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Eritrea-Ethiopia: Ambassadors Without Credentials

On July 2018, Ethiopian officials announced that Redwan Hussein was appointed as Ethiopia’s ambassador to Eritrea, while the appointment of Semere Russom as Eritrea’s ambassador to Ethiopia was announced in a tweet by Yemane Gebremeskel, Eritrea’s minister of information.

However, after more than a year, none of the two ambassadors has presented their letter of credence to the heads of the two governments but to the foreign ministers of the two countries.

Redwan Hussein formerly served as Ethiopia’s ambassador to Ireland while Semere Russom was Eritrea’s minister of education.

So far, the Eritrean government has not appointed Semere Russom’s  replacement nor has it formally announced he has surrendered his ministerial portfolio.

The two countries had recalled their ambassadors two decades ago in the wake of the 1998-2000 border war.

The Eritrean president Isaias Afwerki and the Ethiopian prime minister Abiy Ahmed signed their first “peace agreement” in July 9, 2018 in Asmara. The same agreement was signed again in Abu Dhabi, UAE, and again in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. It was accompanied by a media hype that took the world by surprise and resulted in the award of a Noble peace prize to Aby Ahmed, from which Isaias Afwerki, his supposed partner, was excluded.

On his first visit on July 2018, after the agreement he made with Abiy Ahmed, Isaias Afwerki “reopened his country’s embassy in Addis Ababa.”

However, to date, not much seems to have been accomplished after the much promoted “rapprochement” of

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  • mokie berhe

    Salam all. Yemane Gebremeskel has disclosed on his twitter page that PIA has accepted the credentials of Ambassadors from 21 countries, including Redwan Hussien of Ethiopia.

  • Haile S.

    ሰላም Gedab News,

    እልልልልልልልል ክብለልኩም
    ተዛሪብኩም -ምላኽ ሰሚዒኩም
    ኣምላኽ ዝበልኩ ካይመስለኩም
    መላኺ ማለተይ’ዩ ክድርጓሓልኩም
    Credential ክረደንሻል ኢልኩም
    ኣሕቢጥኩሙና ደጋጊምኩም
    እምበኣር እንሆ ሰሚዒኩም
    ክጽብቕ ዕድልኩም
    ኢሱ ኣንቢብኩም
    ዳርጋ ጸዲቕኩም
    መንግስተ-ዓዲ-ሓሎ ኣቲኩም
    Isayas ን Redwan ተቕቢሉልኩም
    ዘሓበሻ ዝበሃል ሎሚ ኣውርዩ እብለኩም
    በሉ ንሕና’ውን ክንትምነ እንተ ኣማሰለና ንኣኹም

    • ‘Gheteb

      ሰላም ሊቐ መዘምራን ሃይለ ኤስ

      አንታይ ድ’ኣሉ አዚ ኽሉ ሃበስ ቀደስ
      ዘሓበሻ ዶ ዘሕንባሻ ኢላቶ ኢልካ፣ ክንድዚ ምውዳስ
      አቲ ዜና ግዳ ዘይተጋውሖ ተሞርክስካ ካብ ኣፍ ፈረስ

      አዋእ አቲ ዜና ዝብሎ ዘሎ 29 ኣምባሳደራት
      አቅሪቦም ንፕረዚደንት ኢሰያስ አቲ ናቶም ባጀላታት
      ርድዋን ሓደ እዩ ካብቶም አኩባት

      አዋእ እዚ ናትካን ናይ ኣባ መሃንድስ ምዕባለ
      ወግሐ ጸብሐ አትብልዎ ለለ
      ንገለና ኮይንና ኣሎ ጉሮማይለ
      ዓዲ ሃሎ ዶ መላኺ’ባ አንዳበልካ ካልአ ዛዕባ ከምዘይለ
      ለቐ መዘምራን መጎስ ዑቅባገርጊስ አንተዝህሉስ አንታይ ኮን ምበለ

      በል አነሀልካ እቲ ዜና ብቐጥታ ካብ ኣፍ ፈረስ — directly from the horse’s mouth.

      ” Yemane G. Meskel
      President Isaias Afwerki received today the credentials of resident Ambassadors of Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, Germany, the United Kingdom, India, the European Union, Egypt & South Africa respectively. All in all 29 resident & non-resident Ambassadors are submitting their credentials.”

      • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

        ኣንታ ገጠብ
        ንታይ ደኣዩ ዝኹሉ ቀንጠብጠብ
        ዶ ዋላስ ጀሚርካ ክትቅንጥብ?

        ካብታ ዘይሕጋዊት ቆጽሊ
        ናይ ሰሜናዊ ባሕሪ
        ንሓረስቶት መሬት መንጢላ ብናጻ ተፍሪ

        ናይቶም ዘየንብቡስ ሸለል ንብሎ
        ናታትኩም ምሁራት ‘ዩ ከፊኡና ዘሎ

        ኣጆኻ ኣይትፍራሕ
        እንተኾነ ምራሕ
        ተዘይኮነ ምስ ደለይቲ-ፍትሒ ምስራሕ

        ስረ ተገፊሑካ
        [ወል-ማርት] ኬደ ቁልፊ ክገዝኣልካ
        ባጎኒ-ህግደፍ ‘ሲ ይትረፍካ!

      • Haile S.

        ሰላም ገጠብ፡

        ሊቀ መዘምራን ዶ ኢልካ እንተዝነብሩ?
        ኣይመስለካን ዶ ከም ኩሉ ጋዜጠኛ ምተሃገሩ

        ሊቀ-መዘምር ዜና ኩሉ ተዳጒኑ
        ዜና ዘምጽእ በዓል ክእለት ተሳኢኑ
        ከምዚ ከማይ ናብ ዘሓበሻ እንሆ ይጠዊ እዝኑ

  • ‘Gheteb

    ‘What Is In A Name’? : Facets Of The Ahbashat Tribes Culture


    In a recent interview, a certain Ethiopian from the Amhara Ahbashat tribe, was asked about the recently formed party called “Prosperity Party” lamented lugubriously that the name of the party should have included the word Ethiopia and, like in EPRDF, the acronym EPP would have been more befitting. How dare they dropped the glorious name Ethiopia from the party’s appellation, bewailed loudly, Dr. Semahegn (ዶክቶር ሰማሀኝ). His interlocutor joined him in the bemoaning and went off trotting out the three thousand years grandiose history of Ethiopia.

    Dr. Semahegn — Dr. You heard me — and his ilks, those at the pointed end of these Ahbashat tribes cultural spearhead, seem to be incognizant to the majestic history that their historical scribes have chronicled. The Ethiopian scribes endowed with this gargantuan and vivid imagination, not only have shamelessly appropriated other peoples history, but they even claimed that the first king of Ethiopia was Adam, as the first created man on this earth. What is more, the Ethiopian scribes, as recent as the reign of King Haile Selassie, have included in “The List of Ethiopian kings taken from the names of kings of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Nubia. As incredibly remarkable as they have appropriated and taken the very name Ethiopia as if it only refers to their country.

    Now many a culture claims more things than doesn’t singularly belongs to it. Yes you may have read or heard that a Masai tribesman from Kenya may think that all the cows in the world belong to the Masai tribe. Or, a Fulani tribesman’s worldview is utterly circumscribed by his cows and he will be forgiven if he thought that he will never return or come back to a village where one of his cow’s died because it is a bad omen. But these grandiose claims and barefaced historical larceny by the Ethiopian scribes and its ad nauseam narration, puts it beyond the pale,because these claims are belied by historical records.

    The first King in that region of Africa, Eritrea and Abyssinia, to be specific, is non other than the Adulissian king, King Zoskales (ንጉስ ዘሕቀሌ) as mentioned in “The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea”. Well, it is going to take some more endeavor to put the kibosh on all the mythologies that was engendered by the vivid imaginations of the Abyssinian scribes.

    And, now they have given the newly formed party the cognomen, Prosperity Party. If Abyssinian history is a prologue, the only ones who are going to prosper are those party bosses at helm of power who will indubitably be lining their pockets and enriching themselves to PROSPERITY. IF they were to ask me for a germane name for the newly formed party in Abyssinia, I would have suggested The HUMILITY PARTY instead of the preposterous the prosperity party.

    • Selamat Gheteb,

      Abb HadiQa kTelata keHikeyeka Hade gizie, knwaferr enkolena Setanta Otto…

      Ambasador Semwere RiEsomm al niell oum walQaHira..


      • ‘Gheteb

        Hey GitSAtsE,

        So what is the narration, Hikaya, of Khartoum THREE? I remember it albeit very vaguely. Do you mind jogging my memories?

        BTW, What about “The Waters Of Ule”? — Mai Ule? Again, where is your two cents worth about the play? Or, have you put your opinion with the classified Dartmouth Ave. Papers?

        • Selmat Gheteb,

          Whats in a cognomen is what is regarding too. حدادي 2. حزين Hazen as in Hazentegna messilu Dr. semaHgnegn qutAEiou… lamented his disappointment.
          Well, regarding kTelata is ዶር. ሰማህኘኝ another cognomen for ዶር. ንው ኢት ኦል? ኣይመስለንን። ግን ሓደ ሓደ ግዜ፡ ሎግ ዘይኮነስ ሎቦ። ጻዕሪ (laboriously) ናይ ዶር. ንው ኢት ኦል ኣብ ምፃይ ወይ ምምዕራይ ጉዳይ ኢትዮጵያ ምስ ኢትዮጵያውያን፡ ከም ኣብ ትሕተ ግዝኣት ኢትዮጵያ ህላዌኡ ወሲኑ ዝጎዓዝ ዘሎ ድዩ ኾይኑ ኢለ ከተሓሳስበኒ ይጅምር።

          ኣብ ናይል ምስ ሸማሽ ደቂ ካርቱም ካብ ብርኽ ዝበለ ዘንሳፍፍ ኣብ ገምግም ናይል፡ ብጉያ ነጢርና ቲፎ ናብቲ ማይ ንኣቱ። ከምቶም ሸማሽ ኣብ ካርቱም ወርሒ ክልተ ሰማንያን ሓደን “ሆምለስ” ኮይነልካ ኔረ። አቲ ባህሊ መሰቶይ ጭርሖና ነኸነስተግብር ስለ ዝኣመንኩሉ፡ ዓዲ ሃጸይነት ኣይደልይን ብምባል፡ ንሜዳ ንምምላስ ስጋብ ዝዕድጉ ኣብ አንዳ ምነይ ሽመይ ዝጥቀዓሉ ኮይኑ ኔሩ። ሰመረ ርአሶም ኣብ ሓደ አዋን፡ ስጋብ ኮበር መጎዓዝያ ሞተረን ዘላዕላ፡ ኣብ ጽሙዋ ቤት ጽሕፈት ኡምዱርማን፡ ሶሙን ንቑጽ ሪቨር-በድ ንአግሪ መንገደይ ይጽንዖ ነበርኩ። ካብኡ ን ሸጣ፡ ካብ ሸጣ ን ባሕሪ፡ ኣነ ውን ሸማሽ ካርቱም ተቖጺረ፡ ክለተ ጎማ ናይ ጋሎን ጸባ ኣብ ሽምጠይ ኣሲረ፡ ናይል ብምሕምባስ ምስጋር ይለማመድ ነበርኩ። አንድዒ ምናልባት ን ኣምፍቢያን ኣሶልት ጎርጉሱም ንደሓር ምጠቐመ ግዲ ኢለ ኾይነ። ቀቅድመይ ክልተ የሕዋቱ ንኢሰያስ ኣፈዎርቂ፡ ነፍሲሔር ኣብረሃም ኣፈዎርቂ ንምዕራብ ጎስጊሶም ኔሮም። ሓደ ግዜ ኣዲኣ ን ምሕረት ጓለይ ምለሱለይ ኢላ ን ሰመረ ርአሶም ኣብ ኡምዱርማን ስጂን ከምዝአሰር ጌራቶ ኔራ። ” ኮግኖመኑ “ዓዲ ጎምበሎ” ኣነ ውን ከም መሕረትን ደቁ ሓጎስን ህድኣትን ሜዳ ኤርትራ ንከይምለስ፡ ጭርሖና ‘ምልዓል ዝወድቐት ብረት ብጾትኖ…” ንኸየማልአ ብጻዕሩ ኣረጋጊጹ። ነብሱ ይምሓሮ። ናይ ሸማሽ ካርቱም ግን፡ አታ ብጨርቂ ናፍታ ኣጠልቅዮም በፍንጨኦም ዘስተንፍሱዋ ዝነበሩ ከይተሞኮርኩዋ፡ ደሓር “ዱባ ኣስመራ ኣቲኺ ዙኪኒ ሽምኪ ቀይርኪ” ኮይና ኣብ ሃርለም ዩ ኤስ ኣ ኩዱም ኢላ ጸንሓትኒ። ከርክ ኦለሰስኪ ፕሮፈሶር ከርክ ኣብ ዶቡብ ካሊፎርንያ፡ ቦረን ኤጌን ፕሮስፐሪቲ ፓርቲ ቀንዲ ኮንሰርቫቲቭ ኢዩ ኾይኑ ዘሎ። ሉዊዚያና ስቴት ፒ ኤች ዲ፡ ባህሊ ዶቡብ ኣሜርካ ኣዚዩ ካብ ሰሜን ዝነበረ ባህሪያታቱ ከም ዝብህርር ጌርዎ ግዲ ኮይኑ።

          ኣል ኣሕባሽ ቴማኻ፡ ምስ ሓንቲ ጓል ፓይሎት ኢትቶጵያን ኤርላይንስ፡ ገዛውታ ቦልየ፡ ብሕንቃቄ ዝተሰርነቐት ሳኣን ኣደ ኣብ ንአስነታ፡ ከኽዱድልካ ቀኒየ። ነዛ ፕራፐሪቲ ፓርቲ ሓዳስ ኣብ ኢትዮጵያ ዝተመስረተት ከኣ፡ ብዓይኒ መደመር ፍቕሪ ክሓስበላ ቀነኹ። ጆሃር “ህዝቢ ትግርኛ ብጣዕሚ ዱሑራት ኢና። ዝንበባ መጽሓፋት ዳርጋ ዘይብልና ኢና ኢሉ ብዝዕባ ሳባውያን ኣቦሓጎታቱ….” ምስ አዚ ናትካ ኣል ኣሕባሽ ቴማ፡ ነገሩ ዶ ኾን ደቂ ከረን ቁሩብ ካብ ደቀ ኣስመራ ይዕርቡ የዕራብ ይኾኑ? ዝብል ሓሳብ ይለዓለኒ። ከምኡ አንተ ኮይኑ ‘ሞ፡ ደቂ ተሰነይ ካብ ደቂ ከረን ኣዚና ንዓርብ ወይ የዕራብ ኢና ማለት ድዩ። ሕጂ ተለታዕሸር ምስ ናይ ማያ ሲቪላይዘሽን ክልተ ሚአትን ሱሳን መዓልታት ኣብ ዓመት፡ ዓሰርተ ሰለስተ ኣውርሕ ዐዕስራ መዕልታት ዝሓዘላ ቁጽረን ኣስማተን ተገንዘብ።

          ኢክ 1. 8. 2. 9. 3. 10. 4. 11. 5. 12. 6. 13. 7.
          ኣክባል. 2. 9. 3. 10. 4. 11. 5. 12. 6. 13. 7. 1. 8.
          ካን. 3. 10. 4. …….። 9.
          ቺሚ 4. 11. ……። 10.
          ኢክስ 13. 7 1. 8. 2. 9. 3. 10. 4. 11. 5. 12. 6. 13. 7.
          ኢሚኢክስ 7. 13.

          ከም ሀክሳደሲማል በይስ ዓሰርተ ሰለስተ ምስ ናይ ሳባውያን ፕላዊንግ ኣጸሓሕፋ፡ ዶብ ትርከብ ተላታዓሸር ን ምንታይ ተላታዓሸር ተጸዊዓ? ጳጉመ ምስ ናይ ግብጺ ካላንዳር ዝምድኑኡ ከምይ ጌሩ ይንጸር? ጉዳይ ናይ ኒል ወይ ናይል ወንዝ ምስ “ኢን ዘ ኣባንዳንስ ኦፍ ዎተር ዘፉል ኢዝ ሰርስቲ” ን ኣል ኣሕባሽ ከመይ ጌሩ ይትንክፎ? ወዲ ከረን ሳልሕ ጋዲ ትግርኛ ነዚ ሕቶታት ተላታዕሸር ብዛዕባ ማያን ሲቢላይዜሽን ኣፍልጦ ኣይነበረን ናይ ስነ ሒሳብ ዓቕሙ ዱሑር ኢዩ ኢሉ ከመይ ጌሩ ርግጸኛ ይኸውን? ና

          ሕኑ ሸማሺን
          ዑምና ፊል ኒል
          ማ ሸረብና በንዚን
          ዌኑ ኣል ኣስመር ኣዝማሪኖ
          ዶር. ንው ኢት ኦል ሲን ሲን
          ኢዘይ ቻርሊ ሺን

          ባይሊ ፐይፐርስ ትውቅሰካ ምስ ራሻዊ ነልሶን ምጽጋዕካ ኣቐዲምካ ዝተገንዘብካሉ፡ ሁዋ ሓቐሆም ያዕኒ ናሶም ማ ያዕምሉሁ ወላ ሓጃ፣ ኢልካ ከላሽነይ ዓሚረ በይነይ ዕላማ ግሎስኖት ክያርም ዘዋፈርካኒ ኢዩ። ጓል ስርሒት ቦልየ ፓይሎት፡ ኣና ኢዘይክ ሓበሺ ከተብለኒ ዝቐነየት ዛንተኣ ከም ጓል ዳርትሙትጽ ኣብ ብናዊ (ብራውን ካቻኡ ንወዲ ሃይለ መንቀርዮስ ኣይቪ ሊገር) ምኪዲስ በይሊ ዘላልዩኻ ተምሳሳል ቅንያት ሕጽኖት ስል ዝቐነኹ “ማይ ዑለ” ኣብ ኣወል ብ ስቕታ ኢየ ተሳቲፈያ። ከም ሽማ ኣብ ካላኣይን በረካን ጽበ ኣለኹ።

          ፍላሽ ባክ፡

          ዳርትሙትጽ፦– ይዝከረካ አንተ ኮይኑ፣ ሃይለስላሲ ስኮላርሺፕ ተዓዲሉ ኣርቲስት ፐይንተር ን ኢትዪጵያ ዝተመልሰ፡ ጓሉ ኤልሳ ኣብ በይሊ ኣቨንዩ ክትላለየና? ዳርትምትጽ ኮለጅ ኢትዮጵያዊ ዝነበረ ኣቦኣ ኤርትራዊ ሙኻኑ ኣብቲ አዋን ምስ ፈለጠት ጥብቕ ኢላትና ኔር። ግን ከም ዓወት መንቀርዮስ ኣብ ብራውን፡ ምስ በይሊ ፐፐርስ ዘተሓሕዛ ኣይበጽሓቶን ኔር ዋል ውን ትበጽሖ ኣይመስለንን። በይሊ ፔፐርስ ሲ ን ሸማሺን ከም ዝኻማይ። አንታይ ኢዩ ምስ ኣይቪ ሊገርስ ዘመጣጥረኒ? Is it because I am All State ራፍ ባፍ!

          ፓይ ኣብ ባሕሪ ክልተ ሚአትን ሱሳን ማዓልቲ ኣንሳፊፉ። ነብሪ ኮይኒ ሕብሩ ኣራንሾኒ። ካብ ዓዲ ሂንዲ ን መሺኮ ማያን ሲቪላይዘሽን ኣብ መሬት ዕሊቡ።
          ሃፓኖዘ መ ርርርርርር ከ ብብብ ናናና በሉ።

          ካልጋሪ, ኤድመንቶን, ቫንኩቨር
          ቡወኖስ ኣይረስ, ሮዛርዮ, ኮርዶባ

          ኢንች ኦን


          • ‘Gheteb

            Hey GitSAtse,

            Dr. Semahegn (ዶክቶር ሰማሀኝ) is NOT Dr. Newitol. No, they are not one and the same. Dr. Semahegn is an Ethiopian of the Amhara Ahbashat tribes extraction. He lives/teaches in a college somewhere in the northeast of the USA, Boston area, I guess.

            One other thing that I would like to clarify is the very word Ahbashat — (ኣሕባሻት) — . You seem to have misconstrued it to mean like when the Arabs use it, as in Habesh or Habeshi.

            The term Ahbashat is used in its original form as it is found in the inscriptions of King Ezana (ንጉስ ዓዘና). In the inscription ( 320- 360 AD), King Azena declares that he is the king of ” Saba and Salhen, Himyar and Dhu-Raydan, Kusu, Aksumen, Ahbashat….”

            Those tribes that lived in Aksum are referred as Aksumen. Ahbashat, is a plural and probably a collective name of the many tribes of Habeshas.

            Thanks for all the narration and flashbacks,

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selam Awatistas,

    For those of us who are interested in the history of the Nile river and the historical struggle of Egypt and Ethiopia for the Nile water, the link below is worth reading to give you a good understanding to the issue of GERD – the project of the late PMMZ. Enjoy reading.


    • Admassie

      Selam Amanuel Hidrat,

      A good material. Thank you.
      Each side has its worry and genuine concern and that is understandable. But as stated in the conclusion, the only way out is diplomacy and negotiation. There must be a way out if states avoid using the issue as a rallying material for a political gain locally. Bold leadermanship is needed and we can not be on limbo forever.

    • Selam Amanuel H.

      A very interesting piece indeed. The author has brought many important points, although few are flawed.
      The two points i think were flawed are:
      – Egypt did not reach any agreement with any colonies, but with the colonizer. The agreement was made before they gained independence. Hence the Nyerere doctrine that africans are not bound by colonial egypt-britain agreement. Ethiopia, an independent nation, was not consulted either in 1929 or 1959.
      – Menelik may have said that he wouldn’t harm anybody, but i don’t think that he made a formal agreement with the britain,

      – The war for eritrean independence and the ethio-somali war were part of the destabilization effort by egypt,
      – Egypt doesn’t recognize the equitable shares agreement recognized by the UN. Egypt and sudan can demand water equivalent to yearly blue nile flow, but it doesn’t mean that they will get it.
      – Ethiopia is not going to allow a million deaths due to famine as in the 1980s, while egypt could avert it.,
      – The gerd will lift ethiopia out of poverty, because there are examples where big dams have produced economic miracles. Why is the nile there if ethiopia can’t use it to feed her people and produce electricity to extricate itself from poverty?
      – It is difficult to trust egyptian officials on any negotiations for cooperation. They will go back on their words like the case of building the Toshka Canal to irrigate the desert sand thus pressuring ethiopia that egypt has increased needs for water, while they had agreed to cooperate with ethiopia.
      – Water stored in the deep Blue Nile Gorge would reduce evaporation, thus increasing water flows downstream.
      – Ethiopia and other riparian countries have the upper hand in the negotiations,and the politics of warmongering is not going to help egypt, but that of cooperation.
      – Historic water rights no longer holds water, and egypt should live with this fact in mind, and prepare herself for negotiations.

      • Admassie

        Selam Horizon,

        Minilik has made a formal agreement with Britain. But the issue is, the word “arrest” in the agreement is interpreted by Ethiopia and Egypt differently. The agreement states (I am not quoting ) …Ethiopia shall not arrest the river Nile… Egypt takes it to mean Ethiopia has agreed not to hold the water, by extension, not to build any dam. And Ethiopia, on the other hand says, the agreement is meant not to hold the water permanently and I am not bulding a dam that holds the water permanently. That was one of Egypt’s argument at first opposing the dam by referring the agreement.

        • Selam Admassie,

          Thanks for the info. This shows the problem of interpreting agreements, treaties, etc. The battle of adwa was as the result of flawed interpretation by the italians purposely. I think that the agreement ethiopia is carrying out today with egypt and sudan must not leave open any window for misinterpretations, although there is no way to avoid it if the other party is hell bent to do it, right or wrong. Egypt, i think, has this in mind when you see her going one step forward – two steps back over the last decade of negotiation with the other seven riparian countries, so that ethiopia makes a mistake somewhere, on top of fighting to retain her lion’s share. What ethiopia achieves will play a major role on what the remaining riparian countries will get in the future.

          • Admassie

            Selam Horizon,

            Here is the actual article of the 1902 agreement between Ethiopia and Britain.

            “Art. III – His Majesty the Emperor Menelik II, King of Kings of Ethiopia, engages himself towards the Government of His Britannic Majesty not to construct, or allow to be constructed, any work across the Blue Nile, Lake Tsana, or the Sobat which would arrest the flow of their waters into the Nile except in agreement with His Britannic Majesty’s Government and the Government of the Soudan.”

            What is obvious is, whether Ethiopia is strong or weak, Egypt is no more the sole beneficiary of the Nile at this time of era. This is a bitter fact. People in the upper stream are entitled to use their resource that is available at their disposal. Why is an Egyptian farmer and its family are more entitled to our common resource than me and my family?

            Egypt’s dragging her leg is, she could be speculating for good opportunity in the current situation of Ethiopia, or is waiting for an eventuality in case she gets some chances in sabotaging the dam. Any intrigue may hamper projects for some time, but I think it will not sustain for the upper stream countries are no more in slumber.

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Selam Admassie & Horizon,

          Unfortunately, politicians do not like the concept of “fair share”. They thrive to have the upper hand on a negotiating table, whatever the issue at hand might be. The concept of “fair share” could have bring a win-win solution to both sides, if they applied it sincerely on the negotiation table. If Egypt continued on their “historical attitudes” on the Nile water, it will only harden the position of Ethiopia to fight for its interest. The Egyptians must understand that the unfair colonial treaty on the Nile water that gave them upper hand for them is “Nil and void” by the other beneficiaries countries of the Nile basin. Ethiopia must stood its ground for their own natural resource to exploit it for its economic development.


      • Teodros Alem

        selam horizon
        a few months after ” gerd ” project started , in one of meles interview , meles said the agreement between emperor menelik and British is not completely to stop the nile river .

    • Teodros Alem

      selam aman h
      ur good link said “to harm ethiopia, egypt”s Nasser encourage eritreans to secede from ethiopia”, and u said u were part of that secession movement (ghedli).right? Is that mean u were fighting a proxy war on behalf of egypt or ur link is not good link ?

    • Brhan

      Hello Amanuel,
      Thanks for the link. It would be better if you had written your take on the reading. We would have benefited.The reason is that in now days a lot have being said about the Nile. And we read and come to share it is better if we indicate our point because some reading are just for propaganda.
      I would like to share this : An article written by a person called Dr. Mohamed El Gewadi , an Egyptian , Aljazeera arabic (www. (
      You will be surprised to read what he said:

      1) The Renaissance Dam is a plan to punish Egypt, Arab and/or Muslim countries in case they go against the US interest
      2) The Ethiopian government doesn’t know the above
      3)He sees that #1 is not only against Muslims in Egypt but also against the Coptic Christians. He says the West had tried to destroy Coptic Christianity but Islam had protected it)
      4) He brings an argument: He sees that the 5 billion dollars ( the expense ) of The Renaissance Dam is too much as the Dam will produce only 5000 Megawatts which is too little according to him , in other words he is saying the cost is expensive and the product is too little and if this is the case , then the objective behind building the Dam is not for electricity but to use the dam as a strategic tool to silence Egypt and Arab countries if they go against the US policy in the middle east in the future , like to dry Egypt and its land
      5) He relates the Dam with the issue of Higher Dam of Egypt and says as the West was against the later Dam to punish Egypt and its allies now the West is pro the Renaissance Dam for the same reason

      Dr. El Gewadi says that the who issue is psychological warfare that has become a taboo and he is breaking the taboo by his article.

      And my take is that Dr. El Gewadi is living in a world which is an illusion.
      He is abusing religion and history and above all showing that Egyptians are superior and that the Ethiopians are inferior , which is racist idea.
      Aljazeera should not allow this kind of articles and if allowed also it has to open the door to readers to comment but the door is closed.

      • Mez

        Good Dsy Brhan:

        The link is broken, can’t get the article. Please repost.


  • ሓላው ስጡሕ

    Hi all,
    Not to worry about credentials because in the short run Eritrea & Ethiopia are merging again to create “NEW PROSPER ETHIOPIA”,,,the only logical explanation derived from the real situation.Ethiopians keep on displaying the old Ethiopian map (includes the prodigal daughter,Eritrea) Shaibiyas/higdefs do not object.”We are one people whoever believes Ethiopia & Eritrea are two people does n’t see the realiy ” speech by papa ISAIAS..need I say more???

    • mokie berhe

      Salam ሓላው ስጡሕ . I also hear that the USA and Mexico are will in the short run merge to create ‘NEW PROSPER AMERICANA’ and that they will use Taca Bell billboards to promote social cohesion.

      • ሓላው ስጡሕ

        ግና ሞኬ ቁሩብ ኣየጣራጥረካንዶ እቲ ኹነታትኣብ ከባቢና ዘሎ ? ማለት ኣሜሪካ ንሜክሲኮ ኣይትደልያን እያ ,ክትሓጉማ እንተዘይኮይኑ,ኢትዮጵያውያን ግን ይደልዩና እዮም ባባ ኢሳያስ ድማ ይደልይዮም እዩ…እእሰሰ

        • mokie berhe

          Salam ሓላው ስጡሕ . It’s not about skipping around but rather living in the real world. Chances of Ethiopia and Eritrea merging are right up there with chances of Mexico and the USA merging.

    • sara

      selam ,
      “Eritrea & Ethiopia are merging” ………. are you joking?
      then, ethiopians must be ready to use ARABIC as an official language for the start.

  • Mokie Berhe

    Salam All. Conspiracy lovers consider this: During the time of Meles Zenawi, the real power broker within the Government’s security apparatus was not Getachew Assefa, but rather his deputy, Esayas Woldegiorgis (aka TPLF Assassin). Look deep under the layers of cover to see who is now really controlling security under PMAA. Guess who is surprisingly there? No other than Esayes Woldegiorgis. Many within the PFDJ are furious about the level of security detail that PMAA has entrusted to the TPLF Assassin.

  • Kaddis

    Selam selam,

    I see here ideas like Ethiopia should be flexible, firmly negotiate on the Nile etc… Its obvious now Egypt have this in the pocket. The three technical meetings agreed weeks ago at the US treasury ( big lol ) will come and go like a super bowl commercial. By Jan 2020 its mediation time, with the US on the table, siding with Egypt for obvious reasons.

    As said a year ago – the internationalisation of our internal issues to the Gulf, US, Egypt etc is to overwhelm the activist base knowing AAA doesn’t have neither social or ideological base. The only progress now is the activist base, mainly Jawar, entered the election politics; as Abiy rightly anticipated where the challenge would come from.

    No regional, geopolitical or economic vision is there for AAA’s Ethiopia but retain power. I saw some ‘we are worried’ reactions from Eritreans on social media about the new Prosperity gospel ( sorry party ) red sea, naval ambitions. Pure propaganda.

    The hope now is the West recognise on time its interest will also be ensured with a more intelligent leader than a clueless middle level cadre.

    • ‘Gheteb

      Greetings Kaddis!!!

      You are saying that the US in the Nile Dam or GERD issue is “siding with Egypt for obvious reasons”. Well, I wouldn’t go as far as saying that the US is favoring the Egyptian side for some clear-cut and distinct reasons. Nonetheless, one may be able to glean an apercu — an insight — from what POTUS, president of the united state, president Trump, to have reportedly posed a pointed question to the Ethiopian delegation during the recent meeting of the delegation of the three countries in the White House.

      The query that Prez Trump posed, I am paraphrasing here, was: Have you looked at other alternative ways of generating electricity besides building a hydroelectric dam?

      Well, therein lies the crux and the most cardinal aspect that any non tendentious person regarding this issue will concur with. And, if you ask me, I will unabashedly tell you the The President has raised a seemingly seminal question.

      You see, I don’t believe even for split second that the building of the dam and all that this GERD project is purportedly to solve Ethiopia’s problems are either good or lasting. This is so because it doesn’t address the core issue, namely the existential need of the Nile to Egypt and the elemental existential angst the construction of this dam evokes in every Egyptian’s mind.

      I will even go on limb here and contend that the main impetus that prompted the Ethiopian leaders to go on building the GERD was more of cultural/national emanations than its professed economic benefits to Ethiopia. At the heart of this issue that may have impelled the Ethiopian leaders to go with this project is this thing within the so called Habesha culture of getting even, revenge or even avenge with some perceived enemies or foes, real or imagined. Like, those Arabs or Areboch, that the glorious Habesha are going to make them squirm by leveraging our Nile river.

      Otherwise, I don’t believe that all avenues that would have compensated Ethiopia for its Nile river resources were not exhausted, like looking for other alternative sources of electricity generation and other ways of offsetting Ethiopia’s Nile river water that Egypt and Sudan benefit from. I believe that The Arab World, The West and the international community at large would have been amenable to any other project that would have compensated Ethiopia instead of rushing on building the GERD whose long term environmental and ecological impact is not precisely known.

      And, now Ethiopia is, reportedly, on a shopping spree for armaments to the tune of FOUR BILLION USD from France. This is happening when Ethiopia’s debt is a whopping 57 Billion USD and its annual GDP is 65% dependent on borrowed money. There, the so called Habesha vainglory culture rearing its ugly head when its leaders are engaging in a rather shameless arms race with their historical nemesis, those darn Areboch, when close to 10 million Ethiopians are affected with famine.

      Mind bending and astonishing even beyond belief, if you ask me. The elephant in the room, in Abyssinia or Ethiopia, in my mind, is the vainglorious Habesha culture that has hobbled and constrained many problems from being solved such as the Nile issue with Egypt, to say nothing of this very Habesha culture being the source of almost all the problems that has bedeviling the Horn of Africa region for a long time.

      • iSem

        Hi Gheteb: I agree with you that building the dam will create problems as you right capture in what it evokes in the mind of every Egyptians. Add the fact that there are tell-tell signs that the water maybe even started to dwindle in the Nile but I disagree about your misguided notion of the Habehsa as settling scores is human not Habesha only thing. Have you studied those who claim that they are not Habesha, the Adulisians Ethiopia has the right to build it and it will and its leaders should “man up” and finish the dam? Still the water is enough for all to, if the Egyptians think the Ethiopia’s prosperity comes at the expense of their poverty they are wrong like Ethiopia was about the ports Now, I will be negligent if I do not mention your hypocrisy and contradiction regarding your proposal of the west and Arabs coming with funds to help Ethiopia to forgo the building the dam, there by rendering Ethiopia to perpetual dependence to the west and Arabs. what ever happened to Self-Reliance the that you guys harp about but nothing to show for??

    • saay7

      Selam Kaddis:

      I think seeing purely from a technical standpoint, this dispute is the kind that can be resolved by technicians. In my view, there are only two real issues and one non-starter. The non-starter is Egypt’s request that GERD be managed by anyone by Ethiopia (including by Egypt itself): I don’t think any nation that values its sovereignty will agree to that. Egypt must have placed that request purely for maximization during negotiation.

      The technical issues are (a) what is the minimum amount of water Egypt should get and related to that (b) what is the minimum number of years it should take to fill the reservoir. Egypt is asking 40 billion cubic meters of water and for the reservoir to take 4-7 years and Ethiopia is offering 35 billion cubic meters of water and for the reservoir to be filled in 3 years. This is a technical problem with a technical solution. But politics gets in the way.

      I don’t disagree with you that once Ethiopia agreed to the US hosting the negotiations that it will eventually bypass the next series of meetings and end in mediation. This is not even hosted by the US State Department but the Treasury with World Bank at the table which means the issue is big money (the only commodity that attracts Trump’s interest who actually took the time out from his busy schedule of watching TV to comment on it.)

      The real danger to Ethiopia is with every passing year hydro-electric power becomes less and less attractive source of energy as the cost of solar energy becomes less and less to the point that, in my view, if it takes 7 years to fill the reservoir and generate energy there will no market for it in solar-energy-friendly Africa.

      As for the US siding with Egypt, do you agree with me that this is based on a calculus that a collapse of the Sisi government poses a more mortal threat than the collapse of the Abiy government? I mean in Egypt a Sisi govt can be replaced by a Muslim Brotherhood government. What will replace an Abiy government? My guess is another technocratic pro-US government.


      • Selam saay,

        When we speak of solar energy replacing hydro-power, don’t you think that it is more of a theoretical concept than a practical one at this stage, when storage batteries are still to be developed and perfected, the impact solar panel may have on the environment if they are to replace 100% of a country’s electricity needs could be significant, hydro-power produces electricity 24/7, while solar panels do not produce electricity during the night and during overcast weather, etc?

        For developed countries who want to cover a small percentage of their needs by replacing dams with solar panels, while they get most of their electricity from nuclear energy, one can say that it is feasible. But, for third world countries, like ethiopia, i think that hydro-power is still reasonable, which will cover their electricity needs for the coming 70 or so years, in ethiopia’s case, on top of fish production. By then, most probably, replacing old dams will not be attractive.

      • Admassie

        Selam saay7,

        I agree that if things were left alone to technocrats only, agreement would not have been distant. But the world is not so. Egypt has come a long way from its classic stand “no drop of water to be touched!” when it signed the 2015 Declaration of Principles recognizing Ethiopia’s right on the Nile.When there is good faith politically, there could be a step forward technically. But Egypt walks at times forward and another times back to its former stand. And this by itself creates mistrust and kills negotiating in good terms. Now, Egypt is eclipsing its agreement by a) demanding an outrageous guarantee on the amount of water it should get annually (40 billion cubic meters) and the minimum water storage height (165 m) on Aswan. b) Seeking international mediation.

        I do not think both issue are tabled in good faith. The first demands Ethiopia to meet Egypt’s requirement despite of whatever the climate in Ethiopia is. Egypt wants no burden to share if there is a drought in Ethiopia that reduces the amount of water getting in to Nile-የትም ፍጭው ዱቄቴን አምጭው. How is Ethiopia to guarantee such a demand?

        Second while the issues are clear and technical, however, Egypt wants third party to mediate. If Ethiopia is allowing that ( Abiy is dancing with that tune playing with some semantics -ውይይት እንጂ ድርድር አላልንም), Egypt knows it will get its way and Ethiopia will be under pressure and as a result it delays the full functioning of the dam. But ultimately what would Egypt benefit from such mean calculus? There is no benefit that it will exceptionally retain permanently.It is a matter of time. The dam will be finished.

        I agree with Horizon’s note regarding solar energy. I believe it is mere theoretical that the notion solar energy will be cheap in the near future comparing to hydro power. I am not expert in power production, but solar energy in a large scale that can produce such a large megawatt power as GERD: a) needs huge panel area that needs huge land (not certain but experts say producing 1kw solar power needs approximately 100 m by 100 m land) b) needs huge number of power storage batteries and by itself: 1) battery storage capacity is not perfected yet 2) battery life span is limited 3) needs large storage area c) production is limited to only day time and sunny weather d) its environmental impact is big.

        • saay7


          Thanks for this piece: I enjoyed and I don’t necessarily disagree with anything except the last para which I will get to in a bit.

          1. Yes, Egyptian media (state and quasi state) is extremely irresponsible, sensational and prone to conspiracy theories. To paraphrase Biden about Rudy, in the Arab media, the writer is likely to write (and the reader to believe) anything with any “Israel, verb, predicate.” I think I read that Ethiopia is diverting the water to Israel.

          2. The Nile is a river that is of huge nationalistic fervor for Egypt (as the consumer) and Ethiopia (as the source.) It also deals with Life’s essence that has been the cause of much violence for every reason (pastoralists, farmers, industrialists.) In the state where I live, the desert south was watered by a lot of strong-arming of the Central Valley.

          3. Egypt inherited a most advantageous British colonial treaty. It’s so advantageous I am told that, to this day, Egyptians run Sudan’s Nile policy. Meles wanted to overturn this abruptly (because politicians are always looking for rally-around-the-flag issues) and to some extent he was successful. Even Ethiopians who despise TPLF supported the GERD mission.

          5. Given the gravity of the situation, the issue can only be addressed via negotiations. By process of elimination (not AU, not Arab league, not China, not Russia), the US is the only country that has the support of both and the power to enforce its will. And even that is relative because if Ethiopia walks away from the negotiations, there is nothing the US can do to bring it back. I think Kaddis lamentation is Abiy doesn’t have the spine to walk away from a bad treaty because he has a unique ability to rationalize anything. If they throw him a couple of Biblical verses and some random self-help motivational lines from the ideology of Prosperitism, he is all in.

          6. On the difference between hydro and solar, remember: hydro is a mature technology and solar is an infant technology. All the challenges you posed (particularly storing it) are advancing rapidly and my theory is in 7 years time (coincidentally the number of years Egypt is asking) solar energy will be cheaper.


          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Saay7
            The egyptian 7 years time proposal to fill the dam is the complete filling of about 84 billion cubic meters of water, but the dam can produce electricity 1/2 full, or 1/4 full and out of 13 turbans it’s 2 turbans r scheduled to produce electricity i think at end of 2020 or 21 .
            what i don’t like is 1, meles on purpose created a conducive environment for corruption over gerd, the time he created metec and the time he started “gerd” is less than a year. and 2, i don’t like his motive to force egypt to stop helping his opponents . there is a saying ” by one stone, killing two birds”, he was doing that.
            other than that am for development and since he and his parties r gone, i support development, i support a win win solutions with egypt.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Saay,

            I think on the difference between hydro and Solar, I don’t disagree with time solar technology will improve, specially with environmental push. But in case of Ethiopia, even if it takes 7 years from now for GERD to be operational at full capacity, it’s well worth it.

            The reason I say this, Ethiopia has unique opportunity of having hydro power that it can take advantage of fir generations to come. At full capacity of generating 6400 MW, even if they do not have a market to export, this amounts to nothing compared compared to power needs in other developed countries.

            Ontario for example with population of less than 10 million, it generates 40,000 plus MW. Granted Canada weather is not the same as Ethiopia but imagine how insignificant 6000 is for a population of over 100 million.

            So I think Ethiopia will need hydro as well other sources such as solar, winds etc.


          • Selam saay,

            Those who accuse pm Abiy, should first answer one fundamental question, i.e. if push comes to shove and egypt attacks ethiopia, where will tplf stand, with ethiopia and the federal government or not? Without telling us what tplf would do at that crucial moment, accusing Abiy doesn’t mean anything else other than exploiting every opportunity under the sun to undermine his government. Tplf has this existential question for ethiopia to answer first and foremost before dreaming to rule the country for a second time.

          • Admassie

            Selam Horizon,

            Really?! This is how much you think of TPLF-an enemy for Ethiopia-whose stand will be questioned in case of foreign invasion? Come on! Be real Horizon!

            Your political stand against TPLF is one thing and it is OK. But you have no a single reason to question the integrity of TPLF when it comes to the sovereignty of its own country.

            Do not equate opposing PM Abiy as oposing Ethiopia unless you take his “አብይ ማለት ኢትዮጵያ ፤ ኢትዮጵያ ማለት አብይ” የሚለውን የድለላ መዝሙር seriously. TPLF’s political stand against PM Abiy’s ሙልጭልጭ course is open and clear. There is no ifs there is no buts, they stand firm. I support them and there are millions who support the idea of maintaining the existing federal order and the constitution.

            Now it is getting clearer that politics is precpitating in to two poles – maintaining the existing federal system and the other that eliminates it. Again I support the former and who the hell is questioning my integrity to stand by my country’s sovereignty?!

          • Selam Admassie,

            Be real yourself, my friend. You do not seem to acknowledge the difference between tplf (the political party) and the people of tigray. Tplf is harping day in and day out on unless it is according to its interest, it is leaving the federation and it is ready politically and militarily to form its own sovereign country. How did you miss that? Is it possible to trust a political party which started with the concept of independent tigray, and since it lost power, it is telling the ethiopian people ad infinitum by ignoring the federal government that it is ready to divorce from ethiopia. Is that what seems to you odd? Tplf is not the people of tigray. Unfortunately, it is tplf that will decide that very crucial moment, tplf that doesn’t have an iota of interest in ethiopia’s sovereignty and it is blackmailing it with disintegration if it goes. Stop the zeraf, zeraf. It is your right to support tplf’s ethnic federalism and constitution.

          • Admassie

            Selam Horizon,

            There is no zeraf zeraf on my part. That will not take us nowhere. But exaggerating and falsifying also will do no good. I do not think you equate TPLF as the people of Tigray and I did not implicate so. But on the other hand, TPLF is not a bunch of Dr. Debretsions either. It has millions of members and supporters who have stake on their own country like you and me. You have no reason and moral high ground to question their integrity when it comes to defending their own country. Accuse TPLF on what they are.

            Unity is every ones agenda. No one can claim exceptionally as defender of Ethiopia’s unity. Ethiopia stands when its people agree to stand together. Ethiopia did not create its people. Its people created Ethiopia. Ethiopia does not write a border. Its people does. Ethiopia’s border does not defend itself, rather the people die for it. We have a solid and vivid experience – Eritrea. Does the Ethiopia you know thirty years ago look like the one you know now?!

            One of EPRDF’s mistake was lumping and belittling citizen’s grievances in to “anti Ethiopia”, “neftenga”, “Tebaboch” etc. But the grievance did not go away, rather it became the catalyst for the change we know now. Now again it is becoming some one’s turn to trash others who question the course of politics that they feel endangers their own country’s stability and existence. That history is going to repeat itself again, but in more complicated and eminent dangerous way.

            The ethnic federal system (as you want be little it) emanates from respecting the diversity of Ethiopia. It was not designed to divide and exploit as most elites love to smear it. Though, the burden of the wrongs in implementing the system falls mainly on the shoulder of the government, every stake holder, especially, the opposition and its’ elites were also responsible. Particularly, they have played a major role in instilling hate by exploiting the little conflicts the system pose.

            We may read facts and genuine analysis some years later from now, like the one we are reading about the Derg time politics years away from the heat and obsession.

          • mokie berhe

            Salam Admassie: Please quit exaggerating and falsifying. You say:
            1) ‘TPLF is not a bunch of Dr. Debretsions’. Correct as not all have bogus online PHds.
            2) ‘TPLF has millions of members’. At its height in 1991, most believed TPLF membership to be in the 80,000-100,000 range.
            3) ‘Unity is every ones agenda’. Oh brother, please give me a break
            4) ‘Accuse TPLF on what they are’….OK…Thieves, murderesses, rapists, liars, torturers, separatists.
            5) ‘Ethiopia does not write its borders’. Well, the TPLF certainly has (i.e. Badme and Somalia) and Ethiopia did in days of old expansionist period…just ask folk Afar, Gamballa, Gurage, Somali and SNNPR way (not to mention Eritrea!)..

          • saay7

            Hey Horizon:

            Excepting for empires holding their colonies (Falkland Islands) or World Cop America on its best, since World War II, all wars have been either civil wars or wars between neighboring countries. So an Egypt-Ethiopia war is not going to happen. Even if leaders of Ethiopia and Egypt wanted it to happen for domestic political reasons.

            So the question you should ask yourself is not would TPLF support if Egypt and Ethiopia to war (there is an Ethiopian precedent if they don’t: role of King Menelik when Emperor Yohannes was at war with Sudan:). The one that should concentrate your mind is: how insanely crazy it would be if Egypt and Ethiopia went to war. In other words, your question is backwards. It gives Abiy the benefit of doubt for a war (ah, the worst fans are political fans) and is already equating support for this war as a test of patriotism.

            Do we never learn ANYTHING?


          • Selam saay

            The ace card egypt draws whenever the issue of ethiopia using the river nile comes to the forefront is intimidation with war. War has always been an egyptian rhetoric and not ethiopia’s. If menelik did not come to the help of yohannes and if the latter lead the way to megdela conspiring with the british to gain arms, that was the modus operandi of the warlords of the time. Today it is a very different thing. If ethinopia loses, tplf has nothing to gain. That is guaranteed.

            If you think that war is going to come from the ethiopian side, you are making a big mistake. The only war ethiopia will fight will be a defensive war to protect her sovereignty, territorial integrity and her God given rights to use the nile, without of course saying that it is the sole owner of the river as egypt says ad infinitum. Ethiopians will not be going to egypt but egyptians coming to ethiopia to invade her, if they are crazy enough to start a war. They failed in the past and they will fail again. Defending one’s country from an invader is patriotism, and not jingoism. This is not a biased assumption.

          • saay7


            I am afraid you missed my point. My point is: instead of worrying whether TPLF would come to the support of Abiy Ahmed if there is war between Ethiopia and Egypt, what should consume all your energy is diffusing the tension between Ethiopia and Egypt and making war between them impossible.

            Yohannes was emperor and Menelik was king. So if you are going to dismiss their behavior as “war lord behavior”, you should dismiss what Egypt (Turkey-ruled-Egypt, by the way) tried to do to Ethiopia as pre-modern era behavior because it happened during the reign of one of the “war lords”: Yohannes.


          • Admassie

            Selam saay,

            As usual I read your input with a flickering lough.

            I agree with the picture you illustrated about the psychic engraved in the minds of Egyptians that is playing on the process of the negotiation.
            By the way when you disappear, you have also taken ሞገደኛው አቢ with you. I see him sometimes at your house – Eritrean Digest.


          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Saay,

            Since a preacher is a subordinate to someone else, what he does is only preaching; by that it means conveying the messages of his masters. Abiy is doing the same thing. He has not his own ideological beliefs nor does he own any kind of leadership style with recognizable directives.

            A sovereign state maneuvered by foreign interest will always remain divided in any shape or form of politics, where its elites fight each other for their interest. I am watching Ethiopia going through similar discourse that no one will depict the outcome in the near foreseeable future. At the center of their conflict, the ideological clash is (a) between the “Unitarian” and the “Federalist” (b) between the proponents of “developmental state” and “Western liberalism” of economic policies. Can Abiy reconcile these two antagonist ideological trends? I doubt. But I hope from the midst of this leadership crises a strong leader will come out to keep the unity of the country.

          • saay7


            Everybody is subservient to someone 🙂

            But seriously. As of today, EPRDF has replaced its ideology which made no sense (“revolutionary democracy”) with one that makes even less sense (“prosperity theology.”). The former believed in declaring full frontal war against poverty and in the process enriched TPLF cadres without measurable decrease in poverty in Ethiopia. The new prosperity theology treats poverty as a curse from God that can be overcome with Gods abundance. It’s bumper sticker masquerading as a coherent ideology. For example, in his “Mark” speech, Abiy said the teddemer ideology does not hate poverty, it just loves prosperity more. Our friend Samuel Emaha called Abiy as someone you would get if Kaddaffi married Oprah and I think that’s spot on: a lot of one liners combined with a lot of new agey ideology.

            Not surprisingly TPLF is not a member of the Prosperity Party but everybody else (Oromo Amhara Southern Nationalities including the one bolting from it Sidama.) The prosperity dudes hope to replaced the 6 percenters (TPLF share of the Ethiopian pie) with the so-called Agar parties (Somali, Harar, Gomu Gafa, Affar) and it shouldn’t be hard.


          • iSem

            Hi Sal and Emma:
            Can we for change get something, some idealogy that is organic, even this prosperity theology comes from the USA evangelical that God;s will is anti poverty to be rich not poor, I think a pastor by the last name Dollar preaches that somewhere in the Southern USA
            But are you praying or predicting Trump second term?

          • saay7

            Hey iSem:

            Here’s a great organic African ideology. Courtesy of His Excellency Abiy Ahmed, PhD.



          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Abu Salah,

            Here you go, your coming back again elevated the debate. Pls Stay here. Second I will agree on your argument generally, with minor differences, one on concept and second on the beneficiary of the “revolutionary democracy”.

            1 – On the concept: the concept “Revolutionary” is always attached with the socialist orientation, but it isn’t. The concept simply means “fundamental change” as oppose to cosmetic change. So the “revolutionary democracy” will only mean “fundamental change for democracy.” None other than that.

            Revolutionary democracy is an ideological drive for “developmental state” as oppose to “Western liberal trickle down economics” that does not work for third world counties who are stricken by poverty. It never trickles down to the poor. EPRDF failed to practice the system as it should be. The failure of leaders should not equated to a failure of the system. Not at all.

            Second, the corruption of the government is rooted from the corruption of EPRDF – the Front-party. The corruption wasn’t limited to TPLF. It was with in the entire leadership of the EPRDF party. Hint; the current Deputy PM from ADP was the administrator of METEC at one point of their history and I don’t think he is clean from corruption. But it is all politics as usual, that the opposition with in EPRDF naturally coaxed together to throw the blame to TPLF. Otherwise they all have hands on corruption. They are all corrupted.


          • saay7

            Hey Emma:

            EPRDF failed to practice the system as it should be. The failure of the leaders should not be equated to a failure of the system. Not at all.

            You *do* know that’s exactly what they said about communism: the systems failure should not be attributed to the system but to its practitioners. 70 years of practice and they keep saying that. Do you remember a book by Ralph Nader called “Unsafe At Any Speed”? His point was the American car, as designed, was unsafe and the government shouldn’t try to fix this by changing speed limits but by enforcing new design standards. That’s what communism is. And of course revolutionary democracy is an oxymoron: democracy is deliberative and slow; revolution is abrupt.

            IF the Developmental State was the model for TPLF, then they should have modeled it after other Developmental States who did not even pretend to have democracies until such time as the State was developed (China, Singapore, South Korea.) They had unapologetic authoritarians. In Africa, an unapologetically authoritarian ruler can’t be from a minority tribe. So, in essence, the problem with TPLF was always the T part. (Sorry, not sorry:) On neo-liberalism, Meles wanted to have it every way: to reject neo-liberalism while spouting all its talking points: that’s why he was the fave of all the institutions of neo-liberalism (World Bank, IMF, Blair) and what I call the Jail Lobby (the people that want to jail half their population using “terrorism” proclamations and eternal wars.)

            On the prosperity ideology, in fairness to Abiy and the new EPRDF, none of us have seen their manifesto: it just came out yesterday. We are just assuming it will be as bad as its name: Prosperity Party:) We can discuss it after we read it. I will try to stick around. It is much easier to do so now that the trolls have been shown the door.

            Amde, stop upvoting and start posting. The water is safe.


          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Saay,

            As you know “developmental state” is one of the alternative path of capitalistic economic development, where the “state” and the “private sectors” will have the role in the economic development of a nation. The other alternative of economic development is the “unregulated market” economy of neo-liberalism. I believe we have different position on the two paths on their benefits for the “under developed countries” like Ethiopia and Eritrea. To continue our debate on the merits of the two alternative, for now, I will leave you with this link for our reading until tomorrow.


          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Dear Saay,

            Back to our debate, and here is my take: From my reading of considerable articles by the proponents of both sides, I have come to this understanding:

            (a) underdeveloped countries (like ours) must pursue two phase
            economic development.

            (b) The first phase is the “developmental state” where the “state”
            with an interventionist role to regulate the market and the
            private sectors.

            (c) The developmental regime will monitor the financial institutions
            and the state owned businesses that serve for the public good.

            (d) The developmental regime should continue until the realization
            of their industrialized economy. The duration of the period
            depend on the maturity of the economy of a given state.

            (e) In this phase, the developmental regime will enhance the
            power of the state by reducing the influence of the state elites.

            (f) The second phase will emerge as the industrialized market
            economy start to mature, and the emergence of civil societies,
            trade union, and labor union will give way to neoliberalism
            market economy. But at this stage the neo-liberalist in Ethiopia
            are simply using “ill-defined political swearword” against their
            opponents, to borrow the words of David Hundt.

          • saay7

            Selamat Emma:

            Well ok. But there are pre-requisites to this. If you look at the Developmental States which worked, they had two major ingredients:

            1. The people had full confidence in the ruling party, which was seen as clean and uncorrupt. In the case of China, the people view the State as the parent taking care of the children. (It is a very Confucius thing.)

            2. The civil servants (who administer the interventionist State) are selected by merit (passing a tough civil service exam, and not because they are related to some general or some tribe) and they are extremely well compensated (relatively) so they don’t get tempted by corruption.

            In the case of Ethiopia, this is where it failed: the tribe was TPLF and you had to be allied to it to be in the Civil Service. In Eritrea, the tribe is PFDJ and you have to go through its brainwashing session before you are entrusted to be in the civil service.

            In short, I think there is a concensus that in Africa, the Developmental State is what is needed; where Africa fails is in having ruling parties that do not inspire confidence, and no meritocracy in its civil servants (it is political tribalism at its worst. The kind that made Sophia Tesfamariam Eritrea’s ambassador to the UN, for example). And without it, the whole thing, sooner or later, becomes a wreck.


          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Good Morning Saay,

            Sure, I will completely agree with your prerequisites. The problem is the corrupted elites, otherwise the system is very effective for third world countries.


          • Berhe Y

            Dear AH and Saay,

            Do you think the case of Rwanda and Paul Kagame fit the bill for the pre-request for “developmental democracy” or is this also will collapse when and if there is change of leadership in the country.

            I don’t know if there is hidden factors that are not known in Rwanda today (other than what’s reported), unlike the case of Eritrean under Isayas (total support from every where but it’s based on total lies and deception).

            I tend to think the development in Rwanda in the last 20 years is based on real facts and real efforts of the leadership as well as on the people.

            For example, the education, real higher education expansion. The civil servants, the women in Parliament and ministers, the reconciliation (some even said better than that of South Africa) etc.

            What do you guys think?


          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Berhe,

            So far Botswana and Uganda are on the path of “Developmental state” (as I know) showing a significant strides in their economic development. Hopefully, it will not be corrupted by their elites.

          • Teodros Alem

            selam berhe
            I think every political/economic system has it’s own negative and positive side effects, the question is which political/economic system has more positive and less negative side effects on the whole country and people when implemented in each countries. having said that, to implement any kind of political/economic policies, first and for most the gov have to have the trust of at least the big chunk of the people. otherwise any system will fail.

          • saay7

            Hi Berhe:

            Hmmm excellent question.

            The key measure of a developmental state is how rapidly it improves its people’s quality of life. There are a lot of good metrics on Rwanda (refer to UNICEF and UNDP reports) But there is one which is absolutely abysmal: GDP/capita. At $762 it’s not even half that of the SubSaharan Africa.


          • iSem

            hi Sal:

            It is all BS, I mean the political/econmic nomenclature. This is simple. Aboy Mohammed in Himeret Kolboy knows it, Adam Smith in Scotland knew it, Aboy Woldemariam wedi Mai Guayla in Tseazega new it:

            Leave the people alone to work for their own self interest, government provide law and order and security, secure property laws, that if you own something legally no one should take it and you can do whatever you want to your duly owned property be it a camel, donkey, akaat, a bag of qaat, a bushel of teff etc.
            when i was in high school I used to hear this: one white dude said it is shame that Africa is starving while it has the Sudan.Maybe it is the Sudanese heyperbole but this line has some truth.

            And now the common currency that some are touting will not work before the important ground work is done

            No one is leaving the ppl alone

          • saay7

            Haha iSem:

            Well ok fine. My friend Emma has been so welcoming I don’t want to argue with him so early but his embrace of the Developmental State while criticizing the elite…is very inconsistent with everything we appreciate about Emma: his commitment to fairness, representative government, and addressing grievances. Here’s why:

            1. You can’t embrace Developmental State (DS) and criticize the elite. DS is basically a govt by the elite: bureaucrats and statists and entrepreneurs.

            2. You can’t embrace DS and crave decentralized governance (what Ethiopia attempted for eg.) DS are highly centralized states.

            3. You can’t embrace DS and care about fairness and equity: the focus of DS is extremely fast development and not fairness or equity which is not a priority at all.

            4. All successful DS (the so called Asian Tigers) are essentially one ethnicity states. There is no case of a successful multi-national DS. Singapore comes close but even Singapore is predominantly Chinese.

            5. Actually, there is NO evidence that DS is transferable to Africa or South America: the Asian Tigers were heavily assisted by the US because they were frontline states against communism.

            The gents you mentioned in Hmeret Kelboy and Tseazega are I am sure nice people but I wouldn’t trust the fate of a country with them:) Sure they would be better than the serial failures of PFDJ and their ideology of Hasadism (a zoo animal would be too) but a State needs an educated elite to guide it and do a little more than be a security guard


          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Merhaba Saay,

            I just read your response to Sem. In your response you hinted that there is inconsistency in my argument. Saay, since you believe “Decentralization” and “Developmental state” are incompatible, and since I am advocating for both of them, you saw my argument as inconsistent. In fact “Developmental state” without decentralization

            For the insatiable individualistic desire of elites, we need always a “regulatory regime” that focus on economic development (particularly for the poor third world countries of Africa).

          • saay7

            Hi Emma:

            First, on definition. Any country can call itself “Developmental State”–and many do–because it is a quick way to rationalize authoritarianism. In fact, in a recent Eri-TV interview show, I saw a couple of PFDJ cadres strongly praising the developmental state and contrasting it with the neo-liberal state *AND* there was a shabait article by another PFDJ cadre calling Eritrea the next “African tiger.” So we have to differentiate branding from reality.

            And the reality is, since the term “Developmental State” was coined in the 1980s, there have only been four countries that actually succeeded in it are: Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore (and China?) No other country, Botswana included, really has justified the label because it hasn’t delivered on the deliverable: expedited development.

            If you look at Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and Singapore, they are

            1. Unitary States. So you endorsing it surprised me because you are for a decentralized system. Since you and I have gone in circles about this, what I mean by this is that the sub-nations (provinces, regions) excercise very little autonomy because the economic plan is decided at the central level.

            2. Authoritarians: With the exception of Japan (which was essentially run by the United States after World War II), none of the developmental states were democratic. In fact, the whole rationale of being a developmental state is to say that democracy is a luxury that poor countries can’t afford: they have to wait until they are economically developed. Given how much you despise authoritarianism, your support for it surprised me (but I guess you are wanting to be more like Botswana which is democratatish:) But please don’t underestimate that Botswana is another predominantly one-ethnicity state where it is easier to create a government of the elite without tripping ethnicity wires.

            3. Equality: In all developmental states (at least the ones that worked), development trumps equality. They are more interested in expediting development, regardless how unequally the society develops (which they can do without tripping the ethnicity wire because, against, for the most part they are overwhelmingly of one ethnic group.) Given your focus on equality, again it surprised me that you would consider it a good model.

            4. Elites: Finally, to believe in the Development State is to discard any views you may have of egalitarianism or democracy because Developmental States are government by the elite.

            In conclusion, if someone asked me “define Emma’s writings”, I would have said he is a person who believes in democracy, egalitarianism, decenteralized governance, equality, and empowering ethnic groups. The Developmental State says: authoritarianism, elitism, highly centralized state, inequality and a domineering ethnic group. That’s why I am perplexed.

            But I guess I shouldn’t be because people have a very expansive definition of the “Developmental State.” I recall reading a paper by the Ethiophile Clapham who defined Ethiopia as a “Developmental State.”


          • Berhe Y

            Dear Saay,

            Ok I didn’t think GDP/capital it was that low. I thought it was over 2000 when I saw a YouTube channel and when I check again it says PPP, I don’t know the real difference.

            Recently I Carnegie Mellon University Africa In Rwanda, and our YouTube sensation video on Rwanda (falfasa). I just hope it’s not all deceit and there is real progress behind, unlike our story.

            I remember when the late Dr. Fissehazion and Dr. Araya come to Toronto to discuss the constitution, there was a question of how the government controlled the economy and discouraged investment and private sector.

            Dr. Stats responded (I am sure with good intention) that he worked with the department of licensing or something and how they have incorporated advanced system and process modelled like Delaware (where he lives and teaches, and it’s one of the best state to do business in the US).

            I think he said, it takes 30 minutes to get license in Eritrea today, better than Delaware (he boosted, to a wide claps and cheers).

            Few years before that, IA was saying publicly how ERITREAN small scale industry is all useless and decayed. He also said and mocked the investment community (we can’t say there are investors – awaferti akewu elina knzareb ayniKelin) or (fabrica Alo elna knzareb ayniKelin) and we all cheered and clapped in the coma we were in.

            Ethiopians were also in the same coma during this Chinese like growth period (10% they boosted) while at the same time, the country was piling up Chinese debt without real economy to back it up, except cheap labour.

            I just hope Rwanda is not the same case.


          • ሰላማት ኣድመራል፡

            ዩ ቱ
            ዘ ጃሽዋ ትሪ, ማሪ ኩሪ, ኣልክሳንደር ፍለሚንግ

            ሽሻይ ፓርቲ ቻርተር ብ ሓጽብታት ማይ ምዑቃብ

            ባኩ, ጋንጃ, ሱምቃይት— ዙራ ‘ባ ዓለምካ ጠምታ ተዓዘባ… ሃብታም ብተፈጥሮ ዓዲ ዋሓይዝ ሩባ, ዓለም ዋሓይዝ ሩባ



          • Selam saay,

            State-led macroeconomic planning by Tplf ethnocratic state failed tragically when they made it their cash cow through which they robbed the country’s wealth. It opened the door for many others as well.
            Your explanation of the failure of developmental in african countries is exactly to the point. That is the case in many areas. Those who implement economic and political policies that are meant for the people, even religion included, fail because of the malevolent plan by the actors who want to serve their selfish interests.
            Today, ethiopia is planning to follow the known unknown course of neo-liberal economic policy that has failed in many countries, the west included. We will wait to see if a miracle happens in ethiopia.
            Is it possible even to dare ask if neo-liberalism is less evil than developmental state, as much as third world countries are concerned? The answer looks simple. Nevertheless, let us wait and see. One thing is for sure. In my opinion, an oromo developmental state as per tplf ethnocratic developmental state will finish off the country.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Emma,

            “Revolutionary democracy is an ideological drive for “developmental state” as oppose to “Western liberal trickle down economics” that does not work for third world counties who are stricken by poverty.”

            This is not really my area but I think the “trickle down economics” is usually refer to Reaganomics / Thatcherism where they tax cut for the reach, anti union, anti regulation etc usually against the middle class, as in against the western liberal social democrats of mostly Western Europe policy and some parts of Canada (social health care, social education etc).

            I see no reason why social democratic principle would not work in third world countries.

            I think in my opinion the problem of most third world countries is the lack of ability to finance their own projects without relegating the responsibilities to world bank and IMF, where the terms are extremely disadvantage the poor countries in the long term while creating opportunities for the political leaders.

            For example, I see no reason why Africa can’t institute policy like the Arab countries or Indian, if you want to do business with us, the native have to own 51% of the shares.

            This is what I think will get Africa out of poverty, otherwise it’s a losing game. In case if the Far East countries, I think it’s sheer hard work and education system that got them out (mostly cultural) I think, they practiced with thousands of years and just diverted it.


      • Kaddis

        Ahlen Saay,
        cc Gheteb : – )

        I agree on most of your solid arguments; with the assumption that Ethiopia have spared any diplomatic capital from the past. But no. Abiy spent it all. Our lowest point was sealed when we sent a failed commando flight to ouster an election candidate in Puntland.

        Your assumption again – no sovereign state allow others to manage its dam it solely built ( an Egyptian is 100% stationed on an Ugandan dam to check water volume every day ) will highly probably happen in Ethiopia.

        I don’t agree that dams, particularly the Nile, should be treated as technical. It is political. It should be treated as political rather than conspire around it through sanction (Vice President of the World Bank for Africa is an Egyptian ) proxy war ( Ethio Somalia war, some say Etho- Eritrea War, ONLF etc)

        Meles rightly treated it as political and that was the only moment we made progress galvanising our nation and the Nile basin countries to the point of creating a commission ( Uganda just ratified the CFA) – not sure if this has hope. The Nile issue changed and is changing the horn’s configuration due to its impact on energy security, environment and internal politics. Prof Harry Verhoeven from Georgetown Univ writes in this line; you may find it interesting. Egypt is working to make GERD like DRC’s Inga dam and is on her top form to pressure a juvenile Ethiopian PM; paid in billions including for his palace.

        Ethiopia, under normal circumstances, cannot guarantee any amount of water stated in numbers but the way its going, we will be guaranteeing the colonial numbers – that’s how much I feel we are compromised.

        US treat Egypt preferentially regardless of Al Sisi ( it’s the Canal, Israel, Gulf influence etc …) so the right method for Ethiopia was minimum engagement as fait accompli, treat internal politics fast and negotiate through a multilateral approach (NBI and AU). Hydro power in our region even after 10 years will be vital given the climate action is still noise except in some rich Scandinavian countries – while US going backwards against Paris agreement …means financing for green energy will be limited.

        I agree – we will not see anti US gov in Ethiopia anytime soon but if Abiy is replaced, it will be replaced by a nationalist, federal force and mostly these forces lean to the left …..

        Cheers from the sunny side :- )

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Selam Kaddis & Admassie,

          Both of you have sound arguments. I wish I could chip in to your debate, but my knowledge on the technical aspect of the issue is limited. That is why I took my back seat to learn from the debate. The Nile issue have been a political issue since the colonial era and will remain to be a political issue; and therefore, it could only be resolved through political compromise that could amount a win-win for both sides.


          • Admassie

            Selam Amanuel Hidrat,

            You are right on your note “it could only be resolved through political compromise that could amount a win-win for both sides. Compromise is possible if each side is willing to see the challenges of the other side. Egyptian elites and some others tend to argue that “Ethiopia wants to build GERD is just political” to mean to hurt Egypt or to show it stands against Egypt’s domination. Because they believe Ethiopia has other rivers to exploit.

            Ethiopia has other rivers to exploit. True – and we have been and we are doing that. We did not start building dams by GERD. But why does Ethiopia need to exploit any river at all. Because, Ethiopia is in abject poverty and it has an immense pressure to get out of it. A country, with more than 60% of its population is not having a basic lousy lamp, is accused of building a dam as political is absurd. Some years back the annual demand for power was increasing by 25%. Not one, but if we build the whole bunch of dams similar to GERD, it will not be enough to the demand we are facing. I am living in the middle of Addis. On my part of the city, till a month a go, we were getting power for 36 hours following by 18 hours power off. Last July and before, the whole country was rationed every 24 hours. At the moment our power is in cut off two or three times a week for 6 or 8 hours.
            It is not only houses, businesses, institutions, industries and so on that are affected. Even our water supply is affected by the shortage. This is a simple illustration that depicts the whole picture of the country.

            Therefore, we are building GERD and others, because : 1) we want to survive as a respectful human being 2) that is the resource we have in our disposal that helps us tackling our misery.

            Egypt can not and should not waive this fact of Ethiopia if fairness is to reign on the negotiation table. It is not only the life of Egyptians at stake, the life of Ethiopians is also on the same position.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Admassie,

            Blue Nile is the natural resource to Ethiopia and you have all the rights to exploit it either as source of hydroelectric power or for agricultural purposes. I just read a comment by Mez in response to saay’s argument. In his comment Mez indicated that in Egypt the Nile issue also is used by the opposition for local political consumptions to pressure the government. I have no doubt, if the current government of Ethiopia shows some weakness in defending the Interest of the country on the Nile issue, it will heated up the domestic politics to complicate the current political crises. Ethiopia should go with the plan and finish the project. In the mean time discuss with Egypt on their differences on the volume of the water.

            It could be implausible, but let me ask you a question. Is there any data of the volume of water that overflow to the Mediterranean Sea every year? I am sure the technical experts will include that in their equation to negotiate on the issue.


          • Selam Amanuel Hidrat,

            You brought a very important point that comes to my mind sometimes, the amount of nile water that overflows and is lost to the sea, you mentioned. If egypt thinks that there is a shortage of water, why doesn’t it do something about the water lost into the sea, although i have no idea how that could be accomplished. Decreasing the amount of water lost into the med. sea may benefit egypt. Nevertheless, i have never read about this. Is it because it cannot be done in practice, or…, i don’t really know.

          • Admassie

            Selam Amanuel Hdrat,

            Most litratures I have seen dwell on the amount Nile discharges to Sudan and Egypt. I have not seen how much Nile water is discharged to the Mediterranean. But I found a number13 billion cubic meters, on google, an information found from Egypt’s Water Minister.

            But on the other hand, the amount of water loss by evaporation on the lake Nasser on the high dam of Aswan amounts to 15 billion cubic meters per annum. One of the advantages of building GERD in Ethiopia is it reduces water loss through evaporation on the desert and ultimately increases discharge down stream which benefits both Sudan and Egypt.

          • Mez

            Hi Admassie, Amanuel:

            one can not completely stop or highly reduce the nile flow into the medetanian see. Reason salt water intrusion into the Egyptian delta farmland, destroying the agriculture there.

        • saay7

          Hey Kaddis:

          Have you ever seen the movie “Thank You For Smoking”? There is a scene where a Hollywood Product Placement specialist is trying to convince a Cigarette Salesman that a sci-fi movie in the works, done the right way, would help him sell a lot of cigarettes. And the right way is for Angelina Jolie and somebody to have steamy sex and then they reach out for the cigarette the salesman is selling. The salesman says, what about the fact the movie is set in space and a cigarette could set the pressurized shuttle on fire. And the Hollywood guy says, “oh, that’s just one line in the dialogue: thanks for the invention of _____ we can now smoke in space.”

          That line has always struck me as what solution-oriented people are capable of. So in this case:

          1. Yes, GERD is a political decision but for politicians to insist that they will listen to the recommendation of technicians is also a political decision:)

          2. No sovereign state should allow another state to manage strategic assets. But when the sovereign state’s decision heavily impacts another state (particularly in a country where peaceful transition of power is not guaranteed), the solution is to have an advisory board made up of all the downstream states who would issue reports and audit to see who is cheating. Egypt has no guarantee that some Zeraf Zeraf dude won’t come to power in Ethiopia and reduce the water flow (in theory.)

          3. Isaias is a compulsive liar but there is one story he told of how he was in the company of Meles when he was visiting Egypt and how the slight or disrespect he perceived from Hosni Mubarek’s government was what expedited his decision on GERD. Post-Derg Ethiopia really is the vision of Meles, as is evidence by today’s announcement that EPRDF is dying. Basically, EPRDF was always a pyramid scheme of TPLF and, after the 2000 purge with TPLF, TPLF = Meles Zenawi. It was living on fumes since he died. My point: Ethiopia’s GERD policy was a Meles GERD policy. And when Abiy pulled a Trump (hating everything his predecessor did with extreme prejudice), there was no huge GERD constituency rising up.

          The US involvement in mediation was immediately after the Russia-Africa summitt in Sochi where both Abiy and Sisi, after ratcheting up the temperature, cooled down and hinted they are open to mediation. I think the US was simply trying to outmaneuver Russia: (somebody told Trump there is money in it, I am guessing.)

          Cheers back!


          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Merhaba Saay,

            Your point: “My point: Ethiopia’s GERD policy was a Meles GERD policy. And when Abiy pulled a Trump (hating everything his predecessor did with extreme prejudice), there was no huge GERD constituency rising up.” I agree. In the current Ethiopian leaders, like Trump, anything done by their predecessors is wrong. Hence they will not do the same on the fight like Meles on the issue of GERD, because it was the policy of Meles.

          • Teodros Alem

            selam aman h
            u said u were at bahir dar college in 1960s, based on that if i calculate ur age, u r over 70 but u like a kid still worried about who is getting credit, instead of worrying for the future and betterment of 100s millions of nile basin peoples.
            meles is dead, if u give him credit or no don’t change anything for him, what is good for tigrai is not giving credit for meles , but direct and indirect benefit from the dam and nile.

          • Kaddis

            Dear Saay,

            The film analogy is amazing.

            I totally agree on your number 2. While discussing the Nile with a Portuguese friend; he argued the same way that Spain spoiled, reduced the water by 50 meters of a river coming from Spain to Portugal even after a number of agreements. Imagine both are EU member states.

            We may chat in the future – why I think the 2005 election changed the course of Meles rule rather than the split of 2000. The internal rift may have changed Tplf but the 2005 election changed Ethiopian political dynamic for good.

            It’s a moment the nationalist tplf delivered democracy, allowing the unitary to compete but the unitary kinijit tried to get rid of tplf using foreign powers, city ( Ehapa like ) revolution and hate ( wedemetubet enmelsachewalen). We are in the same cycle. The unitary Abiy is trying to eliminate the nationalist, federalist force violently while the federal block tries to compete.

            Happy weekend beterefe : -)

          • saay7

            Selamat Kaddis:

            In our future chat of the 2005 Ethiopian elections, I will maintain that it changed Eritrea forever. It was the result of those elections (which Isaias was 100% convinced Kinjit would win) that got him to lose his mind. He concluded that the US State Department in collusion with Meles cheated and, because he fancies himself as the uber-strategist of the Horn, he decided to teach the US a lesson: supporting Al-Shabab, (antagonizing Uganda and Kenya in the process) needling Djibouti… and, in the process, emptied Eritrea out of its citizens and got the country two sanctions.

            Everything about my and your country is so abnormal, Kaddis. Today, Sidama won its referendum to be a region and it got complimented by TPLF: the same people who took away its regional status 28 years ago. Very weird.


        • ‘Gheteb

          Greetings Kaddis!!!

          I will limit my response to only a couple of points that lie at the heart of the Nile Dam or GERD issue. I really don’t have any interest to go deep on the weeds of the GERD saga and all the hocus-pocus surrounding it as it is not down my alley.

          Some are saying the issue is technical, others political, and still some are claiming that the bone of contention is economical. But I say it is PERSONAL, of the cultural/national variant. Let me dilate upon what I am saying by way of the following two examples.

          First, the name of the dam — ታላቁ የኢትዮጵያ ሕዳሴ ግድብ –The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam. Yeah, it is not just a dam, but it is The Grand, the Talaqu, dam. That very word which is nothing more than a biggety and vainglorious is the encapsulation of the very personal/cultural at the core of the impasse between the two countries.

          Second, notwithstanding the protestation to the contrary of some, President Isaias Afwerki’s account about the problem vis-a-vis the Nile, doesn’t strain credulity, Viz. it falls within the ballpark of what is believable. That Meles Zenawi took umbrage at a perceived or misperceived maltreatment/disrespect or slight by the Egyptian leaders in the early 1990s lies at the very heart of this rather complicated story. That sense of taking umbrage and the desire to settle a score bespeaks of the so called Habesha culture being the source of the scrum between Ethiopia and Egypt.

          Sure, many are couching this saga in political, economical and technical terms, nay, some are even averring that the “GERD Dam is technically is a done deal”, when in fact all that has heretofore been claimed, did not move the needle of what many consider to be nothing less than a Sisyphean task.

      • Teodros Alem

        Selam Saay7
        Me think , meles didn’t start a very big “gerd” not just for the economic purpose of ethiopia, mainly he started it to create a negotiation bargain with egypt and to facilitate a looting ground for metic and other tplf business companies .because he think egypt was the one influences doner nations, imf, world bank to reject assistance to his gov and he think egypt was the one helping his opponents like Eritrea, onlf, olf and so on.
        Now 3A government is in “peace” with eritrea, onlf, olf and other , so 3A don’t need “gerd” to negotiation with egypt because of egypt help his enemies..
        now, by shifting side with egypt tplf might still use “gerd” to negotiation with its enemies.
        according to Egyptian medias, nile flow to egypt already decreased by 5 billion cubic meters of water last year.
        For me, the way forward for both countries is,because of drought time, shortage of rain after, ethiopia is the one has to come up with her fair share of number, after assessing her future development plan, ethiopia has to say this and that billions cubic meters water is my fair share and than negotiate with egypt. and once they reach a deal , i don’t think the management of gerd is a problem, even i say it is good if they manage it together, they will give them a chance to work on other issues, including environment work around the nile.

      • Mez

        Dear Saay and All,

        1) If one sees things in context, the GERD dam is technically (for all legal, technical and economic reasons) a done deal. The current water level in Aswan High DAM (with a capacity of three years water need reserve for Egypt) and the Toshka Depression are full at their peaks; this will certainly help to counter the claims of Egyptian who postulate there will be an automatic real water shortage in Egypt–like immediately with the operation of the GERD.
        2) The–current unique–political heat in Egypt is what comes new in the last two months (the guy from Barcelona with his video). Every political orientation in Egypt is (weaponizing the Nile water issue) and trying to maximally inflict on the other (especially on the government), thereby making it quasi impossible to guide the public opinion in Egypt to a healthy discussion. On the other end, for all practical purposes the GERD is about to start (in whatever volume and generation capacity) collecting water–Some sort of common ground have to evolve on the Egyptian side.
        3) From technical discussions and other publications, the GERD is generating just a quarter of what is on the master plan of the Ethiopian Abay Watershed. There is more to come. Further, it is expected millions of hectares of farmland to be supplemented by irrigation on the Ethiopian side (rainfall augmenting irrigation).

        3.1) This water use will technically not be noticeable in downstream countries because of the GERD’s water regulating (and flow smoothing) capacity.

        3.2) On this front Egypt is trying to impose a veto on any agricultural or water abstraction process (within Ethiopian territory), thereby impeding any sustainable development in the country.
        3.3) Different model scenarios and research works predict, this vast irrigation master plan (and extended hydroelectric generation in Ethiopia) is in the best interest of all, including Egypt. Just ignoring the added value in getting cheap hydroelectric– the opposite (default) alternative of not developing a modernized irrigation supplemented farm in Ethiopia will be subsistence farming based water use and abstraction across the Abay Watershed (on the Ethiopian side). This will induce inefficient use of water by any measure, thereby forcing an accelerated drying-up of major secondary tributary rivers to Abay.

        3.3) This will eventually force the Ethiopian Abay River to completely dry up in non-rainy seasons and become more and more a flood season river; this will be the worst scenario for all and the biggest weapon against Egypt’s contemporary Nile water policy. Such a scenario wouldn’t bring any attractive benefit for Ethiopia either; it will most likely happen if one let things happen as they are approximately now.
        4) Regarding the possibility of replacing the power generation of the GERD with cheaper Solar Technology, as Saay discussed above, it is really hard even to contemplate that. For solar energy massive production, especially desert areas are best fitted–as there is no competing land use interest and there is abundant solar radiation to the maximum there. And even countries with those resources are at a slow motion to harness that.
        4.1) See for example, Egypt is moving forward with the Daba Nuclear power plant; it will take ten years to complete, is projected to cost 28.75Bln USD, and has a planned generation capacity of 4800MW. And all the players are happy with that.

        4.2) In any (financial, environmental, etc…) indicator matrices, the Ethiopian GERD is one of the best–that in a global comparison. One has also to note that the Energy (primarily electric) demand year to year growth in Ethiopia is around 30%.

  • Selam All,

    I heard in the news that the arab parliament has sent a letter to the ethiopian government and the ethiopian parliament, warning ethiopia that the arab parliament will stand on the side of egypt and sudan to support whatever measures they may take, thus insinuating even war as an option. However sugar coated it may be, it is a bitter message which is equivalent to saying that whatever egypt says is her interest, they are there to support it, without mentioning even a third party specialists that could bring a scientific data to help in the filling of the dam. It says that the interest of all sides should be respected, although it fully supports the interest of egypt and sudan, which is equivalent to saying whatever they may demand, they are there to support it . Ethiopia should not dare take any measures against what egypt and sudan call their interest. The parliament is working for the water security of egypt and sudan and it will help both countries to make sure that egypt and sudan’s interests are served. In addition, it says that ethiopia should abide by the agreement, although they are still discussing on the method the dam is to be filled. Ethiopia has never said that it will be against the interest of egypt, but she cannot fulfill any outrageous demand egypt may have, which goes up to controlling the dam and the water that accumulates behind it and flows through it.

    Trying to make an issue between the three countries (ethiopia, sudan and egypt) a panarab issue, shows that these people are not serious. The letter by the arab parliament towards the ethiopian government and the ethiopian parliament is insulting and irresponsible, to say the least. It is also equivalent to a declaration of war by arab countries against ethiopia by arabizing the nile issue. Arab nations are forcing black african countries to make the nile a panafrican issue as well, because many african countries are stakeholders on the nile, much more than the arab parliament.

    The letter by the arab parliament is meant to pressure ethiopia to succumb to the demands of egypt, an arab nation. When it says that it will stand on the side of egypt and Sudan whatever measures they may take, which of course means war, it is meant to intimidate ethiopia and to show arab solidarity. It means a united arab front against ethiopia, reminiscent of the panarab anti-israel front of the past, which of course does not exist today, because many arab countries are hand and gloves with israel as we see. History is being repeated.

    They should have known that ethiopians are aware without being told that the arab parliament will stand with egypt no matter what, and ethiopians are not going to be intimidated and blackmailed with this letter of solidarity towards egypt and sudan. On the contrary, this is a wakeup call for black africans, because countries like uganda, kenya and others are stakeholders on the nile, and the message is meant for them too. It is up to black africans to counter this arab conspiracy against a black african country. Today it is ethiopia, tomorrow it will be the countries mentioned above.
    Nevertheless, what they said is devoid of seriousness, in a way childish and undiplomatic.

    Egypt will not leave a stone unturned to have her way, which is not solely about water but about its geopolitical position in the region that she believes is undermined by ethiopia. It started with blackmailing ethiopia with war and destabilization that was seen and heard live on tv. Egyptian officials knocked on the doors of western capitals to no avail, and not a door was open as it used to be in the past. They lobbied the office of the president of the USA, and it seems that they have failed again to have their selfish position supported by the trump administration, and egypt was told to share the nile, and trump will be happy to be there to cut the ribbon. As a last resort (who knows, it may not be), egypt has mobilized the arab parliament in case they will be able to scare ethiopia. For ethiopia, a known enemy is much easier to handle than the unknown one, and it will bring ethiopians together. We will see where the policy of negotiations and scaremongering will take egypt to. In my opinion, the ethiopian government should tell the world governments the panarab conspiracy, the letter portrays their stand to that effect, and it is not meant to bring a peaceful solution to the problem, but to scare and intimidate ethiopia in to submission.

    On another issue, it seems that the eprdf coalition has reached a merger. Tplf doesn’t seem to be part of it, without having a negative role in the future formation of a national unity party. It is said that two of the central committee members did not vote, while they were in addis, Dr Debretsiion and a lady they call “manjorino”, which shows that this could be the sign of a breakup of the front. In addition, Tplf friendly parties seem to be abandoning the sinking tplf ship, because there is a rumor that they would rather participate in the coming elections independently than continuing as cheerleaders of tplf. I hope others could bring more information, because it is an important ethiopian political outcome that could impact eritrean politics.

    (P.S. Those forumers who do not want to see ethiopian issues on this website, while they themselves discuss ethiopian politics all the time, please direct your complaint to the moderators, so that this comment is deleted. From what i remember, this website was meant to host the politics of the horn of africa.)

    • Saleh Johar

      Thank you. Could you provide a link to the source of the information?

      • Selam SJG,
        Here is the link and the news was also reported by an ethiiopian news site.

        • Saleh Johar


          The Arab League should support its members–nothing new here. But the text you linked is nothing new as well. Didn’t Abiy swear “Welahi-Welahi”_ we will not harm Egypt? Of course, the agreement should be concluded in a way that doesn’t harm any country. That’s the emphasis because both governments and their elite, Ethiopians and Egyptians, are acting belligerent. You presented it as an ultimatum when it shouldn’t be read as a declaration of war but as an emphasis that both countries and the world agrees upon. Would you support anything that harms other people, even the Egyptians? I don’t support anything that either harms Ethiopia or Egypt.

          • Selam SJG,

            If we say that for egypt it is water only that interests her, we would be missing what she has in mind. It is also about continuing to be the master of the nile, as she had been since she signed the agreement with britain in 1929, and egypt could take as much water it liked and could veto the rights of the other riparian countries. In addition, it sees itself as a power not only in the arab world, but in africa as well. It doesn’t want anybody to doubt its geopolitical hegemony.

            As long as egypt failed to block ethiopia from building the dam, it wants to sabotage it so that it doesn’t function as ethiopia would like, and it will not be completely under the control of ethiopia, but she wants to squire a veto power, which is an infringement on ethiopia’s sovereignty.

            I brought the hidden message in the letter, which i think is obvious, and i did not speak of an ultimatum, because egypt know that war with ethiopia is not an easy matter, and occupying the region to control the river is out of question.

            Finally, water that passes through turbines and continues its way to egypt is not going to harm it, unless there are other reasons as well to complain about. Nobody is going to accept its outrageous demands, and war is not an option. It is a zero sum game. They have seen it in yemen. At no time has ethiopia said she will harm egypt, and she is not harming her by building the gerd, which doesn’t consume water for irrigation. PM Abiy said nothing different.

    • Haile S.

      Selam Horizon,
      Indeed Ethiopia is facing two challenges that follow the same strategy, my way or the highway, one is internal, the other external. The inyernal one appear to be choosing itself the highway and pointing its hate coated ethnic spear northwards. The big question is does ethiopia has the luxury to say take your highway to her external challenger. It needs to negotiate firmly, but understanding the livelihood concerns of a whole population.

      • Selam Haile S.,
        EPRDF merger was TPLF’s idea in the first place when it was at the zenith of its power. Many say that it opposes the union now, simply because it is no longer in power, and the excuses it gives, such as the merger is meant to form a centralized unitary system so as to remain in power and revolutionary democracy is the only way forward for ethiopia, don’t hold water.
        Ethiopia has shown that it understands the needs of others. Afterall, this is a hydroelectricity dam meant manly to produce electricity that will not consume water and has no major effect on the countries downstream, and it is not meant as a major irrigation project.

      • Teodros Alem

        selam haile s
        just because the arab parliament wrote a letter to ethiopian pm in support of egypt over a nile don’t mean ethiopia is facing external challenge by any measurement,
        1st, u need to know what Arab league stands for and how it functions. 2nd, there r a lot of arab league member countries supported ethiopia’s stand on the “gred” including sudan. 3rd, the dispute between ethiopia and egypt over the nile is not new so it is not a new challenge.
        Yes ethiopia is facing internal challenge but that challenge is not as u think it is, it is not tigrai .
        The challenge that u talking about is more of tigrai and tplf challenge, not ethiopia’s challenge. Remember ethiopia is a federal states and tplf is the ruling party of tigrai and tigrai is..

    • Berhe Y

      Hi Horizon,

      I really wonder sometimes, how you really think. I feel like sometimes, you wanted a religious war to ignite between Ethiopia and its Arab neighbours. Because your argument / response is always to the extreme (war) for something that’s really insignificant.

      Ok I readd The statement,I don’t know how you come up with this interpretation.

      “When it says that it will stand on the side of egypt and Sudan whatever measures they may take, which of course means war, it is meant to intimidate ethiopia and to show arab solidarity. It means a united arab front against ethiopia, reminiscent of the panarab anti-israel front of the past, which of course does not exist today, because many arab countries are hand and gloves with israel as we see. ”

      They are siding with Egypt and Sudan because they both are members of the Arab league and they are showing solidarity. Sure may be you expect them to be neutral, but it’s the Ethiopian PM who said something about going to war, while a year ago he went to Egypt, and the Egyptian president come to Ethiopia and burg said they don’t want to harm each other and make commitment to resolve it peacefully.

      So you don’t see this as just political rhetoric for public consumption with not much value.

      Speaking of support, I think the African countries support of Ethiopia has much significance rather than what the Arab league have done.

      On the TPLF/EPRDF, I really don’t know what the big deal is. Coalition form and break up all the time, political parties support other parties and withdraw in another time according to their interests.

      Why do they make a national issue of independence, separation etc.

      What ever EPRDF wants is only specific to EPRDF and they should be the one to worry about, without being a national issue. If TPLF doesn’t want to join, the unity national party instead of a coalition party, it has a choice to leave and create its own unity party/ coalition party or become a single entity party.

      But it’s issue doesn’t warrant the break up of the federation asking as the new party is not messing around with the constitution.

      In Ethiopia, does everything has to be to the extreme ? Seriously?

      The other day I was reading, Ethiopian community in Toronto is circulating a petition to ban Jawar from coming to Toronto to the Canadian government and they are labeling him as terrorist guy who wanted to have Christian Ethiopians slaughtered? These are not ignorant people but “who and who of Ethiopian” political elite, who give awards and certificate each year in recognition of their achievements.


      • Teodros Alem

        selam berhe
        What u don’t understand is when most male ethiopians graduated from university or when they own business or when they think they have somekind of power(boss) , they will automatically become arrogant and than the arrogance automatically will lead them to ignorance. sometimes the arrogance started from the first day they join university or the first day after become “kebele” boss or even a security guard in some office.
        I don’t know what the dog is talking about the Arab league, is it the leaders of the arab league member States statement or is the stetment from the arab league office in Cairo?
        egypt is highly influential on the Arab league, like ethiopia is influential on “egad”. I don’t know who the Secretary General of arab league now after Amir mussa , but it was always been egyptions.

      • Hi Berhe Y.,

        “I really wonder sometimes, how you really think.” Funny. That is exactly what i have been saying about you. Sometimes you don’t read or understand, as you said in your last response. At other times, you seem to look at things only partially and not the whole thing, example when you say ‘So you don’t see this as just political rhetoric for public consumption with not much value.’.

        How do you conclude that i want a religious war? You are distorting what i said purposely. Arabs could be muslims, but they are a race, and mentioning arabs doesn’t mean calling for a religious war. You may have your own reasons to say what the arab parliament said is insignificant, but not to me, especially when one says “whatever measures egypt may take, we will fully support it”, and when it is about a country that has said on many occasions that it could use force against ethiopia.

        You say that the arab parliament and the arab league are siding with egypt and sudan and showing their solidarity, and at the same time you are telling us that what they are saying is insignificant. You know very well pm Abiy was responding to what egypt said on many occasions, of using force unless ethiopia succumbs to egypt’s demand. Yet, you present the pm of ethiopia as the one who is belligerent. That is weird.

        Ethiopia is passing to another phase of forming a nation wide unity party from a coalition of strictly ethnic parties, that is fragmenting ethiopia, and it is not a big deal for you. If tomorrow political parties are allowed in eritrea let alone develop and form national unity, is that not a big deal for you?

        As much as you are concerned development that takes place in a ruling party is not a national issue. Tplf has the right to do anything it likes, but it doesn’t mean that ethiopians are not interested in what happens in the politics of their country.
        No one is talking about the breakup of the federation. Simply there is not only one form of federation, ethnic federation. There are many other examples.

        Jawar is an innocent person, as much as you are concerned, and he has no legal and ethical responsibility for the death of 86 innocent people due to his false tweet? What about christians killed, churches burnt, women raped and killed and muslims and oromos killed by jawar follower (the qerro), because some oromos and muslim refused to participate in the carnage? That is why i say sometimes i simply find it difficult to understand how you think.

        • Berhe Y

          Hi Horizon,

          you wrote “How do you conclude that i want a religious war? You are distorting what i said purposely. Arabs could be muslims, but they are a race, and mentioning arabs doesn’t mean calling for a religious war.”.

          i will make a correction to what I said, I should have said “you wanted a war with Arabs” instead.

          The rest I don’t think there is much to add to what I said. If you take the Arab league seriously, when it ever has done anything to solve any series issue in the Arab world (Palestine, Syria, Yemen, Lybia, Lebanon).

          Are you saying Jawar is responsible for what happened? If so why is the Ethiopian government and those “Ethiopians” do not hold him accountable by bringing charge against him. He is right inside the country?

          If he had run away and escaped to Canada, I understand their plea and their petition. But while he is right in the country and not only that he is inside the country, he is gearing up to run for election to assume office, and run in election.

          Canada will not ban a US citizen who is not charged of any crime by his government (the US) simply because some Ethiopians do not want him entry to Canada. I think the Canadian government officials will just laugh.and trash the petition.


    • Peace!

      Hi Horizon,

      When Trump referred third countries people as s##tholes, I thought that was stupid and arrogant, but here you are proving him right. Is it hard for you to adopt an ideological position that helps bring the endless misery of the country to come to an end instead of vomiting sectarianism day and night? Who are you trying to fool…You supported TPLF until the end and when the oppressed people won you switched side, and now you are trying to hijack the hard won change by infesting sectarianism. Your hate toward Ormo people and Muslim Ethiopians is not new to this forum. If it is for Bekele, he is a TPLF stooge, and if it is for Mohammed, he is a Muslim extremist despite Christian orthodox mother and Pentecostal wife. Amara had its chance but failed miserably in fact its legacy is the cause for today’s suffering. Emperors Era is over and going after Ormos and other non Amara Ethiopians will not bring it back.


      • Hi Peace,
        I hope you know the amharic proverb which says, “ኣፍንጫ ቢመቱ ኣይን ያለቅሳል፣”. This explains why you said what you said.

        • Teodros Alem

          selam horizon
          1st, i don’t even think ur mother tongue is amharic, the correct adage is ” bemetut” , not benetu.
          2, u don’t write ‘A’ the way u wrote it in amaric.
          3, if anybody read some of peace’s previous comment here, he sound like an ethiopian most probably “derg boy” born and raised in asmara.
          4, so why he said what he said is most probably to support and to give u cover .
          5, my experience is telling me, u guys r taking order to remind people about the so-called “abbissnia” enemy and history before the bullshit people to people started. right?

        • Peace!

          Hi Horizon,

          ወሬ ዘፈን ሩጫ መምታት ቢቆጠር ኖሮ መተክያ ኣስካሁን ምኒሊክ ፓለስ ላይ ይኖር ነበር ግን ግዜው “አህያም አንደአባቱ ይፈርጥጥ ጅብም አንደአባቱ ይዘርጥጥ” ስለሆነ ያንተን መቀደድ ብዙ ኣያስገርምም::


          • Peace,
            You are shading tears for your masters, because you feel indebted to them. Once a servant always a servant. Some people never change. I can’t go low with you.

          • Peace!

            Hi Horizon,

            We all know you very well:) Please take your sectarianism somewhere else and stop contaminating this great forum.


    • iSem

      Hi Horizon:
      The issue of our countries are irrevocably intertwined , so one cannot aver it even if she wants. they feed into each other.
      I have not followed the current ethio and TPLF news, I think TPLF’s future is linked to the future the ppl, unless they replace it with novel, new thinking with different paradigm

      Our region had been the play ground for egypt and later for saudi Arabia. But the sad thing is the water is enough for all, it is more than enough for all the countries to not only survive but thrive and in our case the 30 year stupid war and Egypt was fanning and adding gasoline

      I think Ethiopia should finish the dam, a dam that should have been built a century ago and if that means war with egypt as a last resort so be it,. War is bad, am not recommending it, lest you accuse me of that:-) i but fighting this war is wroth than the other stupid wars ethio fought. But hope it doe snot get there

      • Selam iSem,

        Among the countries that are going to benefit from the gerd, eritrea is in the list. Whatever they say and whatever they do the fate of the two countries is intertwined. That is what some eritreans do not want to hear, and tplf is fighting to prove the unprovable.

        When sadat wanted to sell water to israel, it showed, as you said, that there is enough water for all. Therefore, the politics of water for egypt is tied to its geopolitical hegemony. Hence all the destabilization of ethiopia throughout the ages, and wanting ethiopia to remain poor and destitute.

        What i am afraid of is that egyptian officials may try to start a war out of their shortsightedness, for internal political consumption, a war they are not going to win. As a result, egypt may end up in a major political crisis, while ethiopians may bury the hatchet and stand together to defend their sovereignty and their rights.

        Finally, if egypt goes the way of war, then ethiopia has many options on the river. Therefore, peaceful negotiations, respecting the rights of others and stopping outrageous demands, are the things that will bring a solution to the problem.

        • Berhe Y

          Hi Horizon,

          The problems with some Ethiopians is they never take responsibility for their leaders and always blame others for their failures.

          In case of Eritrea, what ever Egypt provided amounts to nothing. Isatas Afeworki probably provides more military and financial support to destabilize Ethiopia compared to Egypt. The TPLF led government had done the most damage against Eritrea the nation in the past 20 years.

          Ethiopia probably have done more damage to destabilize Somalia than Egypt or any other county have done to Ethiopia.

          But they all act as if Ethiopia has been so innocent, so God fearing, law abiding country.

          It’s the nature of making business.

          Ethiopia leaders were so blind, and I can say so stupid, that the gambled with Eritrea federation and become a land locked country.

          Just try to put your head around that.


          • Hi Berhe Y.,

            If ethiopians were not taking responsibility for their leaders, they wouldn’t have deposed HS, MHM and TPLF.

            OK, mistakes were made in the past. We can’t undo what was done in the past. If you look all around the world, there are many who have a lot of apologies to make. That is the truth. How do you see the future, 10, 20, etc yrs from now on? Should the region continue to live in the past forever, or should it open a new door to the future?

            There are people who are saying that the world is living in the period between the two world wars. Can you imagine that the future is bleak especially for people who have not yet succeeded to live, the people of our region?

            A long time ago, i think it was iSem, i asked him if the ethio-eritrean federation would have survived the test of time. His answer was ‘no’. Gedli would have happened anyway.

            As you said, ethiopia is landlocked, but what is the use of having a sea port if you get nothing out of it? Don’t you see that both ethiopia and eritrea are losers. What they have been doing over the last two decades was a zero sum game for both. At last they should learn to live side by side as two normal countries, if they really care for the well-being of their people.

            The last peace agreement was a flicker of light in the dark. Unfortunately, it did not last long, and everything is again in deep freeze.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Horizon,

            I said some Ethiopians, people like you, who seem to always blame others for the failure of your leaders. I am not saying, Ethiopian people didn’t fight against dictatorship or autocrats.

            Like you are doing right now, you are saying, Egypt could go and use force, and the Arab countries are supporting etc. Egyptians have been using the Nile for over how many centuries, agreement or no agreement. It’s natural they wanted to protect their interests and continue to use it they way they did. This does not mean, Ethiopia has also no right to use it, but it’s natural outcome of such process.

            Ethiopia has a lot more positive relationship with Egypt than negative specially in relation long history of its two major religions (Orthodox and Islam).

            I don’t know why iSem said what he said. But there was no telling if Ghedli would have happened or not if the federation continued to operate. He needs to read his history again:). Eritreans fought with peaceful means for three years before the armed struggle started.

            Saleh Sabe, who was the real leader behind the finance of Ghedli, on record with interview he had with Reuters I think, he was hopeful the new government (Derg) will want to end the conflict in Eritrea peacefully. He said, but it looks like the hardliners (meaning Mengistu and company) have the upper hand and leading towards conflict and force. General Aman Andom wanted to end the conflict peacefully and he send Eritrean delegates (elders and religious leader) to go and speak to their children (tegadelti and asked them to come home). But the Derg and the Ethiopian elite sent him to his grave and as a result is where we are today. But they rather blame Egypt, and the Arab countries rather than admit the failure in their leadership. So I don’t know what he talking about Ghedli would have happened anyway. It may have happened but I don’t think it would have gotten the support of the people.

            This story was collaborated many times by different people and recently by colonel Fisha Desta in the interview I saw on you tube. (see part 4).

            Sure Eritrea will not benefit if it doesn’t make use of its ports. And it was never Eritrea people intention to harm Ethiopia. What I am saying is, nothing is enough to Ethiopian leaders, unless a total subjugation of people.

            They don’t know how to live in peace by sharing resources and mutually benefit for a long term.

            We have had one leader, IA, and he is no different, so I am not saying, Eritrea is better off today.


          • Teodros Alem

            selam berhe
            berhe yes u did not say eritrea is better off today, yes u r saying ethiopia and eplf(pia) has been wrong and still they r wronge and fisha desta, tplf and tigrai r always right.
            my question is why eritrea’s independence is an issue now after 28 years of independence, after “bedema” war and after 20 years of no war no peace and everything ? Do u know eritrea”s independence is decided by referendum?
            and why is u guys make it look like ethiopia and egypt relationship is getting worse, when in fact ethiopia’s relationship with egypt and all Arab countries is improving fast?

          • Berhe Y

            Hi TA,

            Today you are in your ‘yezorebet” mood. Eritrea independence is not in question. The topic is how some Ethiopians never seem to blame the wrong by former Ethiopian leaders but seem to blame others instead.

            Here you are an example of that Ethiopian. Fiseha Desta was Ethiopian when he was serving you but not he is Tigrayan when you are in power (or your kind).


          • Teodros Alem

            selam berhe
            but u guys r arguing and talking about why eri started ghedli and whose fault is it bla bla, right? My question was after 29 years eritrea decided thier independence through referendum, after bedema war , after 20 years of no war no peace. Why?
            It is 2 different things fiseha desta serving derg and serving ethiopia.
            fiseha never serve me or ethiopia, he served derg and now he shows the world how he is back stabber he is like tplf, forgive me for saying this but i think it is dna thing.
            berhe u r the one blaming everythings on ethiopia and eplf(pia, pfdj) , But nothing is tplf fault.

          • iSem

            Hi BY
            But there was no telling if Ghedli would have happened or not if the federation continued to operate. He needs to read his history again:). Eritreans fought with peaceful means for three years before the armed struggle started.”
            We can tell becasue gheli was sparked in response to the eradication of federation

          • Teodros Alem

            selam isem
            I thought the federation eradicated in 1962 and ghedli started in 1961?

          • iSem


          • Teodros Alem

            selam isem
            Yes, eri armed resistance started September 1961 and the federation dissolved, annexed, destroyed, murdered and eaten alive by November 1962 .

          • Berhe Y

            Hi iSem,

            I don’t think there was referendum with regards to the federation. I think it was really handed down by the UN decision (with the help of the super powers). True Eritreans supported those pro union and pro separation and the division may have been 50-50.

            The Second point is, HS was using divide and conquer strategy to get what he wants. So he was using Eritrean Christians trained by Israel as foot soldiers(Comandis) and at the same time he was eradicating Eritreans in the lowlands by his air bombs and tor serawit.

            Naturally the rest of Eritrea (the high lands) was benefiting from the economic opportunities and other benefits.

            In 1975 the war by Derg expanded to the highlands and it gave the fighting got the boost it needed.

            When we say if Ethiopia honored the federation, we mean if Ethiopia honored the federation as we was agreed, such as freedom of religion, language, etc.

            I am saying they are stupid and they gambled big because they didn’t believe it would have possible. And what I never understand was, what was they getting in return?


          • iSem

            Hi Horizon:
            I think I said, the federation could have survived if it was not deligtimized by HS. Reason; because half of Eritreans (if you could say that Eritreanism was fully formed then) wanted union. But HS pulled the plug because he assumed in the next vote, Eri will vote to separate.
            The ghedli was sparked because HS annexed Eritrea and cancelled the federation,
            But this does not mean that there would not have been resistance for separate country, would not have succeed As the ethio repression and killing and burning villages )because handful rebels were seen in Ad-Abrahim ) intensified, so did the support for gheldi. I think that is what I said , consistent with my thinking

          • Selam iSem,
            It was a long time ago. That was the notion i had in my mind. I could as well be wrong.

  • Alex

    It is mind boggling to see awate did not know that Semere Russom already present his credential to President Sahlework Zewde as Eritrea’s Ambassador to the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in December 2018. What happen to the credibility of awate. Sad

  • Mokie Berhe

    Salam All. Simply lame. You wish to focus on diplomatic protocol while Eritrea wastes away? What purpose does this serve? Give me a break! What’s the point? By the way, it is not normally necessary to expect presentation of Ambassadorial credentials following initial procedural stages of a peace agreement wherein substantive discussions have already delineated such.

  • saay7

    Selamat Awatistas:

    On Redwan Hussein, one of the most surprising things of Abiy Ahmed was that he named him as Ethiopia’s ambassador to Eritrea. When he did, I assumed it is for “ethnic balancing” because he was the spokesperson for the government of Meles Zenawi and Hailemariam Desalegn and, consequently, he had made strong statements regarding the bankruptcy of the Isaias Afwerki government. Specially on its nature. Ahmed Shewgi tweeted an excerpt of his statement when he was named ambassador:

    Thus it is not surprising that a person with such a record would be quarantined by Isaias Afwerki. As the article states, the ambassador’s credentials were accepted by the Foreign Minister but not with the Head of State/Government. What that means, among other things, is that Ambassador Redwan Hussein is UNABLE to meet with ambassadors of other countries. He can’t meet with ambassadors of EU states or African states or any other states as a full representative of Ethiopia.

    This forces the hand of PM Abiy Ahmed: he has reciprocate and not fully accredit Ambassador Semere.(who happens to be Eritrea’s Minister of Education. Still.)

    To me, one of the sad outcomes of this is that Redwan used to be very active on social media (twitter, facebook) and since he was named as representative to Ethiopia, he has frozen that completely.


    • Haile S.

      Selam saay7 an Gedab news,

      Let me play Devil’s advocate here. Didn’t minister Semere Russom present his credentials to President Sahle-work? I think he did. In Ethiopia receiving ambassador’s credentials is the domaine of the president. The anomaly is on the Eritrean side. Even after presenting his credentials we don’t hear him functioning as such or as minister of education. He looks like he is the representative of EP liberation front like before 1991. PFDJ is still in Ghedli mentality and Eritrean diaspora for the most part in ሓፋሽ ውድባት። እዚ ናይና እዩ ንቡር ናይ መንግስቲ ኣሰራርሓ ክሰርሕ ኢዱ ጸላዕላዕ ዝብሎ፡ ሕሱም ኣለርጂ ዘልዎ። ንስግንጢር ኣሰራርሓ ግና ሓጎስን ስሓቕ-ኣሽካዕላንን ዝውስኸሉ።

      • Nitricc

        Hi Haile; you are right and GEDAB is wrong on this one.

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Hailat,

        I think you are right. Usually countries lead by prime ministers have a ceremonial presidents. The president “acts as the chief public representative of the country and often performs many ceremonial duties such as welcoming foreign dignitaries to the country.” So as a protocol, foreign Ambassadors submit their credentials to the ceremonial president of their country. Ethiopia can not be different from such diplomatic exercise. Me think.

      • Teodros Alem

        selam haile s
        it is known that any ambassadors present thier credentials to the president or kings in all over the world. the question is eri and ethio ambassadors didn’t present thier credentials to the president of the countries.
        if u think eri ambassador present his credential to ethiopian president? no he didn’t.

        • Haile S.

          Selam Teodros,
          I read it in pro-PFDJ Eritrean news media and newspapers accompanied with photos. If these were fabricating it, It is another issue.

      • saay7

        Selamat Haile:

        As you know, the process for credentialing ambassadors is: (a) the nominated ambassador gives a COPY of his credentials to the Foreign Minister then (b) at the convenience of the host state, the original of his credentials is given to the Head of State. And as you know the Head of State in Eritrea is Isaias and the Head of State in Ethiopia is President Sahle-werk.

        Generally,, the Head of State does the credential acceptance in bulk for 4-5 countries together.

        Yes, you are right, Ambassador Semere’s credentials were accepted by President Sahle-work in December 2018, but Ambassador Redwan’s credentials have not been accepted by Isaias Afwerki. And as such, his role is very limited in Eritrea which, of course, is by design.


        • Berhe Y

          Hi Saay,

          Hadas Eritrea or will show us a news items showing the ever “occupied” president of Eritrean accepting credentials of 7 ambassadors in one day. I can imagine if Eritrean government is very busy and they president scheduled is filled 6 months in advance. But Isayas goes to adi Halo to check if the tomatoes were watered or not, probably every other day. An Eritrean farmer from the highland is much more occupied, because he has to observe half of a month the religeous days, ghabir, gebriel, michael…compared to Eritrean president.

          What ever Isayas does, he thinks about it and he does the total opposite. Reminds me George Costanza from Sienfield “The Opposite” episode.

          Here is why? Why would Abiy Ahmed wanted Rodwan to be the Eritrean ambassador (knowing his past serving under both previous PM). And worst, how is it possible for IA to accept him, knowing his past of holding grudges like a camel.

          And all this happened in the fanfare of the suppose to be peace…how he shows around the PM about the newly renovated Villa that he handed over to Ethiopia.


          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Hi Berhe,
            If we believe the cruel dictator’s plan is (was from the get go) to annex Eritrea with Ethiopia, nominating an ambassador that hates the dictator’s gut is a way to go.
            People will think there is Ethiopian ambassador in Asmara but in reality there is none with full credential.
            AAA + DIA selected this guy purposely [Mokie, this is not a conspiracy theory btw.]
            About that the opposite episode from [George Can’t stand ya], at least it was working for him. There is nothing good works for the DIA.
            BTW, you need to start calling him ኣምብሬዛ ኢሳያስ [ዝኹሉ ዲጋታት ስለዝነደቐ]. መሃንድስ ከይትብሎ ግን ጥንቅቕ: ዘንጠልጥላ ዲፕሎማ ተድሎ ያ [ኣስናኑ ከሕርቅም ከሎ ተራእዩኒ] ።

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Mehandis,

            I know what you mean. The opposite is working fir Isayas (to stay in power) but not working for us.

            On a separate note, I am really optimistic and very, very impressed Eritrea’s young and their positive attitude and clarity.

            I was just watching Bakri (falfasa) video on you tube and “Elal Ahwat” he did with Samson Solomon and Abragam Fa.

            Also last week I think, I read the story of the young Eritrea Tekle Mezghebe and the concert he gave with this American singer, while he was living in shelter and some how she heard his story. It’s really heart warming.

            I think he is the same guy who was mocking Isayas Afeworki interview style and was responding to question about Bicycle.

            I think the PFDJ has created a very resilient, determined and optimistic youth, albeit all the hardship they went through.

            I hope we focus on the work they are doing and find a way to give them the support that they need and deserve.


          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Dear Mehandsay,

            ብሰሓቅ ክምወትደልየ when you tagged him with “አምበሬዛ ኢሳያስ”

    • Mokie Berhe

      Salam Saay7. Man you should become a conspiracy theorist writer! You are definitely gifted in that regard! While I now relax in the SKA compound In beautiful Mogadishu, I just wonder who Ambassador Hussein has been denied, rather -UNABLE-, to meet while on beautiful Eritrean soil? Can you please enlighten me? Please give me any name of any diplomatic corps member that he has been denied access to?

    • Alex

      Hi Saay,
      What happen to you this days. You know Ambassador Semere already presented his credential to President Sahlework Zewde last year and Eritrea do it once every 1-2 years the ceremony inthe mean time they present their credential it to foreign minster so they can start their job.

      • Berhe Y

        Hi Alex,

        You are trying to sound like you know what you are talking about. You just coping what others said and you are making sound like it’s yiur idea.

        1) why does it take for Eritrea to accept the credence every 1-2 years?

        2) Are you sure for a fact the ambassador can start his work by presenting his credence to the FM?

        In France fir example, they do it every month, and schedule 4-5 ambassadors at the same time. What that means, the new ambassador has to wait for about a month before starting his work?

        Why does it take 1-2 years (in case of Ethiopia already 1 year) for the president to accept?

        Does this sound normal to you? Why would anyone be there to be ambassador and have to wait for up to 2 years?


        • Alex

          Hi Berhe,
          It is a good question why it takes 1-2 years for Eritrea to accept the credential of the new ambassador. The reason is unlike other countries the ambassador’s in Eritrea are few comparing to Ethiopia or other developed countries.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Alex,

            Let me get this right. Eritrea has very few ambassadors compared to other countries. As a result the Eritrean president (aka ኣምብሬዛ ኢሳያስ) takes between 1-2 years (in case of current Ethiopian ambassador already 1 year and half) to give credence to a foreign ambassador, because he is busy watering the tomatoes and lettuce in adi Halo. In the meantime the Ethiopian ambassador waits (for a year and half and counting) and have nothing to do and spends all his day playing with thumbs.

            But other countries like France, who have close to 80 million visitors a year (just in Paris), the presidents gives credence within a month.

            I thought it was only Isayas who does the opposite but it’s the whole PFDJ land.


          • saay7


            It’s this kind of mindless answer that has allowed Isais to be a dictator with unrivaled and unchecked power.


      • saay7


        Nothing as far as I know.

        Until such time as a head of state accepts the credentials of an ambassador designate, he is not officially an ambassador. And no they cannot “start their job.”

        From Wikipedia:

        Upon arrival at his or her post, an ambassador meets with the foreign minister to arrange for an audience with the head of state.[4] The ambassador carries both a sealed original and an unsealed copy of his credentials. The unsealed copy is given to the foreign minister upon arrival, and the original is presented personally to the head of state in a formal ceremony.[5]:550

        Ambassadors do not begin their duties until their credentials are accepted, and their precedence within the diplomatic corps is determined by the date on which the credentials were presented.[6] However, ambassadors are entitled to diplomatic immunity as soon as they enter the country.

        Ethiopia’s Redwan Hussein does not have the permission from the host country ( for a year and half now) to do full-fledged ambassadorial work. This is in keeping with Isaias Afwerkis very informal (no grind) form of government where positions including at the ministerial level, patriarch, Mufti, stay vacant for years.

        Research the subject first.


  • Abrehet Yosief

    Selam Awate Team,
    Very strange that the proper presentation of credentials was not done. I also didn’t see Amb/Minister Semere Russom during the opening of Unit Park. Perhaps they do only consular work. With Amb Redwan looking out for Ethiopian citizen interests in Eritrea and Amb/Minister Semere Russom doing the usual control of Eritrea diaspora. Have you noticed that they are using “Charge d/Affair to AU and ECA in Ethiopia” for Mr. Biniam? What happened to Amb. Araya?

  • Hameed Al-Arabi

    Ahlen Gedab News,

    Ambassadors without credentials also proves the famous saying of Isaias, “I have given you, PM Abie Ahmed, the entire authority of Eritrea to guide us” (ሙሉ ስልጣን ሂበካ ኣለኹ ምርሓና:ብዘይ ቃልዓለም ሃገር ምስ ባሕራ ሂበካ ኣለኹ). Isaias loaded a wolf with meat that he has stolen.


  • Mokie Berhe

    Salam all. Important Correction. The Eritrean Ambassador, Girma Asmerom, was not recalled by the Eritrean Government, 1998-2000, as he was deported within 24 hour notification by the TPLF thugtatorship.

  • Teodros Alem

    Be patient ya jamia. according to the brilliant tigraians elite intellectuals, tigrai is about to become a defacto country, i don’t exactly know what it mean but i guess tigrai is about to be outside the rule of the federal gov, it means the federal gov will not be involved in any things tigrai, it means the ethiopian defence force will not be involved in tigrai, it means tigrai will be like somalaland. so if this defacto country thing and the establishment of new party things is true, if it’s not just words and media game to confuse the public and hide the crime.
    Eritrea will have only 3 options, 1. start deplomatic relationship with tigrai, send ambassador to mekele and sort all the problem out peacefully or 2, sort the problem out as usual by force and 3, keep the statuesque as it is.
    so be patient untill the new party and untill the defacto state established.

    • Brhan

      Hi Teodros,
      Ha ha ha ….Yaasqal! the same can be said to Oromo…then the Somali and Afar will follow, and the Beni Shangul will take the Hdase Gidib with them at last I think you agree with with me it is the the Amhara who will be left alone?

      • Teodros Alem

        selam brhan
        the topic is about ethio – eri deplomatic rapprochement did not accomplish much and how to solve it.
        about disintegration of ethiopia? I will be happy if we can solve the border issues first by UN monitor refarendem.

      • Selam Brhan,

        On the contrary, with tplf gone ethiopia may at last be at peace with itself. Independence is no more an attractive dream for most ethiopians, except tplf and some ethno-nationalists and extremist islamists like jawar. The first feels entitled and wants to blackmail ethiopia (either tplf returns to power and starts to loot ethiopia again or it will go its way, which is an empty word than the real thing). The second, because for people like jawar, ‘oromo is islam and islam is oromo’, as he likes to say, and therefore, independent islamist oromia is his mission, where he wants to be the ayatollah.

        The other point that should worry is that independent tigray with tplf at its helm (a rogue state ruled by a mafia group) is going to be a big headache for eritrea than for ethiopia. Remember, tplf had said, ‘we fought for eritrean independence more than eritreans themselves’. When cornered and when it finds it difficult to survive, it will call upon the serves it says it rendered, and may ask in return to be saved by eritrea, militarily and economically. It might even say, ‘either you are with us or against us’, with all its ramifications. Therefore, tplf and its independent tigray it visions, is not a laughing matter, but should worry you a lot.

        • Teodros Alem

          selam horizon d
          u can disagree with Jawar as much as u want but don’t lie, i never heard him say oromo is Islam and Islam is oromo, spacially now days he is more of pro ethiopia with multi- cultural federal states, not ethnic federal states like tplf want it to be and like u used to be.
          oromo poltics is diverse, it is not like tigrai poltics.

          • Teodros alem,
            Although you do not deserve my precious time, here is a link:
            As we all see, your ignorance is your knowledge. That is your right.
            Nevertheless, although the link is meant for the respectable forumers of the website, and not really for you, you might as well benefit from it.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Horizon,

            Thank you fir the link. But I don’t see anything wrong in what he is saying. You are taking what he said out of context, really.


          • Hi Berhe Y.,

            So, you are saying that i am taking jawar out of context. He is right when he says:
            -In our region more than 99% of the people are muslims, and if a christian raises his/her head we will cut their necks. Hence, churches are burnt and priests are killed today, thanks to the teachings of jawar, and he is right.
            -’if you bother oromo you are bothering islam, and if you touch islam you stand against oromo’, which is more or less saying that these could be the reason to declare jihad. As much as jawar and his group are concerned oromos are muslims, although it is said that about 50% of oromos are christians (tewahdo and protestants). You think that there is no distortion of facts on the side of jawar.
            – ‘The wars carried out by Teodros, Yohannes and Menelik were not only against oromos, but at the same time against islam’. You accept this narrative without any problem.
            – ‘The struggle for ethnic federalism was the struggle for islam’. Ethnic federalism has invigorated islam, although it is with the reform that muslims are free than they ever have been.
            – ‘You can’t separate the oromo people from islam and vise versa. The victory of the oromo people is the victory of islam, vise versa.’ Is it not identifying all oromos with islam and islam with all oromos forgetful of the 50% oromos who are not muslims?
            – ‘Even the kingdom of Axum was plundering oromos’, although at other times he says that oromos came to ethiopia five centuries ego.
            – ‘whenever he wants to make a point he says that menelik invaded the oromo region. Now he tells us that oromos invaded gonder and northern ethiopia and brought to the region the religion of islam.

            Except the oromo history narrated by jawar for his own purpose, the rest he said is nothing new, and i do not think that i am taking jawar out of context.
            (The link was brought to the site by somebody else weeks ago.)

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Horizon,

            I don’t read and understand all that you posted. I think the main message if his speech is (without even knowing the details, but it looks like Oromo Muslim gathering) and his speech may be related to it.

            All I read is, in order Muslim from everywhere to be redirected, the Oromo needs to be respected, meaning to have power (and he gave examples in Gondor, Tigray).

            But by no means he was declaring any jihad against anyone. He was talking about losing their fertile land to Indians and others.

            You are saying 50% of Oromo are muslims and the speaker who followed him said 80%. I don’t know which is fact but I think he talk is no different from anyone who is speaking on behalf of his ethnic / religious group.

            I am not necessary agreeing with what he said, all I am saying he is not (did not see) he is against any other ethnic group or religion but demanding equal share of power.


          • Teodros Alem

            selam horizon the d
            1st, context matter, what he said and he explain was how defending Muslim majority oromo region means helping to defend other minority Muslims in other majority Christian regions. he is clearly talking about how to defend freedom of religion(Islam)
            2, he never said oromo is Islam and Islam is oromo.
            3, by far u son of “debteras” r the ones that makes ethiopia vornrable by making her trashy. people like u confused atheists r the one the enemy of ethiopia .
            4, u don’t even know why u r selected to be a Facebook dog, it is because u r ignorant, it is because u don’t hold any value, it is because u r living for ur stomach. It is because u will sell ur mother or son/doughter for little amount of money. That was why u trashys selected.
            5, u guys r a good example to show how human can go down this low.

        • Brhan

          Hello Horizon,
          I think the Oromo and the Amhara , need the Tigreans now more than any time. Abiy is seeing needing them and other Oromo elite like Bekele Girba has different view with regard to Tigreans. You have to be living outside of the country not to feel heat of the boiling water in the country nowdays.
          That Ethiopian ethnic groups go for independence is not an Eritrean issue. I do not have to worry about. But in this website if you want to address an Ethiopian issue , the way is to show integrity. If you keep telling us that TPLF is your nightmare, then 1) you are showing that there are no Wendoch except them 2) you are not credible, as there are many positive attributes for the Front and the the Hadsae Gidb is like crystal clear example, did Ethiopians called former leader Meles..Abayn Ye Defere…this is can be hard for you to swallow but 3)in politics there is the strong and weak point. One of the strong points you have to attribute to TPLF is the Renaissance Dam, if not , then the Dam means nothing to you but it means a lot to you embrace the Tigreans!

          • Hi Brhan,

            Yes, ethiopians need tigreans and tigreans need ethiopians, but not tplf, and tplf is not equivalent to tigray and tigray is not tplf, unless it is in tplf supporters’ book. There are many tigreans who want to see the back of tplf.
            The thing that connects bekele girba, others like him and tplf is that they have a common interest in opposing ethiopia’s unity and the formation of independent tigray and oromia on the ashes of ethiopia.
            You have a very odd notion of ‘wendoch’. Wendoch do not rob, kill, torture when they have the power, and then hide when cornered. That is what tplf did.
            The gerd, we thought was an achievement by mz, until we learned that it was a cash cow for tplf kleptocrats, and today, it is years behind schedule and needs extra money coming from the poor ethiopian taxpayer pocket to complete the dam, because the money was stolen without doing the job, for which tplf officials are in prison.
            The people of tigray (tigreans) have never been the problem of ethiopians. Tplf was/is the problem, yesterday and today. What did the people of tigray gain from all the money tplf officials looted? Nothing. Can we accuse the people of tigray for the torture (they were also tortured like the rest by tplf), and for undermining and destabilizing ethiopia? Of course, not. The blame lies squarely at tplf’s door, an elite group.

          • Teodros Alem

            selam horizon the d
            As far as ethnicity is the base of ethiopia poltics, Ethiopia(any regions) don’t need tigrai, it is the other way round. economically, geographically tigrai is irrelevant and that is the fact but u r paid Facebook dog to advocate as if ethiopia need tigrai.
            And the vast majority of tigraians r tplf symptozers and supporters , that is the fact too.

  • iSem

    Hi all;
    Here we go! Quintessentially PFDJ Mo: the unofficial, under the table, the black market. And the so called peace deal is also under the table, in hushed voices