Inform, Inspire, Embolden. Reconcile!

Eritrea’s Democratic Credentials!

During the United Nations deliberations on the future of Eritrea in the 1950s, one particular claim was made consistently to justify the annexation of Eritrea to Ethiopia. This claim was economical in nature and it maintained that Eritrea was a poor country that can’t sustain itself as an independent nation. This claim was sarcastically refuted by Pakistan’s representative at the UN who stated that if Eritrea was such a poor country as claimed, then why should Ethiopia be burdened with it?!

These days a similar claim is often made when it comes to democracy in Eritrea. A claim is made that Eritrea doesn’t have a democratic experience nor a democratic tradition and thus it isn’t ready for democracy. However, a careful review of Eritrean history and its traditions reveals that even though Eritrea didn’t have a long-lasting democratic experience – in the modern sense – it did have an impressive short-lived experience that was sabotaged by external interferences. Further, Eritrean tribal norms and traditions are relatively more pluralistic and egalitarian in nature. They are aligned more with democratic and participatory norms than the feudal autocratic norms.

Democracy is commonly defined as ‘a form of government by the people for the people’. This simple definition embodies a number of essential values such as freedom, equality, justice and rule of law. Four important institutions play a pivotal role in establishing and upholding a democratic system. These four are: the Legislative, the Executive, the Judiciary and the Media (Press), all supported by a strong civil society. Each of these need to function independently to ensure checks and balances are in place.

Formation of the first Eritrean government:

Following the passing of the UN resolution 390 (V) in December 1950 and after lengthy deliberations, the first Eritrean government was established in 1952. The formation of the Eritrean government was overseen by the UN envoy, Mr. Enzo Matenzo. It came after a painful process in which attempts were made to sabotage, derail and dilute the federal UN resolution. There were relentless pressures from the emperor and his agents on the UN envoy to accept their demands and follow their directives. Matienzo mostly stood his grounds, but he accepted some of their demands that had far-reaching consequences for the newly born Eritrean government. One of these demands was the appointment of the emperor’s viceroy in Eritrea. The formation of the Eritrean government was preceded by the establishment of the first Eritrean Representative Assembly.

The Representative Assembly (Parliament):           

Despite many challenges and limitations, parliamentary elections were run relatively well across Eritrea for the first time in Eritrean history. The election produced a parliament made up of 68 members, representing all the major political groups; 32 from the Unionist party, 18 from the Democratic bloc, 15 from the Muslim League for Western Eritrea (separatist party) and 3 from other parties.

As observed by the historian Alemseged Tesfai[i], not all elected members of the assembly had a clear understanding of their parliamentary roles. Among them, there were members who were illiterate and members who were receiving their directives from emperor’s agents. But despite all of these shortcomings, the parliament had some very strong parliamentarians who made the parliament a strong voice of the people. Included among them were Mohammad Omar Akito, Qadi Ali Omar, Abu Daoud, Qadi Mussa Imran and many others. These members of the assembly kept the Executive branch at bay and argued forcefully against the continuous interferences and violations of the UN resolution by Emperor’s viceroy. Beginning from the opening of the parliament where Qadi Ali stood to challenge the viceroy’s speech in parliament to the downfall of the Executive branch under Tedla Bairu, they were relentless in their effort to uphold the constitution, to raise the concerns of the people and to question the measures taken by the government. They stood firmly against government’s attempt to curtail freedom of speech and shutting down of critical newspapers.  When the government kept on ignoring them, they took their case to the court; when the violations of UN resolution continued, they considered taking the case back to the UN. They argued on point of law with courage, consistency and sometimes with across party alliances. The odds facing this first parliament were huge. The emperor and his agents, with so many strings in their hands, were determined on killing this parliament. However, this parliament, despite all the challenges it faced it proved itself to be a thriving and robust parliament. Even though it was later killed by the emperor and his agents, it went down in history leaving behind a shining legacy that demonstrates to the world the spirit of resilience and courage of the elected representatives of the Eritrean people.

The Eritrean judiciary:

A full-fledged judiciary was established with a mix of Eritrean and British judges. The Supreme Court was chair by Justice James Shearer, a British national. As noted by Sheik Ibraheem Al-Mukhtar[ii], who was a member of the Supreme Court, the judiciary at this stage acted independently, free from any interferences.

The courts were able to act autonomously and revoke, on constitutional grounds, a number of decisions made by the government. Two cases are noteworthy. The first was the case of two prominent newspapers, Sawt Eritrea in Arabic and Dehai Eritrea in Tigrinya. These were independent newsletters that published articles critical of the government. They exposed the continued violations of the UN resolution and Eritrean government’s capitulation to the wishes of the emperor. The emperor and the Eritrean government were extremely irritated by the newspaper and accordingly, they closed the newspaper and laid charges against their editors. The editors took their case to the courts and the courts rejected the decision of the government, restored the newspaper and dismissed all the charges against the editors.

The second was the case of the prominent parliamentarian Mohammad Omar Akito. Akito was an exemplary parliamentarian who was a powerful and independent voice in the parliament. Despite all attempts by the government of Asfha Weldemicael to defeat him in the 2nd parliamentary elections, he won his seat for the second term. However, the government of Asfeha with support from its puppet parliamentarians dismissed his elections on bogus grounds. Akito took his case to the Supreme Court of Eritrea, the court rejected the decision of the government and reinstated him as a legitimate representative of his region, Dankalia. There were many similar cases were the judiciary dismissed government decision. Because of their independence, the courts became another target of the emperor and his agents. Through a continuous process of manipulation, the courts were sabotaged from within and its capable judges, including Mr. Shearer, were replaced. This shinning judiciary experience is permanently carved as a momentous landmark in Eritrean history and a cherished proud legal legacy.

The Executive branch:

One of the first tasks of newly elected parliament was to elect Chair of the Eritrean government. Three names were put forward; Tedla Bairu, Abraha Tesema, and Saleh Hineet. The latter was disqualified because he didn’t meet the age requirement. Tedla received more votes than Abraha and accordingly, he became the Chief Executive of the Eritrean government. The newly elected government took charge of the affairs of the country with somewhat curtailed power and resources. The emperor’s viceroy was running – unofficially – a parallel government with much resources and support from the emperor. Accordingly, this new government was born with major limitations. However, the government had still sufficient room to maneuver and leave a lasting legacy. But, ironically, even though it was democratically elected government, it became resentful of the independent media and had a mostly antagonistic relationship with the parliament. This government only lasted for 3 years, it came to an end after it lost the trust of the parliament. Tedla was replaced by Asfeha through a parliamentary vote. Qadi Ali, the most vocal parliamentarian, objected to his election citing the fact that he was the deputy of the emperor’s viceroy! Qadi Ali was visionary, Asfeha’s ascendancy was the beginning of an end of Eritrea’s short-lived democracy.

The Media:

A healthy independent media is a backbone of a functional democracy. From early days of the national discourse in Eritrea, many independent newspapers were established in both languages, Arabic and Tigrinya. Prominent among them were Sawt Al-Rabita, Hanti Ertra, Sawt Eritrea and Dhai Ertra. Articles by prominent writers and editors such Yasssin Batouq, Woldeab Weldemariam, Mohamed Saleh Mahmoud, Ilyas Tecklu were featured in these newspapers. During the federation, Sawt Eritrea (Arabic version) and Dehai Ertra (Tigrinya version) emerged as a strong voice of the people. They raised issues affecting ordinary citizens, they published articles critical of the government, they exposed the violations of the UN resolutions and the constitutions and they published petitions submitted by leaders of the independence block. Sawt Eritrea and Dehai Eritrea’s independent voice alarmed the Emperor and his viceroy, they used every means available to kill them. But, with the support of the courts and courageous parliamentarians, they survived many of these attempts. But, finally, the emperor and his agents found their way and the newspaper was closed, its editors were sentenced 3-6 year in jail. Sawt Eritrea and its predecessors are another democratic milestones in the history of Eritrea. They remain as an inspiring legacy of Eritrea’s deeply rooted free speech traditions.

Civic society:

Along with the independent media, Eritrea also saw the emergence of vibrant syndicates and active civil society. The Eritrean labour union, chaired by Woldeab and later by Siraj Abdu; Youth organisations, student groups, and others were instrumental in enhancing and enriching the democratic experience of Eritrea. Many of the leaders and activists of these syndicates were brutally suppressed and silenced. Their history of activism and continuous resistance was another manifestation of Eritrea’s yearning to freedom and active engagement.

Conclusion:

This short-lived thriving democratic experience of Eritreans came to an end not because it was incompatible with Eritrean norms, but because of external interferences, namely the autocratic feudal system of the emperor. This historical experience highlights the fact that democratic norms are not alien to Eritrea and Eritreans have adopted them wholeheartedly when the opportunity became available. Eritreans stood firm in defense of their democratic right and made the greatest sacrifice. Eritrean struggle wasn’t just for a piece of land, but more importantly for a land where democratic values of equality, freedom of expression, rule of law and human rights prevails. This short-lived democratic experience needs to be remembered, told to next generations and kept alive in the memory of the nation. It should be a source of pride for all Eritreans and a yardstick for our current and future social and political systems.

[i] Tesfai, Alemseged, Federation Ertra mis Ethiopia… (in Tigrinya)
[ii] See: mukhtar.ca (page “hawadith” in Arabic).

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  • Amde

    Selam Tesfu,

    I laughed a good minute about this. How the hell would i know?

    There are many many many people who are living for cheap and even making good money by renting Derg expropriated housing rented out by the qebeles. I don’t know when the last time qebele housing rates were adjusted up, but they are definitely not market rate. It sounds like Rent control, which is well known in New York for example. People just transfer the lease to someone else to retain the rent controlled price. It is very controversial policy in New York city and it was established (I think in the 1930s to make housing affordable). That sounds like what is happening here.

    A relative of mine in Addis had his law firm office for years renting from a woman. It was affordable especially for the location. She herself did not own it, but rented it from the qebele for years at very low rates established before the Derg was overthrown. As far as the qebele knows she is living there.. It looked nothing like a residential apartment, so I don’t know how she got it. So you can imagine she made a good living out of something she did not spend any capital on.

    Happy Holidays

    Amde

  • Dis Donc

    Dear Horizon,
    Long time ago I saw your defense of ethnic federalism citing the malaise that Spain was going through due to Catalunya. You even cited the Northern League of Italia and Lombardy (not sure this one!). Let me dice for you the case of Catalan.

    Geography: If you note the map of Spain, you will see that the Iberian peninsula is connected to the rest of Europe via thee corridors. To the left is Viscaya (Basque, as known in English), middle is a mountainous country called Andorra, and finally to the right is Catalan. Due to hostility and climate, the former two were left out of via developments. As such Catalan did prosper both economically, transport, and politically. 70% of Spain’s GDP is based in Catalan; just to give you an idea.

    Dogma and Ideology: Geography allowed Catalan to prosper beyond the rest of Spain and as such her citizens are more of progressives, socialist, and leftists. All her political parties were and are left leaning. Junts per CAT, Junts per Si, Esquerra, CUP, Ciutadans, etc. Whereas the rest of Spain is Conservatives and Monarchs; both with heavy religious affiliations. Remember the Bourbons (catholic) kings! Sample examples of their conflict is Gay marriage, women right, capital allocation, etc.

    Ethnicity: Catalunya is ethnically mixed society and Catalan is spoken outside of Catalnuya as well. In Valencia, Italia, and Cuba; to mention few. Ever since the 1980s Catalunya was allowed to teach and preach in Catalan and many cite this for the current inpass: due to 30 years of brain washing by the Catalan educational system. Which was left to the Catalans by the central gov’t due to convivencia; or in English Autonomous unity! (I could be wrong on this one).

    Conclusion: Believe it or not the inception of Catalan independence dates back to the defeat of Spanish monarchy in the Cuban war of liberation. Cuba was a bread basket of Catalan and its loss meant that a blow to Catalan. The surrender of Cuba by the Spanish monarchy was a betrayal to Catalan. This and the Irish Independence from the UK monarchy was seen by many Catalans as a recipe for their own independence. And hence on the quest to la republika!!!!

    • Teodros Alem

      Selam dis donc
      Catalan is 20% Spain gdp
      And 16% of the population.

      • Dis Donc

        Dear Teodros,
        One of the things I hate about this site is that, once you post something, it means that you have to be around to response and site source. I have very little time and I hate having to keep folks hanging.

        The fight for Catalan and Catalanism has many faucets and dimensions to it. One of which is economic side of it. Both sides have their own figure and argument. Most companies (around 68%; source generalitat site gencat.cat) in Spain have their base quarters in the Catalan region and especially in Barcelona and Girona (pronounced as Hirona). The Catalans argue that without the la generalitat this wouldn’t be so. While the rest of Spain argue that without Spain these companies would not survive. Since Oct. 1st, 3000+ companies and firms have abandoned the Catalan region. This would give you a clue about the magnitude of the fight.

        Thanks for engaging; please no more questions!

        • Teodros Alem

          Selam dis donc
          It wasn’t a q. Thank u anyway.

    • Selam Dis Donc,

      Thanks for the information. My reservation was concerning secession and not federalism. From what i know catalan nationalism goes back to the nineteenth century and may be beyond, during the time of city states, before spain and italy were formed, during which time these states fought among themselves, alliances changed and so on, until spain became a united sovereign country.

      I am not sure when, and by whom, i think that the catalans were mistreated, and this alienated them from the center, and at one stage they were given autonomy, etc. Indeed it is the most developed part of spain, contributing i think about 20 or 30% to the gdp, big compared to the other regions of spain.

      In the 90s i visited barcelona, and i was impressed when i saw people gathering impromptu in squares, left their shopped items on the ground, and started to dance in a circular formation. When i asked bystanders, they told me that they were catalan nationalists. Their nationalism seems deeply rooted in the past.

      Nevertheless, opting for independence now does not seem right. Catalania’s economic development happened within the spanish state, and not independently, and barcelona became one of the most visited cities of europe after the vast infrastructure development for the 1972 (i think) olympic games, which of course was covered by the people of spain as a whole. Nevertheless, a large percentage of catalans seem to be against independence from spain. The latest votes which took place few days ago i have not read the results. I am not sure, but i thought it was pro independence.

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Selam DD,

      Thank you for the scoop on the politics of Spain. You have them all the ingredients that made the politics of Spain from the revolution until now.

    • Paulos

      Selam DD,

      That is absolutely brilliant! I learned something of a substance. Thank you so much. Was tired of same ‘ol same ‘ol Weyane this Weyane that ad nauseam. Again, thank you!

  • Dis Donc

    Dear Saay,
    First of, let me say that I am so sorry for the loss of your pa. I am even sorrier that I am this late for the consolation message. In our short life, we have all been through many things; told and untold! Many of us have a unique way dislodging the depression that saps our life. And in my case, in all of my ups and downs, I have always listened musics and songs. That is what Michel Sardu said, not me. (Just in case!) Whether we go pray to Jehova, Jesus, Alahu, or Budha; we are all singing. Whether we despair, love, hate, are happy, are sad, die or live; we sing. The world is Marrant (merrir). And death is plus marrant (merrar). Hence, the title “En chantant.”

    Quand j’étais petit garçon, Je repassais mes leçons
    En chantant
    Et bien des années plus tard, Je chassais mes idées noires
    En chantant
    C’est beaucoup moins inquiétant, De parler du mauvais temps
    En chantant
    Et c’est tellement plus mignon, De se faire traiter de con
    En chanson
    La vie c’est plus marrant, C’est moins désespérant
    En chantant
    La première fille de ma vie, Dans la rue je l’ai suivi
    En chantant
    Quand elle s’est déshabillée, J’ai joué le vieil habitué
    En chantant
    J’étais si content de moi, Que j’ai fait l’amour dix fois
    En chantant
    Mais je n’peux pas m’expliquer, Qu’au matin elle m’ait quitté
    Enchantée
    L’amour c’est plus marrant, C’est moins désespérant
    En chantant
    Tous les hommes vont en galère, A la pêche ou à la guerre
    En chantant
    La fleur au bout du fusil, La victoire se gagne aussi
    En chantant
    On ne parle à Jéhovah, A Jupiter, à Bouddha
    Qu’en chantant
    Qu’elles que soient nos opinions, On fait sa révolution
    En chanson
    Le monde est plus marrant, C’est moins désespérant
    En chantant
    Puisqu’il faut mourir enfin, Que ce soit côté jardin
    En chantant
    Si ma femme a de la peine Que mes enfants la soutiennent
    En chantant
    Quand j’irai revoir mon père, Qui m’attend les bras ouverts
    En chantant
    J’aimerais que sur la terre, Tous mes bons copains m’enterrent
    En chantant
    La mort c’est plus marrant, C’est moins désespérant
    En chantant
    Quand j’étais petit garçon, Je repassais mes leçons
    En chantant
    Et bien des années plus tard, Je chassais mes idées noires
    En chantant
    C’est beaucoup moins inquiétant, De parler du mauvais temps
    En chantant
    Et c’est tellement plus mignon, De se faire traiter de con
    En chanson

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HMAS0HB1lNY

    • Amde

      Dear DisDonc,

      It is so nice to see you on this forum again. Definitely one of the shining lights in this forum.

      It is a wonderful post, and I actually went to google translate to make sure I was able to understand it all (bad idea it turns out – it destroys the poetry). Indeed life is merrir, and paradoxically, accepting this is liberating. As the First of Buddha’s Four Noble Truth states Life is Suffering.

      I am actually writing this note to encourage you to post this note and video in the Jebena column, or under SalehG. post about Saay’s father.

      Happy holidays

      Amde

      • Dis Donc

        Dear Amde,
        Have mercy on my sould, Amde. For I am a simple gudifetcha and Holetawian. Nothing more and nothing less. I am not being humble but honest. In this site I had said it many times that I am not an Eritrean nor an Ethiopian but a Holetawian.
        When I was in AAU, I had a roommate who was from the neighborhood where the US embassy was located (totally forgot the name.) He had a very wise father by the name of Asfaw. In my depressing time, I used to go to their house talk about many things-for hours and hours. He had a vast knowledge about the world and many other things. You remind me of him.

        • Amde

          Ah Dis Donc,

          Hahaha wey gud.. Gudifetcha …. I got shopping to do, don’t make me sentimental.

          The area around US Embassy is known as Shiro Meda …. I never knew it selling Shiro, but when I was a child it used to be black market area for clothing and such. During the Derg times you would even see Cuban soldiers slip out of their camps and sell their field jackets and boots to make a little extra cash.

          Now there is a vast industry selling handcrafted Tibeb clothing. I thought they were just stores, but it turns out that many of the craftspeople are in the houses all around. It is one of my favorite places to go when I visit. Completely different vibe from Merkato. No fancy architecture or flashy building. The people are as cool and humble as the highland air. It gives me so much pleasure to see so many people employed truly crafting beautiful work in the age of factories and clever financial schemes.

          Peace,

          Amde
          (You are not obligated to response, I laughed at your response to Teodros)

  • Semere Tesfai

    Selam Guest

    “I think your statement in point A needs a clarification. As a patriotic Eritrean, I don’t think that you believe that Woyane made Ethiopia landlocked. It was the gallant EPLF who kicked out the Ethiopian Occupation Army from Halal Meriet”

    True. You and I, and the cunning Woyanes know that. But, but, but, the ቱታ-ገዳይ, the ካንበሳ ምንጋጋ ማን ያወጣል ስጋ, the ቀይ ባህር ለዘልኣለም የኢትዮጵያ ድንበር ሆኖ ይኖራል – ነፍጠኞች don’t know that. They don’t know, and they don’t remember we dictated the terms of the divorce.

    What they remember is the “ወደ ሰሜን ሂደን እንዋጋለን የምትሉ ሰዎች ካላችሁ፡ መንገዱን ጨርቅ ያርግላችሁ” famous phrase of the Great Leader.

    Now, can you at least give me some credit for my superb Amharic, and for putting MISTAKE on quotation on my previous comment. Please!

    N.B. Then seven years after the fact (1998), they became so Shoanized, they forgot how to say ሻዕብያ and started saying ሻቢያ. Do you think we should teach them ዐ ዑ ዒ ዓ…… allover again. Just a thought.

    Semere Tesfai

  • Amde

    Hi Alex,

    I think you may have come onto Awate.com during my extended absence. I am being very honest as to the true motivations of both sides. But if you think peace will all of a sudden bloom once Badme changes hands, i think you are in for a rude awakening.

    Badme is just a chapter in the hegemonic competition between PFDJ and TPLF. Isayyas loves that game, and the legal finding gives him a good card.

    But TPLF are not about to commit political self-harm to satisfy his needs. They want a quid pro quo. They want to talk about the quid pro quo. Not Isayyas though – he doesn’t care about the post-post-Badme world as long as he gets a victory.

    It was a stupid war to get into, and it has proven an even stupider no-war-no-peace.

    Amde

  • Desbele

    Alex,
    You wrote , ” Majority of Eritreans including myself do not support normalization of relationship”
    You are wrong. Majority Eritreans prefer to have a normal relationship with their neighbor and demarcation is not a precondition for that.
    Remember even after the bloody war there were peace negotiations that do have positive result. Example is exchange of POWs and formation of TSZ.
    Dont the people of Eritrea support more peace talks that result in open Communication,transportation, trade and so on ?! You said you dont. But dont represent the majority of Eritreans.
    It is only smugglers and your mafia regime who are reaping the benefits of a closed border.

  • blink

    Dear all

    UN voted in favor of rejecting Trump over Jerusalem by 128-9 and 35 abstained due to trump bullying. Eritrea and Ethiopian votes in favor of PA , I am not sure if Trump will cut the 567 million aid to TPLA .

    Here is the list https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/adb96295ceae7213b1cb779036090aaa42716b9ad08918b71f8c7bc85fbf5105.jpg

  • Nitricc

    Hi Blink and Tedroes and others; I have a question I couldn’t take crack about for you guys. What is the foundation for the Tigryan and Somali Relationship and so strong affinity to each other? I just read a condolence from Tigryans in North
    America association for the Somalis who lost their life last week. I mean the Tigryans in North America association never said a word when more than 300 Oromo died last year in Erecha celebration. They never said a word for Chelenqo massacre. When the Tigryans were kicked out Gonder, the Somali donated 10 million for Tigryans rehabilitation. I can’t think anything
    communality about those people. Most Tigryans are Islam-phobia but they have this special affinity for Somali Muslims, why?
    Are we witnessing the end of Ethiopia as we knew it? TPLF will disintegrate Ethiopia before it gives up domination and the Somali-Kilil will serve the agenda.

    • blink

      Dear Ntricc
      As you know these two people never have any common interest nor contacts for centuries before the weyane government and what happens is that the somalis are being played by people like the adwa doctor to minimaze the power of the oromo in ethiopian political land scape.You the killing is mostly done by TPLA but the hearders are somalis and i do not think this love can contineu after the disslove of the current system in Ethiopia .

      Lets look at Tigrai geographically and its economic infulance in Ethiopia,Tigrai is the Northernmost of Ethiopias federal states . The State of Tigrai shares common borders with Eritrea in the north, the State of Afar in the east, the State of Amhara in the south, and the Republic of the Sudan in the west, as we can see the marriage is done only in the leadership of TPLA and the killing machine that stays in Somalia, Once the oromo and other ethnic groups care more about their own problem in contrast to weyane , the somalis will be looking to Somalia and this makes this relationship a time bomb for Tigrai and Somalis . I can see no similarities even as the fake similarities of the so called habesha we love you thing.

      • Teodros Alem

        Selam blink
        Somalis and oromo in border area they r the most integrated people’s for over the last 400 years. They speak each other language, same religion and so on.
        Tigrai don’t have a border with sudan .that is occupied territory. It is a metter of time.

        • blink

          Dear Teodrose
          Sorry for my geography , so you mean the land doesn’t belong to Tigrai ? I have someone telling me that story but I checked the map again and again may be I looked at expired map or a map made by Tigrai cartographer.

          • Idris Ali

            Hi! all awate forum group
            First i would like to express my deep admiration for Ustaz Esmaeal Ibrahim Almukhtar for his exellent article ,This article illuminates the democratic practice and expirience in Eritrea during the Fedration period. That was a verey educating and insightgiving for the new generation about our rich history. It also gives us a contrast Picture of the miserable situation we find ourselves in it under the pfdj regime after a long and protracted struggle .
            Meanwhile i noticed that there is allways an orchestrated effort to devert the discussion from its direction by some pro pfdj like the so called (Nittric , Teodros Alem, blink and thier boss semre tesfay)and pull us to ” walet gebay” or like the arabic idiom says “زر الرماد في العيون”.
            One can notice that this efforts is orchestrated from one refference from thier chronolized sumiltaneous appearance when the the discussion is an embarrassing for the pro pfdj to defend the regime. When the want to devert the discussion from its direction thier prefered subject is thier day Dream about the imminent fall of the ethiopian regime.Your tricks are exposed .Pl leave this site discusse realevant to our Eritrean current realiteis .
            Wa dahankom.

          • blink

            Dear idris
            Have you considered to bring your own views so that people can debate? I mean if you have any thing to say apart from the bratty things you stated . No one is here praying for the fall of the so called 3000 years state not me but what is left about PFDJ that people did not discuss? Mention one so we can go on it . People has been discussing about PFDJ for ages and once that becomes boring some wounded old folks changed the game to old past mistakes of both parties (ELF and EPLF) and that was also becoming boring, so we changed to the weyane thieves, do you have problem if people discuss about TPLA? Because you ID idris it doesn’t mean I don’t suspect you for being a weyane cronies unless you show your views.

            Do as you wish , enho media ente feres gina kabaka eyu.

    • Teodros Alem

      Selam NItricc
      Mainly it is the twisted heart thing and tplf is rejected by everyone and everywhere and abdi ale is close with tplf generals with out them he will not survive a day.
      They will play every ugly trick until the end but tigrai probably will break up .i don’t think anyother.

      • Nitricc

        Hey Blink and Teodrose;
        I think TPLF going to play the Article 39 on Somali killil and that signals the beginning of the breakup. There is no other reason. If TPLF is not the dominating party and the others didn’t serve them as the last 26 years, you can bet your last money that TPLF will award article 39 to the Somali-Killil. Ethiopia is in deep trouble.

        • Teodros Alem

          Selam NItricc
          Abdi ale probably will declare independence by tplf order but it will not gonna survive b/c of the Somalis themselves and international recognition. The Somalis used to have and still have a lot of resentment to the previous and present gov. Of ethiopia and they used to live with isolated but now they r happy living with the rest of ethiopian people’s except they don’t like the gov.

        • Semere Tesfai

          Selam Nitricc

          “If TPLF is not the dominating party and the others didn’t serve them as the last 26 years, you can bet your last money that TPLF will award article 39 to the Somali-Killil.”

          This is my take:

          A. – The Woyanes made Ethiopia the most populous landlocked country in the world. They will not make a second “mistake” granting article 39 to Ethiopian ethnic Somalis to succeed from Ethiopia.

          B. – For sure the era of Woyane is over, but we will see them around for a little while. Until when? Well, watch for two things – to know the exact last moment of Woyane: (a) Bankrupted Ethiopia – Ethiopia that can’t collect taxes and, due to its inability to collect taxes couldn’t provide basic services (b) Big division (probably bloody) within the Woyanes core leadership – between pro-Oromo/Amara dominated emerging Addis leadership in Shoa and hardheaded ethnocentric Woyanes in Tigray.

          Until then enjoy the show.

          Semere Tesfai

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Semere Tesfai
            Agree with u that the era of ttplf is about to over. My question is what do u think of the future of tigrai after tplf? I mean they caused a lot of suffering and killing not just in ethiopia but also in Somalia, eritrea and even south Sudan. What will be the economic future of tigrai ?i mean the effect after tplf? In general what will be the future of tigrai and its people?

          • blink

            Dear Teodrose
            Until mr. Semere hit the question, I think it’s just not right for the other Ethnic Ethiopian activists to hold the Tigray people responsible for the crime committed by TPLA leaders, after all the people are not better off than the other people in Ethiopia and I believe TPLA is more dictator in Tigray if not the killings. I feel the Tigray people has no voice in this . Don’t you think the pay back thing should never happen.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam blink
            Agree for what u said about the people.
            My question was the effect ? After tplf on tigraian in economic and everything. And am tqlking about the reality on the ground that b/c of ethnicity people pushed from 4th floor to death.

          • blink

            Dear teodrose
            Well let’s hope a good heart wins because as you said the dirty game played by weyane did not leave any friends on all borders . But I am confident that Ethiopians will manage this in good faith if not well, you know the Eritrean refugees can not guarantee the relationship with Eritrea back home, the body has stil stains made by weyane. I believe the Eritreans can’t forget the distractions of our martyrs bones while at rest. Who on earth destroy cemetery of martyrs?? Weyane destroyed our martyrs cemetery and that can’t be easily forgotten. Even Dergi have respected our cemetery.

          • Nitricc

            Hi Teodros; depends how TPLF power to come to the end. If things get of hand, well there is no telling what to except but if G-7 and other Ethiopian political parties are involved for transitional Ethiopian government, TPDM will be up there representing the people of Tigray. That is what I have said many time that PIA is doing the greatest service to Ethiopian unity in general and to the people of Tigray safety in particular. Of course I don’t expect every one to get that.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam NItricc
            Believe it or not , u r by far the most who make sense for me .u r like a guy born and grow up in addis. U remind me of my friends in addis.for real.

          • Amde

            Selam Teodros,

            Nitricc is an Ethiopian.

            amde

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Amde
            I wish if we can switch him with horizon and fanti 2 in 1 will love too

          • Lebam

            Selam Teodros,

            Both Horizon and Fanti Ghana are great posters that add a lot of value to the discussions on this board. So, I strongly disagree!

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam lebam
            Am talking about switching citizenship from ethio horizon and fanti to eri and Nitricc from eri to Ethiopian. R u trying to tell me something different in a twisted way ?

          • Lebam

            Selam Teodros,

            Oh, I misunderstood what you meant by your previous post I suppose. I was simply stating that I prefer Fanti Ghana and Horizon’s posts. I’m sure everyone, or most of them are proud of their origin and wouldn’t change anything, but I wouldn’t oppose you getting Nitricc.

            Don’t take me wrong. I enjoy the drama he creates, because it leads to discussions.

          • blink

            Dear lebam
            I can agree about Fanti but Horizon?? He is like a chameleon weyane cronies.

          • Lebam

            Selam blinkai,

            Horizon explained his views perfectly and made it easy to understand his political views. I do not agree with them at all when it comes to Eritrea, but I enjoy reading the conversations nonetheless. I also respect the fact that he is a competent writer.

            Many Ethiopians see Eritrea as an ex-wife that will come back one day and reunite with her husband, or so it seems. It is provocative, but also interesting how they refuse to let go. The bisha mine and others that will open soon will increase Eritreas GDP. That might cause jealousy from neighbouring countries?

            All and all, I hope for peace and mutual respect amongst our people. I truly do, because we’re more connected culture wise than most neighbouring countries in the world.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Lebam,

            Meles once had said this: One of our success so far is, we have erased the psychological beliefs of Ethiopian people that Ethiopia can’t stand without Eritrea, alluding to the need of access to the sea. I think they have proved that there could have alternative to it, however it might be costly compared to our port.

            So your analogy of “ex-wife” to explain of insistence to reunite Eritrea with Ethiopia is a little bit out of the mark generally. It doesn’t mean there are not people who think along that line, but the majority I don’t think so. However, if both countries came to mutual agreement to use our ports for economic growth, who doesn’t love that?

            Regards
            Amanuel Hidrat

          • Peace!

            Hi Emma,

            You made a good point. It is just a bit ironic when that analogy seems not reflecting on Ethiopia’s policy or position on the struggle against the regime in Asmara. In fact, some opposition leaders are openly blaming Ethiopia for not being a reliable partner and for not doing enough to help the opposition groups work independently by creating and financing splinters.

            Peace!

          • Paulos

            Selam Abi Seb,

            Ethiopia’s policy on Eritrea seems blurred at best where cold calculations based on Realpolitik could as well be at play. To be more precise, one can get tempted to assume that Ethiopian leaders do not opt to see Isaias leave the political scene for a number of plausible reasons.

            Isaias rules without prejudice where he doesn’t favor one group over others as long as his power remains unscathed where it neutralizes any sectarian or religious conflict as it seems to be the case in other countries where they are maligned by it.

            Ironically, Isaias’ incredibly cruel and uncompromising hand makes Eritrea a “stable” country. Second, Isaias if any, can pose minimum threat to Ethiopia for the Ethiopian leaders seem to have assessed how far he can go and his capacity as well, that is they can handle him with a scant effort. Third, for all practical purposes, Ethiopian leaders can not afford to engage in an all out war with Isaias not of course Eritrea is a military might as others here in this forum hallucinate but because Ethiopia has huge and ambitious economic projects. Fourth, the Ethiopian leaders cannot escape the fact that Ethiopia will need to use the port of Asseb in a bid to materialize the huge economic projects and will have to clear the political impediments before that as in pulling out of Bad’me and hand Isaias the political victory he has been craving for almost two decades. The rest is to be scene if once again Isaias undermines the Weyanes and play him for a fool second time around.

          • Peace!

            hi P,

            will get back

            Peace!

          • Peace!

            Hi Pulosay,

            I agree with what you said “Ethiopia’s policy on Eritrea seems blurred” and the rest of your points are also valid although outsourcing is not in the mind of many Eritreans. While there is not excuse for our failures, I think learning the role of our partners, their contribution, their interest, and their strategy might help understand the degree of impact on the groups’ purpose and direction. With that in mind I do understand Ethiopia is a stake holder and it is normal to look after its own interest in a transparent way that doesn’t compromise Eritrean sovereignty, but to what extent is considered acceptable and fair game, and if its policy remains blurred, it is safe to say some of the blames are valid.

            Peace!

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Peace,

            I have argued according my personal knowledge that the Ethiopian government didn’t meddle on the opposition organizations, rather I have witnessed twice, the leadership of the council one time and EDA another time asking to resolve their difference. In both instances the government declined and told them to resolve the issue themselves. The problem is, each “organization”or “group”, wanted the issue to go their way, whatever their position is. This is always with the Eritrean mind be it politics or any – Stubbornness and uncompromising attitudes. Just think about that before you put your critics to Ethiopia.

            Second, correction to you, the governmental of Ethiopia have financed all organizations that have offices in Ethiopia, including those organizations which are not members of the Baito (eg EPDP). So my dear Peace, you are believing only to those who are giving you negative info.

          • Peace!

            Hi Emma,

            Don’t get me wrong it just for discussion, not that I believe everything out there is true and put the blame on the other side, and regardless I believe the failure to make progress against PFDJ lies on us. The thing is though I know we have discussed about this here in this forum many times and yet it never ended with clear and informational conclusion that educate Eritreans the state of the opposition groups.

            Peace!

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Peace,

            Based on my basic observation, the problem with the opposition is, from those who were at some point or another any affiliation with EPLF or the PFDJ.

            I don’t think they are agents of the regime, I believe they oppose to the regime as everyone else.

            But their problem is, they have drunk the “we are invincible” coolaid, and the propaganda they are fed “except us, there is no one else” who can lead and keep the country together “mentality” that they don’t trust anyone else.

            Until they “cleanse” themselves, there is nothing good that can come out from them as far as unity is concerned.

            So I think the best solution would be, we should organize ELF, and associates as one opposition group and the EPLF and EPLF associated as second opposition group and move on. As long as we agree that we will not use force against each other then we should be fine. May be a third group can emerge who had nothing to do with ELF, EPLF then that would be good.

            In a sense we form three political parties, and we will be just fine.

            Berhe

          • Peace!

            Selam Berhino,

            Thank you, that’s exactly where I was trying to get into, developing a practical solution. I am not sure if it would work, but certainly, a good start and finding a solution is what we should be spending our time. I hope others step in and help us understand the problem and the cure they have in mind.

            Peace!

          • Haile S.

            Selam Emma,
            Do you know if the Addis stationed Eritrean opposition speak with the ethiopian government about eri-ethiopian relationship and how to solve the present impasse and if they give hint of their policy to the Eth government. You might have answered this during the miriad discussions on the topic before in this forum; therefore abridged response is appreciated as I have follow up questions depending? Thanks

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Dear Hailat,

            To answer your question, it will be from my close observation before the death of PM Meles Zenawi, and that is, both the Ethiopian government and the Addis stationed opposition, had a common understanding, that with the current government of Eritrea, there will be no solution to the unresolved border issue nor to the normal relationship between the two countries. Meles had hope on the young educated Ethiopians and Eritreans people. I came to that understanding by “deduction only” from his answer to a question posed by one member of our Baito in Addis when we met him at his office. Meles was asked to enroll more Eritreans to the Ethiopian universities. His reply was ” we will do not to please you, but we will do it ‘on principle’ that only educated societies can resolve their differences.” That is my observation from my short period of engagement within the opposition camp. I don’t know the position of the current government of Hailemariam Desalegn visa-vis the Eritrean opposition. I hope I answered to your question.

            regards

          • Haile S.

            Thank you Emma for your concise response. I was trying to understand what meddling involves and the triangulation that exists between the eritrean leadership, ethiopian leadership and the addis based eritrean opposition. Based on your close observation, your deductive understanding and what meles said about his principle you qouted as an example, I personally cannot exclude that meles’s or the present eth-government didn’t or don’t meddle in the affairs of the eritrean opposition groups. While the ethiopian leadership is resposible for frustrating the border agreement from the begining, an opposition that gets in a common understanding with that leadership saying “there will be no solution to the unresolved border issue nor to the normal relationship between the two countries” cannot be immune from blame of getting manipulated by that leadership.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam aman h
            What if someone in eri opposition work on behalf of tplf? They don’t need to meddle on the opposition organization.

          • blink

            Dear peace
            You said “ some some are accusing? Come on , it is not a secret that weyane crushed our opposition in order to find their own fitting, they actually are responsible for killing Eritrean opposition leadership. I personally accuse them for the longevity of PFDJ rule by making sure we set up ethnic, religious and regional based opposition propaganda. Where are people like Harestay and many others ? It is a public knowledge that weyane crushed the opposition in order to see the Eritrean people suffer more at their wish. They wanted to break Eritreans love for each other and care for their country.

          • Peace!

            Hi Blink,

            Well, if Ethiopia has managed to buy our opposition leaders, then every blame goes to the sell outs, not Ethiopia. It is our responsibility to make sure our views are represented by the people we trust and elect. But But are we active enough to do that? I don’t think so. I wish we can be as active as we write and talk.

            Peace!

          • Lebam

            Selam Amanuel H,

            I agree with you, but some Ethiopians blame us for everything. If you read Horizon’s post you’ll see that he wants Eritreans to kiss their feet for us to work together, so to speak. That will never happen!

            I would love for us to come together on EQUAL terms.

          • Lebam

            Selam Amde,

            Many on this forum that I thought were Eritreans turned out to be Ethiopians. I was surprised by the amount of interest in Eritrea by them at first, and I still am to some extent. That said, I like many of the Ethiopian posters here, but there should be a rule to add your origin next to the forum name, imo.

          • Amde

            Selam Lebam,

            What a cool name!!

            There used to be a funny cartoon a long time ago, showing a dog sitting at a computer and saying to his friend next to him, “On the Internet, nobody knows you are a dog” Therein lies the challenges and opportunities of anonymous posting on an internet forum.

            To be fair, one of Awate.com’s rules forbids misrepresenting yourself, even though it often becomes rather impractical. Personally, I think those who frequent the forum can eventually determine who is who.

            From my perspective, Nitricc represents a non-trivial strand of the Ethio-Eritrean demographic – I call it the Aggrieved Amice Demographic. They make the game more colorful. Hopefully it will be a positive role in the long term. I guess personally I have zero expectation of any kind of consensus or action from internet forums, so I figure the discussions hopefully provide a different perspective that can be actionable in some other form. So a little spice is not too bad every once in a while.

            Amde

          • Lebam

            Selam Amde,

            Thank you for sharing your wisdom, Mr Amde. You are one of those I feel I can learn a lot from and that’s just by reading several posts you’ve made recently as I’m new to awate. That said, I enjoy your posts and I’m hoping to read articles from you in the near future.

          • Nitricc

            AMDE: At least call me a Weyane. you know, the weyane, your masters, the one you love dearly. I have a lot respect for TPLF than most of your likes. They are few with 5th grade education, not only they bend you to the ground and they took everything from you but they ruled you a quarter of a century.So, at least call me a Weyane. that will make me your master. What a dumb Weyane junkie.

          • Amde

            Selam Nitricc,

            Ok..as you wish..

            Everyone… important announcement.

            Nitricc is a Weyane

            Amde

          • Nitricc

            Hahahaha AMDE, thanks. I feel powerful now.

          • blink

            Dear Amde
            When the time comes ,Please don’t kill him with the another weyane leaders , awate forum can bail him out. I will ask Thomas to send food to the prison through his father in law !! Just tell me where will be the prison? Is it in Gonder or cheloenko???

          • Amde

            Selam blink,

            If we do come to such a time, then I don’t think he has much to fear unless he committed some gross crime. There are thousands of weyanes and weyan-philes. Most are “weyanes” because Tigray/Ethiopia is a one party state and that is how you get ahead. You should read the commentary section on TigraiOnline to get a sense of the direction of the sentiment of the pro-weyane demographic. And I just don’t think we are a vindictive people. I know my people – they will continue living in peace among the community once the transition is passed.

            The way these things go, the big shots and fatcats will find their way to safe havens. While those in the lower level have to adjust themselves to new realities.

            So, ex-weyanes will generally be fine. Nitricc is safe.

            Amde

          • blink

            Dear Amde
            You are too good , in fact too good to be a judge of this forum, yes that site is not healthy really not . I am shocked , how do such people couldn’t even comment one good view over the Ethiopian brothers , I think I have to re-evaluate my assumptions about Horizon and others , people like horizon are angles comparing to that forum, I have to apologise to all Tigrians in this site.
            As of your take on the above comment, I have nothing to add. The problem is Amde you are like a one seasonal fruit and that is not good , come whenever you have time.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam amde
            A great intellectual but also a happy slave!
            I mean in one hand u know the problems of ethiopia’s(including the region) poltics and on the other hand u stand with oppressors side. What is the deal?

          • Amde

            Lij Teodros,

            አሁን ያልገባኝ የርስዎ ብሶት ምንጭ ነው።

            ለምን Nitricc ተተረበ ነው?
            ወይስ ለምን ወያኔ አልተወገዘም ነው?

            ትንሽ a happy slave ከሚሉኝ ምናልባት በዚህ መድረክ ላይ የሞነጫጨርኩዋቸውን ያንብቡልኝ።

            ጀነራል Nitricc እንደሆኑ ጨዋታ ይወዳሉ። አንዳንድ ጊዜ የማንበብ ችሎታቸው አጠራጣሪ ቢሆንም። እሳቸው የሚከፋቸው “አምልኮተ ኢሳያስ”ን ማጥበቃቸው ሲተ

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam amde
            Am not mad at all.
            Am a little confused about your double standers ?
            Do u know a guy name alemneh mekonne(andm guy nerd looking guy) i have seen some similarly.

          • Amde

            Selam Teodros,

            Where is the double standard? I am curious honestly.

            Amde

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam amde
            What i was trying to say is , your believes(which u told us here in awate) And your sarcastic support of tplf confusing me.
            Like u when u talk about eri/ethio relation, when u say if tplf removed from power things will be bad(…ok very bad).

          • Amde

            Selam Teodros,

            I have many problems with TPLF and EPRDF, starting from their undemocratic power monopoly to their ethnic policy. The problems of today are 90% a result of their ideology, arrogance and weird dysfunctional party/state system.

            But they are also the government. I don’t want to see a vacuum. It is bad, our region is bad, and we as a people are not so good at creating consensus.

            ሴትዮዋ ባሌን ጎዳሁ ብላ ብልቷን ወጋች አሉ። በወያኔ ኩርፊያ አገራችንን ማንደድ አይገባም።

            If you have family and friends, you should fear very much a vacuum in a country of 100 million people.

            Beleive me, most people tagged as “weyane”, are just regular folks trying to feed their families. They are not inherently evil. They will adjust because they have to.

            We need a transition. We are soooo lucky we have system insiders like Lemma and Abiy that are pointing to an alternative the public can accept and buy us breathing room. I am quite skeptical that TPLF will see Lemma as the golden parachute he provides.. they like repeating stupid things and expectng a different outcome. So far the signs are not so good.

            In any case though, best alternative is a new EPRDF arrangement the public can believe in, followed by believable respect to the established constitution and its institutions by the EPRDF themselves, followed by opening the political space to non-EPRDF parties.

            If that is confusing then I am sorry. Always remember we are a civilization of thousands of years. Don’t let them tell you we are a delicate cup በቀላሉ የሚሰበር።

            Amde

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Amde
            Thank u sir
            U r crystal clear now. U really r a great intellectual but we shouldn’t let tplf hold ethiopia hostage . lemma(abiy) or gadu is the safest way .if not there must be another way of dealing with them unless the more they stay in power the more ethiopia will be in mess. I was a supporter of them once and i learn they r nothing but twisted heart nerd.
            Pls don’t offend our eri brothers and sisters with out their support what we talking about lemma, abiy will be difficult and more time consuming. Thank u sir.

          • Amde

            Selam Tedros,

            You are too kind.

            I try not to offend anybody.. but i take pleasure in offending Isayyas lovers. He is an abomination. And poking at his cultish worshippers is sublime pleasure.

            I just dont see how Eris and Lemma are related. Let’s be careful here. Today’s OPDO is a result of an organic process over the past couple of years, driven for the most part by Oromo youth protests. The spark was farmer land expropriation for capitalist purposes. It was given an ethnic dimension simply because Ethiopia’s politics is ethnicised. Otherwise, if Awassa was seeing the same kind of economic growth that consumed farmer land with no compensation, we would see similar kind of complaints. In a normal country, there would have been a party that advocated for farmer rights. And another one for the capitalist class. In Ethiopia’s case the same party is supposed to advocate for the farmer losing his land and the capitalist snatching his land.

            Lemma represents the next generation of leaders within the Ethiopian political system. All the EPRDF parties’ new generation cadre are more independent and chafe at TPLF dominance. They are frustrated with the contradictions.
            It is like that in all the parties, and it is a natural process.

            I fail to see what Eritrea and Eritreans have to do with it. በለማ ጉዳይ እነሱ ምን አስኮረፋቸው? ቢያኮርፉስ ምን ይጠበስ?

            Amde

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Amde
            I know all ethiopians exept people in a far south and i believe there is millions like lemma , dr abiy or gadu in all over eprdf and beyond. The no 1 problem is tplf . once tplf downgraded to thier size which means 90% of the problem is solved.
            And don’t forget the media has a vital role to play and who knows if things got out of control thier army with the collaborate with g7and tpdm might play some kind of selam ena maregagat

          • Fanti Ghana

            Selam Teodros Alem,

            TPLF is so bad, you would like PFDJ, G7, and TPDM as potential friends for your post TPLF selamna meregagat?

            All this time I assumed you hated TPLF for its undemocratic tendencies. I am sorry if you were hurt so deeply by a Tigrayan to wish the likes of Ginbot 7 and TPDMs for our country, but ስነ ልቦና ይስጥትህ እንጂ ምኑን እንበለው፤

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam fanti
            Most of g7 leaders r elected by the people 100% in addis ababa and beyond.
            Tpdm , i think they will not have a role outside of tigrai .if u don’t like them it is upto u.
            Eri gov , what is wrong if they help us out? It is good more for u.
            Atintebateb.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Sr. Amde,

            I think Ethiopia needs people like you who are humble and tolerant to political differences. Two notes I have observed from your comment in your response to Teodros (a) “በወያኔ ኩርፊያ አገራችንን ማንደድ አይገባም”. This is an expression that can be uttered from wise people only (b) “Respect to the established ‘constitution and its institutions’ by the EPRDF themselves followed by opening the political space to non-EPRDF parties” is real pragmatic and realistic solution that brings all actors to the loop to build their nation and strengthen the bonds within the diversities.

            I think a year ago in our exchange, I stated to you that, with the long history of mistrust among the Ethiopian social groups (ethnics), the current Federal government is the best (a) to build trust among the social groups (b) in order the klils to exercise political and administrative autonomy (c) in order to strengthen the unity in diversity of your society (d) in order to flourish the already established economic infra-structures to boom the economic potential of your country. In my view, there is no other form of government that hold the diversity of Ethiopia. The stability of Ethiopia is very important to the stability of the region.

            Regards
            Amanuel Hidrat

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam aman h
            U got it wrong those who don’t respect. The constitution is nobody other than tplf themselves. They used it to divid and rule the country. if they respect the constitution we wouldn’t be in this mess in the first place.
            Ehiopian ehtnic mistrust if not lessthan or different than any other country.
            If u think most of the opposition r real opposition u wrong .
            A lot of them r working for tplf under cover for distraction purpose.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Teodros,

            Following the constitution is one thing and what the constitution calls for (structurally and institutionally) is another thing. My point was on the structure of the government and how it addresses the grievances of diversities. In a society like your country of “multi-cultural society” and as such with deep mistrusts for generations, there in no alternative that holds you intact other than the current government. Theodros, if there is a problem to make the institution work, fight for it, otherwise the constitution and its institutions are the best to the Ethiopian realities. I lived and worked in Ethiopia for years, and I have a good knowledge on the grievances of the Ethiopian social groups. The only difference now is, I am an outsider and I don’t have a say. I am only sharing my view from the general knowledge of “governance and structures of government” for multi-cultural society. I can only debate on the concepts and their applications and the choices have to be made by the Ethiopians only.

            regards
            Amanuel Hidrat

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam aman h
            1, tplf is the one who don’t respect the constitution (the rule of the country.
            2,instead of solving the mistrust, tplf use the mistrust (most exaggerated )to widened the mistrust and use it to divide and rule.
            3, i don’t care how long u lived worked in ethiopia but the mistrust that u talking about is mostly by tplf and thier supporters. Other than that it is no different or even less comparing to other countries.
            4,everybody in ethio is asking one and only one thing which is the rule of the country to be respected.

          • Ismail AA

            Selam Aman and others,

            This morning I have been reading the robust exchanges of current politics in Ethiopia and challenges facing the reigning system of governance and the actors with that context. While reading on one of the statements you made caught my attention because I believe it should not also escape the attention of politicians who seek peaceful overhaul of the system in place.

            “Fighting to bring the Amharas or the Oromos to power will not solve the Ethiopia[‘s] problem[s]. This is key to meaningful and sustainable working system that ends up in uniting the diverse social and demographic constituencies of the country. I mean to say taking Amharas, Oromos and Tigrians as mainstream agenda for debate does not seem to me complete the picture because the rest of the ethno-social groups do constitute considerable and substantial factor in the equation. For instance, as voting block they constitution representation of more than twenty million citizens. In this case, thus, Amhara-Oromo domination of power will certainly give them incentive and necessity to unite because they will understand the scenario as replacement of old imperial era alignment that lined up Amharas and Tigrians ruling classes. After experiencing changes the Derg era and post Derg era had introduced, it can be imagined the resistance they will marshal to sustain what the current loose federal arrangement had given. At least they lived to witness that one of their own, the current prime minister, hails from one of their constituencies, which had been never imagined during the imperial era.

            Thus, the best way forward is to search a genuine formula of governance that avoids exchanging periods of domination by one or more components of the country. In my judgement, stable and accommodating federalism system would open the way to a uniting base for state building that open reasonable and phased space for participatory economic integration that could become key to transforming the current ethno-social affiliations to national citizenship based on rights and duties with preservation of lingo-cultural diversity as enriching wealth of the country.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Ismailo,

            I do agree with you on the concept of balance of power and fair sharing. My comment was strictly on the hate that Teodros has on EPRDF/TPLF, trying to prod him to make his argument on “justice and fair sharing of power”. In fact the debate of Ethiopians are only focused on the four major social groups (the Amhara, the Tigreans, the Oromos, and the Somalis). The minorities are not part of their conversations yet. Second, I was alluding that the current redistricted Federal system is not bad for the Ethiopian realities. What they need is, to make their constitution work as it should be. Identity politics, especially within the four major social groups is so strong, and I don’t thing there are other form of government that address their grievances to each other than the current one. However, my view and your view, as outsiders, could only be on the “structural concept of Ethnic Federalism” on how and in what society is could be applicable, if the Ethiopians in this forum could get benefit out of it. The rest should be left to them to sort it out.

            regards
            Amanuel Hidrat

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam aman h
            Constitution, there is a rule in side the constitution to change the constitution itself (including the federal arrangement) .if someone wants to change the constitution all it need 2/3 of the parliament vote. But right know since the constitution is a piece of paper. U can’t do that b/c of your friends in the tplf. I know they probably promise u to chief of one kebela or zoba in the future puppet eri.gov. that dream is gone. Try to be a true justice seeker.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Teodros,

            The problem with you Teodros is, you can’t debate with people who have different view than yours. You don’t have to learn from me, but if you have good ears to listen and learn, Sir Amde one from your own is a good candidate for you. Try to learn how to communicate, if you come to learn in this forum. I don’t have specific friends from the infighting political groups in Ethiopia, the Ethiopian people in general are my friends. I hate “Puppetism” and I am not puppet, rather I am anti-puppetism. Log it in to your memory now.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam aman h
            Fact and idea ,
            We can’t debate fact.
            In order to debate what kind of gov. Ethiopia needs(idea) .we have to have equal level space for all stockholders of ethiopian poltics but we don’t (fact) .
            As for me the constitution if implemented democratically that will be the start and we will go from there

          • Amde

            Selam Amanuel,

            Thank you – you are too kind.

            Believe me there are many much much better qualified people that say what needs to be said. The problem is right now there is imbalance, and one side is too close to having everything to lose, and another side is too close to having nothing to lose. So it is very difficult to have deals.

            I feel even more vindicated that the Ethiopian system (COMBINED WITH the EPRDF ethnic vanguard dictatorship system) is only goid at exacerbating differences leading to where we are today. Those two are by themselves bad enough, but together they have a terrible reinforcing feedback loop.

            There are indeed historical grievances, but those have to be put in context. Most of the structural problems stemming from them have been addressed።starting frim።the Derg era. There is no landowner class. Legally, everyone is the same under the law. Language rights were recognized. All during the Derg era and since.

            Without EPRDF allowing free political competition and true federalism, it is impossible to know how well the system would work as designed.

            But it is easy to see the huge systemic imbalance it would cause in።a country like Ethiopia’s demographics. What we are seeing in።the news።today is entirely the system።being true to form. There are two vast states and many much smaller ones. The big ones will assert themselves, since the basis of politics is demographic weight. The current system has built into it an Oromo and Amara duopoly that has a real chance of effectively making other citizens second class.

            TPLF’s approach to forstall this has been to not be democratic, and to undermine the federal institutions. In other words, cheat at the game it set up. The dominance of a smaller demographic unit within such a system is an aberration. As they say, gravity eventually takes over. So if you really want to see whether this system works for smaller communities, you need to see other units such as the Sidama or Gurage or Afar. If you are from።a።smaller unit, you have to balance out access to opportunities, with cultural preservation. I can tell you that Addis is full of many new accents than when I grew up. People overwhelmingly vote for opportunity with their feet. One of the biggest complaints people have is that their children dont know the languages that give them access to opportunities.

            If land and culture preservation were the main goals, perhaps such a system might be useful. But the reality is, trends are more towards integration (urbanization/commerce/industrialization) as opposed to preservation. The political system must be able to accommodate that.

            Amde

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Sir Amde,

            As far as the current Ethiopian opposition made their challenge for “justice and equitable sharing”, slowly but surely, you could make the system feasible. The system is not bad unless they are not making to work as it should be. Experimenting a new system is not easy, there is always a drawback especially for a society like ours. At least on the economic side, you made strides in the right direction ( commerce, industrialization, economic infra-structures), and surely the politics will follow suit eventually. Reforming the election law will help you on the next election cycle. Forfeiting your seats if you don’t win in one cycle (like that of 2005) is not wise politics. I hope the opposition have learned from the past mistakes.

            Regards
            Amanuel Hidrat

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam aman h
            Election, i told u tplf doesn’t respect the law thet include the election law .it doesn’t allow free and fair election in the first place.
            Is that a kind of democracy r u dreaming for eri?
            Constitution on paper but ruling by gun?shame.

          • Selam Amde,

            When you said addis has become multilingual, the ancient myth of builders of the tower of babel came to my mind. Of course, the comparison is far from perfect.

            The latest thing about language problem is that some families are worried that their children have started greeting them in arabic, or they hear them throwing words of arabic here and there, before they even learn amharic, the official language. This they say is the result of media monopoly by the government and the absence of diverse programs from private channels, and children are glued to arabic satellite channels, when their parents are absent from home mainly to their workplaces.

            If amharic is the working language and therefore the language of opportunity at the federal level, what do you think is being done by the state so that all ethiopians have equal opportunity when they travel to the center, for example, jobs, further education, political power at the federal level, etc.

            I have read that there are people who cannot fill a form in amharic to request for jobs, travel permit to foreign countries or generally to hold positions outside their states.

            I think that ethnic languages are good at the early stage of education (primary schools), nevertheless, what i do not know is how do they manage when they go for further education as much as amharic and english, the working languages are concerned. In other words, if they are taught in language classes in primary schools and beyond.

            (Please, say a word or two, if you are aware of what is happening. Anybody else too. Thanks.)

          • Amde

            Selam Horizon,

            The joke is that Haile Gebresellasie allows his kids to only speak English at home. I met a family whose children went through to high school in one of Addis Ababa’s fancy private schools and could not read or write Amharic. The parents blamed one teacher. I didn’t think it was possible even if you tried.

            But you see how parents try to position their children for maximum opportunity. So this problem scales up and down. Millions of Oromo kids who are not functionally fluent in Amharic. At least for the Oromo, the time is really close where Oromiffa will start being used outside Oromiya. But for many of the smaller communities, the hard truth is that parents, elites and institutions will have to make a choice. Tigrayans complain about how ubiquitous Amharic has become in Tigray. But parents and TPLF believe Amharic fluency is crucial and so they invest in it.

            In general I think the intent is to do as you indicated.. .mother tongue in the early years and other languages (Amharic and English) later on. The problem with these things boils down to limited resources.

            There was a case of a language called Wegagoda a few years ago. Apparently Welayta, Gamo, Gofa and Dawaro languages are really really close. So, some well intentioned bureaucrats thought they could save money and promote understanding within each of those groups. They hired some linguists to come up with a new language that combined the four. They prepared teaching materials. (Ihadeg being Ihadeg, they also created a Wegagoda Peoples Democratic Organization to go with the artificial language and new textbooks). The first time anybody in the community heard about it was when their kids went to school. There was literally a riot and even Meles had to step in. One of the reasons for the backlash was exactly parents feeling their children being burdened with a language that won’t allow them to prosper outside their regions.

            Horizon, I am curious. When was the last time you were in Ethiopia?

            Amde

          • Selam Amde,

            I left ethiopia in the the 1980s, and has never been back home ever since. What a shame.

          • Fanti Ghana

            Dearest Horizon,

            I am usually the last one to push anyone to go back home and visit because I was in the same boat for a long time, but based on my own experience, there is nothing more important to those of us who left home that long ago than to go back and visit at least once. My life was enriched beyond my imagination the moment I arrived in Ethiopia five years ago.

            Close your eyes, get your travel tickets, make sure the return trip is open ticket (to be able to return whenever you please), and just go. Trust me, you will come back renewed for the better.

          • Selam Fanti Ghana,

            From your lips to God’s ears. Thank you a lot.

          • Selam Amde,

            As to making oromiffa another ethiopian official language, i would have been happy if they had not denied that the geez alphabet is part of their history. The latin alphabet could be seen as an alphabet of a colonizer, far from having anything to do with the history of the oromo people. I am sure that other ethnic groups will be happy to learn oromiffa, if it adapts geez, which will make it more ethiopian, in my opinion.

          • Nitricc

            Hi Amde, “በወያኔ ኩርፊያ አገራችንን ማንደድ አይገባም።” what a clever or pathetic way to defend Weyane. What if Weyane is burning your country? don’t you have the moral obligation to stand up for your people? you are funny guy. i don’t expect you to get this but you don’t seem to understand the disturbing situation your country is. Regarding your Lemma Megersa, get this and you can take that to the bank, he will be charged genocide, or there will be some kind of accident that will eliminate him for good. you don’t wound weyane, either you kill or obey the order of the weyane. once he reviled that he didn’t ordered or approved for the federal forces to enter in Chelonqo, weyane showed him who the boss is by masscaering the Somals, which is an act suited to charge him genocide. i know i am wasting my time but why do you think the former oromo charman recalled from overseas and currently he is Addis. i Admit, any vacuum of power in Ethiopia is not good but for you to defend weyane blindly is beneath of your character as educated Ethiopian. Look how Aman-H is showering you while himself burning his country because he is unhappy with pfdj. did you detect the hypocrisy to the highest order. i know you stated that you have to go to x-mass shopping but how about you give your poor people x-mass gift by standing with them. i think you are Adi-grat.lol

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Nitrickay,

            How did Aman-H burn his country? Really? Young kid you don’t know what you are talking about.

          • Nitricc

            Hey Aman-H, fierst of all congratulations on the wedding of our sister. i wish i was invited, that would have been my first wedding ever. lol please extend my congrats to my sister. Now, Aman, let’s ge back to my point. All i read is that Aman-H is a man of unflinching man of principal and a justice seeker but whne was las time you speak out against weyane injustice committed by the Weyane? When? Don’t take is as i am attacking you, i am not, but your principales and your stand on justice are questioned due to your unquestioned support for the Weyane. Now, why are you not speaking out about the injustice of Amara and Oromo by the Weyane, Sir?

          • blink

            Dear Nitricc
            Mr. Amanuel Hidrat is willing to see Eritrea burn to the ground even to the distance of Eritreans killing each other. Don’t forget he is the number one supporter of Ali Salim. The guy will never ever accuse weyane , he will protect them day in day out , he protect the weyane government more than any Ethiopian in this site . I just cannot accept his violence based solution in Eritrea while he kneel down to Weyane . His Facebook is filled with dark gossip sourced by a guy called Foro , the way he use his age to degrade new forumers is beyond any level.

            He will not write one line against weyane in relation to the mascaras of Oromo and Amhara people. His justice a very very confusing line that you can not track.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Blink,

            You never failed to make up story as an agent of PFDJ in this forum. Where do you find Amanuel supporting the argument of Ali Salim’s view? Let me give you one out of the many articles in response against Ali Salim (Hussien Younis) argument. Below is a link to you to read it. He himself in particular and the forumers in general know exactly my position very well.

            http://awate.com/u-turns-regression-two-opposition-two-eritrea/

          • blink

            Dear Mr. Amanuel
            Ok ok , I will find the post you made about Ali Salim but that was not all , does it ? What happened to the other points I made against you ? Did you admit them ?
            1. You wanted a violent change in Eritrea
            2. You defended weyane even though you know they destroyed our martyrs cemetery
            3. You accidentally admitted you support weyane or you wanted to clean the air about Ali salim?
            4. You admit your Facebook is full of gossip from a guy called Foro !!! Ummm what else can I bring against you that I feel disappointing.

          • Teodros Alem

            Nitricc
            Let me ask u this
            Why u think there is a lot of Muslim heaters in asmarino.com ? And do u think those heaters r eritrean( am talking about most of the commenters) ?

          • Nitricc

            Hey Teddy, to be honest, there three websites i visit on daily basis. Awate, Meeskerm and Tesfanwes. And i have soldem check any other websites and never Asmarino. So, i don’t know what goes there but I do believe our Eritrean muslim bothethers better open their eyes, this Akria begesew, Gejeret cheresw is not they way to go. i am very disappointed what have transpiredand the actions of the Eritrean Muslims. that is not the way to build a peaceful secular state. For me, Temsgen from kebesa and Ali from Qarura are all dignified Eritreans for me, they all died for Eritrea. i don’t like the agrivess of Eritrean muslims on this issue. I disagree with idea of Agazi and in the same token i disagree with this Muslim first movement that i am witnessing. it doesn’t serves us well all. Secular state is the way and i will be sticking with it.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam NItricc
            What am trying to say is there is people(u can guess who) who deliberately work 24/7 to divide eritrea between religion line .the same thing is true about ethiopia between ethnic and religion line. U can detect that with the sameness of thier message and they all use different identity (account) . it looks like it is so organized.
            If u don’t mind i just wanna say this in short, freedom of religion is a must .that is good for the future of the country .

          • Nitricc

            Hey Aman-H i forgot to address this one ““ኣሳዳጊ የበደለው ልጅ” really? i wiah you know about me and my parents. but again it willl be bragging and i wasn’t raised that way. When you guys call each other Dr. this and that i laugh at it. You know……

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Nitrickay,

            Thank you for the congrat and your sister is in the good hand. On the phrase, don’t act is not you are. You know the differences. It is a warning only. but…but how did Aman-H burn his country? On the Ethiopian issue, my argument is only on the concept of the structure of the government as to whether it is applicable to multi-cultural society, assuming the history of mistrust among the social groups. Other than that I don’t debate on belabelow. Amde talked about a solution and I supported it. If you ask me how they will solve their problem, I could offer a suggestion. But don’t ask me to join your hate, for hate doesn’t bring solution to the problem.

          • Nitricc

            Aman, there no hate here. my quation you seem ti step aside is, how conw you never call out he weyane for their injustice they have committed? are you saying they are democratic? like i have said, all i hear is how Aman-H is principled and a just man but how come you failed to call out the injustice in the TPLF land?

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam aman h
            For me ” asadagi yebadelw lig” meaning those who kill , lie and so on and those who collaborate and defend the killers, the lyers and so on.

          • Amde

            Selam Nitricc,

            አይዞህ ተረጋጋ።

            Buy yourself something nice for X-Mas.

            Amde

          • Selam Amde,

            Woyane can not survive by having the majority of ethiopians against it. Remember at what happened in 1998; they could not face eritrean aggression alone, and they had to to beg for the help of those whom they mistreated and humiliated, members of the old armed forces, and the ethiopian people in general.

            Time is against tplf hegemony, and the future belongs to the assertiveness of ethiopians. Those who are burning with love for the oromos and amharas have a rock-hard heart for their own people, and therefore, no one believes or trusts them.

            Woyanes defaulted in allowing the continuous plunder of ethiopia, and they reacted aggressively to the war of intimidation, both unexpected from the side of those who believed they were the masters at the game.

            Because woyane is out of reach for them, those with bleeding hearts for oromos and amharas, while their heart does not shade a drop for their own people, their true plan is to get at woyane through the anger of the ethiopian people, cause chaos and bring about the collapse of ethiopia, thus kill two birds with one stone.

            “በወያኔ ኩርፊያ አገራችንን ማንደድ አይገባም።” Thanks Amde, it is so true and to the point. Let them call me a woyane a million times, i personally will not be tempted to call for the head of woyane on a platter, not yet, and i hope it will never happen. Early 1990s were different times. It will be serving the interest of those who hate ethiopia by hating woyane. Woyane is already tamed and will continue to be tamed until it fits its size, but in an ethiopian way that serves ethiopia’s interest.

            Let them put out the fire in their own house first, let their heart stop bleeding for the dictator and start bleeding truly for their own people, before we can believe them in the least.

            I would like to close my comment by quoting you. “Always remember we are a civilization of thousands of years. Don’t let them tell you we are a delicate cup በቀላሉ የሚሰበር።”

          • Amde

            Selam Horizon,

            “Woyane is already tamed and will continue to be tamed until it fits its size, but in an ethiopian way that serves ethiopia’s interest.”

            Hopefully we will see. Jury is still out as they say. They are an organic part of Ethiopian community and political space. We just don’t know the true size of their constituency.

            Amde

          • Nitricc

            Hey Tedy, if you ask me, Amde and Horizon are weyane planted stooges. i really believe that. Have ever heard from them any kind sympathy for the mass killing of the Oromo and Amara. Horizon a Wellega oromo but he sold his people. Amde is Amara from Menze, again he sold his people. Even my fev, Kim Hanna from Gojjam is all in with Weyane, what is it? why is so hard to say weyane was wrong to commit those killings? i think it is like some women are in love with their abusing man. you know no matter how their man abuses them still they are in love with him. how else would you explain it? saying this, i can understand why you are confused, me too.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Nitricc
            Kim hanna and horizon, am 99.9% sure they r tigraians.
            kim hanna is by far the most amara heater tigraian just read his last comment basically he told u “we (tigraian, somali and eritrea) fought the amara together but now u(eritreans) is not in our side” .horizon, i remember the first time when he had exchange 2-3 comment with t.kefele(like a job training) since than i know him and he is for sure tigraian.
            Nitricc, just because u r eritrean i know it is hard to identify who is who but even opdo and andm members don’t have horzion and kim kind of understanding of ethiopian poltics.
            They r part of the cyber warriors. Remember what meles has said before ethiopian millennium ” the next war will be media war.
            Amde, i think he want to be politically correct but we don’t have to agree 100% with everybody.

          • Thomas

            Hi Amde,
            I think you hit his nerve, I have never seen him lose his temper this way before:) I must tell you, I strongly believe Nitricc is Ethiopian. I suspect he could be from the oromo race. I also think the liberation of Eritrea or the separation of Eritrea from Ethiopia must have impacted him so much because his family are made to leave Eritrea. I think his “abat-tor” father has somehow connected his miseries with the weyanes. I think the weyanes must have taken out a member of his Ethiopian family. Nitricc just desperately wanted to come back to Ethiopia, but his families are wanted by the weyanes.

          • Nitricc

            Oh Thomas, not you. I rather be anything than going to Africa to find a wife. I just couldn’t get it out my head. do you know how many women are in the united states of America? you must by ugly, fat and old to go to all they way to Africa, that is my friend, the worst of the worst. by the way How is your wife? don’t tell me she left you? lol I don’t blame her.

          • Thomas

            Hi Nitricc,

            You still are funny, but I wish you were an Eritrean. Hahahaha “you must by ugly, fat and old to go to all they way to Africa”. People whom you just described are taking all beauties. They are doing so because the are investing their money at the right place (where the beauties are situated) and get to choose from the land of millions of beautiful ladies:) You see what you are missing, hagereseb Wahid. I know you cannot afford the travel and other expenses. So, you are stuck and get one of the ugly and the fatty ones:) You got to do what a man got to do, brother man:)

          • Nitricc

            Thomas, people like go that far to find a wife and I am sure she is half of your age and once she know the game, she will leave you to a man of her age. dumb, you call that investment? what is your IQ man? Investment my foot. if you weren’t as dumb as you are, you won’t call that investment, she is not properties. at least say it was love. dumb. I get it, as ugly, fat and old as you are, still you could have found somebody in this country but I understand, you add your dumbness to the list, you are untouchable. I get it.

          • Amde

            Selam Thomas,

            Yes.. I am convinced he was born or at least grew up in ethiopia and his family was probably dispossessed and pushed out. He constantly surprises me with detail about Ethiopian life that I don’t know about.

            I like him actually. If calling me a Weyane Junkie is the high he craves, then I am happy to oblige.
            (To be honest, I don’t know who I don’t like in this forum.) As far as I can tell there are two people here whose buttons are very predictable. Say something negative about Isayyas the man, (not about Eritrea or PFDJ mind you), and Nitricc and Semere T will go ape-doodoo. It definitely has huge entertainment value, but since Isayyas is getting old, it has an expiration date.

            Merry christmas.

            Amde

          • Thomas

            Hi Amde,
            I cannot dare to guess about the real lives of other’s, but I strongly believe Nitricc’s own life is messed up. This guy has no other place to go, but this forum. I also believe he does not have friends other than the cyber ones (from face book and some here). He seems a very angry man and the reason I believe is because he came from “geteriye” family. He is just very upset with no one but himself. For some reasons, I can sense the ugly life of this guy. He likes to talk about women and relationships because he has zero experience and wanted to learn. I am being frank with him, it is just his ugly and “hagereseb” face and character that is turning our sisters/beauties away from him. He does not know this because he is very disconnected and because of his ugly behavior no one is around him to communicate. People wanted him around because he could be an entertainer for his naivety and stupidity.

            Merry Christmas & Happy New Year My Friend!

          • Amde

            Selam Thomas,

            Unfortunately I cannot go there with you. I think all of us on this forum are at best caricatures of our true selves. I truly cringe when so many wonderful people here are so nice to me, and I am absolutely convinced I am not worthy of half the respect they show me.

            Actually, i would even say most of us here carry wounds big and small. ቤቱ የቁስለኛ ቤት ነው.. except the wounds are psychic. Some of us vent, some of us hope to learn something that will help us move forward, some of us are continuing the struggle in different forms.

            I think Nitricc is a military officer in training. (He had the nickname of “General” a while ago) I hope he didnt choose the military route to continue our war(s) into a different era. If that is the reason, then to me that is a sign of our collective failure.

            I hope Nitricc shares a song he likes with us this weekend.

            Amde

          • Paulos

            Selam Amde,

            I am sure you remember the early 90s popular comedy sitcom “Cheers” and the soundtrack as the show starts was my fav where it goes “……you always want to go where everybody knows your name…” Certainly we come to this forum with a sense of belonging as life in a melting pot society can be socially challenging to say the least. Some of us, from time to time could feel the abject dread of loneliness and we find to the very least a sort of a hang out in the cyber world that reflects our sentiments and our values as well.

            Interestingly enough, our mind starts to conjure up a picture of the person on the other end where the other person could be say Isaias Afwerki so to speak. Point is, as you said it, there is no reason to pass judgment on the person or hold grudges for we don’t know each other. If we can, respect each other and try to learn something from that person on the other end. As in one of the lines in “Desiderata” has it, “…Pay attention to anyone even the fool has something valuable to say….” Of course no condescending intended.

          • Thomas

            Hi Paulos,

            How true statement “Pay attention to anyone even the fool has something valuable to say….” Of course no condescending intended”. Not to brag, if I find a crazy person wanting to talk to me, I respectfully listen to what they have to say without passing judgments. I cannot understand why I am having difficulty communicating or tolerating Nitricc:)

          • Amde

            Selam Paulos,

            If ever Awate does call everyone to meet in meat-space to sip coffee and shoot the breeze, you would be one of the first people I would be dying to meet. An jntellectual and a class act through and through.

            Amde

          • Paulos

            Selam Amde,

            You’re so kind. Thank you so much and of course the feeling is mutual. We will definitely meet in meat-space as they say 6 degrees of separation ain’t far off.

          • Thomas

            Hi Amde,

            I think I failed to clearly communicate with above, but I have to tell I agree “I think all of us on this forum are at best caricatures of our true selves. I truly cringe when so many wonderful people here are so nice to me, and I am absolutely convinced I am not worthy of half the respect they show me.” I don’t think where someone grew up can be that a factor, but I believe sometimes environment is a factor. Someone who grew up in a ghetto area does not reflect the same mode of conduct with someone who is not, someone who is abused in his/her childhood time does not react to situations with someone else. It is the fact of nature, this guy nitric does not show respect to old, young, dead or to anyone as a matter of fact. So, I think nitricc is the wieldiest creature!!

          • Nitricc

            AMDE; your country is in a brink of catastrophe crises instead of discussing ideas and solutions you are talk about people? lol Typical African intellectuals, good for nothing toothless. The reason you failed to know about your country and you ended up learning it from is, not that I was born there and I know your country but because of you have less respect and value for your own culture and country o care to know, while I am trusty to know about the continent Africa and beyond. So, I am sure you care to know and know many dead white people than of your country and nothing personal but trust me, it is African mentality you all suffer from.

          • Amde

            እሺ ጌቶች።

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Teodros

            I think the people of Tigray would be fine. And these are my reasons:

            A. – To this day, the people of Tigray are still poor. During the era of Woyane, it is the corrupt Woyane bigwigs who benefited from power, not the people of Tigray. Meaning the people of Tigray can’t be responsible for the corrupted Woyane-leaders crimes/wrongdoings. Because these corrupted leaders were neither elected by them nor accountable to them.

            B. – Whoever ascends to power after Woyane, its first priority would be maintaining peace and stability in every region of Ethiopia. The last thing the new leadership would want on its plate would be, criminalizing an old leadership that has passed its time.

            C. – It is a no brainer that the first project of the new Addis leadership that follows Woyane would be to resolve the Ethio-Eritrean problem in a way that doesn’t antagonize the Tigreans. And you can be sure about one thing: the new leadership that follows Woyane will not let the two Tigrewoch get angry at them both at the same time.

            Semere Tesfai

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Semere Tesfai
            So u saying the people of tigrai will be ok .i guess so too but what about the economic side of tigrai? And u right the new gov( who ever they r) don’t wanna. Mess with the eri for so money reason.

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Teodros

            “What about the economic side of Tigrai?”

            One of the main problems of the “no war no peace” Addis policy was, it punishes Ethiopia more than it does to Eritrea. In business, one of the decisive factors for success is LOCATION. Eritrea has the ideal location. And if things get sour to its south, it always has trading partners to its north.

            In Ethiopia, the success of northern Ethiopian regions (the Amara and Tigray regions) is dependent on Ethio-Eritrean good relations and access to the Red Sea. The quality of life of the Amara and Tigray people is not going to change for the better, by using Djibouti Mogadishu Mombasa and Port-Sudan ports. It is too far and too expensive to stay competitive and prosper.

            The Woyanes adapted the “no war no peace” policy thinking Eritrea is not a viable state, they adapted the no war no peace policy thinking – without access to Ethiopian market Eritrean economy will tank….. And that has proven to be wrong. We don’t have to trade with Ethiopia to survive as a nation. In fact, for every penny we make in trading with Ethiopia, we can make a dollar by trading with our northern friends.

            Therefore, for the most part, the prosperity of Northern Ethiopia (Wello, Tigray, Gonder and Gojam) is interwoven and interconnected – with the prosperity of Eritrea, with good Ethio-Eritrean relations, with fair and reasonable Eritrean access to Ethiopian markets, and with fair and reasonable level of Northern Ethiopian Regions access the Red Sea.

            Meaning, if Northern Ethiopians can have the needed access to the Red Sea through Massawa, Tio, and Assab Tigreans would diversify their economy and would do just fine.

            Semere Tesfai

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Semere Tesfai
            Thanks, it make a lot of sense but we need to have good hearted who see things according to economic and unity of people.not twisted ego centrist leaders. Thank u .

          • Selam Semere Tesfai,

            Too little too late. This scenario is meant mainly to save the pfdj, and it is not for the sake of the two people. If pfdj had a similar opinion about the interconnected economy of northern ethiopia and eritrea, it would not have started the war of intimidation.

            When MZ and IA landlocked ethiopia, it was meant to permanently control not only the economy, but the politics and policies of the future ethiopian government, reminiscent of colonialism.

            There was a movie in which the actor Anthony Quinn was apprehended by the nazis and put in a concentration camp, because the nazis thought he was a jew. He and his wife did their best to show that he was not, but to no avail. Finally, just before the end of the war, the nazis realized that indeed he was not a jew, and released him from the camp.
            He said, you told me that i am a jew, and with the jews in the concentration camp i learnt to be a jew, and now you are refusing my jewness. I want to remain a jew, because you have forced me to become one.
            Ethiopia has been landlocked for almost three decades, she has found alternative solutions, and now, you are telling her to use massawa and assab, indirectly the aim being to resuscitate the dying regime. It is not going to work, as long pfdj is in power.

            Where is the dollar you are going to make with your northern friends and neighbors? Is that why you sacrificed the penny you were certain about, as if it was in your pocket? Are you still waiting for that petro-dollars, now that arab nations are aware of the imminent future oil crisis?

            Ethiopia has said that she will not do business with the present eritrean regime. Even if she is going to do business with eritrea in the future, be sure, it will not be on your terms, and eritrean ports are going to play a secondary role for ethiopia’s trade. It is you who brought things to this situation, not ethiopia. Ethiopia will do her best not to put all her eggs in one basket anymore. There are times when you are ready to pay a million birr for a camel, and there are times when you do not want to pay even one birr for it. That is what ethiopia did and proved it to be possible. Her economy seems to allow it, at least for the time being.

            You also said in your other post that future ethiopian governments will live with the fear of the two tigrewoch. 90m ethiopians are going to lose their sleep, because 8m tigrewoch will come together and devour them. After demeaning, vilifying and demonizing the woyane so much and for so long, you see solidarity of the two against ethiopia. My friend, the big problem has always been the big idea some of your elites have about themselves. When are you people going to learn the way of peace, genuine cooperation and humility?

          • blink

            Dear Horizon
            You said “When MZ and IA landlocked ethiopia, it was meant to permanently control not only the economy, but the politics and policies of the future ethiopian government, reminiscent of colonialism”
            No , Ethiopia was land locked before 1991 , it was land locked from the time Italians put a foot in Africa, its just some lunatics think Meles did that, it is full of lies with out zero prove. When are these crazy people who think Meles did that and this , I wonder if these people really know Ethiopia. The tariffs of the Dijubuti port is going sky high while the economy of Ethiopia is being dry . Ethiopian people especially the Tigray people are getting very expensive consumers goods because of the transportation cost . The freighters are going to charge double of the actual price and why would they do that because of Eritrea? It is mind blowing craziness inside the adwa planners .

            The cost of freight and port clearance for one 40” container is becoming 1/4 of the actual cost for the goods once the Tigray regional state government try to collect VAT it will be beyond the pocket of commen people.

            Ethiopian economy is just inflated on papers unless how could 10m people got hungry with an economy that growth 10% for 27 years , the empty barrel you guys have could not help Ethiopians eat 3 meal a day. The Tigray economy is subsidized by the UNHCR and the money brought by Eritreans in the camps plus USAID.

            The notion Ethiopian economy is working trickle down economy system is a lie pure lies narrated by weyane cronies.

          • Selam blink,

            Port business in the horn is being dominated by djibouti with the inauguration of Doraleh Multipurpose Port (a world-class port infrastructure), which is part of four mega port projects, and yet you believe that ultra-nationalism will solve all problems, be it economic, social or political.

            Even now when you see that the game is being lost to djibouti, instead of opening the door for cooperation you believe that your regime will have its way, no matter what. More or less, what you are saying is that it takes simply to hide the head in the sand and say that nothing is happening in the region. Unfortunately, reality is unforgiving.

            Opposite to what you say, “The Government of Djibouti has decided to reduce its prices in all port services across the newly built Doraleh Multipurpose Port (DMP).”

            Famine and USAID, the known ingredients of pfdj propaganda against ethiopia, has not precluded eritreans from crossing the border into ethiopia, because they know better than pfdj propagandists. You can deny everything about ethiopia, paint her in black colors, nevertheless, in ten years time when you start reading about the emerging eritrean entrepreneurs in ethiopia, again you will deny that they are eritreans, or you will find for them a new label.

          • Alex

            Hi Horizon,
            You know when Ethiopia was using asseb port before 1998 they were paying very small amount for port fees comparing to what they are paying djibouti right now close to 1 Billion USD, which is a big amount to any third world country. So if Wayane did not hold hostage the border verdict, both countries could have benefited. Eritrea could have got some many from Ethiopia for port fee and Ethiopia could have paid less than they are paying now by a mile. But right now rather than camels drinking water in Asseb port, French-built Mirage 2000 fighter aircraft, C17 and others are using the port for a lot of money for Eritrea from UAE.

          • Nitricc

            Hi Alex: there more to it. Not only Ethiopia is paying for the port of Djibouti but the real story is. Djibuti port is manage by UAE and UAE takes the money from Ethiopia and pays to Eritrea for the Port of Assab. So, indirectly, Ethiopia is paying Eritrea in dollars. but Ethiopians don’t that. they are out smarted by the camels. lol

          • Hi Alex,

            The main point is that while the regime and its supporters were shouting badme day and night, the train left the station, and now, the chance it will change destination is very slim. The call to utilize assab and make it a busy port should have been done a long time ago, and not today, when the chance is already snatched by djibouti. Assab could have been the center of economic life, as it used to be.

            For how long do you expect the UAE will be in assab; until the war in yemen ends, which seems to have stalled, or until the chicken come home to roost in uae, ksa and others. They are overactive for the time being, because they depend on the usa and israel for protection from iran. They are already consumed over yemen, where they have succeeded nothing more than killing civilians, women and children and causing human trajedy. The world community is extremely abhored, and their failed adventure will soon be over. This is not business with long-term prospects.

            Thanks to dia/pfdj, the dreams and expectations of the eritrean people were squandered due to ultra-nationalistic bravados.

          • blink

            Dear Horizon
            It is a public knowledge that dijbuti is not reducing the port fee as a matter of fact it was on news that port fee will go up by over 20% and I am being fair here unless the hunger in Ethiopia is a world known problem, you can say what ever you like but as of today there are millions of Ethiopians under the USAID AND WFO pockets , I certainly believe Eritrea can look be with out any thing from Ethiopia.
            As for the Eritreans entrepreneurship in Ethiopia, you may wanted to forget it but Eritreans has been the vehicle of Ethiopian economy from 1960 up until you hate their eye- color, you forget it right!!!! It was a lesson that no one will forget , in fact bad lesson by weyane and you are praying for the same mistakes that happens long time ago , you have a very bad memory sir.

            The notion Eritrea need Ethiopian 100 million consumers is just an illusion you guys set on your head , it will not work. Eritrea needs only your hands off system in Eritrea. Eritrea doesn’t need Ethiopian consumers at all . The world is too large to be dictated by Ethiopian markets. After 10 years you said ,, look man we don’t know how many countries we have to trade to south.
            As of today, what we know is the parliament of the 100% won weyane government can not control its meeting, so the meetings is cancelled may be you did not know or you wanted in the Eritreans political forum, come on give us a break from your zigzag weyane made roads , everywhere you go , people are saying weyane go down ,

          • Girmay beyene

            selam Semere Tesfai

            It is crystal clear to anyone who read your comments to understand the extreme hate and vindictive feelings you harboured against the Ethiopian people and particularly against the tigirean people. You have been telling us using disparaging words under the sun for many years and Your hate is in your blood and you are baptized with hate by your hate monger hero, you still suffering from extreme hate even at this advanced age at the very verge of your grave. Please don’t pass it to your children and I have seen it in my life hate destroying many naïve souls. Your hate is not limited to Ethiopia rather to anyone who doesn’t agree with your hero president for life at any cost.
            Don’t you know that hundreds of thousands of Eritreans people mainly from low land Eritrea perishing in Sudan due to your hero refusal to take them as the citizen of Eritrea, the very people who were the back bone of the struggle, why is this crocodile tears about Oromo do you think the Oromo in a worst situation than those people who are suffering in Sudan.
            They are in a lot of emotional pain and they are feeling abandoned by their people. If you are a man of principle and have a shred of humanity you should have been fighting for the return of those people, democracy and dignity. I don’t think you consider them as your country men as such I don’t expect you to feel their pain, for you their jihadist and should be kept away, you still haven’t liberate yourself from backward prejudice and stereotyping, you know once a bigot always a bigot.
            Don’t you know that thousands of Eritreans leaving their home land and risking their lives in the Mediterranean and Senna Desert instead of living in their country please take responsibility, for god sake don’t blame WEYANNE or CIA for the plight of your people. Externalizing the predicament of Eritrean people is killing Eritrea. Put yourself on the shoes of Eritrean fathers and mothers instead of ridiculing others for expressing their anger and frustration. Your list of ill wish to Ethiopia is short sighted if Eritrea is on fire it would be naïve to think Ethiopia will be safe. Calm down Ethiopia is not on fire people are trying to solve their issue on the table

          • Nitricc

            Hey Semere; I see what you are saying but TPLF never back down to mention and threaten the case of Rwanda and the genocide of the country. TPLF point is, either I lead the country or face civil war Rwanda style. The conflict between Oromo and Somali is dangerous but TPLF don’t care. Time will tell regarding article 39.

          • Semere Tesfai

            Semam Nitricc

            Hey Nitricc, this is my take:

            Woyanes will never pick a fight with any emerging power from their south. And these are my reasons:

            1. – To pick a fight, with an enemy probably many times bigger than your own size (with larger social base), you need powerful and reliable allies that would bleed and die on your side. And the Woyanes don’t have any friends of that kind.

            2. – To pick a fight with the intent to win, you have to have economic might that would be sustainable during wartime. You are militarily powerful only, and only if, you are economically powerful. And the Woyanes don’t have economic might.

            3. – Knowing you’re landlocked, knowing you are not strong economically, knowing you are sandwitched between two hostile forces (to your north and to your south), knowing you’re a 6% minority hated minority at that – why would you pick a fight, knowing full well the cards are stacked against you?

            4. – The Tigreans being a minority (6%), being poor, being without friend and allies to turn to……. they don’t have any other choice but to cut a deal with the emerging new powers. If they have any crazies of their own who prescribe fighting over cutting a deal with the emerging powers, trust me, they will pick a bloody fight with their own before they start shooting others.

            Semere Tesfai

          • Nitricc

            Hi Semere; you are forgetting TPLF got the guns. the entire Ethiopian military is in their hand. the reason I believe they will fight is that just last week, TPLF dismissed the last None-Tigryan General and replaced it with Colenal rank Tigrayan, so this indicated for me that TPLF is ready for a show down. I do believe TPLF will use its power. They are not going silently.

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Niticc

            “The reason I believe they will fight is that just last week, TPLF dismissed the last None-Tigryan General and replaced it with Colenal rank Tigrayan, so this indicated for me that TPLF is ready for a showdown.”

            Are you sure they had a Non-Tigrean General? I thought they were all from Adwa. I’ll be damned!!!

            By the way Thomas’ wife is from Adwa, a distant cousin of the Great Leader(s) – if you care to know 🙂

            Semere Tesfai

          • Nitricc

            Hey Semere: I am sure I got the list.

            By: ደምስው ይላቅ ጎንደር)

            አጠቃላይ የኢትዮጵያ ሰራዊት መዋቅር (incomplete list).
            ==========================
            1. የመከላከያ ኢታማጆር ሹም ሜ/ጀ ሳሞራ የኑስ (ትግሬ)

            2. የመከላከያ ኢንዶክትሪኔሽን ዋና ዳይሬክተር ብ/ጀ ገ/ኪዳን ገ/ማሪያም(ትግሬ)

            3. የመከላከያ ፋይናንስ ዳይሬክቶሬት ዳይሬክተር ኮ/ል ፍፁም ገ/እግዚአብሄር(ትግሬ)

            4. የመከላከያ በጀትና ፕሮገራም ዳይሬክቶሬት ዳይሬክተር ኮ/ል ምቡዝ አብርሃ(ትግሬ)

            5. የመከላከያ የኪነ-ጥበባት ስራወች ሀላፊ ኮ/ል ክብሮም ገ/ እግዚአብሄር(ትግሬ)

            6. የመከላከያ መገናኛና ኢንፎርሜሽን የግንኙነት መምሪያ ሀላፊ ኮ/ል ነጋሲ ትኩ(ትግሬ)

            7. የመከላከያ ኦዲት ዳይሬክቶሬት ዳይሬክተር ኮ/ል ገ/ትንሳይ ሃጎስ(ትግሬ)

            8. የመከላከያ ትምህርትና ስልጠና መምሪያ ዋና አዛዥ ሌ/ጀ ሳህረ መኮንን(ትግሬ)

            9. የመከላከያ ሎጅስቲክ መምሪያ ዋና አዛዥ ሜ/ጀ ኢብራሂም አብደል ጀሊድ(ትግሬ)

            10. የመከላከያ ኢንዱስትሪ ሃላፊ ሜ/ጀ ክንፈ ዳኛዉ(ትግሬ)

            11. የመከላከያ ዩኒቨርሲቲ ኮማንደንት ብ/ጀ ሃለፎም እጅጉ (ትግሬ)

            12. የመከላከያ ዩኒቨርሲቲ ኢንጅነሪንግ ኮሌጅ ሃላፊ ኮ/ል ሃጎስ ብርሃነ (ትግሬ)

            13. የብር ሸለቆ መሰረታዊ ወታደራዊ ማሰልጠኛ ት/ቤት ዋና አዛዥ ብ/ጀ ገ/እግዚአብሄር በየነ (ትግሬ)

            14. የብር ሸለቆ መሰረታዊ ወታደራዊ ማሰልጠኛ ት/ቤት የስልጠና ኃላፊ ኮ/ል ግርማይ ገ/ጨርቆስ(ትግሬ)

            15. የብር ሸለቆ መሰረታዊ ወታደራዊ ማሰልጠኛ ት/ቤት የኢንዱክትሪኔሽንና ኮምዩኒኬሽን ኃላፊ ኮ/ል ጌታሁን ካህሳይ (ትግሬ)

            16. የብላቴ ማሰልጠኛ ዋና አዛዥ ኮ/ል ዮሃንስ ካህሳይ(ትግሬ)

            17. በልዩ ሀይል ማሰልጠኛ ማእከል የልዩ ኃይልና ጸረ ሽብር ማሰልጠኛ ት/ቤት አዛዥ ሻለቃ ተክላይ ወ/ገብርኤል(ትግሬ)

            18. የሜ/ጀ ሀየሎም አርአያ ወታደራዊ አካዳሚ ዋና አዛዥ ኮ/ል ጎይቶም ፋሮስ(ትግሬ)

            19. የጦር ላይ የበታች ሹም ማሰልጠኛ ዋና አዛዥ ኮ/ል አደም ምትኩ(ትግሬ)

            20. የኢትዮጵያ ፓወር ኢንጅነሪንግ ኢንዱስትሪ ዋና ስራ አስኪያጅ ሻለቃ አሰፋ ዮሃንስ(ትግሬ)

            21. የሆሚት አሙኒሽን ኢንጅነሪንግ ኢንደስትሪ ዋና ሀላፊ ኮ/ል ሃድጉ ገ/ጊዮርጊስ(ትግሬ)

            22. የሜ/ጀ ሙሉጌታ ቡሊ ቴክኒክ ኮሌጅ ዋና አዛዥ ኮ/ል ብርሃነ ተክሌ(ትግሬ)

            23. የመከላከያ ኮንስትራክሽንና ኢንጅነሪንግ ማሽነሪ ኢንዱስትሪ ስራ አስኪያጅ ሻለቃ ካህሳይ ክህሸን(ትግሬ)

            24. የመከላከያ መሰረታዊ ልማትና ግንባታ ዘርፍ የኮንስትራክሽን ኢንተርፕራይዝ ዋና ስራ አስኪያጅ አቶ ወልዳይ በርሄ(ትግሬ)

            25. የታጠቅ ትራንስፎርመር ማምረቻ ኢንዱስትሪ ም/ስራ አስኪያጅ ሻለቃ አማኑኤል አብርሃ(ትግሬ)

            26. የኢትዮጵያ ፕላስቲክ ኢንዱስትሪ ፋይናንስ ሓላፊ ሌ/ኮ ለተብርሃን ደመወዝ(ትግሬ)

            27. የመከላከያ ጤና ዳይሬክቶሬት ዳይሬክተር ኮ/ል ሃጎስ አስመላሽ(ትግሬ)

            28. የመከላከያ ሚዲያ ዳይሬክቶሬት ዳይሬክተር ኮ/ል ጸጋዬ ግርማይ(ትግሬ)

            29. የመከላከያ መገናኛና ኢንፎርሜሽን ዋና መምሪያ የግኑኝነትና ስርአት ደህንነት መምሪያ ሃላፊ ኮ/ል በርሄ አረጋይ (ትግሬ)

            30. የመከላከያ ፋዉንዴሽን ሃላፊ ብ/ጀ ያይኔ ስዩም (ትግሬ)

            31. የሽሬ ከተማ ኮሪደር ሜንተናንስ ሀላፊ ኮ/ል አብርሀ ገ/ መድህን(ትግሬ)

            32. የብሄራዊ ተጠባባቂ የሃይል ዋና አዛዥ ሜ/ጀ ማሞ ግርማይ(ትግሬ)

            33. የኢንሳ ዳይሬክተር ሜ/ጀ ተክለብርሃን/ካህሳይ(ትግሬ)

            34. የኢንሳ ምክትል ዳይሬክተርና የጅኦስፓሻል ደህንነት ዳይሬክቶሬት ዳይሬክተር ኮ/ል ታዚር ገ/እግዚአብሄር(ትግሬ)

            35. የሰሜን እዝ አዛዥ ጄ/ል መብራት አየለ(ትግሬ)

            36. የሰሜን እዝ ምክትል አዛዥ ምክትል አዛዥና የኦፕሬሽን ሀላፊ ብ/ጀ ማዕሾ በየነ(ትግሬ)

            37. የሰሜን እዝ 4ኛ ሜካናይዝድ ክ/ጦር የኢንዶክትሪኔሽንና ኮምዩኒኬሽን ሀላፊ ሌ/ኮ ሙሉ አብርሃ

            38. የሰሜን እዝ 4ኛ ሜካናይዝድ ክ/ጦር ምክትል አዛዥና የኦፕሬሽን ሀላፊ ኮ/ል ገ/ስላሴ በላይ(ትግሬ)

            39. የሰሜን እዝ የሰሜን ዕዝ ጤና ዳይሬክቶሬት ዳይሬክተር ኮ/ል ላዕከ አረጋዊ(ትግሬ)

            40. የሰሜን እዝ መሃንዲስ አዛዥ ኮ/ል ተሰስፋየ ብርሃኔ(ትግሬ)

            41. የሰሜን እዝ ዋና አዛዥ ፅ/ቤት ሀላፊ ኮ/ል ገ/ዮሃንስ ተክሌ(ትግሬ)

            42. የሰሜን እዝ አጠቃላይ የትምህርት አገልግሎት ኃላፊ ኮ/ል ግደይ ሃይሌ(ትግሬ)

            43. የሰሜን እዝ የመድሃኒት አቅርቦት አገልግሎት ሀላፊ ኮ/ል ሰገደ/ ገ/መስቀል(ትግሬ)

            44. የሰሜን እዝ የኢንዶክትሪኔሽንና ኮምዩኒኬሽን ሀላፊ ኪሮስ ወ/ስላሴ(ትግሬ)

            45. የሰሜን እዝ ዘመቻ ሀላፊ ኮ/ል ታደለ ገ/ህይወት(ትግሬ)

            46. የሰሜን እዝ የሰዉ ሃይል አመራር መምሪያ ሃላፊ ኮ/ል መሃሪ አሰፋ(ትግሬ)

            47. የሰሜን እዝ የብ/ጀ በርሄ ወ/ጊዮርጊስ ወታደራዊ ማሰልጠኛ ማዕከል ዋና አዛዥ ኮ/ል ጀማል መሃመድ(ትግሬ)

            48. የሰሜን እዝ የብ/ጀ በርሄ ወ/ጊዮርጊስ ወታደራዊ ማሰልጠኛ ማዕከል ሆስፒታል ጤና ሀላፊ ሌ/ኮ ተክላይ
            ገ/መድህን(ትግሬ)

            49. የሰሜን እዝ የጤና ሙያተኞች ማሰልጠኛ ማዕከል ዳይሬክተር ሻለቃ ነጋሲ ሃጎስ(ትግሬ)

            50. የማዕከላዊ ዕዝ ዋና አዛዥ ሜ/ጀ ዮሃንስ ወ/ዮሃንስ (ትግሬ)

            51. የማዕከላዊ ዕዝ ምክትል አዛዥና የኦፕሬሽን ሀላፊ ብ/ጀ አብርሀ ተስፋይ(ትግሬ)

            52. የማዕከላዊ ዕዝ የትምህርት ክትትል ሀላፊ ሌ/ኮ ሀጎስ ሀይሌ(ትግሬ)

            53. የማዕከላዊ ዕዝ የዘመቻ መምሪያ አዛዥ ኮ/ል ገ/ሚካኤል ኪ/ማርያም(ትግሬ)

            54. በማዕከላዊ ዕዝ የፋና ማሰልጠኛ ምክትል አዛዝና የኦፕሬሽን ሀላፊ ኮ/ል ገ/እግዚአብሄር ገ/ሰላማ(ትግሬ) 55. በማዕከላዊ ዕዝ የፋና ማሰልጠኛ የወታደራዊ ተሽከርካሪና ማመላለሻ ዲፓርትምንት ሀላፊ ሻለቃ ተክላይ ካህሳይ (ትግሬ)

            56. የምዕራብ ዕዝ ዋና አዛዥ ሜ/ጀ ፍስሀ ኪዳኑ(ትግሬ)

            57. የምዕራብ ዕዝ ምክትል አዛዥና የሎጅስቲክ ሀላፊ ብ/ጀ አብድራሃማን ኢስማኤል(ትግሬ)

            58. የምዕራብ ዕዝ ኢንሰፔክሽን ሀላፊ ኮ/ል ዮሃንስ ገ/ሊባኖስ (ትግሬ)

            59. የምዕራብ ዕዝ ሲግናል ሬጅመንት አዛዥ ኮ/ል ተክላይ ገ/ጻድቃን (ትግሬ)

            60. የምዕራብ ዕዝ ጤና ዳይሬክቶሬት ዳይሬክተር ኮ/ል ገ/ኪዳን ቸኮል(ትግሬ)

            61. የምዕራብ ዕዝ የስልጠና ሀላፊ ኮ/ል በርሄ ኪዳነ(ትግሬ)

            62. የምዕራብ ዕዝ ማሰልጠኛ ማዕከል ምክትል አዛዥና የስልጠና ሀላፊ ኮ/ል ንጉሴ ሐይሌ (ትግሬ)

            63. የደቡብ ምስራቅ ዕዝ ዋና አዛዥ ሌ/ጀ አብርሀ ወ/ማሪያም (ትግሬ)

            64. የደ/ምስራቅ ዕዝ ም/አዛዥ እና የሎጅስቲክ ሀላፊ ብ/ጀ የማነ ሙሉ(ትግሬ)

            65. የደ/ምስራቅ ዕዝ የትራንስፖርት ሀላፊ ኮ/ል ቀለህ ገ/ስላሴ (ትግሬ)

            66. የደ/ምስራቅ ዕዝ የህግ ጉዳይ ዳይሬክቶሬት ዳይሬክተር ኮ/ል ገ/ሚካኤል ገብራት(ትግሬ)

            67. የደ/ምስራቅ ዕዝ ጤና ት/ቤት ዳሬክተር ሻ/ል ሀፍቱ ሰብለዉ(ትግሬ)

            68. የ5ኛ ሜካናይዝድ ክ/ጦር ዋና አዛዥ ኮ/ል ሃጎስ(ህቁት) (ትግሬ)

            69. የ5ኛ ሜካናይዝድ ክ/ጦር ምክትል አዛዥና የአስተዳደር ፋይናንስ ሀላፊ ኮ/ል ተ/ብርሃን አለማየሁ(ትግሬ)

            70. የ7ኛ ሜካናይዝድ ከ/ጦር የወንጀል ምርመራ ሀላፊ አምሳ አለቃ ሀይለአብ ፍስሀ(ትግሬ)

            71. የ8ኛ ሜካናይዝድ ከ/ጦር ዋና አዛዥ ኮ/ል ገ/እግዚአብሄር ዘሚካኤል(ትግሬ)

            72. የ12ኛ ክ/ጦር ምክትል አዛዥ እና የሎጅስቲክ ሀላፊ ኮ/ል ምሳሁ ገ/ተክሌ(ትግሬ)

            73. የ20ኛ ክ/ጦር ምክትል አዛዥ እና የኦፕሬሽን ኀላፊ ኮ/ል ሰመረ ተክሉ(ትግሬ)

            74. የ22ኛ ክ/ጦር ዋና አዛዥ ኮ/ል ወ/ጊዮርጊስ ተክላይ (ትግሬ)

            75. የ23ኛ ክ/ጦር ዋና ዐዛዥ ብ/ጀ በላይ ስዩም(ትግሬ)

            76. የ24ኛ ክ/ጦር ዋና አዛዥ ብ/ጀ ፍስሀ ወርቅነህ(ትግሬ)

            77. የ24ኛ ክ/ጦር የጤና ሀላፊ ሎ/ኮ ዘሚካኤል ብርሀኔ(ትግሬ)

            78. የ25ኛ ክ/ጦር ዋና አዛዥ ብ/ጀ አሰፋ ቸኮል(ትግሬ)

            79. የ25ኛ ክ/ጦርምክትል አዛዥ እና የሎጅስቲክ

            80. ሀላፊ ኮ/ል ገ/ሊባኖስ ገ/ጊዮርጊስ(ትግሬ)

            81. የ32ኛ ክ/ጦር ዋና አዛዥ ብ/ጀ ገ/መስቀል ገ/እግዚአብሄር(ትግሬ)

            82. የ32ኛ ክ/ጦር ምክትል አዛዥ እና የፋይናንስ ሀላፊ ኮ/ል መሃሪ በየነ(ትግሬ)

            83. የ32ኛ ክ/ጦር የጤና ሀላፊ ሌ/ኮ ተክሊት ገ/ህይወት (ትግሬ)

            84. የ33ኛ ክ/ጦር ዋና አዛዥ ብ/ጀ ጋይም መሸሻይ(ትግሬ)

            85. የ33ኛ ክ/ጦር የኢንዶክትሪኔሽን ሀላፊ ሻ/ል መብርሀቶም አብርሀ(ትግሬ)

            86. የተዋጊ መሀንዲስ ክ/ጦር ዋና አዛዥ ብ/ጀ ሙሉ ግርማይ (ትግሬ)

            87. የተዋጊ መሀንዲስ ምክትል አዛዥ ኮ/ል ሰመረ ገ/እግዚአብሄር(ትግሬ)

            88. የተዋጊ መሀንዲስ ክ/ጦር ማሰልጠኛ ዋና አዛዥ ኮ/ልአዘን ምትኩ(ትግሬ)

            … በአየር ሀይልና በሰላም ማስከበር በህዋታዉያን ብቻ የተያዙቦታወች, etc. ===============”

          • Mez

            Hi Nitric,

            Who told you that Tigrina are not Ethiopian to start with?

            Add the following to your consideration: 1) the former Ethiopian governments had similar pattern of human resource allocation/ ethnicity combinstion.
            2) check how it is in contemporary Eritrea
            3) Kenyan, and
            3) the North Sudan (all Ethnicity based).

            You will definitely find striking similarities and patterns.

            Thanks

          • Nitricc

            Hi MZ, show me. it is impossible in any country with a federal system to have the complete military in one minority Ethnic. Not in a Federal system. I challenge you to name one.

          • Kebessa

            Hello Nitricc,
            You are very good at Ethiopia-related topics. You seem to know more details than many of us. How is your knowledge about Eritrea? Can you list the
            a) full names of the G-15?
            b) full names of millitary leaders like you did for Ethiopia?

          • Nitricc

            Hi Kebessa, you seem to miss at the top of the list. “By: ደምስው ይላቅ ጎንደር)” it is not my list.

          • Kebessa

            Nitricc,
            ደምስው ይላቅ ጎንደር or someone else doesn’t matter. You found the list one way or the other. Can you do that on Eritrea and provide the list I asked you?
            I am trying to help you learn Eritrean issues too.

          • Nitricc

            Kebessa, no worries. I know what I need to know. but just to make you happy

            Petros Solomon

            Mahmoud Ahmed Sherifo

            Haile Woldense

            Ogbe Abraha

            Hamid Himid

            Saleh Idris Kekya

            Estifanos Seyoum

            Berhane Ghebrezgabiher

            Astier Fesehazion

            Mohammed Berhan Blata

            Germano Nati

            Beraki Gebreselassie

            Mahamoud Ahmed

            Mesfin Hagos
            And
            Adhanom his last name skips me.
            regarding the Eritrean military leaders, in the interest of time, if I mentioned Issaias Afrorki is more than enough. he is a commander in chief and nothing happens with out his say.

          • Kebessa

            Nitricc,
            That’s a good start. When you say Adhanom’s last names escapes you, am I to assume you got the list off your head?
            So how many Eritrean military commanders can you name? Who is defense Minister? Who is Chief of Staff?

          • blink

            Dear Nitricc
            Why do you play kebessa game ? I mean , what was the item you want to buy? I can provide you over 100 eritrean military leaders but why would you need their name ?

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Nitricc

            Thank you Nitricc, thank you.

          • Fanti Ghana

            Selam Nitriccay,

            Thank you!
            I am proud to know there are these many fellow Tigrayans serving their country.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam fanti
            They r serving tplf.
            It is different serving a country and tplf .as u probably know there is a lot of ethiopians consider tplf as enemy of ethiopia and for those people including me they r serving ethiopia’s enemy.

          • Nitricc

            Your Fitness, actually i am changing your nick to your fairness. You are the most fair just person i come know. you keep me humble and stay in my lane. TPLF has every justified reason to fight and win for their cause but i don’t like the way they played the people of Tigray. Fot the few to benefit the many suffered. I am with people. Sure you can say how bout Eritrea’s pai, okay, i didn’t see benefiting at the expense of the rest. till i get that evidence, i am sticking with him. however, i am all the way with the just and fairness, Fanti. you are human and i respect that, forever.

          • Amde

            Hi Nitricc,

            “Hey Semere: I am sure I got the list. and watch AMDE will be surprised. I will keep teaching him about his country. ”

            You mean you will keep teaching me about OUR country.

            Amde

          • Solomon T.

            Nitricc,

            Here is a more credible list of the top army officers compiled by the G7 opposition party.

            http://www.ginbot7.org/2014/10/07/tplfs-minority-ethnic-monopoly-of-the-armed-forces-in-ethiopia-a-revisit-after-four-years/

            According to their list, there were at least 15 non-Tigrayan generals in the army in 2014.

            Solomon

          • Thomas

            Hi Semere Tesfai,
            I am happy you have time to joke. I am sure you will be very offended if I responded to you accordingly. However, is that your best shot??:) Trust me, I am very respectful to my elders/seniors so you are safe with me. As a matter of fact, I like you joking than writing your garbage to support the criminals and the enemy of my people, the pfdj group. I also suggest you start respecting all religious groups regardless. I know you came to this world from a broken home/family and as such you don’t trust anyone, but please make sense it is almost year 2018.

    • Semere Tesfai

      Selam Niticc

      Hey Nitricc: Let me try

      1. – “What is the foundation for the Tigryan and Somali Relationship and so strong affinity to each other?”

      Nothing. Nothing really. The Woyanes are doing, just what they do best: instigate bloodshed between different Ethiopian ethnics in order to stay in power.

      I don’t know if it is true, but also I heard the Woyanes erected a statue of an Oromo woman with a severed breast to remind the Oromo people what the Amaras did to them. I guess that didn’t work well in Oromia!

      Also, I heard the best tourist attraction in Mekele is the erected statue of Aida School Massacre – in which a dozen Tigrean elementary school children were killed by the Eritrean air force raid during the 1998 “border” war.

      Or simply: the Woyanes are helping the Ethiopian ethnic Somalis for the same reason they are funding arming and hosting the Eritrean Islamist organizations.

      That’s my two cent

      Semere Tesfai

    • Kim Hanna

      Selam Nitricc,
      .
      Let me take a crack at it. I prefer to look at it in the following way despite the other cracks everybody is advancing. Sometimes you find answers on the surface, you don’t need to dig dip and wallow in fantastic theories.
      .
      History: The northern Tigres (Asmara) and Somalis were very close allies during the Haile Selassie regime. Somalis were providing support of all sorts.
      Then the Derg came and Tegres (Mekele) joined the close friendships and people to people alliances with the Somalis. The Somali/Tigre empathy for each other does have its root in that recent history.
      .
      Today with a slight modifications the children and grandchildren of those people want to continue that brotherly love.
      There is nothing wrong with it, in fact it indicates a bright future for the future Ethiopia proper.
      Amhara/Oromo making up, Somali/Tigres cementing their relationships hopefully will pay off for a strong united Ethiopia. Unity in diversity will not be an empty slogan.
      .
      Who knows, Djibouti, Hragessa and Mogadishu are watching the big tent of Ethiopia, with envy. The sky is the limit.
      .
      Merry Christmas and Happy New Year to you and all.
      .
      Mr. K.H

      • Nitricc

        Hey Kim, long time. I had a very good reason for me to bring up these issues but as usual between
        time constraint and going sideways, I failed to explain my main reason. Few weeks back I was in Thailand and I had this very interesting conversation with this gentle Ethiopian war veteran man. He was a soldier during Ethio-Somali war. He was telling me the places and the battles and some of the places he was describing
        had Tigrigna meanings. For instance, he mentioned “ Qebri-Dahar” quit a lot, at the time I didn’t think much about it thenbut latter it accrued to me, it is Tigrigna. QEBRI meaning Burial and DAHAR means latter. I couldn’t make anything out of this but I notice the strong relationship between Tigryans and Somlis, I thought it might be there something historically and that was the reason I brought it up. However; the same question remains unanswered. Why it is in a Somali reign there is a place named in Tigrigna? So, Kim that was what I was thinking and hoping to get answer for.

        • Semere Tesfai

          Selam Nitricc

          How did the word Qebri Dahar ended up in Somalia?

          Now that you and Kim led us that direction, let me state some facts that would enrich the discussion. When Europeans were colonizing African and Asian countries, not only did they used these countries resources but also they were forcefully recruiting the young people of these countries to fight their wars.

          For example my grandfather was forcefully recruited by the Italians and served two years in Tripoli Libya, six months in Rome Italy and a year in Mogadishu Somalia. After their “service” most Eritreans came back home but many also did stay there.

          When the Allied forces were fighting the Germans and the Italians during Second WWII, British forces “invaded” Eritrea to defeat the Italians. To do that, British forces entered Eritrean territory from the West (from Sudanese Kassala) since Sudan was British colony.

          To defeat the Italians, the British brought soldiers from their colonies to do the fighting (the dying) for them. They brought Sudanese, Somalis, Nigerians, Indians….. to fight their war. Most of the soldiers from the British colonies went back home, but also, many did stay in Eritrea. And some of their great grandkids were in the YPFDJ meeting with you.

          Semere Tesfai

          • Nitricc

            Hey Semere: interesting. so, let me get this and it sounds like they were in the middle of a war, some wanted to burry their dead soldiers and others argued let’s keep moving now and burial latter and that is how it got its name? Qebri Dahar? do you thing that was a reasonable analysis in how the place got its name? thank you a million.

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Niticc

            It is plausible, but also Qebri and Dahar might have other meanings in Somali language.

            I’m going to ask some Somalis, I see some every now and then. If I find out I’ll let you know.

  • Mez

    Hi Alex,

    “….we can start to work together for mutual benefit of both countries with open borders.

    For all practical purposes, can you give some exemplary countries pls.

    Thanks

  • blink

    Dear Alex
    You catch him now !!! This guy is simply irresponsible and idiotic. He twist words and wanted to live under the radar of many people in this forum. Long time ago there was a person called papi and I think he is the one again. He is wishing his fathers wish !!! You his fathers and you know these father who died searching for Eritrea with out it’s people?? Now people like this think we don’t know them . The guy is lunatic .

  • Nitricc

    Hi Alex: don’t worry. there will never be Ethiopia as we know it today. Not that I am wishing to happen but the way things are going, simply dangerous. TPLF domination and power was due to mistrust and suspicion between Amara and Oromo. Now Amara and Oromo seems to make things up and that leaves TPLF to desperation and do or die crunch time. so, desperate the killing of the Ethiopian Somali by the Oromo this week should tell you all you need to know. So, my friend, fear not the dilution that Eritrea to go back with Ethiopia. it won’t happen. The Agazian BS have more chance to happen than Eritrea going back to Ethiopia.

    • Hi Nitricc,

      The irony is that what you wished for eritrea is happening in ethiopia and vise versa. You used to dream that you would make eritrea singapore, and ethiopia is becoming “little china”. Low-wage, low-value manufacturing is coming to countries like ethiopia, the reason industrial parks are mushrooming all over the country, extensive transportation infrastructures are being laid down, mass education of the young is taking place and power production is developing by giant strides. Low-wage manufacturing is no more attractive to the chinese, and they are outsourcing them to countries like ethiopia. This and FDI also coming from different directions is increasing the gdp by about 8-10% every year.

      You used to say, eritrea is an airplane standing on the runway ready to take off, and today ethiopia is doing exactly that. You were expecting that arab countries would be coming to eritrea en mass to invest. On the contrary they are investing in ethiopia. Call it land grab, whatever, nevertheless, they are investing. Not worse than leasing a port as a military base to a foreign power that could put in danger the security and sovereignty of a country.

      All the armagedon you are wishing for ethiopia could easily happen in eritrea. More serious is the lowland-highland, christian-muslim and the agazian-bejastan divide in eritrea than the ethnic conflict in ethiopia, which has been happening for decades over grazing land and water.

      The more you expect ethiopia to collapse, the more she is growing and moving forward. Her economy has surpassed kenya’s, and she is the become the power of the region. It is true that Ethiopia is making an uphill journey, a journey, nevertheless. Your wish and the reality on the ground are different, and therefore, better not wish for others, especially things that could happen to you as well.

      • Teodros Alem

        Selam horizon
        Do u think reputing ebc and tg tv propaganda is gonna solve tigrai’s problem? The reality on the ground in ethiopia is totally different from the propaganda. Even tigraians wants to break from ethiopia and unite with eri and be like they use to be laborer.

        • blink

          Dear Teodros
          He is doing New Years joke , you know how these people act

  • Paulos

    Selam Alexander,

    Your personal opinion can not logically reflect the wishes of the majority and the reverse is also true as well. That said, if the precondition for unification with Ethiopia is based on the stability of the latter, perhaps one can make an argument to the fact that, re-unification can be another option simply because 26 years and counting, Eritrea has got nothing to show for except producing the highest refugees per capita instead of goods and services.

    The practical question still lingers: Was the protracted struggle for independence that had costed over 60 thousand Eritrean souls worth it? These kinds of soul-searching and painful but vital questions produce fringe movements (read: Agazian among others) when one fails either to address the questions head-on or when one sweeps them under the rags as if they don’t exist. Instead of addressing painful questions, we chose to answer absolutely irrelevant questions as in if Ethiopia is going to collapse under the “ineptness” of the Weyanes (Psychologists call it Projection). If the flow of time has attested anything, Eritrea is unable to stand on its own and the Weyanes have proved us wrong time and time again when we confuse reality with fantasy. The reality is when Eritrea is stuck in time, Ethiopia is going through growing pains for as the cliché has it, there is no gain without pain.

    • Peace!

      Hi Paulosay,

      Please correct me if I am wrong, are you saying the fundamental problem of Eritrea is not dictatorship rather its inability to stand on its own as an independent country? would you mind elaborate how you come to that conclusion because in the early 90s I myself witnessed the booming economy, and I also think the potential on its people, its strategic location, and perhaps the untapped natural resources are good enough not only to feed its few million population but also make the country prosperous and competitive in the region. I thought you said the other day its location is so lucrative it can even beat Ethiopian Airlines. Not only that, nowadays economic integration is becoming more and more imminent and the world is becoming borderless, I see no point of speculating if she can stand on its own. On the political aspect, I don’t think Eritreans are interested in going back to 40s and drag themselves in old and meaningless Hashewuye, but if there is a secret plan B for Weyane to find a back door, or if PFDJ is pursuing secretly, that’s something else.

      Peace!

      • Paulos

        Selam Abi Seb,

        Precisely! It is because of dictatorship that I said it can not stand on its own. I was trying to make sense into the guy’s line of argument where sometimes I find it incredibly hard to understand their way of thinking when in Eritrea everything under PFDJ is going wrong. And of course, I don’t subscribe to the notion of going back into Ethiopia’s fold but we have to develop a habit of talking openly about issues even when they are painful.

        • Peace!

          Hi Paulosay,

          Huufff, thank you:) The sooner the dictator go the better for Eritrea and its neighbors, and I would rather deploy your eloquent idea “we have to develop a habit of talking openly about issues even when they are painful” to find out why we are failing to defeat the dictator.

          Peace!

      • blink

        Dear peace
        Even if there is a secret plan by any leadership in either side that can only be a plan nothing else nothing more. Eritreans don’t spend their time listening or reading propaganda talks of people like the above weyane guy but doing and looking what is good for them and they all know Ethiopian leaders don’t hold Eritreans interest at any past or future. Eritrea will stay as a country even by blood sheds . If they have any love left to share let them share with their own.

        • Peace!

          Hi Blik,

          Well, if there is something secretly in the making, I see no sign of succeeding. On the other hand, Tedla Bairu and his likes haven’t stopped from preaching and making back door promises to sale Eritrea as if they rule the country and represent its people. People can choose to live in a fantasy world.

          Peace!

          • blink

            Dear peace
            Yes, I heard him talk , it’s shocking after many blood shed such people are talking such things. I just couldn’t believe the man will think he can represent Eritreans in his search for Haile the short dream. It is shocking to dismantle your personal history so much to make general tsadikan happy. They will fail as before. I am certain about that no ifs .

  • MS

    Ya Selam Ya II Mukhtar
    Another excellent article, thank you. Men, I wish if you could come more frequently.

  • Fessahaye Mebrahtu

    Thanks Brother Ismael for the beautiful and objective narrative of our history. Yes, justice and fairness in our culture is indigenous not a borrowed concept. The Eritrean constitution drafted with the help of the UN was forward looking and Eritreans experimented it before any other African country at the time. Instead of being emulated as the best practice it was destroyed by an ancient regime, who was later destroyed because it was backward looking. I hope we glean some lessons from your historical facts.

    • Selam Fessahaye M.,

      You said “justice and fairness in our culture is indigenous not a borrowed concept……….democracy given to eritreans by the UN and the british was destroyed by an ancient regime”.

      What happened to that indigenous culture that eritrea is under dictatorship today, and why can’t it be resuscitated and used again, now when the land is in such a great need? Is it because they lost their innocence during their stay with the ancient regime and became different people?

      I do not believe that the ethiopian government destroyed eritrean values. Eritreans are like all the peoples of the world, a mixture of good and bad people, strong and weak, democratic and conservative, etc.

      Yes, under the auspices of the UN and the british, they may have experimented with a rudimentary democracy. But, how can we be sure of what could have happened in this diverse society, once the two who tried to introduce democracy in eritrea left the country?

      Therefore, people should at last stop dumping all the problems of eritrea on ethiopia as the culprit. Eritrea is a sovereign nation responsible for her own affairs since 1991. One should try to find the answer in the post-independence period for what has become of eritrea. One may get complacent and relieved by bringing the old suspects for an easy explanation, but for practical reasons it may be necessary to look for the lost coin under the light of the policies of the present rulers of eritrea, and not in past history.

      • Paulos

        Selam Horizon,

        I don’t think Mebrahtu is saying that Ethiopia destroyed Eritrean values. Values and democratic institutions are two different aspects where the latter was nipped by the Emperor. Moreover, you can not possibly compare the then set of realities and psychological package of the people if you will with the realities under the current regime. Here is the deal: The Emperor and the Colonel made a fatal mistake. One can not hold back people by force or without their consent.

        For a reason that will probably be confined in the end with in academic circles, Ethiopian leaders fell in love with Eritrea and a jilted lover ain’t pretty as they say it in the hood. To its credit the current regime in Ethiopia, internalized the very fact that the door should be open if anybody wants to walk out and that is called thinking ahead and beyond the perimeter of your time. I personally will not be surprised if Eritreans opted in the long run and for all practical considerations to get back (for lack of a better word) to Ethiopia and the door should still be open if anyone wants to walk back in as well.

        • Selam Paulos,

          What i am saying is that, if the return home journey was indeed towards independence, freedom and democracy, and justice, fairness and democratic values were in the eritrean culture, why didn’t the journey back home was not crowned by a democratic eritrea, but a modern day dictatorship? How is it possible to explain the present situation in eritrea by an event that took place half a century ago, and the problem has been solved by eritrean independence since 1991, and eritreans are now masters of their destiny, even if the emperor undermined and annulled democracy in the 1950s? Today’s ailment has a different cure, certainly not by a half century old explanation.

          Eritrea opened a new chapter in 1991, but unfortunately, continues to write the same old narative. That is why i say old narratives cannot explain the present situation. The white elephant is sitting at asmara palace, and some people continue to shoot at the wrong direction (target), that has lost its importance a long time ago.

          The love you described above, started as an infatuation by one of the two parties, until it became one sided and sour, if we can say so, and it would have been much better if it ended there and then.

          It seems that the world is passing from the age of coming together and forming unions, to the age of divorcing and getting out of unions, due to the right wing and white supremacist political parties of europe and the usa, and therefore, entertaining future unions between ethiopia and eritrea, more than may be some sort of cooperation, does not seem to be attractive.
          Look at the eu, at what the right wing is trying to do – fragmenting the union, and the visegrad countries of hungary, czech republic, austria and poland, who like the benefits but not the obligations towards the eu. Therefore, union is very far away at least for the time being, and it is better that it remains like that, until the toxic generation is no more around.

          • Amde

            Selam Horizon,

            I am sure Paulos can answer for himself, but I did not understand him to mean it in the formal/legal sense.

            He has asked a pertinent question that will not be rationally discussed until the generation of the sixties that brought about the current maps and political systems in Ethiopia and Eritrea die off. The cult of martyrdom has to move from aching hearts to history books.

            If the generation that is now coming on stage and taking over manage to form semi-normally functioning states, I think the economic logic driving greedy capitalists (it’s a joke) on both sides of the border will form newer and stronger bonding threads.

            Paradoxically, I think it is the success of economic unions that seem to breath new life into cultural and/or ethnic separatist passions. Sovereignity might be an undivided legal concept, but outside of the law, it very much appears to be simply a mathematical function that aggregates the number of things that one has ultimate control over. International treaties and conventions, trade deal, commercial contracts that trump sovereignty etc etc have been chipping away at what used to be called sovereign powers. UN Conventions on Human Rights, the Sea, Environment, etc etc… are shrinking what a “sovereign” government can actually do

            Even the power to print one’s own money is starting to be less a privilege of being sovereign and more a largesse of the powers that be. Have you noticed that both Zimbabwe and Venezuela’s currencies were destroyed? I am no economist, but I would love to have someone explain to me how it so happened that these states that seem to follow political paths displeasing to western powers find themselves with worthless currencies.

            I guess we hope on balance these transfers of “sovereignty” from national governments to larger bodies will be beneficial to the average person. But if you get a chance to talk to people that get sent to represent their countries at the many UN or International conventions on the thousand and one things that are debated and decided at international or regional levels, you will get a bit of a clue as to the seemingly bureaucratic but quite fierce struggles between sovereignty of governments and that of capital. Sometimes I think Marx was born too early.

            In any case, I think in our case, once a new generation of leaders take over, and they form at least semi-normal states, the latent bonds across the border will assert themselves. Will we see it in our lifetime? I think so…. Isayas has probably another five years left in him at most – and I just don’t think there is the appetite within the Eritrean rulers to follow his policies. I don’t think even the strongest of PFDJistas will hold on to the insane policy of Badme-or-Bust. Ethiopia’s ruling elite are re-arranging their relative positions, hopefully leading to a more stable configuration of a new generation of leaders. So we will see.

            Amde

          • Paulos

            Selam Amde,

            Let’s hop on a wormhole so that we can short cut to the past. Before Treaty of Versailles, we had the Treaty of Westphalia, and before that, we had the emergence of Nation-States and before that, we had City-States…..and way before that, we lived in bands and before that, well it gets kind of boring.

            Nitzsche among other things is known about the idea of “Eternal Return” where he conceptualized the idea that, history seems to have the tendency to recur in cycles. My point? Well, we seem to be back to the power of independent mini-states where particularly Europe seems to be threatened by it.

            If I understood you correctly, nations come together based on economic reasons as opposed to other gravitating aspects where political ideology, cultural commonalities and common history can play a role as well. But if we try to bring the intellectual thread close to home, one would be left scratching his or her head for something fundamental is amiss. The deal is, way before entertaining the idea of integration, a nation ought to be able to stand on its own in the first place. Political institutions ought to be placed as in Rule of Law, Accoutability and Transparency and of course a Strong State as well. A nation without the said political institutions is tantamount to a house of cards prone to contingencies. Now, if Ethiopia to the very least is trying to have a semblance of a functioning nation-state, would it be feasible to entertain including economic integration with a country that is still struggling to find its place with in the world of “isms.” Westerners have come a full circle, we haven’t even strode a quarter of it.

          • Alex

            Hi Amde,
            As I have stated before there will be no reunion between Eritrea and Ethiopia in my life time for reasons that is obvious to most of us. Regarding badme, you do not have to be an PFDJ member or supporter to believe the Hague verdict need to be honored before there will be any normalization between the two countries. Majority of Eritreans including myself do not support normalization of relationship between the two countries until wayane allow the demarcation to proceed with out any obstruction . To ask to honor what they signed as final and binding first as insane policy of badme or bust shows your bias to the fact which is unfortunate.

          • Amde

            Selam Alex,

            I admit it. I am biased on the whole Badme situation. I am biased against insanity.

            Long before the Ethiopian revolution, land disputes used to clog up the courts. These disputes were typically between close family members dealing with inheritance and whatnots. The sizes of the plots were often rather small, and the cases many times were about wounded egos and pride. The cases would last forever, and the files would get moldy and even chewed by rats.. But through it all, people would still meet to celebrate new births and christenings and funerals and weddings. In other words the thousand and one rituals that form our lives.

            The Badme file is going to be very moldy. I 100% absolutely believe Isayyas wants Badme The Issue, rather than Badme The Land. He will get his wish and die still clutching Badme The Issue. He derives his legitimacy from it, having long ago lost his legitimacy as a potential George Washington. A legitimacy narrative that works is infinitely more valuable than a few wretched sq kilometers of dusty land.

            Amde

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Amde

            “Isaias have lost his legitimacy as a potential George Washington.”

            A. – You don’t speak for the Eritrean people

            B. – Isaias doesn’t get “George Washington” type legitimacy from Ethiopian (Amara and Tigrean) elite

            Now tell me: In what way does your argument make sense?

            Why do you guys “care” soooooooooooo much about Eritrea? So much so, you talk about Eritrea 24/7 when your house is on fire and your people have no food to it? Amazing!

            Semere Tesfai

          • Desbele

            Alex,
            Majority of Eritreans already supported normalization by voting on their feet!!

          • Peace!

            Hi Desbele,

            I don’t think it is genius to use fleeing people to save their lives for political purpose rather we should pursue normalization on mutual interest and respect.

            Peace!

          • Desbele

            Hi Peace,
            Words do not carry their messages on their sleeves….context matters. I replied to ALEX. Note the caps! Do you want me to conduct survey to convince the likes of him…..
            ኣረደኣለይ ግዳ መብዛሕትኡ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ቅድሚ ንቡር ጉርብትና ይኹን ንቡር ሂወት ምጥራር ከምዘየቐድም

          • Peace!

            Hi Desbele,

            When it comes to the issue of normalization between the two countries, I think good normalization depends on institutions and people’s understanding on the merit of good cooperation, not on the precondition put in place by both government to serve their political interest. My attitude is we should take whichever comes first, Rebhana Ab selam eyu. Amde linked a good speech, please try to listen to it when you get a chance.

            Peace!

          • Selam Amde,

            In the ethiopian and eritrean case, i think that more than the economy, the hearts and minds of the two people are very very important, to be able to live either together or side by side in peace and prosperity. Remember, we are talking of two countries that are so different in their economy, their place on the world stage, land mass, resources and human power. Who needs whom will be a questions that pops up when we discuss such things. Ethiopia has proved that she can survive without eritrea, but eritrea has still a long way to go to prove that she is viable on her own, as long as her citizens have been forced to leave the country in droves.

            I remember a story i read a long time ago about an african country that was rich in iron ore, and wanted to add value to its resource by building a plant that turned the ore in to different construction material. The west was happy to build the plant for tens if not hundreds of millions of dollars. Nevertheless, the crime committed to this country was that after spending so much money and getting into big debt, nobody came to buy the products, because they were the same people. The same thing happens to resource dependent countries, be it venezuela, or the arab countries, who depend on oil. Not only they did not diversify their economy, on the contrary they squandered the money to influence world politics. Habits do not go away easily. Look at the crown prince of the ksa. While he puts corrupt princes in a luxury prison, at the same time he squanders almost half a billion dollars to buy a leonardo da vinci painting, and also buys himself a chateau near paris. Ksa is the next place of instability. The problem is augmented by the fact that they are loaded with sophisticated military gadgets.

            The truth is that capital rules the world (the Illuminati conspiracy theory). Few days ago i read that the defense budget of the usa is more than the amount spent by seven powerful countries put together, (china, ksa (the big military gadget buyer), india, uk, france, and some others). This is not for the defense of the usa, which is in no danger, but to rule the world.

            If i am allowed to err on the eritrean psyche, i would have said it is egoistic and stubborn in general terms, despite the odds. Damned if they continue on the same road, and equally damned if they accept that they have made a blunder and change. That i think is what is happening and has made the rulers of eritrea so callous and insensitive to the plight of their people.

            Wrong or right, I have this concept in my mind. Eritreans were wrong in starting the revolution, but right in continuing it, after it became destructive. The unfortunate thing is that, after the end of the long war, while the people were so thirsty for peace, the ruling class was intoxicated with blood and wanted more blood to be shed by starting wars of aggression against its neighbors. There were also those western journalist who duped them with lies like, “against all odds” etc, although they knew the whole truth of the situation under which things came to that conclusion. They made the new rulers of eritrea feel that they were invincible, the david of the horn.

            Finally, sorry to disappoint you; if we are going to measure the future eritrean generation with what we see in the the worldview of young pfdjists on awate.com, the future does not look bright.

          • Amde

            Selam Horizon,

            I guess I am not so pessimistic. Have you noticed how the Vietnamese love Americans even as they still find unexploded American bombs throughout the land? Do you know of any Ethiopian who has animosity to Italy considering the horrible atrocities of the Fascist era? Poland lost 20% of its population to Nazis but today Poles and Germans are very close.

            Nothing of what happened between Ethiopia and Eritrea was of that scale. There are still hundreds of thousands of intermarried families. Thousands of Eritreans travel back and forth, reclaim their property etc etc..

            I don’t necessarily expect bonds of sentiment, but more of bonds of necessity. And i don’t expect a formal reunion, but ties formed of many many agreements and deals and practices.

            I also don’t think PFDJ has an enduring ideological core that will survive much beyond Isayyas. It is simply a network of repression which admittedly creates a serious problem in the transition to a post-Isayyas era.

            But the average Eritrean I think wants to move on. And I don’t think they post much here or anyplace. I consider those of us who post here to be highly unrepresentative of the populations we come from.

            Amde

          • Mez

            Good Day Amde,

            Your points are well observed. On the challenge side of moving on I would think misconception on self-respect, tolerance, rule of law, national psychic (thanks to the colonial Italiano), and coexistence are too clear to ignore.

            I wold add to this mix also the factor Somalia/ Somaliland–how soon those come closer/go along with Ethiopia; there is generally less bad historical occurrences ,bad gescmack, among us. And also bigger attractive market for each other.

            Contemplating to apply the concept of Realpolitik to our region seems to be the order of the day.
            Thanks

          • Selam Amde,

            The problem lies with the elites and the ruling class and never with the eritrean people, who have been made voiceless and cannot express their wish. If the ordinary eritrean had a problem with ethiopia, they would never have made ethiopia their refuge. Despite the wish of the regime and its supporters, eritreans feel at home in ethiopia and ethiopians see them as brothers and sisters. Unfortunately, the people cannot formulate the policy of their country. Look at what happens on awate.com, whenever an eritrean dares to differ. Regime supporters come in groups to attack and make him/her silent, and the same thing happens in everyday life within eritrea.

            In our case, it is the politics of wall building between the two people that is consciously pursued by the regime in asmara and its supporters. Much more than the ostensible invasion by ethiopia used to terrorize the people that in reality does not exist, the main fear of the regime is the rapprochement of the two people that worries it the most.

            I think that post-issayas period most probably will not be different but the same eritrea that is ruled by pfdj, because those who are at the peak of political power and the military, are tied together by common interest and common security concerns. The only possibility for a different eritrea post-issayas, in my opinion, is a zimbabwe type revolt by young officers, but not with the final product similar to that of zimbabwe, another zanu official, or in this case a pfdj official. The army takes over – prepares the country for democratic elections – a civilian government takes over, opposite to what happened in egypt.
            Is this saay’s democratic coup or not? I am not sure.

      • blink

        Dear Horizon
        Even the current issue we have is originally from Ethiopia. Meles and his friends held Eritreans opposition political capital to death.

  • Haile S.

    Selam Ismael Ibrahim Mukhtar,
    Thank you for this well summarized history of our country. Your narrative with names of some of the parliamentary members reminded me of the a word pronounced by a brave parliamentarian at the last minute of the dissolution of the Eritrean parliament. I was told by then a member of andenet, a superbe and brilliant man, a father figure who shaped me to love the history and tradition of my country, unfortunately deceased now to ask him for a reminder. He said this fearless parliamentarian at the end of the session dissolving the parliamnet stood up and said ኣንጣር (anTar) or I oppose. I wonder if this is something documented or if you have knowledge and if you can put a name on it.
    Thanks

  • blink

    Dear Ismael AA
    This is the best new year gift as any one can wish. Thanks for crushing these old wounded authors and I think we must move to such way of attitude away from the dirty game applied by some in this site. A great article

  • Paulos

    Selam Ismail Ibrahim Mukhtar,

    This is simply brilliant! Thank you so much for walking us through the short lived but formative years of an emerging nation. As Ismail AA aptly put it, the younger generation should pay attention to your valuable narrative for condensing a book into an article doesn’t come easy. Thank you again Sir!

  • Ismail AA

    Selam all,

    Our dear brother, Ismael Ibrahim Mukhtar, has with grace and excellence produced coherent and abridged description of what Eritrea had and lost before and after 1962 unilateral annexation and what it got after 1991-93 (liberation and referendum). He has summed up these two phases in the life of Eritrea’s people with an eloquent statement that “Eritrean struggle wasn’t just for a piece of land, but more importantly for a land where democratic values of equality, freedom of expression, rule of law and human rights prevails.” Indeed, the more than five decades sacrifices restored only land without even modest attempt of restoring the minimum of what was lost in 1962. On the contrary, what we got is crude absolutism under a despot whose regime has distinguished itself with absurd socio-political culture where incarcerating of nonagenarians has become mundane occurrences.

    This piece should be grabbed by our young active or non-active youth as bonus learning material because what most of them have been exposed to were disfigured accounts of the recent history of their country, which the regime has shamelessly tailored to provide a kind of ground on which cult of the dictator could be constructed.

    By reading and properly understanding contributions as the current thread by Ismael, they would discover why the regime has been campaigning since long ago to discredit the legacies (state institutions and symbols) of the country that had lent crucial legitimacy to both the peaceful and the protracted phases of the struggle. The regime and its leader knows since long that giving way to one demand such as flag would lead to demand of restoration of constitutionalism and rule of law.

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