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Oromo Protests Still Rocking Ethiopia

In 2015, the Addis Ababa city masterplan was at the heart of the popular protests that rocked the Oromia region and the Ethiopian capital city which, like an island, is surrounded by Oromia territories.

Since the fall of Emperor Haile Selassie in 1974, the size of Addis Ababa has expanded by over 1000% mainly over farmlands expropriated from the Oromia region. But the expansion in itself didn’t have much impact on the Oromo farmers whose ancestral lands were confiscated by conquering kings, who distributed it among their feudal allies and vassals. But the Derg regime that came took power in 1974, despite of its brutal rule, had benefited many farmers when it confiscated the land from the landlords and distributed it to the farmers following its policy of “Land to the Tiller.” In 1991, the EPRDF defeated the Derg regime but kept land ownership in the hands of the government. Just like during the Derg era, the selling and buying of land remained illegal, but the clandestine trading of land continued.

Though the EPRDF government continued the Derg land policy, it sold and distributed land to the private sector for commercial and housing development. Land allotment to individuals continued, albeit in an excruciatingly long waiting in line, which took years. But the demand for land was increasingly overwhelming the government that failed to change the land laws.

In 1991, half of Addis Ababa was squalor quarters and shanty towns bludgeoned by villagers migrating to Addis Ababa  for jobs. It became worse when the construction boom kicked off on land mostly bought from owners at high prices. Buyers and sellers would conclude the transactions outside the official channels reporting only a tiny fraction of the transaction price to avoid paying hefty sales and property taxes.

Moreover, after the death of Meles Zenawi in 2012, the capital city continued unabated, encroaching on Oromo land at full speed. Consequently, in 2016 the expansion ignited a popular Oromo protests to stop more housing and industrial development of Addis Ababa at the expenses their farmlands. Finally, the protests led to the resignation of PM Hailemariam Desalegn, and the eventual ascension of PM Abiy Ahmed who became the prime minister of Ethiopia, the first Oromo national to ever hold such a position in the modern history of the country.

However, now the government of PM is facing a new wave of protests in the wake of the government’s decision to distribute more than 50, 000 apartments some of which are built in Koye-Feche, a suburb outside the confines of Addis Ababa. Moreover, the suburb lies in the disputed land between Addis Ababa city administration and the Oromia region. Koye-Feche’s land was one of the causes of the 2015 protests that led to the 2018 changes in Ethiopia.

Land Granted to Investors

In October 2018, the Ethiopian government revoked land lease agreements it had signed with tens of investors and cancelled their licenses. Notably, the affected investors include Mohammed Al Amoudi, the Saudi-Ethiopian billionaire and owner of MIDROC-Ethiopia, the biggest single investor in Ethiopia. Due to the government decision, Al Amoudi’s company lost around 60 hectares in many parts of Ethiopia, as well as large swathes of land in the capital city.

The recent announcement of the distribution of apartments in the confines of Addis Ababa ignited a new wave of protest in many parts of Oromia. The protests started last Thursday and continued until Sunday, Marh 10, 2019.

The Oromo protesters consider the housing project the governments’ stealth way in trying to revive the Addis Ababa-Oromia integrated Master Plan that was the reason for 2016 protests which ushered the drastic change that Ethiopia has been going through since the spring of 2018.

The demonstrators who took to the streets last week claim, “the apartment project is built on farmlands after evicting thousands of farmers without proper compensation.” As a reaction to the recent Oromo protests, some residents of Addis Ababa held a large counter protest to speed up the distribution of the apartments.

In the recent protests and counter protests, the controversial issue of the name of the capital city was a prominent topic. It was Emperor Minelik who gave Addis Ababa its  name , but Oromo nationalists reject the name and wish to reinstate the old name of the city, Finfine.

Jawar Mohammed

The National Youth Movement for Freedom and Democracy, known as “Qeerroo” was behind the 2016 protests that was instrumental in bringing down the last Ethiopian government. Conversely, the fiery activist and a staunch Oromo nationalist behind the Qeerroo movement was Jawar Mohammed, the founder of Oromo Media Network, and the main inspirer of the Oromo youth. On August 5, 2018, Jawar who lived in the USA, returned to Ethiopia and received a hero’s welcome. According to reports, last week the “firebrand Jawar delivered a speech to the protesters in the environs of the capital city.”

This time around, the ODP (PM Abiy’s and Lemma Megersa’s party), as well as the OLF have endorsed the demands of Jawar and his Qeerroo movement. Both parties have stated their objection to the distribution of the apartments before the territorial disputes between the Oromia region and the Addis Ababa administration are resolved—the OLF considers the distribution of the apartments as unconstitutional.

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  • said

    Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji’ Verily we belong to God and to Him we shall return.and may god give patients to their families . A white supremacist entered a mosque on Friday Muslims had gathered to pray. 49 of my fellow Muslims were massacred in cold blood in New Zealand. Not murdered but lynched He opened fire indiscriminately as there were so many targets busy praying. The killer knew which day to pick. Friday is the Islamic Sabbath, gather to bow their heads in devotion to the divine. In the hours after the attacks, New Zealand’s Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern made it clear this was a terrorist attack of “extraordinary and unprecedented violence” that had no place in New Zealand.
    She said extremist views were not welcome and contrary to New Zealand values, and did not reflect New Zealand as a nation.
    It is one of New Zealand’s darkest days. Many of the people affected by this act of extreme violence will be from our refugee and migrant communities. New Zealand is their home. They are us.
    ,list attacks in recent years in places of worship—targeting Muslims in mosques in Quebec City and London, Jews in a synagogue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Christians in a church in Charleston, South Carolina. As reported Right-wing extremists were linked to at least 50 extremist-related murders in the United States in 2018, making them responsible for more deaths than in any year since 1995, Islamophobia is not a fringe problem: It is embedded in much of Western society. For long time. And New Zealand was certainly not exempt from Islamophobia. Ethiopian man Abdul Kadir Ababora threw himself to the floor and wedged himself under a bookshelf used to hold Korans, praying he would see his wife and kids again .link to site

    • Brhan

      Salam Said,
      Just to add to what you said
      Last January in Philippine Christian worshipers were killed and the Islamic State (IS) said it was behind the attack.
      Terrorism has no religion, as Imran Khan , the Pakistani PM just said commenting on NZ attack
      It should be condemned everywhere with the same tone.
      People are equal whether they are in Nigeria, India, Central African Republic , China or Myanmar NZ and USA

  • Brhan

    Hello awate,
    What a tragic two weeks!!
    First the crash of an Ethiopian airlines and the death of all its passengers and the crew , 157
    And the massacre of New Zealand mosque 50 prayers and other 50 injured.
    May Allah/God bless all and strengthen the patience of their beloved ones.

  • Nitricc

    Hi All; i am just watched this very touching clip and i decided to share it with you. I have seen many crushes but unlike this Ethiopian airlines. This guys take makes more dedicated for the cause of Africa. Moda, it is weekend so, stop deleting this post, please!

  • Paulos

    Selam Awate Team,

    My apologies. Next time will post comments on Jebena instead.

  • Paulos

    ሰላም ብሩኻት ህዝበይ,

    “እታ ስውርቲ ኢድ”

    ቀዳም ማዓልቲ ብርጭቆ ንጉሆ ተሲኣ ናብ ሹቕ ኣስፔዛ ክትገብር ትኸይድሞ፣ ሓወቦይ ምራጭ ገዛ’ዘላ መሲልዎ ብርጭቆ ኣቲ ብርጭቆ ተበለ መልሲ ምስ’ሳኣነ፣ ንግሆ ምድሪ ናበይ እያ ኸይዳ ኢሉ ከንጸርጽር ይጅምር፣ መርዘን ስለዝጀመረቶ፣ ውዒቲ ሻሂ ከተፍልሓሉ ስለዝደለየ።

    ብርጭቆ ቅድሚ ምምጻኣ ግን መርዘን ገዲፋቶስ ድሮ’ኳ እንዳፋጸየ “ገንዘብ ገንዘብ ፈላልዩና” እንዳበለ ክደርፍ ጀመረ። ቁሩብ ከይጸንሐ ብርጭቆ ደበኽ በለት፣ ሓወቦይ በትሩ እንዳዋጣወጠ፣ ኣቲ ብንጉሁኡ ናበይ ኬድኪ ኢሉ ኣፋጠጠላ፣ ካብ ትሓቱኒ ግዳ ነዚ ኣስፔዛ ናብ ክሽነ ከእትዎ ዘይትሕግዙኒ በለቶ፣ ሓወቦይ ከይመለሰላ ናብ ምሕጋዝ አተወ።

    ኣጋ ፋዱስ ምስኮነ፣ ብርጭቆ ኣብ ክሽነ’ኾይና ንምሳሕ ዝኸውን ምግቢ ክትሰርሕ ጀመረት፣ ሓወቦይ ኣብ ክሽነ ከምዘላ ምስራኣየ ይቕሬታ ክብላ ኸደ፣ ብኡ’ኣቢሉ ኻኣ ዕዳጋ ከመይ ኔሩ ኢሉ ሓተታ፣ ንሳ’ኻኣ ከምዚ ክትብል መለሰትሉ፣ ገንዘብ ሓሲሩ፣ ካልአይ’ካኣ ሎምስ ካብ ገዛእቲስ ሸየጥቲ ዘበዝሑ ይመስሉ በለቶ።

    ገንዘብ ማለት እንታይ ማለት እዩ ኢሉ ሓተታ፣ ንሳ’ኻኣ ገንዘብ’ዳኣ ናይ ነገራት ዋጋ መዐቀኒ እዩ በለቶ። ገንዘብ ናይ ዋጋ መዐቀኒ ኣይኮነን በላ፣ እዋእ ንሱኹም’ሲ ሎምስ ዘይተባህለ ከተስሙዑና ኢኹም በለቶ። እቲ ሓፈሻዊ መረዳእታ ናይ ገንዘብ ከምቲ ዝበልክዮ እዩ፣ እቲ ሓቂ’ግን ገንዘብ ናይ ኣብ ነንሕድሕድና ዘለና እምነት መዐቀኒ እዩ ኢሉ መለሰላ።

    ሕጂ ንምሳሌ፣ ኣብቲ ዓድና ዓዲ ንኣምን ገንዘብ ዝባሃል ነገር ተዘውቲሩ ኣይፈልጥን ንበሎ፣ ሓደ ማዓልቲ ቀለታ ድንሽ ኣድልይዎ ስለዝነበረ ግን ጽርሃ ዘይትደልዮ ድንሽ ከምዘለዋ ስለ ዝሰምዐ፣ ናብ’ኣ ኸይዱ ድንሽ ሃብኒ ይብላ፣ ጽርሃ ግን ካብ ቀለታ ትደልዮ ነገር ኣይነበረን ነገርግን እቲ ዝደለዮ ድንሽ ትህቦ፣ ቀለታ ሽዕዑ ምናልባሽ ዳሕራይ ማዓልቲ ኣነ ዘለኒ ንስኺ ትደልይዮ እንተሃለወ ኢሊ ሓንቲ ጻዕዳ ወረቐት ሽሙን መኽተሙን ኣስፊሩ ይህባ።

    ድሕሪኡ ጽርሃ ከብ ማሓዛኣ ሓያት ሳእኒ ወሲዳ ስለዝነበረት፣ ኣብቲ ግዜ’ቲ ግን ሓያት እቲ ካብ ጽርሃ ትደልዮ ዝነበረት ጽርሃ ስለዘይነበራ፣ ጽርሃ ነዛ ቀለታ ዝሃባ ወረቐት ሒዛ ናብ ሓያት ትኸይድ እሞ ትህባ። ሓያት ቅድሚ ክልተ ወርሒ ኣቢሉ ይኸውን ካብ ሙሓሙዳይ ኮሚደረ ወሲዳ ስለዝነበረት፣ ነታ ጽርሃ ዝሃበታ ጻዕዳ ወረቐት ንሙሓሙዳይ ትህቦ። እታ ጻዕዳ ወረቐት ከምኡ እንዳ በለት ሙሉእ ዓዲ ንኣምን ትኾልል። እታ ጻዕዳ ወረቐት ገንዘብ ኮይና ማለት እዩ! ስለዚ እታ ወረቐት መዐቀኒ ዋጋ ናይ ድንሽ፣ ጨና ወይካኣ ኮሚደረ ዘይኮነ፣ ናይ ኣብ ሰበ ዘለና እምነት መዐቀኒ እዩ። ፍየት ማኒ [Fiat Money] ተባሂሉ ይፍለጥ።

    እቲ ብዛዕባ ሸየጥቲ በዚሖም ሸመትቲ ውሒዶም ዝበልክዮ፣ ናቱ ታሪኻዊ ኣማጻጽኣ ኣለዎ።

    ቅድሚ ናብኡ ምእታውና ግን ሓደ መሰረታዊ ነጥቢ ክንፈልጥ የድልየና እዩ፣ ንሱ’ኻኣ ብዛዕባ ኣይዛክ ኒውተን [Isaac Newton] ዝተባህለ ብ17 ክፍለዘመን ብዛዕባ ፍልስፍናዊ ኣባጋግሳ ናይ ተፈጥሮ ዘቕረቦ ስነሓሳብ እዩ። እቲ ስነ-ሓሳብ እንታይ እዩ ዝብል፣ ፍጥረት ከም ዓቢ ማሽን [Machine] እዩ፣ እዚ ማለት ካኣ፣ እዚ ማሽን እዚ ብናይ ፈጣሪ ኢድ ዝተሞርኮሰን፣ ከምዚ ንማኪና ብመፍትሕ ጌርና መታን ክትንቃሳቐስ ንጅምራ፣ ፈጣሪ’ኻኣ ሓንሳብ ነቲ ማሽን ምስጀመሮ ናቱ ሕግን ስርዓትነ ሒዙ ቀጸለ።

    ድሕሪ ቁሩብ ዓመታት ኣይዛክ ኒውተን ምስሞተ፣ ሓደ አዳም ስምዝ [Adam Smith] ዝተባህለ ወዲ ስኮትላንድ [Scotland] ነቲ ናይ ኣይዛክ ንውተን መጽሓፍ መሰምበበ፣ ኣብ ኣታሓሳስብኡ ዓቢ ጽልዋ ኣሕደረሉ፣ ካብ ናይ ኣይዛክ ኒውተን ስነሓሳብ ተበጊሱ’ኻኣ፣ ኣብቲ ኣብ ዕዳጋ ዝግበር ምሻጥን ምልዋጥን ምዕዳግን፣ ናይ ፈጣሪ ዘይትረአ ኢድ ከምቲ ንተፈጥሮ ብሕጊን ስርዓትን ተካይዶ፣ ንዕዳጋ’ኻኣ ስውርቲ ኢድ ተካይዶ እያ ኢሊ መሰረታዊ ሓሳብ ናይ ስነ ቁጠባ [Economics] ክሳብ ሕጂ ተቐባልነት ዘለዎ ኣቕረበ!

    ኣብተን ክልተ ፍሉጣት መጻሕፍቱ “The Theory Of Moral Sentiments” እታ ሓንቲ’ኻኣ “The Wealth Of Nations” ነታ “ዝተሰወረት ኢድ” ዝበላ ወይካኣ “The Invisible Hand” ከም ናይ ሓሳብ መሰረት ጌሩ ኣብተን ዝተጠቕሳ መጻሕፍቲ ነቲ ስነ ሓሳቡ ብዑምቀት ኣስፊሑ ይገልጽ።

    ብርጭቆ ስቕ ኢላ ድሕሪ ምስማዓ ከምዚ’ላ ንሓወቦይ ሓተተቶ፣ እታ ዘይትረአ ኢድ ዝበልኩማ፣ እንድሕር ንሳ’ኾይና ነቲ ዕዳጋ ተካይዶ፣ መንግስቲ ኢዱ ከእቱ የብሉን ማለት’ድዮ? እዚ ሕቶ’ዚ ከቢድ ጥራሕ ዘይኮነ ክሳብ ሎሚ ኣብ ናይ ፖለቲካ መስርሕን ቅድን እቲ ማእኸላይ ደረጃ ዝሓዘ ንናይ ዝተፋላለያ ሰልፍታት ዘፋሓፈሐ እዮ። ምናልባሽ እቲ ዛዕባ ገፊሕን ዓሚቑን ስለዝኾነ ካልእ ማዓልቲ ከነዕልለሉ ኢና ኢሉ መለሰላ።

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      ሰላም ዶ/ር ጳውሎስ,

      እንኳዕ ብደሓን መጻእካ:። ነዚ ኣስተምሮኻ ንቁሩብ ግዝያት ጠፊእዎም ብዙሓት ኣብ ሃንቀውታ ጸኒሖም:: ደሓር ከአ መምህር ካብ ክላሱ ክጠፍእ ከሎ ንተማህርኡ ዓቢ ሻቅሎት’ዩ እሞ እንኳዕ ብደሓን መጻኻና::

      ካልእ ካብቲ ኣስተምህሮኻ ፍሽኽ ዘምጸአለይ እንተሎ ኽአ አንታ እዞም “ ሓያትን ማሕሙዳይንዝበሃሉ ሰባት ናይ ሕጂ ኣብ “ዓወተ ተዋሳእቲ” ጥራይካ አይኮኑን: ታሪኽ ዘለዎም ናይ ሩሑቅ ግዜ ተዋሳእቲ ከም ምኻኖም ተማሂርና:: የቀንየልና ናይ መዓልታዊ ፍሽኽታ ዝሃብካና::

      • Paulos

        Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

        Thank you. And glad you found funny stuff in it as well. Hayat and Muhamuday certainly disagree but needless to say in a respectful manner where it should be the norm that strength is found in diversity of ideas.

    • Haile S.

      Selam Paul,
      Welcome! I will read completely your comment later. Go to Jebena and read my recent poem. And read Hadas Ertra 06 March page 7, E=mc2. These are your assignments 🙂 .

      • Paulos

        Selam Hailat,

        Just finished reading your great poem and read the article on Haddas Ertra as well.

        In a way, as the author of the article put it, Einstein’s idea was ሱር-ነቀል but the thing is, Einstein not only revolutionized our understanding of nature in general but challenged us to revise our understanding of culture, values, tradition, language including politics and the structure of society in general.

        That is to say that, as much as the Theory Of Relatively postulates that there is no absolute observer in the universe where every motion is relative to something and the something to something…it gave rise to Post-Modernism where there is no absolute political power including in governance as well.

        I am sure, if the author had tried to connect the idea of Relativity to the social discourses including to politics, either ባዓታይ or የማነ ቻርሊ wouldn’t have allowed it to be published.

    • Peace!


      Welcome back!

      • Paulos

        Thank you Abi Seb!

    • Ismail AA

      Selam Dr. Paulos,

      Fine to have you back with a classroom standard material evenly spiced by entertaining members of family coversation between BirCqo and her a bit hot tempered but gracefully educative uncle. Shall I insinuate that I see in you tilting towards gracing humanity with an Eritrean “Animal Farm” based on oddities and outrages of the aging dictatorship?. Thanks for the fun.

      • Paulos

        Selam Kbur Haw Ismail AA,

        Thank you. What you gracefully suggested is ingenious where in addition to that, the parody of the aging dictator is already laid bare in cartoons and captions by creative Eritrean minds.

    • Amanuel

      Welcome back Dr Paulos.

      • Paulos

        Thank you Aman.

  • Hayat Adem

    One more time, friends:
    Did some people tell us that the democratization of Ethiopia was in full gear since the coming of this juvenile PM? Did people like Horizon here told us he was the right guy for Ethiopia? Did people like Andargachew tell us that he felt like he was born again after was released and met Abiy? Did HD, the politically cross-eyed man tell us Abiy was a devinely sent saviour of Ethiopia? Did EsatTv guys and their activists like artist Tamagn Ayele tell us that Ethiopia is now in safe hands? Did people like president Gedu and Mahmuday tell us it was the end of Tplf and Tigray’s influence? Did many people here and else where say that the country was together, the church was unified and everybody was todemerewal…????
    Well, let me just give you the latest testimony of one none other than Tsige Andargachew now declaring the political space is totally no more (sorry, shop is closed, sorts) and the admisntration is now worse than even it was pre-Abiy. The patriarch is crying the Church is taken and possessed by alien forces and groups. Addis is being threatened by Jawar and Lemma. This is totally unbelievably the fastest way to a fatal nation crash-landing. Today, I am told political parties in Addis signed a code of conduct or a covenant. Birhanu Nega was one signee representing his G7 and he was openly praising the process that got him to this point. That means Birhanu and Tsige seem parting ways. What else can you make of it: one praising, the other calling it a day? What else is interesting? OPDO /or OPD/ Aby’s party/ was not among the 100+ nber of parties set to sign the document. 2hat else? Aby told the gathering that people should pay gratitude to the older Eprdf leadership for allowing the change and leave power while they could have stopped it should they have wanted as the entire firepower within their order-reach. This is totally a new talk from Abiy. Not that he has now become a better leader or probably what he said is too little and too late, but the fact that he is saying this now is very interesting.
    For some reason, chaotic developments come in pairs and parallels. Eritrea and Sudan are experiencing irreversible internal crises of their own. Eritrea is passing through a brrewing and tense situation. Some in the Eritrean army leadership are already mobilizing their own local people to defend their territory on their own /without involving the IA government/ from the new Ethiopian encroachments.

    • Blink

      Dear Hayat
      Let me start from day one you about Abiy.
      1. You abused him from day one and he released hundreds of thousands from prison
      2.You accuses him of stopping the Dam , the dam is going to finish in 2022 .
      3. You accused him of dictatorship, He set up election commission composed of many independent people away from Meles know it all killings and cheating votes
      4. The Orormo and Somalians were armed by Meles to kill each other , Abiy removed the tumor ( abdi illi)
      5. You bragged about Meles democracy, Abiy call it dark age of Ethiopia and prove was that many people come out with out two leges , without eyes and so to speak people were arrested with wild animals while weyane cadre torture them.
      6. Ethiopia hard currency was all shipped to Mekele and it was left zero only 2 weeks import capacity.
      7. The weyane security apparatuses killed countless young people, Abiy let the young express themselves in a civilized manner while weyane gave bullets
      8. Weyane eve plan to quarantine Eritreans in camps got thrown and Eritrea s are free to work and travel in Ethiopia
      9. Meles the midget used Eritrea to advance his small window of theft while Abiy removed all the evil keys of weyane.
      10. You and your weyane digital army are all left to make lies just what you have been saying like PFDJ planted a bomb in Addis
      11. Abiy is controlled by Egypt which you tried hard to sale full of lies .

      Which Army division of Eritrea is arming to defend its zone without the general knowledge or are you saying it is a war lords dividing ? You are a pure liar with an experience that no one can match you about making lies . Here you are ኣመል ምስ መግነዝ , ናይ ሖሶት ምምሃዝ ክእለት

    • Amanuel

      Hi Hayat
      I don’t see Abiy speech about the old EPRDF leaders as a praise. I think it is a coded message to the Ethiopian people that he has that option. A month so ago he also said it is easy to become a dictator.

      Well, history teaches us the potential is there for everyone to become a dictator, it is the ability to resist temptation and the strength of available democratic institutions makes the difference. In Ethiopia there are no strong democratic institutions and the temptation is there as the proverb goes መን ምዃንካ ክነግረካ ምስ መን ከምትውዕል ንገረኒ።

      • Hayat Adem

        Hi Amanuel,
        Like you said, he might not mean it. Even if he meant, it wouldn’t matter. But the fact that je is saying this at this point in the open publicly is interesting.

    • Mez

      Hi Hayat A,

      Let me quote you: “…This is totally a new talk from Abiy….”.

      1) That is basically correct. Nothing wrong with it. After all politics is a science, at the same time an art. Every move by every player shall be handled to the benefit of everyone.

      2) now he have all “the trouble makers” back home and observing them sitting side by side in meetings…..

      Pmaaa has to refocus the pitch of his framing-orientation.

      2.1) in this regard, he have to “pull all the oldie–tegadallalaitis'” towards the political center (at least some of them) and thereby weaken their “possible resistance” againest political pluralism.

      2.2) eritrean foreign policy is also starting to get warmed up–basic questions started being raised by some corners albite slow….


  • Selam All,

    Djibouti is one of the countries that does not have its security in its hands. France is the guarantor of Djibouti’s security and Ethiopia its economic lifeline. As long as it is the country where French forces are stationed and the Ethiopian Navy will be stationed in the future, if it materializes, it has a say on the matter. The new development is therefore an important issue that concerns Djibouti as well.

    I believe that France has got the green light from Djibouti for such a big defense plan with Ethiopia including a navy. France (the EU, the west in general) want a pro west Ethiopia that is not completely under China/Russia influence. PM Abiy seems to be the right person, when president Macron told him that, since he (pm Abiy) came to office, they (EU) are looking at Ethiopia from a different perspective, which as well means support to his government.

    This could bring little Djibouti and Ethiopia much nearer, to a greater cooperation economically and in defense. I think that lately Djibouti is uneasy with the behavior of the oil rich uae.

    Kenya is in somalia and within the geography of the horn, and president Macron’s visit could be part of the policy of integrating the whole region to one peaceful and stable entity, that is economically integrated and with a common defense and political arrangement as pm Abiy had insinuated at Davos.

    How the regime in Asmara will react to this new development, time will show.

    • Amanuel

      Hi Harizon
      “Kenya is in somalia and within the geography of the horn, and president Macron’s visit could be part of the policy of integrating the whole region to one peaceful and stable entity, that is economically integrated and with a common defense and political arrangement as pm Abiy had insinuated at Davos.”
      This is easily said than done. Let assess the reality on the ground to see if these countries possess the fundamental requirements for integration.
      1) Ethiopian: Is at war with its self and need to put its house in order before looking out ward. Its parliament is not strong enough and it will be seen if the next election is going to produce a better one. It’s courts are not free from the executive interference and its media is the cheerleader of any one in power.
      2) Kenya: is the better one out of all when it comes to stability. Has relatively better parliament and courts but very divided country. One example is the last two elections violence.
      3) Somalia is a failed state.
      4) Djibouti: Is tiny but remarkably attracted big powers but has a fundamental problem with the sponsor of this integration plan.
      5) Eritrea: well not constitution, no parliament, no courts no media just an ailing man called IA.
      In order to appreciate the enormousness of this task no need to look beyond the EU. It started as EEC more than 60 years ago and it is still fragile. This is in spite of the strong institutional it owns at the union and members level. Further more it was originated from internal desir of the members not like this one as the result of external pressures.
      I think this region need to walk before it can run and this integration talk is premature.

      • Hi Amanul,

        It took only one generation for wwii to follow wwi in europe. Now, almost 75 yrs later, europe is at peace with itself and the rest of the world. The reason: eu integration.

        The problems we see in europe are the problems we see all over the world, due to the consequences of the 2008 economic crisis, immigration, and the emergence of the far right, especially the western world. It is not due to the european integration, but the result of neoliberalism and globalization, which benefited the very few at the top, and more or less destroyed the lives of the workers and the middle class.

        It took less than 10 yrs for ethiopia and eritrea to go to a devastating war after eritrean independence, and we are not completely sure if they have crossed the rubicon forever.

        All the problems you mentioned above concerning the countries of the region is due to the absence of cooperation and integration. Separation did not bring peace or economic prosperity. On the contrary, it has brought the whole region to the verge of wars, economic disparity and the absence of peace and stability. If there is a country that thinks that it is immune to the above problems, it must be in complete darkness.

        If you say that the countries of the horn are hopeless for anything good to come in the future, and we should forget about them and leave them to their fate, i do not agree with you.

        • Saleh Johar

          Selam Horizon,
          I have to agree with the spirit of your comment but I think there is something you missed.

          Europe is where it is not because of baseless integration. Whatever you see in Europe is the basic respect of citizens’ rights. If that is secured, economy, politics and all aspects of life will be stabilized, and grow.

          One more thing, Europe looks peaceful on the surface, but still, it is as belligerent as it used to be, just beneath the surface. Can you mention any destruction in our part of the world where the West didn’t have an instrumental role? I guess not.

          In short, al is not rosy, and at the same time, all is not bleak. But the balance can be gained through the respect of citizen rights, not primordial aspirations in peaceful looking garbs. That is the main reason for our backwardness. I think…

          • Selam SJG,

            Indeed respect for citizens’ rights is a fundamental concept in the eu. Nevertheless, integration (economic, political, etc) are not really baseless as such, because these were the visions of the founding fathers, who wanted to tie together post wwii european states with a common market and a common interest, to minimize the animosity that lead them towards two world wars. Later on the introduction of an open border for all european citizens in the union augmented and facilitated this togetherness.

            If we examine the new members, the countries of the former soviet union, this citizens’ right, this unity, is not as robust as we see in western europe, and these countries are gradual sliding to authoritarianism, i.e. countries like hungary, poland, and some others.

            Europe may not be belligerent within itself, nevertheless, we cannot say that its past colonial history does not still affect its worldview, especially as much as the third world is concerned. Nevertheless, the good thing about europe is that there are always those who are ready to oppose, because unlike the usa, china, russia, etc, there is no solidarity when one country acts against the interest of a third country when they observe this happening. Of course, it is not a world of saints and it cannot be.

            The respect of the rights of citizens of the horn by the states is of paramount importance, hence the need for democracy, good relationship between peoples of the region will help them understand that they have many things to share, connecting them together through economic integration will teach them interdependence and the value of peace and cooperation, and cultural ties and even open borders could bring together these scattered, suspicious and volatile peoples of the horn beyond toxic politics to politics of peace and development.

          • Saleh Johar

            Selam horizon,
            True, but you cannot integrate with people behind jail bars. Eritreas have existential problems and before that is solved, everything else is empty idealism and not a fair call …..or action.

          • Peace!

            Hi Saleh

            Ye’ Horizon Neger: One day he quotes Cohen ” The Red Sea Is Slipping into Total Arab Control” and spreads fear, and the next day, he preaches how integration is good for jailed, fleeing, exiled Eritreans. He is racing against Arabs for Kei Bahrachen otherwise he should know integration starts at home.


          • Selma SJG,

            Where politics has failed, is it possible to say that the economy may do the trick? Could economic achievement solve the political problem in our case? If political change remains so far away, and so late to come, how long is it possible to wait, when every day that passes continues to have a negative effect on the peoples of the region? The regime does not change itself and there is no one else to change it. While Eritreans seem to be docile towards their government, Ethiopians on the other hand, seem to be ungovernable. The middle way is unusual in the region.

            We used to say that demarcation will bring freedom and justice, military service will change, prisons will open, etc, but unfortunately, internal Eritrean politics has not changed. If one is going to wait until the natural demise of the dictator to do even the simplest thing and postpone everything, cooperation and rapprochement, especially economic integration, and nobody can be sure who is going to replace the dictator, it is going to be at the expense of citizens whose livelihood will be affected in a positive way. It is not possible therefore to wait forever without some sort of action. Nature hates inaction, for action may bring change.

            Could we say that we are integrating two unfree nations to make them free?
            In my opinion, the fear at the back of everybody’s mind seems to be that Ethiopia is coming back through the back door. If Europeans have continued to see the Germans in the same manner after WWII, there might have not been the EU.

            We can conclude that the only measuring stick that we have is how long the dictator is going to live, and if he will be replaced by a democratic leader. In addition, the ethiopian factor is prohibiting as well. The sad thing is that one way or the other, the solution for those behind bars remains in the hands of the uncontested dictator. Even Al Bashir is forced to open and close his prisons. That is why I am asking if cooperation and integration could change the situation where politics has failed.

          • Saleh Johar

            Selam Horizon,
            I have no issues with your thinking as an Ethiopian. But as an Eritrean, what I hear you say is similar to “if rape is inevitable, lay down and enjoy it. “. We are not that desperate and would rather fall fighting for our rights and dignity.


        • Ismail AA

          Selam Horizon,

          Cooperation and integration presuppose sustainable stabilitiy in peace. The pre-requisite for this are basic freedoms and liberties of individuals of nations that creation of life as humans bestows on them which modern norms and values of nations measure as human rights, as Saleh Johar has stated.

          Thus, there is no way of cooperation and integration of any kind prior to peoples of nation exercising freedom ti build constructs on many strata of society that provide them grounds for setting up governance systems – learning to govern themselves and becoming masters of their destiny. The issue, now, is how far the peoples of Horn have come in this respect. Fanciful rhetoric of elites such as Dr. Abij and hand clappings of ruthless despots like Isayas remain empty slogans to put it mildly.

        • Blink

          Dear Horizon
          The problem in Europe is partyly due to the failure of mismanagement the refugees from ME and Africa because these firs generations refugee wanted to teach their kids on how to join him self killings as well as disrespect the law and rules of all western society by accusing people of racism and islamophobia which is all BS . I am waiting all the right wing party to take power in Europe and Canada , America and so that these liberals should stop apologizing to the religious conservatives of the ME and Africa . Can you imagine a small kid 15 years old girl to travel all the way fro. England , Germany , US aand all the western capitals to fight along ISS ? Whose money ? Most ME and Africa conservatives allowed to settle in western capitals abused the democratic nature of the west and they create a havocs in the western society and to straight them up the right wing has to take power in Germany , Italy , Uk and all over Europe as well as Canada so that these conservatives who come from ME and Africa will understand how to play by the rules . Democracy must win over these lazy welfare supported lunatics and they must be lectured through the hard way .

        • Amanuel

          Hi Harizon
          I have no problem with reason behind the integration, if fact I think it is a noble idea that puts everyonce interest together, so there is no excuse to fight over. However you are putting the cart before the horse. It needs the necessary institutions and leadership, which are not in place right now.

    • Lamek

      Horizon, integrating a million ethnic groups who can’t see beyond their ethnic group, culture, small region, and religion is a pipe dream. You have almost a genocide going on in West Guji of the Gedeo ethnic people. The Amara and Tigray people are staring at each other, Eritreans are just as badly divided along all fault lines, the Somalians are in no better situation, etc. etc. Do you think any of these people care about a region of 260 million people? It is just better to leave everyone alone to say and do anything they want and they will figure a way to feed themselves. You cannot aim higher than that in the Horn of Africa where poverty, illiteracy, mistrust of everybody else is rampant. Your talk is for the highly educated people in the west who have a Utopian picture and are clueless about the facts on the ground. Speaking of the regime in Asmara – it is completely detached from its own people and its actions and reactions do not represent the Eritrean people. I guess you can say the same thing of the Abiy govt at this time.

  • Nitricc

    Hi All; who would have thought it that out of all those people Trump to get it and do the right thing to do. ” WASHINGTON – President Donald Trump announced Wednesday that his administration had grounded the Boeing 737 Max 8 planes involved in two catastrophic crashes, hours after the U.S. had become the last nation in the world to do so.”

    • Brhan

      Hi Nitricc
      Why did not the Ethiopian Airlines ground the Boeing 737 Max 8 after the October 2018 Indonesian Boeing Max 8 disaster? I am wondering to the steps the company took after the Indonesian crashes or there were not at all. The CEO, Tewelde, should resign if he did not do anything. So far I have not heard that the company did some tasks after the Indonesian catastrophe.
      Also the company is sending the black box to Europe for analysis. Should not Ethiopian have its own laboratory and experts to do that? Is the company in crisis?

      • Nitricc

        Why did not the Ethiopian Airlines ground the Boeing 737 Max 8 after the October 2018 Indonesian Boeing Max 8 disaster?

        Hi Brhan; Ethiopian airlines is one of the best but still it is Ethiopia. if the Indonesian accident happened in the USA or any western country; i bet you some action should have been taken but because this happened to shady lion air, every one did nothing. This time happened to one of best in the world; now everyone is taking an action. However, i agree with you, if i was CEO of the Ethiopian airlines, i could have done everything under the sun to learn and update my pilots but again you are talking about today’s Ethiopia situation. I give a great credit the Ethiopians for refusing USA to do the black box examination. I would have gave you a great illustration of the accident from independent opinion but the Moda will delete it. I don’t know why you are surprised for Ethiopia lacking to have laboratory to do the test. They can’t even protect their historical sites the like of Lalibela restoration they have to ask the most bloody sucker country of France. They are addicted in to begging and dependence. it gets worst, now they are under spell of France, watch what happens today’s agreement between Ethiopia and France. Even Italy knows about the greedy motivation of France but it is sad to see Ethiopia falling to the hands of France. Sad, very sad.

  • Mez

    Hi every one

    1) the news about French president visit to Addis is very interesting. It looks a mini geopolitical alignment.

    1.1) the military cooperation agreements (including the navy) are far reaching.

    1.2) With French participation, it is likely thst, Ethiopia may shelter its will be navy in Djbouti.

    1.3) With that, another business opportunity may bypass Eritrea.


    • Haile S.

      Selam Mez,

      The need of Ethiopia reviving its need of a Navy is another form of pressure on Eritrea for more concession even for more than that. What Eritrea needs is to once and for all ask Ethiopian authorities to implement on the ground what they officially accepted in the border ruling. After that there is no reason for Eritrea to get bullied through Djibouti and its big Allies, it can do agreements with Ethiopia if it is in its interest. Besides, Ethiopia like other landlocked countries have enough lakes for its Navy to exercise. It doesn’t absolutely need a sea.

      • Hameed Al-Arabi

        Ahlan Haile S.

        I think, the best choice for Ethiopia to take is to pay as she paid for the GERD to Kenya and Somali and get an outlet between them to the INDIAN OCEAN. It seems, they want an outlet for free by cunning and that will never materialize in modern world where even kids perceive interests.

        In the future, when the Eritrean economy booms, Massawa and Asseb will not be enough to import and export Eritrean requirements. I think, we will need to construct more ports in the Red Sea. Ethiopian imports and exports will change Eritrea to heaven is a big lie. It may have some limited benefits, but not to the maximum aspirations of Eritreans.


      • Hope

        Selam Hailat:

        First of,it is “Good News” for us Eritreans,who have been pathologically suspicious and paranoid that our Red Sea is not yet mentioned as an Ethiopian choice to build a navy,at least for now.Those fake and anti-PFDJ propagandists claiming and confusing Eritreans that Eritrea is being sold will calm down.

        Second,Ethiopia needs a navy as articulated well by the Ethiopia Maritime Department for their own reasons,as a huge Economy, to safe guard their Maritime Services and to defend themselves as a Nation from future potential Enemies,including Eritrea and its GCC allies,God forbid

        Third,I completely agree about pushing for an unconditional demarcation of our borders but a little bit of time and conducive environment might might be needed so as to pressure the major obstacle,the TPLF gang as it is said to be the sole obstacle for the demarcation.

        Finally,Eritrea needs to build UNITY and the BEST and the MOST Powerful and formidable Defense Capability and System in all aspects-The Air Force,the Navy and its Ground Forces as well as its Intelligence and Security System besides strengthening its Alliance with the GCC and Cairo.

        I heard that a “Powerful Foreign Nation” is paused to restructure our Defense structure but hoping to not to be Ethiopia.

        But I disagree with Mez’s assertion saying:

        “With that, another business opportunity may bypass Eritrea”,since Eritrea will have an unlimited business opportunities as long as peace is maintained within itself and with its neighbors.

        • Hameed Al-Arabi

          Ahlan Hope,

          “Those fake and anti-PFDJ propagandists claiming and confusing Eritreans that Eritrea is being sold will calm down.” Really. You are stout defender of PFDJ without hesitation. How do you say it is propaganda while there are many indications that confirm the intention of Ethiopia. Where are you going to take Dr. Abie Ahmed speech in Italy, Massawa to Addis railway? And where are you going to take Isaias bestowing of Eritrean sovereignty to Abie Ahmed? Are all this propaganda anti-PFDJ? My friend, Eritreans are more wise and understand what they watch. They don’t need propagandists claiming to confuse them.

          The news you are happy about may be a shift for the time being. Really, little minds live happy under a cultural shock.


        • Haile S.

          Selam Hope,

          I might have replied too quickly to Mez, but what I wanted to say was, Eritrea has some fundamental things to accomplish before thinking about missed opportunities with Ethiopia, in particular.
          1. There are too many missed opportunities with Ethiopia, but many of the big among them cannot be implemented before Ethiopia implements the long awaited demarcation. This was due yesterday.
          2. Eritrea must reconcile within itself. The durability of any important long-term economic and defence agreement with Ethiopia will always be questionable without the internal consensus and reconciliation in Eritrea.
          3. The regime in Eritrea has started the peace and reconciliation process with Ethiopia. Lets give it this credit. But in the policies it has followed internally for the last 28 years, it has destroyed the confidence of its citizens on itself. Eritreans give it the benefit of doubt because they are directly or indirectly in its shackles and because of lack of alternatives that can readily replace it. Therefore if many of our compatriots are very skeptical of this regime and suspecting it of selling the country to Ethiopia, it is from the behaviour of the regime. They didn’t fabricate it and it is not by vengeance only. The bringing of Eritrea to almost its knees was not only the deeds of the perfidy of Woyane, but also our incompetent regime that doesn’t see beyond its nose.
          Hope, we have a regime that it is convinced to hold the truth of the world to a degree that it underestimates and suspects its own citizens, with the world, of undoing its program. We have መዓኮሩ ዘይኣምን ጉጅለ. It is a pathology, Hope. Very paradoxically, we are hoping the pathology to transcribe and correct itself because we haven’t found a remedy or antidote for it!

        • Blink

          Dear Hope
          Mez and coo will say anything that’s opposing views even if it is a lie or a propaganda sale . I am surprised the Meles admirer didn’t say “ Eritrea lost business opportunity by not allowing Ethiopia navy space.

          This is a good development for Eritrea if infact Ethiopian navy is stationed in Djibouti.
          The only problem with I can see is no one will digest it .

        • Amanuel

          Hi Hope,
          Please think twice about this “Those fake and anti-PFDJ propagandists claiming and confusing Eritreans that Eritrea is being sold will calm down.”

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Selam Hailat & Ismailo,

          Our strength is weakened by the nature of the regime we have. The ulterior motives of the regime in light of the current agreement with Ethiopia is dangerous. Why would a land locked Ethiopia wanted to have a navy in the Red Sea to begin with, if like many other land locked countries could have access to the sea through its neighbor countries? In any case I couldn’t argue better than both “you and Ismailo” have presented in your comments ( you from the domestic front and Ismailo from the Ethiopian’s sinisterous ambition). The nativity of Eritreans to understand what is going on to our dear nation is mind boggling. The Ethiopian leaders have sent all the signals regarding their ambition with the help of the despot.

      • Mez

        Hi Haile S, Hope, and Hameed:

        As you all said said, I also strongly believe boarder demarcation is vital for the security and integraty of both nations. That is equally important for two of them. The earlier completion of the physical border installation, the better it will be for all–except for few trouble seeking “selfish and fringe politician” on both sides.

        That said, my point (in the above comment) is policy developers and polititians from all spectrum of the eritrean society have to come forth and throw, at least few, pertinent conceptual ideas. Without having a meaningful economic engagement with ethiopia and sudan, eritrean stand will only be weakened by the day.

        As of now it seems that no political movement feels responsible to talk and act on peace time eritrea and its economic emanicipation.

        From this perspective, the French-Ethiopian agreements of this week are interesting to look into.


        • Selamat Memhir Mez,

          I am not quite sure if I view it as “another business opportunity may bypass Eritrea.

          It makes sense, that if Ethiopia is aggressively seeking to have its navy”, the deal is to start with France and Djibouti. Rather scatter its potential navy personnel into naval colleges all over the world, it chose the one global navy power, France, which is parked next door. France can supply the fleet plus others, and the French can do hands on naval trainings on the Ethiopian fleet that would be deployed sooner. In other words, France would bring up to speed the Ethiopian Navy.

          As far as Eritrea is concerned this is a gift in the sense that the Eritrean people’s apprehensions and as a consequence pressure on the government may now subside. This deal will reassure the people that there are NO secret agreements and or plans out there such as Eritrea supplying a base (Asseb) to Ethiopia, sharing a base or the integration of the Eritrean Navy with the Ethiopian Navy. Ethiopia does have and seems to be exercising options other than Eritrea for the materialization and desire for an Ethiopian Navy.

          Ethiopian Navy through the partnership with the French would be the more larger and sophisticated in the region. The Eritrean Navy may pale next to the Ethiopian Navy. Ethiopia after establishing its navy this way may solicit Eritrea for either port usage and even possibly integrating both nations navy under a joint defense agreement. Such integration, of the navy only, strengthens their bond and reduces their reason to war against one another. The integration should only be of the navy and maybe possibly Air Force if they are to be any effective.
          A deal with Eritrea at this time wouldn’t bode well with the Eritrean people including the military brass. If there was such a deal made in the environment of secrecy and non disclosure by the single act of the executive, as soon as it is made known the insurrection would explode. The deal with France, if it does occur and there is no reason why it shouldn’t, alleviates from the pressure valves of the Eritreans. Sooner or later however some real deals would have to start.

          I hope I have made some sense…


          • Ismail AA

            Selam tSAtSE and all,

            I get inspired to pose questions when ever I read in this forum serious commenters tackle some grand issues which conflict with matters my mind has as acquired facts such modern nation-states and norms and rules that order their relations to one another bilaterally and multilaterally.
            Thus, here are some questions in regard to what I read on Ethiopia and its need for forces in the sea:

            1. Why would Ethiopia, which history and international norms and rules have established its fate as land locked nation as Afghanistan and Chad for instance, need a navy?

            2. Does such a policy indicate an inherent beligerancy to keep an illegal ambition alive in the minds of its citizens, which would be taken as real and perpetual menace by the Eritrean people?

            3. Given that such outlook of inherent aggression gets nourished among the peoples of Ethiopia, how would integrative policies on economy and other matters operate to serve sustainable peace between the two countries?

          • Selamat Ayya Ismail AA,

            1. Why would Ethiopia, which history and international norms and rules have established its fate as land locked nation as Afghanistan and Chad for instance, need a navy?

            Ethiopia did have a navy as late as 1989 when it was obliterated and scattered without a base by the EPLF fighters. And it became a land locked state officially in 1993. Under TPLF Ethiopia was a dominant force in the horn region. It willfully marched into Somalia and isolated and weakened Eritrea. Its horn of Africa dominance coupled with missing its pre Eritrean Independence Naval forces, are the driving forces for a need of a Navy of its own once again. History and international norms are not the rule. They are norms that majority of landlocked states follow but some or Ethiopia maintains the right to not follow a norm for whatever reason it may have. Ethiopia can deploy its navy for the protection of its merchant ships for example.
            If any threat from the sea is to threaten Ethiopia, it would be a threat through Eritrean international borders, including Eritrean sea territories. And in the event of a threat, Ethiopian Navy would seek the permission of Eritrea to engage an enemy in its territories or simply, on the basis of self defense, unilaterally do so without any permission whatsoever. The ultimate goal of an Ethiopian Navy is therefore to attain a solid footing on the Red Sea through some sort of joint sustainable agreement with Eritrea.

            2. Doesn’t such a policy indicate an inherent belligerancy to keep an illegal ambition alive in the minds of its citizens, which would justifiably be taken as real and perpetual menace by the Eritrean people?

            The Eritrean people should realize that the Eritrean sea coast affects much more the Ethiopians than the Eritrean people. Economically, Ethiopian is a much larger market than is Eritrea. We have observed how underutilized idle Eritrean sea ports have been in the past three decades. It is only recently that Eritrea has been marketing its ports to the regional powers such as the GCC. There is a very high density of global interest on this tiny strip of sea territories. Global powers are clamoring for control of the area. Ethiopia as a developing regional power is positioning itself to gain a foot hold. The Eritrean people take this as a perpetual menace only because of the history of war between the two states. Eritrea can react to an Ethiopian Navy as it would with a Djibouti or Sudanese Navy or any other navy of the globe. International rules would guide the interaction between Eritrea’ Navy and Ethiopian Navy. Ethiopian Navy would have to respect Eritrea’s international sea boundaries. And should there be an illegal transgression of the boundaries, then through all means available to it, Eritrea would have to protect its sovereignty. An Ethiopian Navy would not be as greater of a menace as any other country on this globe’s navy. The very existence of an Eritrean Navy is the menace that other naval powers exist. Eritrea with the means available to it would have to protect its territorial rights. Another navy in the waters does change things much. With independence comes the responsibility to be self reliant irrespective what other nations do. [sebAy delikhn chiHmi tseliEkn]

            Of course there is also the options of integrations and cooperations should a solid trust be formed between Eritrea and Ethiopia.

            3. Given that such outlook of inherent aggression gets nourished among the peoples of Ethiopia, how would integrative policies on economy and other matters operate to serve sustainable peace between the two countries?

            I do not believe there is any good reason why the two states, Eritrea and Ethiopia, should ever go to war. There is absolutely no rational reason for another war. There are however numerous excellent reasons why a sustainable peace between the two nations should be the outlook henceforth. The desire for a Navy by the Ethiopians should not be viewed as an inherent aggression towards Eritrea. It is a mutually exclusive desire or need by the Ethiopians which they have every right to exercise. As stated above, Eritrea still maintains all its rights to interact with an Ethiopian navy as it would with any other naval power of this world. It is to the advantages of both states to move forward with “integrative policies on the economy and other matters” and the result would inevitably be “sustainable peace between the two countries.”

            The existence of an Ethiopian Navy doesn’t necessarily pose a threat to Eritrea just like a Sudanese Navy wouldn’t poses a threat. I believe it is in the minds of the Eritreans, a psychological dilemma, because of the history of war between the two states, for such views.


          • Haile S.

            Selam tSAtSE,

            Allow me to chip in. Everything you said makes sense with one caveat. The caveat is that Eritrea and Eritreans who sacrificed everything are coming out as the biggest losers in all these. NOT THAT they were unable to limit Ethiopia’s development and ambition like owning a Navy for instance, as some ethiopian propagandist detractors alleged and reduced Eritrea’s objectives for the last several decades, but by Eritreans inability to implement their genuine ambition to develop their country, that was cut short by their very incompetent regime who says fought for those objectives for decades. Even the biggest minimal gain Eritrea was to get, i.e the acknowledgement, respect and reconnaissance of its dearly paid sacrifice, by the Ethiopian people is getting destroyed by the absence of a single development or change in the country since the peace agreement with Ethiopia. It is mind boggling what the regime is fighting for without implicating its people, all its people and without governing. What Eritrea has is a settled-down Ghedli “still fighting for independence” with Ghedli-representatives not ambassadors and with ሓፋሽ ወድባት not citizens that freely invest in their country and never stop receiving the exiled to vamp the ቦሎኛ and the festivals. Eritrea has never stopped from loosing its citizens, particularly its young in the last two decades because there is NO direction, NO visibility on their future, no communication from the regime other than the propaganda of “Perseverance” that does not stop from getting pronounced at every festival and anniversaries. Perseverance is becoming a superficial soothing ointment for the deep wound the country is feeling the pain from. A wound that has been let to deepen by the incompetency of the regime.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Hailat & Ismailo,

            Our strength is weakened by the nature of the regime we have. The ulterior motives of the regime in light of the current agreement with Ethiopia is dangerous. Why would a land locked Ethiopia wanted to have a navy in the Red Sea to begin with, if like many other land locked countries could have access to the sea through its neighbor countries? In any case I couldn’t argue better than both “you and Ismailo” have presented in your comments ( you from the domestic front and Ismailo from the Ethiopian’s sinisterous ambition). The nativity of Eritreans to understand what is going on to our dear nation is mind boggling. The Ethiopian leaders have sent all the signals regarding their ambition with the help of the despot.

          • Ismail AA

            Selam Aman H and Haile S,

            With the rising sun everyday, the perilous path the despot has been treading in association Ethiopia’s current rulers is becoming real to the Eritrea people. No amount of propaganda exercise to sell undisclosed deals the regime might be doing with the Ethiopians can assuage the Eritrean people’s concerns about the future of their paramount national interests. Not even future material benefits saturated by prophetic optimism would compensate loss of priceless national assets territorial and maritime sovereignty would provide. The blood and sweat that was poured to achieve it should not be left to be squandered by the interest of an aging dictator who would sell anything in exchange of survival.

            Renewed interest in our region of Macrons, Trumps and their likes does not bode peace and economic bonanza. It’s modern imperialism being played at the expense of the peoples of the region. Eritreans would do better not to see developments as mere current affairs and mis to see their strategic dimensions. Their dilemma is what to do with the culprit – an Asfeha Wolde Micheal of the present.

          • Ismail AA

            Selam tSAtSE Solomon wad Hewye,

            I reiterate my sincere appreciation for sparing time, generously, to respond to my questions. I know the questions are difficult to handle because they are more of hypothetical nature than based on concrete issues and policies. Responses could lead to more questions than plane answers.

            1. “History and international norms are (…) are norms that majority of landlocked states follow but some or Ethiopia maintains the right to not follow a norm for whatever reason it may have [which lets it to] deploy its navy for the protection of its merchant ship”. Why would Ethiopia think it can behave as an exception to the rule in respect to international norms and free to uphold belligerent attitude to the verdict of history? Why wouldn’t other landlocked nations be allowed the same? Does size of population, and dominance thereby, in a religion permit nations to aspire and have what geography and international law do not give? Moreover, does Ethiopia have justification and rationale on her side to restore what it illegally had (sea shore) in a neighboring nation and had lost in war that culminated in an expressed will of the people of the latter through international instrument (referendum)?

            2. “If any threat from the sea is to threaten Ethiopia, it would be a threat through Eritrean international borders, including Eritrean sea territories”. It is impossible to understand why the Ethiopians (mainly elites bigger chunk of from the imperial and Derg era) hold a perpetual attitude that threat to their country would come from the north via Eritrea. Of course, we Eritrean know what they mean. But, why would that threat not come through Somalia, Djibouti and or even Port Sudan, Gadaref and the Nile? The answer to this lies in latent jingoism and outdated nostalgia of imperial outlook, and “The ultimate goal of an Ethiopian Navy is therefore to attain a solid footing on the Red Sea …” I think no Eritrean would mis this to be less than hovering menace or indeed threat as long as Ethiopia’s jingoists reconcile with history and ready to accept international norms and live with what history has settled.

            3. Eritreans would be aware of rejuvenation of geopolitics in our region after the recent events in Ethiopia with the accession of Abij and his team to power. The strategic position of Eritrea and other countries east and west of the Red Sea has reignited big nation interest and concomitant competition. The past post WWII imperial aspiration that victimize our people and led them engage in decades of war might revisit. The French, under Macron, and other powers are throwing their shadow on our region, and the Macron’s offer to help the Ethiopians “reinstate” their navy is a message heralds marriage of imperial interests. Eritreans should think harder about their future and get alerted about the risk a repressive regime under an aging dictator can constitute

            3. The Ethiopians of course can maintain aspirations and attitudes of which possession of navy can be one of them. But their problem is where they would build (rebuild!!) their navy. It should be either in their lakes or international waters which would mean exorbitant expenditure their economy would not permit in foreseeable future because they would need carrier boats; or air fleet with necessary capabilities and assets to transporti equipped naval forces to war theatres in the Red Sea or Indian Ocean or the Arabian Sea. Sane mind would dismiss such scenario as fantasy, and would understand the Ethiopians do have belligerent intentions if the Eritreans or others in the region with sea shores would not accede to satisfaction of their ambitions. It such attitudes would thrive, it means the three decade war with Eritrea has not ended and what exists is transient lul. A potential territorial power seeking to become maritime power does not bode peace and absence of probabilities of war.

  • Haile S.

    ሰላም ሰብ ዓወተ፡

    እንታይ ድኣ ዝን ኣብዚሕኩም ከም ጓል ዘሕረሰት?

    P.S. ናይ ቀደም ኣዘራርባ እዩ፡ ምስ ይቕረታ። ድሓር ክኣ እንተውሓደ ኣፍ ኣብረሀት እንተኽፈትኩ እንታይ ኣለዎ!

    • Abrehet Yosief

      Selam Aya Haile
      ነገር ድልይልይ በትሪ ሃሰውሰው። መልክዕ ጓል ንመን ዝን ዘየብል።
      By the way there is a new good boardgame for birders.

      • Haile S.

        ሰላም ኣብረሀት፡
        እንቋዕ ኣዛረብኩኺ ጥራይ። ወይ ኣነ ዘይረኽቦ! ረኺብክኒ።
        Thank you for the info. Just googled. Is it Wingspan? I will check it.

    • Nitricc

      Hi Haile S; i didn’t understand what you have and what it means. As usual when something thing i on’t understand, i reached out to some other significants for what it means. Now i undertsnad what said and what it means, and i am lost for words to explain it to you. If there was justice, you should be arrested for what you have said, however, in the rule and in the eye of justice of Nitricc, you are punished for 24 hours from aware-forum to participate . The ruling is final and binding you must abide. How is it possible an Eritrean to say such a thing after what our famle Eritrean fighters demonstrated in our long arduous journey for independence? You may have said as an adage, regardless it offensive. 24 hours, final!!!!

  • Nitricc

    HI-All: Am not sure if PMAA knows the agenda and the plan of the Oromo elites. The way PMAA speaks to his people and interacts with the international community, seems to have a greater vision that inclusive of all Ethiopians. Then you see what Jawwar is doing and what Lemma is saying; you got to believe PMAA must know and agree. So what is the Oromo elite’s agenda? Changing the demographic of Addis through social engineering:
    Meaning locate only Oromo ethnicities that are internally displaced from around the country into Addis Ababa! The Oromo elite believe that if you control Addis Ababa, then, you can control the economy and the political power of the country and the rest ethnic groups. So, by brining every Oromo to Addis Ababa, the city majority ethnic will be Oromo and so are the votes that will put the Oromo elites on power forever. You may ask what the rush is and why do it under such instability and political turmoil? Well, I think all the armed fighters of Oromo are in comps and very soon will integrate in to the society i.e. the Oromo elites have nothing to leverage for and will lose all the power to harass the federal government. And the Oromo elites might not get this chance ever again. The PM Oromo.
    The Oromo ethnic president, an Oromo who tells what to do the PM. The mayor of the city of Addis Ababa is an Oromo and you throw in there a lunatic, stupid and wanna be learned man, Jawwar; if the time is not now for what the Oromo elite’s want then when?
    Sadly, once again Ethiopia didn’t find the strong leader who is all Ethiopians PM. To tell you the truth, all the Ethiopia did is, take out TPLF and replace it with Oromo, nothing in between.

    • Blink

      Dear Nitricc
      Oromo are the majority of match them with any ethnic in Ethiopia and they have been pushed by all leaders up until now , You guys are blaming them for taking their rightful place in Ethiopian politics. Once they control the center they will move to include others but how could they include now at this time ? The Oromo people are the majority and they don’t have the say up until now and that is the reason for the siege mentality from others , it is a sad reality that a weyane planted tree shut down these people for 27 years by bullets now the time has changed.The right of the minority will be cared well once the power lands with Oromo which is not yet at place due to weyane evil plan and some Amhara old die hard lunatics in the center . Let the Oromo drive the Ethiopian engine because humiliating them is not the answer . The weyane digital army and some lunatic from other horror film actors are shouting out because an Oromo poor guy wanted to be respected and have a say in Ethiopia, this is simply unfair characterization of Jawhar and his pals and it falls to the the same trap weyane made 27 years ago , give them a chance and let’s have respect that these Oromo youth are not a revenge seeking people . The current PM can only blamed for letting go the weyane scavengers because that is simply unfair to the poor killed souls of every Ethiopian mam.

      • Nitricc

        Hi Blink; I am not going to disagree with many points you have raised. I agree AT never, once voiced their opposition to the TPLF massacring the Amara and the Oromo. Not only AT but there are high caliber people like Aman-H never voiced their opposition to the Weyne massacring. So, yes the people of Oromo are immensely suffered under all powers, the Amara and the Tigray but they have right the quest for Addis Ababa. Addis Ababa is and was built by all citizens of Ethiopia investment’s therefore the city should have its own administration system and they Addis residences should elect their own officials. I have no idea if Addis is on Oromo land or not but regardless Addis should be just like Washington DC. Once again Addis is Addis because of the investiments all Ethiopians i.e. who ever lives in Addis, Addis is home. If things go the Oromo way and control Addis, then, What we witnessed in the Legetafo’s home demolition will be come the order of any given day and that will lead to a war that will dwarfs the Rwanda tragedy.

      • Hameed Al-Arabi

        Ahlan Blink,

        For somebody who don’t know you might feign to be a righteous person, but that is not true. You chop history and attempt to defame others. Your beginning and end is always Weyane. You should visit history and ask: Where were Oromos before Meles Zenawi? They were under slavery of the Ethiopian emperors. One glaring issue is that Minilik had taken their land by force before decades and gave it an Amharic name, Addis Ababa. I think, Meles Zenawi and his party gave Oromos some of their rights, and now they are struggling for the rest. I conceive as many Eritreans do there were some benefits for the Oromos during TPLF rule of Ethiopia, but not their full rights. I think, it is not wise to interfere when things are heading to the right direction, but when some groups oppose and demonize Oromo leaders, we could say it is unjust to suppress those who demand for their rights. Akapitto, Blink.


  • Simon Kaleab

    Selam all,

    Here we go again, the never ending Oromo elite tantrum using the Oromo masses as cannon fodder.

    By the way, the statement “Oromo farmers whose ancestral lands were confiscated” is inaccurate. The Oromo are invaders from North Kenya. When they invaded, the land was not empty. So the land can at best be called disputed.

    Abiy is not the first Oromo ruler of Ethiopia. The Oromo have ruled Ethiopia for the last 500 years, directly or by proxy.

    • Hameed Al-Arabi

      Ahlan Kaleab,

      Why did Minilik change the name to Addis Ababa before less a century? This change of name in itself displays it is a clear act of aggression by Minilik to Oromo land. The Amhara ethnic group inhabited Addis Ababa after Minilik occupied the region. The Oromo want the true name of that region which is Finfine as a capital city of Ethiopia and Center of the African Union.


      • Simon Kaleab

        Selam Hameed,

        Addis Ababa is not owned by the Oromo. When they invaded it, it was not empty. How long were the Oromo there? At best it is disputed land.

        By the way, Menelik is more Oromo compared to those who support the fake Oromo claim.

  • Selam All,

    Native Indians would have been the richest people of the world if they are allowed to own every city in the USA, because they inhabited the land before anybody else. It can easily be proved that they were the only people who lived in the Americas before anybody else arrived there.

    On the contrary, continents like Africa were crisscrossed over centuries and millennia by different groups of people (clans) that lived and were later forced to leave their surroundings for different reasons. Who really owns the land then? Where is that piece of land where every God created human being and even animals can live in this God created world that has now become the property of the greedy and the powerful?

    In the so called civilized countries the land has become a commodity that more or less belongs to anyone who can afford it. In backward countries like ours, it belongs to a tribe, with the tribal elites the real owners, and it has more or less become off limit to other tribes.

    They say they aspire for development, but they are against inviting others to participate, and they want to drive out everybody else by using fake history and myths.

    W. Churchill had once said that history is going to be kind to him, because he is going to right it himself. If we take it literally, this is what some Oromo elites are doing as much as Addis Ababa and its environs are concerned, by bringing fake history and myths, and by writing it themselves.
    Who lived on the land before they conquered and migrated to the area? Every sort of tribe lived in the same area, the later comer pushing out the former.

    The problem with those who say Addis is Oromo is that they are the same people who stand with one leg in the cosmopolitan west, and with the other in the third world, manifesting their short sightedness and backwardness at the same time. Look at jawar.

    Non-Oromo AddisAbaban ethiopians, in their opinion, are refugees and illegal settlers, because they have crossed an internal international border. Yet, magnanimous enough, they are not going to evict them, but they are going to tax them in the future, (if I am not mistaken 40% Ethiopia’s economy is in Addis), and thus control the economy of the country, and maybe other things that may come up in the future, thus nullifying the federation they say they stand for. Four million addisababans have the right not to be under a master.

    I think that the important factor is power-hunger, and many are power hungry, and one can imagine what is going to happen in independent oromia. Somebody once said that Addis can grow upwards or even downwards, and it should not expand sideways. The ocean (the farmlands), do not allow it, and much more no other person should set foot on an oromo land as was said when the poison of ethnic federalism was announced and implemented.

    If the land gets added value through expansion of infrastructures and farmers get better compensation or price for their land, it will extricate their families from poverty. This is not unknown to many oromo elites, but myopic ethnic politics and sinister ethnic politicians are the culprit.

    Look at what is happening today. The so called educated and the uneducated likewise, do not know the difference between democracy and anarchy, or do not want to know, as much the elites are concerned. It is not far fetched when it is said that ethiopians can understand dictatorship only, because it is the only system of governance they know and lived through, and the reason they mistreat democracy, peace and normalcy.

    The lambs (the young) do not know where the wolves (politicians) are taking them. Politicians know very well that even if they cannot deliver a better future, they can easily make the gullible young and some foolish adults, addicts of tribalism and narrow ethnicism and they can divert their attention from working together with all Ethiopians for a better Ethiopia of the future, but against ethiopia.

    Oromo clans who may have lived more than a century ago can not define the fate of the metropolitan city, because they were not the only ones. There were many before and after them. Is there a proof other than verbal history? Therefore, it is better to know that this is a sinister plan, divisive and isolationist, to create instability in the country by those who do not want ethiopia to move forward, and are opposed to the reform and democracy that is coming to ethiopia.

    • Hameed Al-Arabi

      Ahlan Horizon,

      Do you allow them to share Gonder with you? I think, the entire region has the same ailment, thus don’t blame them for concepts you are not free from it yourself. You want to keep yours saved in your disposal and share others in what they own. Don’t you see this is a craft, extreme greediness and backwardness?

      You were lecturing Eritreans to pull them to your quagmire of unrest, slavery and poverty. ዓሻ ጽምብላለዕ ንጎልጎል ትኸድን (A fool butterfly dresses the field).


  • Brhan

    Hello Awate,
    1) There has never been an Oromo map in Ethiopia and even the OLF did not produce the map. But the TPLF / EPRDF created the Oromo Kilil and Adiss Ababa (AA) is within that kill. Changing the status of AA, Raya, Welqayit and maybe other are dormant issues and politicians will use them as needed, especially in elections. They were the outcome of the constitution and to change their status means editing the constitution which is not easy to do because it leads to referendum and I do not believe the status of those cities worth it.
    2) Is Jawar the product of Qerro or the opposite. Or is Jawar the verbatim of the later or the opposite. I think Jawar is smart and a politician to balance the rope that ties him with the Qerro. The challenge of the Abey government with persons like Jawar is like a goldsmith and his jewelry: shape and reshape to your interest
    3) I would like to to relate the Oromo issue to Eritrea and that is what matters as the one side of the subject is that the AA issue is an internal Ethiopian issue and Ethiopians should sort it out, but the other side of the subject relates to the current political dynamics: both countries are interfering into the other’s issue one way or the other way. Abbey is ignoring the plight of Eritrean people and forming alliances with I. Afeworki and the latter has started to serve the former at the expense of Eritrea’s interest. I. Afeworki is watching the issue of AA and his role will go along with the alliance he has formed with the current Ethiopian government

  • Teodros Alem

    Selam Gedab
    2 corrections. 1, there was never been a city called finfina, it was just a place near “fel waha”(hot spring water) and the place is still called finfina. 2. Johar Mohamed is not the only person behind the issue, he is more of the spokesman of odp/eprdf on this particular case.

    • ustaz habib

      Salamat Awate,

      First of all, the name controversy standing as it may : be it Finfinnee or “ Berara “ , the latter being manufactured as of recent with those who are hellbent and fond of churning out myth/mythology for its own end game , and well-known for it throughout the region , for simple reason(s) to attain their sinister and ulterion objectives of “ A’hadu “ by any cost , which is a Machiavellian moves in their PART, and zero-sum-game ploys !

      As to Finfinnee/Addis , the issue is beyond NAME, and what is at stake: the capital city can’t expand at the expense of Oromoo farmers displacement from their ancestral land with little to speak of compensation or zero at
      times, which is NOT commensurate with market value nor does it well bode for the their children or themselves in a long run! Something of different approach should be in place as a plan! One also have to realize that Oromoo people are seeking to be part of “ urban politics and its outcome ” as a people.

      when it comes to that country’s HISTORICAL annals ,OBVIOUSLY, the DebTerA’s mind set is at work, as with those who are still seeking the status quo ante of for bygone era, at least in some groupings, and that’s just mission impossible , given the current REALITY on the ground!!

      • Teodros Alem

        Selam ustaz habib
        U r fake ustaz and u r ebabe t, not habib.
        reread what i said, neither i didn’t mention berera nor i don’t buy the story behind it.
        The addis ababa comprehensive master plan, oromoifa as 2nd language of addis and finfina as 2nd name of the city will be implemented, this has been planned long time ogo by eprdf and as long as they r in power they will implement it, so if u don’t like it fight them, not with me.
        If u don’t believe they will implement it, listen to the recent(5-6 months old)interview of “kuma demekesa”, they may change Thier style and technic but as far as i know them, they will do it.
        have u ever been to adama/netherat ? Why is it still feels nazerat after 27 years?

        • Brhan

          Hi Tedros
          Please refrain from using negative words against persons , why do not you focus on that they are saying than speculating on their personalities.
          As a usual commentator I just want to remind you of protocol
          Do you like it if I call you fake Gashe?

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam brhan
            The dark, what is that mean fake gashe?
            I didn’t use any negative words on this one, am just telling the truth, eprdf is basically knows one game, which is they invent 2 extremist points of views through thier agents and play idiot people like “” and implement thier ideology and policy by playing in the middle and acting as a savior from the two extremists views.

          • Brhan

            Hi Teodros
            U said to Ustaz Habib….fake Ustaz

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam brhan
            I bit he is fake ustaz and fake habib. it is internal, can’t prove it but am sure he is fake, u can tell from his approach and statements.
            This kinds of statement only can come from ustaz ebabe. by the way do u know what means ustaz and habib means?

          • Brhan

            ሰላም ቴድሮስ
            እባብ ብሎ የሚሳደብ ከ እባብ ዘር ሳይሆን ኣይቀርም
            ኡስትዝ እንደ “ጋሼ” እንደምትሉት ነው….’ለይስሙላ ጋሼ’ እንዳልልህ…ጨዋ ነኝ…ሓቢብ ደሞ ስም ነው ልክ እንደ ቴድሮስ እንደ ኣለም….ተግባባን መሰለኝ

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam brhan
            The dark, habib is a name on this one but it has a meaning and ustaz is not gashe. what he has said didn’t come from ustaz nor what he said was habib, but ebabe.

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selam Awatistas,

    “ፓለቲካዊን ኤኮነምያዊ ታርጌታችን ቀይ-ባህር ማድረግ አስፈላጊ ነው:: አረንጓዴ ብጫ ቀይ ባንዴራችን በአስመራ ትውለበለባለች:: የድሮዋ ኢትዮጵያ እንደገና ትወለዳለች”

    ዶ/ር እንባቸው መኮነን የአማራ ክልል ፕረሲደንት

    Dear Awatistas, it is no more conspiracy, rather it is openly on day light “our Eritrean” is given to the highest bidder, to merge in to the fold of Ethiopia. The Ethiopian leaders from their PM to the leaders of the kilils are talking openly. ልቢ ነዕቢ ሃየ::

    • Nitricc

      Hi Aman-H; well, remember they can talk whatever they want. Talking is free and personal right. Secondly, I don’t think they will keep the Ethiopia they have today let alone to bring Eritrea in to the mix. The final blow will come over Addis-Abeba. So, if I was this Ambachew; I worry about my own country. It can get UGLY!!!! And Forget Eritre.

      • Hameed Al-Arabi

        Ahlan Nitricc,

        “Talking is free and personal right.” Really. Even personal rights is not an open-ended rights. My friend, when a person who is part of government declares and transcends to sovereignty of another country, you don’t just condemn him but you immediately pass your complaints to United Nations Security Council and African Union. Sovereignty is not a kids’ game. It is an achievement that cost dear. I know you don’t feel the paid blood and misery, so it is better not to speak when the issue concerns sovereignty.


        • Nitricc

          you don’t just condemn him but you immediately pass your complaints to United Nations Security Council and African Union

          Hi Alarabi: as might go all the way to war. Dude; do you think one person and persons said will come automatically reality? Let them say what ever they want. I think at times Eritreans take things a little too serious. The other day I was in In Vegas having lunch in one of the Habesha restaurants and I was observing a heated and passionate discussion among two older guys who are absolutely dismayed because Ethiopia inaugurated King Hailesilase’s statues. I mean how is it Eritrea’s business what Ethiopia and Ethiopians do in their country? So, my point is it doesn’t bother me, if any disgruntled Ethiopian is going to waste his time hoping, whishing and dreaming about Eritrea. Dream is free nor illegal.

          • Hameed Al-Arabi

            Ahlan Nitricc,

            A threat from anybody against a nation makes governments to raise their alert codes. My friend, you don’t wait until catastrophe materializes. You have to utilize prevention methods to the maximum. Do you know why ministers in civilized nations resign when a disaster occurs in domain of their responsibility? The reason is that they didn’t apply precaution methods from disasters. You require to rethink about the issue deeply.

            I want to tell you an event happened a long time ago. An auditor found a difference of one cent more in his government /company accounts. He didn’t say it is one cent and ignored it, but he calculated well to find the reason behind this one cent. He thought, there may be millions or billions of dollars loss behind this one cent. Please, don’t simplify national issues and look at them heedless.


    • Saleh Johar

      Selam Emma,
      The above transcription (quote) from Dr. Enbachew’s speech is fake–some irresponsible person faked the speech (by including the RED SEA) into his quoted speech. I listened to the one-hour speech and it is not there. Then I contacts three people who posted the fake note and they apologized. We should be careful not to consume and fall for anything we read before we check the original source. Unless we get a first hand sources, the original source, we should rule it out as false news. In such a confused state of communication, we should all act like forensics experts and get to the bottom of what we read before we buy into it.

      • Nitricc

        Hey SG; speaking of deception; do you think this is a fake and authentic? I have very hard time differentiating.

        • Brhan

          Hi Nitricc
          If it is fake, then we will disregard it and if it is not we will still disregard it because Dr. Embaches (I believe it is with ‘m” not with “n”) is doing for local consumption ….easy for him to say that to win votes in the upcoming election and strengthen his new power. When Ethiopians said we will build the Renaissance Dam for Egytpitans it was not local consumption , it was real….so the Dr. must show us the road that leads him to the Red Sea

      • Hope

        Ahlen Ya Ustazna:
        But that is typical Amanuel Hidrat though…isn’t he?

    • Teodros Alem

      Selam aman h
      This is clearly shows u r nothing but damn foot soldier.

    • Millennium

      Hi Amanuel:

      If you are going to believe anything that is posted on social media as truth, you have a problem; just do the minimum due diligence and look for the original before you rush to share innuendos