for Eritreans and by Eritreans only. I stand for Eritrea! Forgive me if I offended you. Much respect!

          • iSem

            Hi Paul: i do not remember the assertion Berhe is mentioning, but I, in 2004 told friends (BY) not present that Libya and dictator infested, with will be better of to hire former presidents like Carter and Bill Clinton as CEO to run their country as they have no enthnicinterst/conflict of interest The systems I was envisaging was to have elected reps from the country and hiring the executive like Clinton las a ceo. But when I told BY what i said to our friends he went technical on me: if this was to avoid coup, then there is nothing to prevent the coup from happening even with hired ceo president/pm, BY said but my solution was to avert the corruption, the nepotism etc that most African countries suffer from. I also agree with you about the paucity of someone to aspire to and hope, positive thinking, devoid of vision, and baby steps to aspire higher will not do it. It is my honest believe, not to be provocative (although that is good too) when i said Eri was better of under Degi, in every metric (you tell me, you were there when you were old enough to remember) Many, including the opposition have not come around the fact that EPLF/PFDJ has covered our faces with a fleece and looted us of our future, that is the problem. Those who think Eritrea cannot be annex with Ethiopia because it is illegal, they are thinking linearly: Ethio will march to Asmara. NO, that is too obvious, and cannot be done. But IA has done it by weakening Eritrea, by humiliating them, by trashing even Ghedli and their identity and Tamarat is correct IA will take Eritreans to the slavery mentality that we will love our captors. IA will even hold a referendum, he alluded to that in 1993 and allow us to vote for confederation and many will support. That is how he will do it and I can assure you the over 500,00 who left Eri to Europe in the last 20 years will not go to Sahell to reclaim Eritreanism.

            Lately I have been obsessed with the idea of what will this demography eradication will mean for Eri in the next 30 years. PFDJ has the stamina to stay for the next decade and then we will spend the next 20 fixing Eri, and learning from the past people will not immediately return home, that will mean 60 years post EPLF eradication. Think about it. People will not be extinct, w e will still be fruitful a d multiply, but the identity is gone. Ormay
            I have you thought about it?
            I think you and I debated and agreed recently about the changing world and critical thinking is important for citizens to survive the silicon based intelligent design and so are nations, so do not stop thinking, independently, out of the box. There is story about Ghandi when he was travelling on a train, he dropped one sandal and he could not retrieve it so he tossed his second one, thinking one shoe will be less use for him but if someone else found both would make most use of them, a pfdjite like Semere T/MS would think, I better save one foot from the thorns

          • Berhe Y

            Hi iSem,

            My reply is quite simple. Google “Steve jobs advice on life”, less than 2 minutes.

            Watch is and then think about.

            Waiting for others to solve your problem and save you from your misery, you may as well be like those “Ane poletica ayfetun eye”.

            Look we have a dictator at home, there is no point in comparing him to anyone but our own and we have to do what that needs to be done to solve it.

            On the other point about Africa leaders being corrupted, please google “Farrakhan vs mike Wallace in Nigeria”.

            Africa corruption problem is the creation of the west. And until we African people solve our own problem, nothing will change.

            I am going to charge you with “defeatism:)”.

            Derg when he killed Gen Aman Andom, the Eritrean problem possibilities of being solved peacefully died.

            Berhe

          • Peace!

            Hi Berhino,

            ኣጆኻ ድሓር ካኣ ምጭራም ካኣ ንመስተ ጥራይ ኣይኮነን Asmara እኮ ብካፒቹኖን ማክያቶን እያ ትፍለጥ:: ኣበይ ማክያቶ ትሰቲ ነይርካ? Bar Trieste, ኢምፖሮ, ካስቴሎ, ፕሪማሜራ (ምስ ሑርማ) ….

            Peace!

          • iSem

            HI BY:
            Yea, I know you like አረቂ and the bottle you gave me still have it and using it to do you know what?
            😉

          • Berhe Y

            Hi iSem,

            I know. I should gave given you your favourite drink. Green tea.

            You are welcome to return it. I run out.

            Berhe

          • iSem

            Hi BY:
            No, No, I will not return it, it still smells good 🙂

  • Selam All,

    Why so much fuss about what this guy (tamrat negeru) has said.
    1) That he is an ethiopian nationalist (ultranationalist) – It is up to him to become whatever he wants. Nobody should worry about that.
    2) Eritrea will continue to exist only as long as Ethiopia wants it to exist – Utter Nonsense.
    3) IA is doing a good job by doing what he does to his country and people – None of his business.
    4) No ethiopian wants his/her country to be landlocked forever – True.
    5) Massawa is an ethiopian port – In my opinion, contrary to the port of assab, this doesn’t hold water, unless the aim is to occupy eritrea, which is complete madness.

    While eritreans say ethiopia should be landlocked, ethiopians say it should not be, each one for their own special reasons. Tplf/Eplf supported it with all their power, without taking the consequences under consideration, whether the other side will accept it fullheartedly or not. Ephemeral military strength seems to have blinded them. This is an issue that will remain an issue for generations to come, until it gets a logical conclusion. Each one of them has the right to live with their point of view concerning sea access for ethiopia. Every one can visit the history of afars, italy, ethiopia, and eritrea to make their point. It will not be a solution, unless there is consensus.

    On the contrary, the independence of eritrea should not come under any discussion whatsoever. If there are people who say that there is no independence without assab and landlocked ethiopia, then let it be so, as long as it has acceptance one way or the other from the opposite side.

    Finally, the guy’s ultranationalistic rhetoric seems to have gained him some importance. Some curse him for what he said, while others justify his viewpoint mainly by looking at the situation on the ground. Nevertheless, I see it as a passing storm.

    • Kokhob Selam

      Yes Dear Horizon,

      ” Nevertheless, I see it as a passing storm.”

      Ended this is passing storm. Said that both should have a government chosen by people and have very clear principle to follow. I think we human-beings are still not in our proper stage of development. Short cut would not work Horizon..Consider we are 3D stage and we should reach 5D..which is will dismiss nationalism..

      KS..

    • Hashela

      Selam Horizon

      It does not depend on Ethiopia’s approval or acceptance as to whether Assab and its environ are sovereign Eritrean territories. The daughters and sons of the brave nation called Eritrea have cemented this fact in the military and legal battle fields.

      For the sake of peace in our region, it is highly time that belligerent Ethiopians, like you, bury their hallucination below the depth of Mohorovitch discontinuity and let it there thermally decompose.

      • Selam Ashela,

        You said, ‘you have cemented it militarily and legally’. Good for you. Nevertheless, do you think that it is as simple as that. You were strong then, but weak now. International laws are defined by whoever has the power to impose his will, and geopolitical order doesn’t remain the same forever.

        Look at israel and syria and israel and palestine. Why do you think that trump says that the golan heights should belong to israel and jerusalem is the capital city of the jewish state and israel has the right to build settlements on palestinian territories. I brought these examples to show that nothing is for granted.

        As much as ethiopia and eritrea are concerned, the best way should’ve been a divorce that respected the interest of both countries, without hurting each other’s interest, as many other countries have amicably divorced. There was hate and contempt for ethiopia, and tplf and eplf thought that it was a victory that would last a thousand years. On the contrary, the 1998-2000 war, the no-war-no-peace situation over the last two decades and economic stagnation that hurt eritrea more than it did to ethiopia was the result, and no one can guarantee such things would never occur again.

        Can you force ethiopia not to hope for a sea access, or can you direct your economy, political and military power to ensure that ethiopia remains landlocked forever at the expense of your peace and development? Remember, governments change and policies change too, and crazy people like tamrat could come to power, etc. What do you think is the best thing to do, if generations of ethiopians say NO to landlockedness? Don’t you think that rationality would have been better when eritrea gets nothing out of assab as over the last two decades.

        Economic cooperation between the two countries, opening the big ethiopian market for eritrean goods and removing tariffs etc. are more advantageous to eritrea than a port that has brought no profit to eritrea other than its psychological value.

        Whatever you say or do, only ethiopia gives value to assab and nobody else, not even eritrea, at least for the time being, and most probably for the future as well, as there are many sea ports that can compete with assab, and no other country that would compete against ethiopia to use assab. It is up to you to be reasonable

        • Hashela

          Selam Horizon

          why agonzing so much, don’t you know that Ethiopia has more choices than Eritrea when it comes to having sea access?

          • Abi

            Hello Hashela
            That is not a proper salutation accepted by Awatenation.
            Take your time and read the posting guidelines.

        • Berhe Y

          Hi Horizon,

          1) Eritrea has never said, EVER no access to Ethiopia.

          Can you get this fact first? Why do you keep repeating lies, and lies and lies. Get your facts straight. Not only did Eritrea gave access to Ethiopia, but it was free. As in no charge.

          2) What difference it will make?

          For example, if you live in a continental United States and you in the state of Colorado. How long is the state of Colorado from the sea?

          you still have to build the roads or train etc..but you still need to travel your goods.

          Why can’t you think in such terms..and make peace so everyone is spared.

          You example about Israel and Palestine, will not stand in our case:
          1) Ethiopia is not Israel. Live with it. Israel is a shadow government of the United States.
          2) Eritrea is not Palestine. Eritrea is a UN recognized country. No country of the UN has made to disappear from the face of the earth. Live with it.

          If you say, no and you still want to come by force, please bring it on.

          Berhe

          • Selam Berhe Y.,
            Sorry to tell you that the truth is that it is you who is lying. You were demanding to be paid in foreign currency at an extortive price, and this was one of the reasons for the war. Remember, assab was to be your cash cow until it was made a watering hole for your camels by none other than the guy who fought tooth and nail to make it yours, mz.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Horizon,

            I guess there is no point to continue to argue. We have to see with facts, what actually transpired.

            Berhe

          • Hashela

            Hi Horizon

            It is surprising how quickly you lost the thin layer of apparent maturity and farsightedness and resorted to a childish insult and, in doing so, revealed your true nature. Abi and you are behaving like wounded dogs. Be grateful to Awate for providing you a corner where you can lick your wounds and exchange solace with each other.

          • selam Hashela,
            You people have the notion that this website is the club of like-minded people or a website that should serve the regime, and it causes you a big disappointment whenever you read some thing that doesn’t fit to your viewpoint. Could you blame the owner for that? I don’t think so. That is what makes it different from other websites.
            As to leaking wounds, although the wounds are caused by both sides due to ignorance and arrogance, let anyone who feels wounded leak his/her wounds, to get some relief from the stress. The point is to cause no more wounds in the future, especially when you are sure that you are not going to be the victim.

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Hi Horizon,
            Let’s put it this way.
            We never want to be part of Ethiopia. WE categorically reject it to be part of Ethiopia. WE detest the idea of it.
            The question is; why do you guys insist for us to be part of you.?Would you ask a person to be your room mate when he said hell no?
            On the contrary, Tigray people always say they are Ethiopians [in reality they are the real Ethiopians btw] and you seem to ignore that. Why is that?
            Is that we ignore you and you hate the rejection?
            Or, in reality, you just want Assab?
            With respect.

          • Selam መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ,

            Please understand that we find it difficult to reject eritreans when they come to our country. It is impossible for us to do that, because we used to live together in the past. Nevertheless, this should not be taken as insisting that eritrea should be part of ethiopia. Except the few ultranationalists like the tamrats, we have been discussing the last few days, the majority of ethiopians believe that the two countries can no longer be together.
            Nevertheless, a generational injustice was committed, i.e. ethiopia was landlocked by tplf/eplf, and ethiopians find it difficult to accept and live with it forever. It started with italy which created an iron curtain 60km wide from north to south curving out a strip of land from the region the afar people lived, in order to cut off ethiopia from the sea. It doesn’t matter who started it, but who continues it at the present.
            It became the new reality with the help of tplf after ethiopia had her own access to the sea for about 50 yrs. Can this be a fait accompli, that ethiopia should live with leaving her no options, whether she likes it or not, when her economy and security are put in danger forever. I don’t think so. Some people may want to rationalize it in different ways. Nevertheless, under no circumstances should one entertain force as a solution. Peaceful means are more effective.
            Rejecting tplf doesn’t mean rejecting the people of tigray. The wish of all ethiopians is that, one day the people of tigray will stand against tplf’s dictatorship as other ethiopians have done so, and they will return to the center and not remain at the periphery.
            With respect.

          • Abi

            Hello መሃንዲስ
            What does “real Ethiopian” mean”?Are there real Eritreans and fake Eritreans?

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            Probably it means, gate-keepers so that the center can sleep safe and sound. Imagine, if Shewa or Oromia was situated in the North right adjacent to Eritrea, I am sure caro ጆሜትራ ምዕባለ would’ve called them “Real Ethiopians” but perhaps by now, the rest of Ethiopia would’ve been speaking Egyptian-Arabic or Italian or Isaias’-Tigrinya by now.

          • Abi

            Paul
            Your explanation makes sense. Now I know why those Arab and ሰላቶ wannabe people north of the Mereb miserably failed to keep the gates tightly closed.
            When it comes to the “real Ethiopians” like General Ras Alula, they never compromised on their territorial integrity.

          • Hashela

            Hi Horizon
            Licking a leaky wound, a sisyphean undertaking, precisely describes the dilema of so many Ethiopians like you.

          • Hashela

            Dear Moderator

            This is to request a clarification.
            My post referred to specific people who identify them as Ethiopians and openly questioned the territorial integrity of Eritrea in this forum.
            I did not make a blanket accusation of all Ethiopians. So it is unclear to me where and how I violated Awate posting rule.

            Thanks

        • Abi

          Hello Horizon
          Assab and masawa ports should be considered as trophies for winning the war. Just like trophies they belong on a glass shelf only to collect dust. They have only sentimental value to the winners. From time to time they need to be dusted to keep them shiny.
          As I have told you before several times, If Ethiopia is kind enough to use the rusting ports, the Eritrean government should pay us handsomely.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            Just because IA is not allowing the entire country (not only Assab and Massawa) to their potential, it doesn’t mean Ethiopia is the only customer.

            Do me a favour, on google map type Dubai and see where it’s located and compare that with Eritrea. It seems to me, it’s on the same altitude.

            I am no expert on ports, but there is absolutely no reason why Eritrea can not get the market share from the busiest shipping line in the world.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            በአማርኛ ” በነፃም ቢሆን ውድ ነው” የሚባል ነገር አለ:: ምን ማለት መሰለህ? ትርፉ ኪሳራ ነው ማለት ነው::
            ወንድምዓለም ባይሆን ምፅዋ ለቱሪስት መስህብነት በአካባቢው ተወዳዳሪ አይገኝለትም:: አድሱና አስረክቡን::
            ገንዘብካ በርሄ ሃወይ

    • Berhe Y

      Hi Horizon,

      “While eritreans say ethiopia should be landlocked, ethiopians say it should not be, each one for their own special reasons.”

      Framing what you want to believe and putting the words on Eritrean people mouth is wrong ” eritreans say ethiopia should be landlocked”.

      Ethiopia is surrounded by Eritrea, Sudan, Kenya, Somalia and Djibouti.

      Why should Eritreans care any more than the rest of the other surrounding countries.

      Eritreans have no say what Ethiopia should be or shout not be. It’s for the Ethiopian people to decide.

      Berhe