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Eritrean Economy in Limbo

The recent government decision to withdraw the licenses of businesses and freeze their bank accounts has resulted in freezing the entire economy. Eritreans are complaining that the unpopular government policy has destroyed the already weak economy and made many people lose their means of livelihood.

So far, over 300 businesses that didn’t deposit their revenues in banks have been closed. Conversely, the ripple effect has reached the few suppliers and wholesalers who dealt with the closed businesses and they are also going through difficult times.

Villagers who supply the major markets with produce are watching their products go bad as restaurants and stores are not willing to buy them. A vegetable store owner said, “we cannot buy more when the vegetable and fruits that we already had have perished for lack of buyers whose businesses are closed.”

In addition, villagers who sell chicken, goats and produce to the major markets are not willing to receive checks for their sales.

Likewise, the owners of the closed businesses are also having difficulties paying salaries or end-of-service dues because their bank accounts are closed by the government. “Adversely”, a businessman said, “no one knows when and if they will ever allow us to reopen our business.”

Resentful relatives and friends of the business owners who were jailed by the security authorities, say, “neither the court nor the arresting officers have an idea about the fate of the jailed people.”

Starting almost two decades ago, several publicly owned Eritrean businesses were privatized. However, using many pretexts, gradually the ruling party repossessed the privatized establishments and effectively took full control of every business in Eritrea.

An economist veteran of the armed struggle said, “the ruling party never believed in free enterprise, its leaders always advanced command economy…worse, their policies are too intrusive and hindering the private sector from functioning effectively.”

Though the government proclamation requires businesses to pay for supplies and employee salaries in checks, not many are willing to accept checks except employees who have no other choice. However, “a closed business with a closed bank account cannot pay in any manner.”

Businesses affiliated to the ruling party, or those who have a close association with the government are going about their businesses unhindered, but the rest are either closed or trying hard to stay in business by devising smart ways to avoid being caught and to avoid the wrath of the government.

A resident of Asmara quipped, “you can only buy beer and a few other things with cash.”

A confiscated Italian relic, the only brewery in Eritrea and its flagship brand Melotti, is owned by the Eritrean government.

Related news:
Eritrean Depositors Lose Control of Their Funds

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  • Kbrom

    Hi Nitricc,

    Thank you for seeking clarification. Yo are one of the people who inspired me to participate in this forum; I really appreciate you for standing firm in what you believe.

    Having said that ንኺድ ዶ ሞ!

    Re: who is your resources. For such a kind of information, naturally the sources are internal, which for obvious reasons is difficult to include him/her in the text. Had we had a constitutional and elected government with the three plus one systemic pillars that do the check and balance (legislative, executive and judiciary + independent media), we would not be in such a hunt of source and evidence). BTW, I noticed that PIA is also so obsessed with the phrase ‘where is the evidence’ whilst he feels absolutely comfortable imprisoning tens of thousands with out the slightest evidence of what he accuses them – including the G-15.

    Nitric, track records and trends say a lot with such kinda of unaccountable governments. Just remember when we said UAE is in Assab in 2016 ’the supporters’ brazenly assaulted us for disseminating information from unknown sources ‘ክቡር ፕረዚደንትና ከምዝበሎ እዛ ምድረ ስዉኣት ኤርትራ ናይ ዝኾነ ይኹን ወገን መዓስከር ኣይትኸውንን ኢያ’ however, soon they realised that both the land and its martyrs were sold together.

    By the way, it was not only the supporters who did not see it coming, even for PIA, the development was so fluid. On 29 March 2016 the president issued a statement which states that Eritrea ‘is not fancy with alliances and he does not support the alliance formed by Saudi Arabia’. Then a blessing in disguise changed the regional political landscape: Djibouti due to the childish bahaviour of its minister for foreign affairs (some times he acts like PFDJ officials) lost UAE.

    PIA was picked by the angry buyer, UAE, hence invited (or to be politically correct summoned) to Riyadh one month after its ‘we are not for sale’ bravado – on 29 April 2016. For your information he was not invited by the palace but by the Saudi intelligence institutions on behalf of UAE through the now Crown Prince Mohammed ( who is also a close and personal friend of the Amir of UAE.

    What did the supporters, who were asking us for evidence, said when the ንዝኾነ ወገን ዘይጸዓድ ሰብኣይ succumbed to the 500 million dollar + 5 years petrol supply in return of port of Assab and sending one battalion to guard president Alhadi’s palace?

    This is what the supporters that I know said: ‘ኣየ ብልሒ ኣደስ ወሊዳ ትምከን: እዚ ስንክሳር ውድብና ገለ እንዲዩ፡ ነዛ ዓለም ኣጸሊልዋ ፡መዓስከር ኣይነፍቅድን እንዳበለ ኢማራት ደበኽ , ንቐጠር ድማ ኩምትር: እንቋዕ ናይዚ መንግስቲ ኮንና, not even knowing that the government is not theirs.

    Yes, track records and trends say a lot Nitricc. The demotion of General Sbhat, the expulsion of Eritrean Higher Education Executive Officer, The appointment of Brigadier General Haile Mehtsun instead, the closure of R&D in Halal College, the recent new engagement with USA (more to come), the demonstration of 31st November by students, even the tragedy of Lampedusa (aka ዘይሕጋውያን ኣፍሪቃውያን ስደተኛታት) are some of the events which the independent sources informed us and not the Government of Eritrea.

    I think the government will continue to stifle the information, as with all autocratic regimes, not surprisingly, desperate people would seek information, clandestine networks will continue to disseminate information and those who believe independent information comes only from the government who is neither independent nor tolerant to independent information will call for sources revelation. I am afraid that would be a vicious circle.

    In Eritrea people think by mistake that what is missing is only freedom of speech, but what is not there is also freedom of listening, freedom of memorising, even freedom of thinking .

    We said there was a bloody war with Djibouti, however, since the supporters do not have the freedom of listing to any sources other than the prescribed ‘ኣዚዩ ዘዕግብ ሰሚናር
    ብዛዕባ ህልው ዞባውን ኣህጉራዊን ጉዳያት ብላዕለዎት ሓለፍቲ መንግስትን ግንባርን’ where they agree on ‘ተጻብኦታት ኣላሽ ኣቢልና ኣብ ናይ ምሕንባብ መድረኽ ኣሎና’, they told us this is a fabrication of Weyane regime and challenged us for the source, however, when we were in a state of tension with his supporters of GOE, the PIA admitted that there was a war WITH Djibouti and that he handed over the POW to Qatar.

    Then what happened? Did you express your anger for not being informed, even in a matter of war and peace that claimed Eritrean lives, did you call to have an elected government with accountability or you created another ’show me your evidence’ saga.

    Yes, what some supporters did is the later, this time a kinda of ‘how do you know there was a war, what our visionary President said was, here are the prisoners of WAR, but did not say there was a war’. The sad fact is that Eritrea has also its POW languishing there in the refugee camps betrayed by the very government who has thrown them into the fire that he was playing with.

    Now it is my turn to ask you dear Nitric, if you may allow me:

    You mentioned ‘independent source’ who is independent for you? what factors should one fulfill to be considered an independent source, why do you think we do not have an independent source in Eritrea?
    What do you know about the propaganda machine called 03 including the proxies who are compensated and contacted via Dark- Web (a parallel closed off internet) to manufacture, false stories and spread customised misinformation using different accounts

    Why do you think we are in a state of desperate search of information, even the basic information that takes place in broad-light, such as the recent closure of more than 300 small businesses owned by the private sector? what do you see the solution?

    Who decides in Eritrea the matters of national security, including but not limited to the following questions:

    Who decides whether Assab should be leased to UAE or not, what is the legislative procedure?

    Can PIA send our youth to the war in Yemen in the name of the so called alliance of islamic countries without the consent of its people and due legislative procedure?

    should we pay our beloved young generation’s blood in another country just because one man feels doing it?

    should the Eritrean people have their say? if yes through which institutions?

    Final thought: a child came to his dad and told him ‘dad I have a class homework which is a bit hard for me to answer: our teacher asked us to define the difference between trust and truth to which he answered as follows: (actually, I know the father who is a Tegadalay) let me put it in Tigrigna not spoil its spirit in the translation: ቢንያም ወደይ ሓቅን እምነትን ቁሩብ ፍልልይ ኣለዎም: ብኣብነት ከረዳእካ ይሓይሽ፡ ሕጂ እንታይ ይመስለካ ቢንያም ወደይ: ወይኒ ኣዴኻ ኢያ፡ እዚ ሓቂ ኢዩ: ትሕዘኒ ዶ ኣሎኻ ቢኒ ወደይ: ኣነ ድማ ኣቦኻ ኢየ – እዚ ኸኣ እምነት ይበሃል በሎ።

    Moral: you can not ask your wife for DNA every time she gives birth:ከምቲ ቅዱሳት መጻሕፍቲ ዝብልዎ እመን እሞ ኪገሃደልካዩ ንትርክ ወደይ?ሓወይ?ሓፍተይ?ጓለይ? ደለኻ ኹን ወዮ መልእኽተይ ጥራይ ብሰላም ይብጻሕካ ንስኻ ድማ ደሓን ሃልው።

  • Beyan

    Dear Hope & All,
    You’re absolutely right! Going to the source can cut through the chase. And, I e-mailed Weddi Ammar, and here is his response with his permission, verbatim:

    “Tecle was from Kehas but his escape by a jump from a window was in 1966, not in 1965. We were in Addis by then. Ghere Tewelde of Canada knows more about him because they succeeded us in leading the Asmara student movement from 1966 onwards. (When you get the time, you may also wish to read my article on “The Role of Asmara Students in the Eritrean Nationalist Movement: 1958-68″ in Vol. 2 No.1 of the Eritrean Studies Review of spring 1997.)
    Best wishes and Happy New Year
    Wolde”

    And, my anonymous source added the following, here, too, it is verbatim with the exception with what you see in […]:

    “… BTW, just to add to your response, you quoted me word for word while the other person wrote what his informant told him and did not use the words of his informant. Tesfai Tecle is still alive and he can be asked about the incident mentioned… he was politically engaged, while we were only interested in soccer and other worldly matters.

    “One more point, Tesfai is listed as a class mate of people 3 or 4 years older than him…he was listed [with classmates who] are older than him by at least 2 or 3 years. I think the problem must be because of the confusion between tesfai tekle and tesfai gebreselassie. I think the tesfai gebreselassie, who is a Minster in the Eritrean Government, was the class mate of Druee and others but tesfai tecle is younger than them.”

    Between the two above, this, I hope should end the discussion, because as Hope rightly pointed out, those who are curious to learn about the facts, they can pursue the research venue and do their due diligence. I thank Wolde Ammar and my anonymous source for trying to clear the air.

    This maybe my last entry for the year 2017. So, Happy New Year to y’all Awatistas

    Cheers,
    Beyan

  • Beyan

    Dear Hope,
    I honestly thought giving reliable source that I shared as anonymous who wished not to get into the fray, but wished to straighten the record through me would’ve suffice. Alas, the confusion continues…here is what I found in my e-mail box from the same source:

    “I read your interjection to correct the information provided and I saw the disappointing response you got. I am sorry! But your intervention was important for those who seek truth. It is just amazing how one can believe our history if people write it anyway they want and even when they are corrected, they doubt its veracity. What can one do? God save us from the historians of the future who make up the history we know and lived through as they go along.”

    Hope, no it is not Wedi Ammar…but what an excellent idea! I will see if Wedi Ammar can speak to this issue. I am just trying to help clarify through the anonymous source who is as credible and as reliable as they come, because I know the individual and can put my own credibility on the line to share what’s being shared here.

    Sincerely,
    Beyan

  • Dear Blink,

    For your swag: https://youtu.be/3LJyqBxX5FM

    tSAtSE a pioneer of sorts

  • Kbrom

    Heya Beyan,

    You raised a very important issue, መንግስቲ ኤርትራ ንበሎዶ ኣይንበሎ. I will come back to you soon.

    ምስ ሰላምታ

  • Kbrom

    Hi Nitricc,

    Thank you for seeking clarification. Yo are one of the people who inspired me to participate in this forum; I really appreciate you for standing firm in what you believe.

    Having said that ንኺድ ዶ ሞ!

    Re: who is your resources. For such a kind of information, naturally the sources are internal, which for obvious reasons is difficult to include him/her in the text. Had we had a constitutional and elected government with the three plus one systemic pillars that do the check and balance (legislative, executive and judiciary + independent media), we would not be in such a hunt of source and evidence). BTW, I noticed that PIA is also so obsessed with the phrase ‘where is the evidence’ whilst he feels absolutely comfortable imprisoning tens of thousands with out the slightest evidence of what he accuses them – including the G-15.

    Nitric, track records and trends say a lot with such kinda of unaccountable governments. Just remember when we said UAE is in Assab in 2016 ’the supporters’ brazenly assaulted us for disseminating information from unknown sources ‘ክቡር ፕረዚደንትና ከምዝበሎ እዛ ምድረ ስዉኣት ኤርትራ ናይ ዝኾነ ይኹን ወገን መዓስከር ኣይትኸውንን ኢያ’ however, soon they realised that both the land and its martyrs were sold together.

    By the way, it was not only the supporters who did not see it coming, even for PIA, the development was so fluid. On 29 March 2016 the president issued a statement which states that Eritrea ‘is not fancy with alliances and he does not support the alliance formed by Saudi Arabia’. Then a blessing in disguise changed the regional political landscape: Djibouti due to the childish bahaviour of its minister for foreign affairs (some times he acts like PFDJ officials) lost UAE.

    PIA was picked by the angry buyer, UAE, hence invited (or to be politically correct summoned) to Riyadh one month after its ‘we are not for sale’ bravado – on 29 April 2016. For your information he was not invited by the palace but by the Saudi intelligence institutions on behalf of UAE through the now Crown Prince Mohammed ( who is also a close and personal friend of the Amir of UAE.

    What did the supporters, who were asking us for evidence, said when the ንዝኾነ ወገን ዘይጸዓድ ሰብኣይ succumbed to the 500 million dollar + 5 years petrol supply in return of port of Assab and sending one battalion to guard president Alhadi’s palace?

    This is what the supporters that I know said: ‘ኣየ ብልሒ ኣደስ ወሊዳ ትምከን: እዚ ስንክሳር ውድብና ገለ እንዲዩ፡ ነዛ ዓለም ኣጸሊልዋ ፡መዓስከር ኣይነፍቅድን እንዳበለ ኢማራት ደበኽ , ንቐጠር ድማ ኩምትር: እንቋዕ ናይዚ መንግስቲ ኮንና, not even knowing that the government is not theirs.

    Yes, track records and trends say a lot Nitricc. The demotion of General Sbhat, the expulsion of Eritrean Higher Education Executive Officer, The appointment of Brigadier General Haile Mehtsun instead, the closure of R&D in Halal College, the recent new engagement with USA (more to come), the demonstration of 31st November by students, even the tragedy of Lampedusa (aka ዘይሕጋውያን ኣፍሪቃውያን ስደተኛታት) are some of the events which the independent sources informed us and not the Government of Eritrea.

    I think the government will continue to stifle the information, as with all autocratic regimes, not surprisingly, desperate people would seek information, clandestine networks will continue to disseminate information and those who believe independent information comes only from the government who is neither independent nor tolerant to independent information will call for sources revelation. I am afraid that would be a vicious circle.

    In Eritrea people think by mistake that what is missing is only freedom of speech, but what is not there is also freedom of listening, freedom of memorising, even freedom of thinking .

    We said there was a bloody war with Djibouti, however, since the supporters do not have the freedom of listing to any sources other than the prescribed ‘ኣዚዩ ዘዕግብ ሰሚናር
    ብዛዕባ ህልው ዞባውን ኣህጉራዊን ጉዳያት ብላዕለዎት ሓለፍቲ መንግስትን ግንባርን’ where they agree on ‘ተጻብኦታት ኣላሽ ኣቢልና ኣብ ናይ ምሕንባብ መድረኽ ኣሎና’, they told us this is a fabrication of Weyane regime and challenged us for the source, however, when we were in a state of tension with his supporters of GOE, the PIA admitted that there was a war WITH Djibouti and that he handed over the POW to Qatar.

    Then what happened? Did you express your anger for not being informed, even in a matter of war and peace that claimed Eritrean lives, did you call to have an elected government with accountability or you created another ’show me your evidence’ saga.

    Yes, what some supporters did is the later, this time a kinda of ‘how do you know there was a war, what our visionary President said was, here are the prisoners of WAR, but did not say there was a war’. The sad fact is that Eritrea has also its POW languishing there in the refugee camps betrayed by the very government who has thrown them into the fire that he was playing with.

    Now it is my turn to ask you dear Nitric, if you may allow me:

    You mentioned ‘independent source’ who is independent for you? what factors should one fulfill to be considered an independent source, why do you think we do not have an independent source in Eritrea?
    What do you know about the propaganda machine called 03 including the proxies who are compensated and contacted via Dark- Web (a parallel closed off internet) to manufacture, false stories and spread customised misinformation using different accounts

    Why do you think we are in a state of desperate search of information, even the basic information that takes place in broad-light, such as the recent closure of more than 300 small businesses owned by the private sector? what do you see the solution?

    Who decides in Eritrea the matters of national security, including but not limited to the following questions:

    Who decides whether Assab should be leased to UAE or not, what is the legislative procedure?

    Can PIA send our youth to the war in Yemen in the name of the so called alliance of islamic countries without the consent of its people and due legislative procedure?

    should we pay our beloved young generation’s blood in another country just because one man feels doing it?

    should the Eritrean people have their say? if yes through which institutions?

    Final thought: a child came to his dad and told him ‘dad I have a class homework which is a bit hard for me to answer: our teacher asked us to define the difference between trust and truth to which he answered as follows: (actually, I know the father who is a Tegadalay) let me put it in Tigrigna not spoil its spirit in the translation: ቢንያም ወደይ ሓቅን እምነትን ቁሩብ ፍልልይ ኣለዎም: ብኣብነት ከረዳእካ ይሓይሽ፡ ሕጂ እንታይ ይመስለካ ቢንያም ወደይ: ወይኒ ኣዴኻ ኢያ፡ እዚ ሓቂ ኢዩ: ትሕዘኒ ዶ ኣሎኻ ቢኒ ወደይ: ኣነ ድማ ኣቦኻ ኢየ – እዚ ኸኣ እምነት ይበሃል በሎ።

    Moral: you can not ask your wife for DNA every time she gives birth:ከምቲ ቅዱሳት መጻሕፍቲ ዝብልዎ እመን እሞ ኪገሃደልካዩ ንትርክ ወደይ?ሓወይ?ሓፍተይ?ጓለይ? ደለኻ ኹን ወዮ መልእኽተይ ጥራይ ብሰላም ይብጻሕካ ንስኻ ድማ ደሓን ሃልው።

  • Haile S.

    Selam Guest,
    As a passionate person, it could be that you never make mistakes and don’t leave a chance to your counterpart; therefore you never had the opportunity to hear it 🙂 :-). I got this info from: ዘመናዊ መዝገበ ቓላት ትግርኛ፡ ብ ተክአ ተስፋይ፡ ቤት ማሕተም ሕድሪ 1999 ገጽ 838።

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Selam Hailat,

      Whether he makes a move without a mistake or not, a passionate “ገበጣ” gamer must know the rule of the game in and out. And one of the rule is Gushtety or tigushtety however we say it.

    • Guest

      Selam Haile

      That is very flattering :-). I left Eritrea in 1984. Probably I am not that ዘመናዊ

      • Haile S.

        Selam Guest,
        Wecome BTW. I didn’t stay long after you; therefore I am not that ዘመናዊ as well. Before this dictionary, the one I knew was the one written by መምህር ግርማጽዮን (aka ፈስ by ቀ.ኅ.ሥ students of the time) in 1984. Unfortunately, I don’t have a copy.

        • Paulos

          Hailat,

          Forgot to ask you the other day. I am just curious, how old is the school [QaHaz]? I mean, when was it built and if you have any other as in historical background you could share about the school.

          • Haile S.

            Selamat Paul,
            Great question, but sounds like ብቀኃስ ኣሕቢጥቃና፡ ታሪኻ ኣቃብጸና:-) :-). I have a lot of souvenirs here and there of my stay there, but don’t know a lot of its history. I guess, it was built during the british administration and had certain prestige due to its name and wide variety of courses it privided till ~1975 and it was in the center of the city close to kagnew. The asmarinos use to attend this school or if you attend that school you become one. I hope Saay7, the No asmarino in this forum who went to Barka is not listening. And you Paul where did you go? One of tge italian schools?

          • Paulos

            Hailat,

            Thanks for the brief info on the school. I am sure it produced a lot of notable Asmarinos and hope anyone of them compile a narrative about the school someday. I attended Comboni till it was nationalized but of course the regime to its credit renamed it “Barka” at least for it could have gone any region or city in Ethiopia for a name.

          • blink

            Dear Haile.s
            Qahaz was not center of the city especially in 1975 . And I think anyone who went to camboni or barka S.S know where Qahaz is , don’t you think so ? Shall we open more about Barka?

          • Haile S.

            Selam Blink,
            Great input on the history of QeHas!
            On being at the physical center, they are both, just separated by a street and half. I was refering to the years before Barka came to exist as a rival following its nationalization. Otherwise, as the tigrigna saying goes ሸንካ ተርክበሉ, they were so close to each other.

          • blink

            Dear Haile.S
            yes they are closeyou are right. Just one roundabout between them.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Dr Paulos

            I believe Tesfay Tecle was in Luel Meconen with Wedi Ammar, Seyoum Harestay, Issayas, Derue, Weldedawit etc. He jumped through a window when the security came to catch him. He was the first to join ELF early from his 10th grade from his colleague activist at that time (an info from his classmate).

            Regards

          • blink

            Dear Mr. Amanuel
            You could be right but my account was from two sources .1 from Dan connell and Tom killion book 2 . From Kehas fighters list , . In the list there are many people like Tesfai gebresilasie but haile was from Prince Mokonnen s.school.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Blink,

            There are many history that has been told will be corrected. The Eritrean history is not written yet.

          • Beyan

            Dear Amanuel, Haile S., and others,

            The following info was e-mailed to me by someone who is from that generation and recalling from firsthand experience. Hope it helps in the clarification of the conflicting narratives related here.

            “BTW, the discussion of Tesfai Tecle caught my eyes. He was from KEHAS and yes he left at 10th grade and yes, he escaped through a window when security were coming to get him. I believe it was in 1965. He was part of a debate club I belonged at KEHAS. BTW, Iyob Besserat was also cohort of Tesfai Tecle but not his friend. Iyob was my friend. People mix up things a lot. The early demonstration at KHS involved earlier generation like Wedi Mariano. In our time, the demonstration started at Lul Mokonnen and spread to KEHAS who joined them and I think that was in 1964 or 1965.”

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Merhaba Beyan,

            We are talking on a second hand info until the first hand informers come openly to talk and settle the issue. I wish both of them come up upfront. Otherwise we will let it history to sort it out with the rest of our history. Second there will be always a mix up thing until history is recollected professionally for public consumption.

            Regards

          • Kokhob Selam

            Yes Aman

            Still no one can confirm so far..none among those was there..

            KS..

          • Beyan

            Selamat Amanuel,

            Points duly noted. Don’t tell Nitricc that though who thinks history should be left for amateurs whose profession is in the natural science. Kidding aside, you’re absolutely right, a great deal of primary sources will have to be unearthed, historical archives sought; and cross references verified, etc. This is beyond the realms of our capacity here at awate to subtle some such issues other than to put a mark on it.

          • Haile S.

            Thank you Beyan,
            Noted. I am following the infos as they come. These are events I had no previous knowledge.

          • blink

            Dear Mr.Amanuel
            Until new evidence comes people read what is written and for your information the Kehas list was put in to frame in the school library and there is no way that list must be wrong until you bring hard evidence. About the Two Tecle, I did not say as one person as I have already wrote their fathers Name. Which history is written wrongly because I guess we deserve to know not about any school but it is important to correct it based on evidence written in book or any kind of that , what happened in the past is essential to be told with people who know it all unless we cannot afford to go After Foro12 for political motivation of the day.

  • Kbrom

    Hello All,

    My name is Kbrom

    After staying as a silent follower of the Awate forum for quite long time, today, I decided to write a two cents comment. However, my main objective for joining the forum is to learn from all of you as I can see a reasonable talking points and an elevated (relatively) constructive discussion among forum members.

    Paulos, if I may start with your tread, in addition to what you said, I would like to add, if i may, a couple of points.

    1. Eritrea used to export about 27,000 metric ton of fish/year in mid 1940s. Add to that, that in 40s Eritrea had a Civic Societies one of them being the Association of Eritrean Women (AEW) chaired by non other but Weyzero Medhin Berad (though for Andnet); the Red Sea Hotel Massawa was awarded the best hotel in Africa and had the best Casino in 60s, in 1951 an Eritrean cyclist by the name Weldemichael Weldemariam (Berebere) won the African Cycling Championship, in 1960’s an Eritrean hostess by the name Nura Mohammed (the wife of the late Ibrahim Afa) won the Ethiopian top Hostess/Modelists award etc etc.

    2. As part of the Land and Port sale by PIA, Egypt and UAE have been granted 10 years contract with exclusive rights of fishing in the Red Sea. Sources inform that they (UAE and Egypt) subcontracted the Eritrean Navy for the labour of fishing (ስወአን ብጡጠን) i.e. the NS are doing the guard and fishing part of the business for the governments of UAE and Egypt.

    The people in the Regions (ዞባታት) of the Northern/Southern Red Sea have been officially instructed that they should not fish anymore from the Red Sea for ‘security reasons’. It is reported that the UAE’s AH-64D Apache Longbow helicopters bombed some artisanal fishermen in the area of IDI when the local people tried to continue their fishing business.

    Currently, what we have in Eritrea is መንእሰያት እምበር ዓሳ ምግፋፍ ዘይክእል መንግስቲ።

    ምስ ሰላምታ

    • Paulos

      Selam Kbrom,

      Glad you joined in and welcome. If you are a movie buff like yours truly, this is one of my fav lines in 1954 “On The Waterfront” where Marlon Brando says, “I could’ve been a contender, I could’ve been somebody.”

      In the 1930s, Asmara was the most modern city in Africa in every indices if you will save Johannesburg. The famous landmark Cathedral was built in 1923 for instance with top of the line architectural know-how but now the sewage system for instance that was built back then is clogged with dirt which is an epitome of a sinister motive to send the country back to the stone ages.

      • Selamat Professor Denmarkino Arkey,

        Aya AmanH “aytQzumu” able. Habetien bil Haba (astorguami b GT ente’dliyu…)

        Now I have another APOCOLYPTO like in addition to “Everytime I get out they pull me right in.”
        Epsilon or Sigma… laEleway bdmirru

        Nay TTilyan doAh nayy gbtSi… EndiEi “it’s all Greek to me.” Menn Terifu? Nkhndey kfli Turkeying you b bbbb bimbomback Sudan. MeAAss? ShioU, Abey AboU, mss menn msoU.
        ItypPPyawi Eiritrawi… Shudeshte..
        SebAA – Temamm?

        Temamm!

        Abu Ashera Weapon X – Evolution.

        AbuJabu jubum mnweinn Al Semek was Al qahwa?
        Send the check. 😉
        tSAtSE

      • Kbrom

        Selam selam Paulo

        Movie buff? no, that is actually my weakest link, I watch movies only when 1321 people recommend it.

        ምስ ሰላምታ

    • Nitricc

      Hi Kbrom: you said ” 2. As part of the Land and Port sale by PIA, Egypt and UAE have been granted 10 years contract with exclusive rights of fishing in the Red Sea. Sources inform that they (UAE and Egypt) subcontracted the Eritrean Navy for the labour of fishing (ስወአን ብጡጠን) i.e. the NS are doing the guard and fishing part of the business for the governments of UAE and Egypt.” I am doubting your post when you said the above I have quoted you but what is your source? I hear it here and then but I couldn’t verify from any independent source. So, how true is what you are sharing with us.
      Thanks.

      • Kbrom

        Hi Nitricc,

        Thank you for seeking clarification. Yo are one of the people who inspired me to participate in this forum; I really appreciate you for standing firm in what you believe.

        Having said that ንኺድ ዶ ሞ!

        Re: who is your resources. For such a kind of information, naturally the sources are internal, which for obvious reasons is difficult to include him/her in the text. Had we had a constitutional and elected government with the three plus one systemic pillars that do the check and balance (legislative, executive and judiciary + independent media), we would not be in such a hunt of source and evidence). BTW, I noticed that PIA is also so obsessed with the phrase ‘where is the evidence’ whilst he feels absolutely comfortable imprisoning tens of thousands with out the slightest evidence of what he accuses them – including the G-15.

        Nitric, track records and trends say a lot with such kinda of unaccountable governments. Just remember when we said UAE is in Assab in 2016 ’the supporters’ brazenly assaulted us for disseminating information from unknown sources ‘ክቡር ፕረዚደንትና ከምዝበሎ እዛ ምድረ ስዉኣት ኤርትራ ናይ ዝኾነ ይኹን ወገን መዓስከር ኣይትኸውንን ኢያ’ however, soon they realised that both the land and its martyrs were sold together.

        By the way, it was not only the supporters who did not see it coming, even for PIA, the development was so fluid. On 29 March 2016 the president issued a statement which states that Eritrea ‘is not fancy with alliances and he does not support the alliance formed by Saudi Arabia’. Then a blessing in disguise changed the regional political landscape: Djibouti due to the childish bahaviour of its minister for foreign affairs (some times he acts like PFDJ officials) lost UAE.

        PIA was picked by the angry buyer, UAE, hence invited (or to be politically correct summoned) to Riyadh one month after its ‘we are not for sale’ bravado – on 29 April 2016. For your information he was not invited by the palace but by the Saudi intelligence institutions on behalf of UAE through the now Crown Prince Mohammed ( who is also a close and personal friend of the Amir of UAE.

        What did the supporters, who were asking us for evidence, said when the ንዝኾነ ወገን ዘይጸዓድ ሰብኣይ succumbed to the 500 million dollar + 5 years petrol supply in return of port of Assab and sending one battalion to guard president Alhadi’s palace?

        This is what the supporters that I know said: ‘ኣየ ብልሒ ኣደስ ወሊዳ ትምከን: እዚ ስንክሳር ውድብና ገለ እንዲዩ፡ ነዛ ዓለም ኣጸሊልዋ ፡መዓስከር ኣይነፍቅድን እንዳበለ ኢማራት ደበኽ , ንቐጠር ድማ ኩምትር: እንቋዕ ናይዚ መንግስቲ ኮንና, not even knowing that the government is not theirs.

        Yes, track records and trends say a lot Nitricc. The demotion of General Sbhat, the expulsion of Eritrean Higher Education Executive Officer, The appointment of Brigadier General Haile Mehtsun instead, the closure of R&D in Halal College, the recent new engagement with USA (more to come), the demonstration of 31st November by students, even the tragedy of Lampedusa (aka ዘይሕጋውያን ኣፍሪቃውያን ስደተኛታት) are some of the events which the independent sources informed us and not the Government of Eritrea.

        I think the government will continue to stifle the information, as with all autocratic regimes, not surprisingly, desperate people would seek information, clandestine networks will continue to disseminate information and those who believe independent information comes only from the government who is neither independent nor tolerant to independent information will call for sources revelation. I am afraid that would be a vicious circle.

        In Eritrea people think by mistake that what is missing is only freedom of speech, but what is not there is also freedom of listening, freedom of memorising, even freedom of thinking .

        We said there was a bloody war with Djibouti, however, since the supporters do not have the freedom of listing to any sources other than the prescribed ‘ኣዚዩ ዘዕግብ ሰሚናር
        ብዛዕባ ህልው ዞባውን ኣህጉራዊን ጉዳያት ብላዕለዎት ሓለፍቲ መንግስትን ግንባርን’ where they agree on ‘ተጻብኦታት ኣላሽ ኣቢልና ኣብ ናይ ምሕንባብ መድረኽ ኣሎና’, they told us this is a fabrication of Weyane regime and challenged us for the source, however, when we were in a state of tension with his supporters of GOE, the PIA admitted that there was a war WITH Djibouti and that he handed over the POW to Qatar.

        Then what happened? Did you express your anger for not being informed, even in a matter of war and peace that claimed Eritrean lives, did you call to have an elected government with accountability or you created another ’show me your evidence’ saga.

        Yes, what some supporters did is the later, this time a kinda of ‘how do you know there was a war, what our visionary President said was, here are the prisoners of WAR, but did not say there was a war’. The sad fact is that Eritrea has also its POW languishing there in the refugee camps betrayed by the very government who has thrown them into the fire that he was playing with.

        Now it is my turn to ask you dear Nitric, if you may allow me:

        You mentioned ‘independent source’ who is independent for you? what factors should one fulfill to be considered an independent source, why do you think we do not have an independent source in Eritrea?
        What do you know about the propaganda machine called 03 including the proxies who are compensated and contacted via Dark- Web (a parallel closed off internet) to manufacture, false stories and spread customised misinformation using different accounts

        Why do you think we are in a state of desperate search of information, even the basic information that takes place in broad-light, such as the recent closure of more than 300 small businesses owned by the private sector? what do you see the solution?

        Who decides in Eritrea the matters of national security, including but not limited to the following questions:

        Who decides whether Assab should be leased to UAE or not, what is the legislative procedure?

        Can PIA send our youth to the war in Yemen in the name of the so called alliance of islamic countries without the consent of its people and due legislative procedure?

        should we pay our beloved young generation’s blood in another country just because one man feels doing it?

        should the Eritrean people have their say? if yes through which institutions?

        Final thought: a child came to his dad and told him ‘dad I have a class homework which is a bit hard for me to answer: our teacher asked us to define the difference between trust and truth to which he answered as follows: (actually, I know the father who is a Tegadalay) let me put it in Tigrigna not spoil its spirit in the translation: ቢንያም ወደይ ሓቅን እምነትን ቁሩብ ፍልልይ ኣለዎም: ብኣብነት ከረዳእካ ይሓይሽ፡ ሕጂ እንታይ ይመስለካ ቢንያም ወደይ: ወይኒ ኣዴኻ ኢያ፡ እዚ ሓቂ ኢዩ: ትሕዘኒ ዶ ኣሎኻ ቢኒ ወደይ: ኣነ ድማ ኣቦኻ ኢየ – እዚ ኸኣ እምነት ይበሃል በሎ።

        Moral: you can not ask your wife for DNA every time she gives birth:ከምቲ ቅዱሳት መጻሕፍቲ ዝብልዎ እመን እሞ ኪገሃደልካዩ ንትርክ ወደይ?ሓወይ?ሓፍተይ?ጓለይ? ደለኻ ኹን ወዮ መልእኽተይ ጥራይ ብሰላም ይብጻሕካ ንስኻ ድማ ደሓን ሃልው።

    • Beyan

      Selam Kbrom,

      Where you’ve been all these years then -:) Let me second the motion in welcoming you. I like the way you succinctly articulate your ideas like you did here, which will be a great addition to the forum. Individual forumers like you ይብዝሑን ይሰሱሱንን እዩ ዘብል። Oh, by the way, the way in which you wrapped up your thoughts about the regime at the helm of power as nothing but መንእሰያት እምበር ዓሳ ምግፋፍ ዘይክእል መንግስቲ was right on the mark, except for the last word calling it “መንግስቲ” gave me a hiccup because that’s just too dignifying of a term for this undeserving regime we have occupying our country.

      Welcome aboard!
      Beyan

      • Selamat Beyan,

        The linguist that you are, I am quite sure the subtly of the fish metaphor is not lost on you.
        My 9:18PM alarm on my hand set just went off….

        Al MesiHi and my Lord and savior Jesus Christ to his 12 disciples leads them to fish for men/mankind.

        As, Kibrom has paused to answer your question, I will step in and confidently assure you Mengsti Eritra Mengsti iyu….. A government I support by opposing and criticizing it from the get go… …..

        As the Imperative Narrative you shall read soon will prove.

        It is weekend rules…
        https://youtu.be/2wFmDPscsw8

        Abbu AAshera Weapon X – Evolution.

        AmEritrean GitSAtSA Weapon X – Evolution
        Azzilo40 Agniyeya 40 Acres and a Mule

        • blink

          Dear Tsatse
          The link you attached can cause heart attack to some people in this forum, I guess this is a good bye to 2017. Uhmm why do not you slap them on their face man . You are not kind at all , these poor souls can not handle anything made in EPLF .

          • Dear Blink,

            Not true. You forget, win win win. No one looses or has a heart attack due to the Imperative Narrative, that is AAbu Asshera Weapon X + Evolution.
            And I am not fooled by your addition to dilute the message of Metkel.

            Azmari we Hamien ilka itti Haqui ayketHQiQon ikha. Dilute the message…

            Kuntal beliEka temeles….LekhbaTT!

            tSAtSE

          • blink

            Dear tsatse
            Second guess is not allowed, one shot one kill is the rule of the game. May be Bowmans room is not squeezing enough, I heard age can play great role.That’s way .

          • Blink,

            Nay AAsertetshiAAte Gedli.ltgobTu tbigesu bHaili.

            Excellent.wishes as are mine. Ajokha Ajona! https://youtu.be/gjo-b9zh8yA

        • Beyan

          Selamat Tsatse,

          While we’re on the realms of nostalgia, weekend gives us this wonderful reprieve and respite to go into the memory lane. By the way, it might seem splitting hairs to some, but I tend to make a distinction between EPLF, & EPFDJ. The former was as bonafide as ELF, both of whom were fighting forces that wanted to liberate Eritrea and Eritreans from the yoke of occupation, by golly, what ELF started EPLF finished the job. Period.

          The conceiving and the inception of PFDJ left EPLF into the realms of history. Any attempt to link the two is very dangerous territory where it would mar EPLF history as a liberating force. That’s why I have difficulty seeing or accepting PFDJ as a government; it is a regime not worthy the title of governance … any government worth its salt would have the vested interest of its people … this regime we have back home cannot and should never be given that meritorious title – it does not deserve. This is a political statement, a principled statement that any person who considers him/herself part of the opposition should take a stance akin to what I am advocating here. I may have preempted Kbrom’s rejoinder, oh, well…let me stop here and wait for his input. Meanwhile, here is a song about long and aching for one’s country that might go hand in hand with what you shared here and blink below. Enjoy:

          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q98teRsWf9I

          • Dear Professor Beyan,

            Look beyond the presumption of linking EPLF&EPFDJ by tSAtSE. (I can’t help but feel short changed.)

            Infact I am linking the EPFDJ, Eritrean Opposition to the PFDJ, the EPLF, the ELF and more. And should this attempt by tSAtSE Mar EPLF and ELF-Eritrean history in general, then so be it. The semantics argument of the words “a government” aside for later…

            Billy Don “Bill” Moyer an American Journalist and Politico Commentator said:

            “All I can say is that if reporting what happens to ordinary people because of events beyond their control, and the indifference of government to their fate, is liberal, ‘ I will plead guilty.”

            Bill Moyer further quotes The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.:
            “We are caught in an inescapable web of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects me directly, affects all indirectly.”

            … Skipping with brevity to this:

            1. Awate reports: Somber New Year’s Eve in Asmara.
            2. Eritrea’s President Isaias Afeworki visits Emirates, in Dubai on New Year’s Eve. (Summoned by the Emirates say some reporting.)
            3. Ethiopia’s PM Desalegn Hailemariam announces the release of Ethiopian Political Prisoners.
            4. Emirates supported Egyptian armed forces arriving in Eritrea’s is reported.
            5. Turkey President Tayipp Edrogan visits Sudan’s Bashir.
            6. Reports of Sudan closing border with Eritrea, shutting Eritrean offices and arresting three
            7. Reports of Sudanese forces mobilizing on the border with Eritrea as well as Ethiopian forces mobilizing on their respective border with Eritrea….

            Eerily familiar to several events of wars spanning a couple of decades to a century and centuries past…

            A couple or several scenarios of what is happening in the horn as well as the indifference to ordinary people by the numerous Eritrean GOVERNMENTS, (yes including the EPFDJ) and foreign forces, I suppose will play out once all the reporting is verified occurrences in this first week of 2018.
            A Somber 2018 indeed. The more reason EVERYONE should tune and adhere to The Imperative GLOBAL Narrative 2018. Or NOT.

            (AT and or Gedab News, I am certain, is working diligently to “Inform, Embolden and Reconcile.”)

            Indeed! “Remember your logo ‘Inform, Embolden and Reconcile.” Sena & YES AWATE should still push for reconciliation. Otherwise, the task Imperative and vital task will and IS picked up by

            AmEritrean GitSAtSA Azzilo40 Agniyeya 40 Acres and a Mule

            As the slogan “Nay zwedeQu btSotna Bret alEilna qalsina sgab Awey knqitSil inna.” by Kokhob tSibaH and KeyaHti Eimbeba at
            WaEla HadiQa Khartoum Telata 1978. Hence 40… The Imperative GLOBAL Narrative 2018.
            GitSAtSE

  • Paulos

    Selamat My Good People,

    They say, ወዲ ሰራሒ ማዕጾ ዝብኢ ወሰዶ. I just finished going through a tweeter feed where a snap shot of a menu of a certain restaurant in Asmara shows outrageous prices of sea food as in fish where one would expect it to be less pricy and affordable to the average “Gebre” and “Lete” and their children as well (read: Eritrea enjoys 600 miles coastline of the Red Sea.)

    The menu reads as it is:

    Cotelet Fish………..115.00
    Grilled Fish………….115.00
    Spris Fish………………98.00
    Finger Fish………….115.00*
    Fritatta Fish…………..70.00

    *Didn’t know fish had a finger. Fin?

    • Haile S.

      Selam Paul,
      I think you are just looking for trouble here! Have you ever eaten the finger of a chicken because what you ordered was a chicken fingers? It is to say fish sticks. ክትፈላሰፍ ክትብል’ሲ ዘይብላዕ ከተብልዓና?

      • blink

        Dear Haile.S
        Fish finger or Finger fish is a recipe and I think any one can prepare it even at your normal kitchen. If you guys never eaten Fish finger or Finger fish it means you need to eat now. And if you wanted to prepare at home it takes slightly over 25 minuets but not more than 30 .
        The recipe is more of a carbohydrate and some portions. In some countries they eat with bani or bread and some also use catchup. It’s main ingredient are flour , egg,skinless white fish fillets and other things.

      • Paulos

        Selam Hailat,

        You should see me laughing. You are right, it should have read sticks instead. Have you ever had Fatta in the mini እንዳ ቑርሲ sort of bistro around Medeber? Nothing can beat that.

        • Haile S.

          Hi Paul,
          Unfortunatey not. The other day someone who came to to visit us was mentioning, I guess, the same place. When I venture to that area. It was usually to go to enda-swa egri abashwal, not necessarily for the swa, but for the waTa (ዋጣ) and the ambience. Other than that I vividly recall the taste of enda-zekarias embetito, the one we ቀ.ኅ.ሥ/Red-Sea-ss students use to go.

          • Paulos

            Hailat,

            No wonder you’re ፊኖ ኣዝማሪኖ! I guess these days the badge of “coolness” in Asmarino has lost its luster. እቲ ፋራ ዝነበረ ኣዝማሪኖ እየ ክብል ጀሚሩ እቲ ኣዝማሪኖ ዝነበረ ፋራ ኾይኑ ተሪፉ. Thanks to Higdef.

          • Kebessa

            Hey Haile,
            You reminded me sandwich enda Amine – by the semafero across from Toskana. The sandwich was soft and tasted incredible and like no other place. We used to wonder if it was horse meat😀Sadly today you wouldn’t recognize enda Amine and Toskana.

          • Haile S.

            Hi Kebessa,
            I don’t have recollection having been there, but it is interesting you compare good meat with horses’s. I confirm, horse meat is great. I have eaten it as a steak tartare (raw meat with onion, egg and spices) in France.

          • Hasot

            Hi Haile
            Just curious
            Are you related to by any chance to the above one one way to the other
            We never know what the new year will bring
            Long time ago you mentioned about the person who was serving as “navy” too
            Happy New year MP

          • Haile S.

            Selam Haqi,
            Your comment is intriguining and appear to be coded, but this time I hint looks for something of great surprise. Close to 3 weeks ago someone who wanted to know who I was adopted a name of one of my closest. I hope I am not getting parano. Back to your comments, I don’t think I mentioned anything of ‘navy’ in my previous comments and I am not related to enda-Zekarias. If you are interested to persue this discussion please go to Jebena section and:
            ሓቅን ሓሶትን ገዲፍካ
            ወዲ ሓንጣል እንተኰንካ
            ኣስምዓና ግጥሚ በቲ ጥዑም መልሓስካ

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Hailat,

            Why do you address him as “HaQi” while he himself opted to be called “Hasot”? I don’t think his name is coded.

          • Haile S.

            MerHaba Emma,
            You are right. It is just few words and his signature that made me think that way.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Dear Hailat,

            Few years back, we had one forumer who was using a nickname “HaQi”, and he might lamented of inadvertently giving his name to others. You might need to say “gushtetey”.

            Regards

          • Haile S.

            Selam Emma,
            ድጉሽተተይ. If I am not mistaken, we usually say ትጉሽተተይ. Because you wrote it ጉሽተተይ, I was compelled to check Tekie’s tigrigna dictionary, where I found out it should be spelled ድጉሽተተይ and not either of the 2 above. Discussions at this forum lead us always to something interesting. Thank you for bringing it up.

          • Paulos

            Selam Hailat,

            Yea I thought we say Tgushtetey not Gushtetey where it could be a typo on Emma’s part. As you know, words morph over time when regions adopt a dialect of some words. For instance, when most of the Kebessa says ሕጂ for now, in Akeleguzai particularly around SenAafe they say ሕዪ.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            ሃይላት & ጳውሎስ,

            አነሞ ኣብ ሕብርቲ ትግርኛ ዝዝረቦ ቦታ ዓብየ እየ ዝብል:: ግንከአ ከምቲ ጳውሎሳይ ዝበሎ ካብ ቦታ ናብ ቦታ አደማምጻ ቃላት ፍልልይ ስለዘሎ ከምቅቡል ክውሰድ ይከአልዩ:: አበይ ሕምብርቲ ትግርኛ ከምዝኾነ ግን ትስሕትዎ አይመስለንን:: just kidding.

          • MS

            Hello Emma, Paulosay and HaileS
            I read this word for the first time in Ambassador Adhanom’s articles where he says some thing like: ነዚ ዘይቅበል ከኣ ትጉሽተተይ (I believe he used the form ትጉሽተተይ):: Therefore:
            1. Emma could be right that there may be variations: we already have three variations: ጉሽተተይ፡ ትጉሽተተይ፡ ድጉሽተተይ
            2. Can someone tell me what exactly that word is and how U use it? At the time I first read the word, I asked a couple of friends, but none was exactly firm about its meaning except that it is a word used mostly in “hagereseb”. I can understand from the context that it implies “I challenge you.”

          • Haile S.

            Selam Mahmoud,
            ትጉሽተተይ፡ according to the tigrigna dictionary, is used in ገበጣ game when you do a false move and want to go back. You say it immediately to be effective. It is also used similarly in other situations to say I pull back. ‘I challenge’ you is something else. One I know is እናጥኮኻ። Difficult to write it as the ና and ጥ are pronounced together. እናጥኮኻ እንድሕሪ ኢልካ ምምላስ የለን ብዘይካ ንክርፍስ።

          • MS

            Selam HaileS and Beyan
            Thanks guys. Another prominent awatista/Asmarino guy also sent me similar description. He said the equivalence of the world in shaebia parlance would be “seHibeya aleKu”…ha…ha…Now, that’s a description I’m familiar with.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Mahmuday,

            Gushtety or tigushtey is self-correction before others notice it, while “ Sihibeya Aleku” is used when someone gives you a better alternative to your idea, then you say it in order to give way to the other idea. So there is a distinct difference in their applications.

            Regards,

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Mahmuday,

            The word is used in a game called “ጸወታ ገበጣ” usually during ጥሪ ዕብዲ ኣብ እንዳመርዓውቲ :: The meaning of it is exactly how Haile explained it. When you try to move your play you pull back immediately if you notice a wrong move and you utter the word Gushtety or tigushtety. In other words I was telling Haile to pull back in my early comment.

            Regards

          • Beyan

            Hey Haile,
            It is the same dictionary I looked at earlier. ትጉሽተተይ for overlooking it. I now see ድጉሽተት on bottom left of page 838 – Right you’re. So, the verdict is in. I will defer to the expertise of Teka’ Tesfay and shall accept ድጉሽተት but it was the corrupted version of it that I grew up using. It will take me time to appropriate the right use of it. But, until then ትጉሽተተይ will have to do. Many thanks for solving it promptly.

            BN

          • Haile S.

            Selamat Beyan,
            I liked you long explanation. You are an Encyclopaedia. I am a very concise dictionary.

          • Beyan

            MerHaba Haile S.,

            That’s the dilemma we in the social sciences face. We tend to give long winded responses. I was going to tell Kbrom above if he was in engineering field, because I truly marvel at people who can concisely articulate their thoughts. With the information he shared above, if it were me, it would’ve come out as an article, I kid you not – I would’ve milked it for what it’s worth and more. In fact, I told a colleague the other day, how I am always impressed at the conciseness and preciseness with which engineers write. The field allows no room for errors, I guess. One has to be precise to build bridges… are you bridge builder, too – just kidding!

            Cheers,
            BN

          • Paulos

            Selam Dr. Beyan,

            I feel like I am preaching to the choir for you very well know this more than I do. If ድጉሽተት is the right word and ትጉሽተተይ is the corrupt version of it, does the author provide the etymology of the original word and don’t you think the corrupted word becomes the norm over time where for instance we say ኮምብሽታቶ for Campo di Stato and ካምቦቦሎ for Campo di Pollo.

          • Beyan

            merHaba dottore,

            No etymology at all, but it provides its use in different context as in their various plural forms, what have you. I concur with you though in that language as you have alluded to it earlier evolves overtime. Words make it into the dictionary every year based on their use, at least in the English dictionary – Of course, the French are the exception here, where they have censors, this might get at Haile S’s under the skin of our French speaking resident here. Absence that in our case, if there is a consensus, say, a community in the Tigrinya speaking that adheres to such usage, I guess, ትጉሽተተይ would be as good as ድጉሽተትይ. The examples you gave of “ኮምብሽታቶ for Campo di Stato and ካምቦቦሎ for Campo di Pollo” are, in my estimate, illustrate this aptly.

          • Paulos

            Dr. Beyan,

            It is just fascinating to see how colonial experience influences the local languages where some words if not a lot become not only mainstream but reflect one’s status or standing with in the society as well. Antonio Gramsci “Cultural Hegemony” and Edward Said’s “Orientalism” come to mind. If I am not mistaken, Chinwa Achebe’s [Things Fall Apart] main theme reflects to that effect as well.

          • Beyan

            Selam Dottore,

            You really know to prod gently to engage us all. You’re natural at this. Oh, man! Where do I even begin. Allow me to refrain from theoretical issues, which may prove to border toward the boring side. Therefore, allow me to try to do it in a narrative form.

            The colonial project’s aftermath was and continues to be of immense consequences for their subjects. Colonialists didn’t just leave packing, they left their imprints and their footprints, if you will, for generations to follow. The architectural remnants that we pride ourselves in Asmara is but one prominent example in how our relationship is one that we have this overly romanticized feeling towards at times and one of repulsion at another.

            Earlier this year, I attended a conference in my hometown, Orange County, California at Chapman University, where the topic was about Metropolitanism, whether Asmara and its inhabitants qualified for one. On one side of the camp were those who said it was and on another absolutely and vehemently not. Some of what I am sharing is something that I talked about in the conference. The impact of language, the architect, the roads, the promenade, and their reverberations play a role even in the absence of the people who have left it there for, say, colonial rulers on the post-colonial subjects? Case and point, my own upbringing, in particular, the capital breathes, smells, looks, small city in Italy. These inanimate objects have had a role in shaping each generation following colonialism of some sixty years that culminated with the ending of WWII … Remnants of its language, however, had become part of the city’s lexicon, playing soccer as children, we counted in Italian. “Contact zone” can have impact even in the absence of the very human essence that brought it there.

            What descendants of former colonial powers (the North) and what descendants of former colonized (the South) remember naturally are different. It should be no surprise here then what I recall based on my personal experience would be markedly different. Since I didn’t directly face the wrath of colonialism, much as those descendants of the North didn’t, what they write about would essentially be about the relics of their colonial past, which comes in the form of art deco. For a child growing up in the colonial city, these admirable art deco(s) served no more than utilitarian purposes. They came in the form of Cinema Asmara, Cinema Dante, Cinema Empero, Cinema Odeon, etc. Remembering my formative years from my ‘diasporic’ space are twofold: The safe haven that Akhriya from the peripheries, which gave me solid grounding; and the entertainment value that the Colonial City of Asmara proffered appeared to have worked in tandem to shape my cosmopolitan identity living in exile, for the most part, in California….on and on I go. But, this will suffice for now.

          • Paulos

            Dottore,

            Glad you left out the dry side and picked the fun part instead. Well put. I should be excused for I have this damning irresistible urge to gravitate toward the boring part. Rest assured though I won’t take offense if you you’re going 60 yawnings per hour as you read on.

            If it is all a matter of perspective, one wonders what the colonial experience particularly the Italian experience in Eritrea would look like from an Italian point of view. Perhaps it might not be us versus them for experts in that area as in Tekeste Negash among others argue that, the South were promised by the then Prime Minister of the newly united Italy, a fertile land with the Sun overhead as the South were at loggerheads with the more advanced and industrialized North. If this argument actually holds water, the Italians considered Eritrea not as foreign and exotic land but one as their own and the tremendous investment particularly in Asmara to make it a microcosm of Rome seems to lend credence to the historical thread.

          • Beyan

            To the contrary Dottore, the way in which you make physics understandable to a layman like me is beyond compare so much so I shared some with my friend who is deep into the physics of the world. He even suggested I read Erwin Shroedinger’s “What’s Life”, which I hope to do in the near future. As SGJ said it to you, it is the way you make philosophical endeavors relatable is what you got going for you – You are the “explainer in chief”, hands down. Back to the topic at hand.

            The Italians who settled in Eritrea, they absolutely fell in love with the weather, and the land that was for grabs. The investment on the infrastructures of various sorts were indicative that they were going to stay for the long haul. The road between Asmara and Massawa is one clear indication, albeit it probably came at the expense of the arduous labor our forefathers who had to endure it, certainly, some would’ve lost their lives doing it. The “little rome” in Africa was their oasis, made in the image of the city they loved – ROME. The picture you see below is of Eritrean actress from the 1940s, according to someone who shared it on FB. There is another picture, where the young actress is in a remote Afar region, topless in a motorcycle, with a beautiful smile on her face (I hesitate to avail it here for obvious exploitative nature of the image). At any rate, in the background you see three young men, clearly sheep herders in the desert. So, the Italians who settled in Eritrea knew they were making a home for themselves and for their communities and their families while they exploited the natives in all of the ways possible. Dr. Negash’s assertion in that sense makes sense, he may have a point there. Whatever their motive, coming in droves they did. Downtown promenade was off limits, one better not get caught by the then Italian goons who would go full throttle on gang banging the natives to go back to their respective residential areas outside the premises that the colonizers designated inherently theirs. These are examples of colonizers attempting to draw authoritative line, making sure that they weren’t going to be challenged by these Africans, if you will.

            https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/224a2dcea1f59c2d30b68380f0c4126355c8a10bc9f08ea9cdcb70fd71a2c6c2.jpg

            My reference point, on the other hand, was on the descendants of those colonizers who are now coming in the garbs of experts to enjoy the marvel of their innovative forefathers. While their forefathers came to stay, these descendants go to Eritrea to enjoy the “miracles” of what their predecessors did. This is precisely what prompted the conference I referenced earlier. What about the human element of the inhabitants. Nothing is mentioned about the local residents – only the art deco, why not let the residents, the inhabitants, tell their lived stories as they lived it, telling in that conference we did. So, this was the antidote to the UN naming Asmara as a heritage sight that propelled the conference.

          • Paulos

            Selam Dr. Beyan,

            Many thanks for those kind words. I agree with your friend for the “What is Life” is the first ever popular book written by a Physicist—and it is one of those books one should read in a lifetime. The book was written in 1944 way before the DNA double helix was discovered. And as it happened, Francis Crick who is credited for the discovery along with James Watson in 1953 was initially trained as a Physicist and reading the book influenced him in his understanding about the structure of the DNA.

            I have been meaning to write about it in this forum for quite sometime for the book has made a profound impression on me and one other book similar in content with it titled “Life On The Edge” as well. It is essentially the application of Quantum Physics or Reality with in the life sciences particularly Biology.

            Back to the tread: A couple of years ago, not sure if you have seen it, a documentary was done by two descendants of the first settlers in Eritrea and they went to Eritrea to interview the last remaining Italians in Eritrea to shade some light on their experience and what Eritrea means to them. You probably remember Orsi, he owned a car battery plant around Alfaromeo in Asmara and he was featured a lot in the documentary but for some reason, the documentary was pulled from the web altogether.

          • Beyan

            Howdy Dottore,

            The morning is barely starting on this side of the world. What better way to make your debut in your new column in a new year – if you decide to take up the offer from the AT – than with a book that “made a profound impression on” you. Now, you may make similar impression on our young readers. “Life On The Edge” I will certainly pass it a long to my wife as it is more in her territory than mine as she is Bioinformaticist by training. Interestingly before she and the kids left town packing for the Holiday break, she was begging me to find her a book that gave her deeper understanding of the African American experience in the US, one that goes way back to slavery.

            The later Octavia Butler’s novel, “KIndred” is a must read. Butler was one of the rare science fiction writers, a field predominated by White American men. The dominant culture keeps on latching on to its European past in the literature world by having young men and women read works like that of Mary Shelly’s (1818) “Frankenstein”. Of course, a woman writing in that era is critically important for feminists or those who believe in women’s movements and all. But, seldom do you see them going out of that trajectory to venture and teach literature using works like that of Butler. This particular professor who got me to turn onto Butler’s work, and I am grateful for such an opportunity. Consider this: Anywhere between 600,000 to 1,000.000 books are published in the US alone – every year. It’s a very crowded field for one to get a deserved exposure. College is one to get to Butler’s kind of work…you get my drift. At any rate, after reading that book I couldn’t stop reading her work. She was as real as they come – Absolutely fantastic writer.

            The only two Italians who stayed until they passed away I knew were Jagume, who had soap factory, but lived in Akhria where he had piles and piles of bones for his soap making factory…I am not sure where his factory was located. The only thing I was interested during my formative years – like any kid in Eritrea would be – playing soccer and there was a field near Jagume’s house. The second was Ghido, who was, literally, junk collector – equivalent to what we would call here junkyard. The only reason I went as far as Cinema Roma & Cinema ሲነማ ክሮቸ ሮሳ is when I would miss it when it showed in Cinema Dante and Cinema Empero, but didn’t have the money to watch it there, we would catch in ሲነማ ክሮቸ ሮሳ. In retrospect, the latter was so small and suffocating it seemed now.

            Orsi and others’ perspective would’ve been an eye opener to watch. Unfortunately, I didn’t even know about it.

            Cheers,
            BN

          • Paulos

            Selam Dr. Beyan,

            Man, your writing is lucid and smooth like silk. No kidding! Will check out the book you recommended. Thank you.

            Years ago, I used to get my hands on “The New Yorker” for it published great reviews on books and cinema as well. You’re absolutely right the sheer volume of books could be overwhelming to choose from much less to review.

            If I could say something with in that line, I think it has a lot to do the way we were shaped up as a society for we were influenced to be prejudice about certain field of study over another when all is body of knowledge regardless. To be more precise, how is history any different than or from say chemistry? Think about it. The way it is processed in our mind is the same. Our brain sees series of information not history or chemistry but we compartmentalize knowledge and it creates a discriminatory psychological block if you will and we say, this thing is my thing over that thing.

            Certainly, we can not be experts and lend expert opinion in every field but we can be well informed if we see knowledge in its entirety. Of course, the compartmentalization of knowledge has a practical edge on it for time constraint is at play and we get “forced” to specialize in certain area so that we remain productive in the society. But again, if we are able to break the psychological block and see knowledge in a different light, one can realize that knowledge is seamless.

          • Nitricc

            Hey P; sorry for interjecting but I can’t help it when you tried to equate Chemistry with History. As far as I am concern, it is shame the likes of History, philosophy, sociology, theology and all that BS, it should be a hobby people just love to do on their spare time. Not worthy to go to a university and they tug you with fake phd, really. I will have more respect for a person who took one semester of quantum mechanics or thermodynamics over the BS phd’s of hobby. give me a break.

          • King Ezana

            Selamat Nitric: hahaha. You gave me a real weapon to one of my kids who wanted to study philosophy. Your words might hurt but dead on. How true, Wow! You going to make a lot of people angry.

          • Beyan

            Selam King Ezana,

            I am all for convincing not through hatred, no matter what. Reason with them. Children see through these things quickly. So, don’t bet on it that your kids will buy the scare tactics. Let me tell you a quick story, a true story that my medical doctor friend told happened. A kid of Chinese descent was coerced into going to medical school. When he received his diploma after some eleven years of toiling, he folded the diploma into four squares – right then and there – and said, here is your diploma, it is not mine, enjoy it.

            The point is, please don’t use such idiotic “weapon”, it will be a weapon to destroy your child into depression maybe even worst. Cultivate him or her to love whatever field you think will be best for them considering the times we live in. At best, tell’em to minor in one versus the other and see if the field you’re trying to convince to get into is something that will make them happy in their profession.

            All the best,
            BN

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Nitrickay & King Ezana,

            No matter how easy or difficult each subject might be, all disciplines of knowledge contribute to our human progress. Each subject as a branch of philosophical endeavor, be it in metaphysical world or in the empirical world, has relationship to all branches of knowledge. So undermining subjects that are not to your taste is not good.

            Ezana, pls do not make any pressure to your kids as to what they have to study. Each kid has to pursue his/her career depending where their strength and their interests are, if you wanted them to succeed.

            Regards

          • Paulos

            Nitrikay ma lil bro,

            You should see me laughing! Karl Marx’s maxim comes to mind when he said “Philosophers may have interpreted the world, the point is however to change it.” The adage ought to come with a caveat however for it can give one the wrong impression about Philosophy when the famous statue of Rodin “The Thinker” feeds to that impression as if Philosophers sit ideally and think. Far from it.

            What does the word Philosophy mean anyway? Well, if you break it, you get Philo and Sophia where the former is Love and the latter is Wisdom—-Philosopher is one who is in love with knowledge if you will. And Ph.D stands for Doctor of Philosophy including in Theoretical or Particle Physics. The love in knowledge is not limited to abstract thinking but in the entire body of knowledge.

            Philosophy however utilizes methodology where it focuses in specific areas as in Onthology (the study of Being and Becoming) or Epistemology (the study of Knowledge) for instance.

            Consider this, before the advent of Quantum Mechanics, we had Newtonian world view where the Universe was thought as a machine with bolts and screws set in motion by a Diety. Before that however, men of inquirying minds wanted to know Man’s place in the Universe and if there is a meaning to it at all. This deep philosophical enquiry gave us the strange sense of reality we call Quantum world. Philosophy was and is the foundation of all field of studies.

            Santayana famously said, “Those who don’t remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” Santayana recognized that History is not a random phenomenon but a dynamic event with a certain logic in it. Through history, societies garner a sense of identity and through history societies gain a sense of purpose as well. It was with in this backdrop that Hegel postulated a theory about history. He reasoned, if individuals are rational beings and if states are rational players, their actions and its outcome ought to be rational as well and history can be understood from a rational point of view for history is an accumulative action of states. And he set out to figure out the main factors that drive history, he said it is the clash of ideas as in thesis and antithesis where the outcome is synthesis and the synthesis becomes a thesis and the cycle repeats itself ad infinitum till he said the attainment of an Absolute Idealism where later on Theologians interpreted it as the manifestation of heavenly reality. His student Karl Marx thought the opposite when he said the driving forces behind history are the clash of classes between the haves and the have-nots instead where in the end not Absolute Idealism is the result but a classless society as in Communism with an equal taste of Nirvana not so much radical depurture from Hegel.

            Sociologists gave us a systematic knowledge on how to design effective Public Policies for instance. They showed us how to balance the interests of different stakeholders in a society so that, Law and Constitution remain unbiased as political power is redistributed. The structure of civil service as in Government wouldn’t have been effective if it was not the genius of Talcot Parson the sociologist in his “Structural Functionalism.”

          • Beyan

            Oh, Amen Dottore

            Coming from you a compliment of the sort you just lavished me with about my lucidity in expressing myself is already putting me in cloud nine. So, watch-out, you give me an inch I take a mile out of it. So, here it goes now onward to to some of the points you make in your entry above. In fact, I should say, every word you place here vis-a-vis the way in which we are taught to discriminate even in our field of endeavors, educationally speaking. I tell you one thing that illustrates this is one in which Ali Salem had stated in his last article, seemingly, in passing that “All social sciences are junk sciences as you can imagine.” I couldn’t believe what I was reading. But, the context in which you address here, it makes sense for him to have such disposition, not knowing what field he is in, I cannot help it but surmise now, he must be trained in the field of the natural sciences – i.e., one that adheres to crunching number, empirical data, as it were, positivism that originated in the 18th century as a counter weight to metaphysics. Of course, context is critically important to recall in that 18 the Century was replete with ideas that not only challenged religious supremacy but that natural science was handily replacing it. We’ve come a long ways since then in the other direction accepting qualitative inquiries, nevertheless, those prejudices against social sciences linger on.

            At any rate, before I go back to Butler, this is the second time I am hearing you mentioning cinema. I am going to submit an article in which I try to analyze a movie that left indelible marks when I first watched it – namely, The Hurt Locker. I will have to find it first in one of the many thumb-drives I have laying around. What would be interesting to see is if there is enough interest in some such endeavors here at awate-land, that we entertain such ideas as critiquing, analyzing, reflection upon any artistic endeavors that we revel in. Now, back to Butler.

            Spoiler alert: This may just spoil the book for some people, especially, those who read for the joy of reading and not necessarily for those who seek deeper understanding, because for the latter spoiling is meaningless as there are myriad of ways and levels that one can get from reading a novel. But, here is my take of it.

            Octavia E. Butler’s novel titled “Kindred” brings issues of slavery, race, and gender to the fore. The reader travels back in time through the main protagonist, Dana, who in some science fiction manner travels back from her present existence in 1976 of California to the antebellum South in 1815 of Maryland. This highly volatile and intensely complicated subject matter is brought to life in “Kindred” vis-à-vis three characters, namely, Dana, the main protagonist who is black; Kevin, Dana’s husband who is white; and Rufus, a plantation master’s child, whom Dana help save out of successive troubles and wittingly or not helps him to grow to be a master.

            Using the theme analysis, this novel delves into how slavery was not just about subjugation of black Americans to 200 years of indentured servitude by white Americans, but was also a way in which the white male becomes the archetype that defines masculinity in the United States. The intersection of the two races – whites and blacks – carries with it an overarching issue of domination toward the female prototype, specifically, black and white women. The way to dominate the white woman rests in obliterating black slaves until they amount to no more than commodities. The way the plantation owner guarantees his superiority is by raping black women at any time he wishes; sells the children of slaves at whims. There are reported cases in which the white master orders the slave male to leave the premises until he is done raping the slave female who could be the slave male’s sister, wife, mother, matters not; at such an order, the male slave acquiesces with no recourse at his disposal.

            This kind of total subjugation ostensibly epitomizes the ultimate masculinity to rest on the white male, emasculating black males while at the same time leaves black women feeling nothing but like a chattel. Of course, through it all the avant-garde’s intention is to keep the white woman as the sole heir maker, who will procreate for the white race; essentially, she too, is the trophy, purely protected and kept for subjugation solely by the white male, albeit less harshly when compared to her counterpart, the female slave.

            At the outset, the reader catches a glimpse of Dana’s strong character, which shows no reservations about issues of gender equality. In her interactions with her husband, Kevin one can see that she was not one that would back down. The scene in which, where Kevin, as established writer, and she, barely beginning her writing career, asks her to type for him, at which she unequivocally makes it clear that she wasn’t going to do any typing for nobody. Obviously, both do not seem to have racial issues, at least on the surface, after all, they both fell in love with each other and decided to marry and live together. Thus, in 1976 life in California appears to be uneventful for Dana and Kevin as far as gender and race is concerned, after both experience life at the plantation, however, these very issues come to a head, as a reader learns in due course.

            The dizziness and the nausea are the markers by which Dana knows when she will be snatched back into the past, not willingly, to experience the slave-hood; smack into the heart of where she will be in grave danger, vulnerable for rape by the mere color of her skin. The main protagonist, the narrator, Dana’s first travel back in time, the reader is made aware that her trip back to the antebellum South comes in a nick of time to save the life of the then young Rufus from drowning in a river. The way the protagonist returns to her present-day existence is when her life is threatened in the plantation. For instance, Rufus’s father, Weilyn appears near the river with his gun drawn, thinking the life of his son and his wife was at risk, where Dana had just performed mouth-to-mouth resuscitation on Rufus saving his life. This life-threatening gesture from Weilyn on Dana wills her back to California. Kevin, Dana’s husband is all puzzled and freaks out by her sudden disappearance and equally sudden return. Dana tries to tell him what had taken place but Kevin doubts the veracity of such a story of travel into the past.

            The third time, as they say is the charmer; when Rufus was in trouble, however, Kevin, jumps on Dana’s body when he notices that Dana was about to travel back in time and makes it to the antebellum South with her. Now the relationship between Kevin and Dana takes remarkably dangerous turn. By the mere color of his skin, Kevin pretends to be Dana’s master if the two are going to make it unharmed back to their life in California. The reader sees up-close-and-personal through the narrator’s sharp eyes what slavery was like for blacks. The selling of slaves, the uninhabitable slaver quarter cabins they inhabit. The whippings, the rapes, the exhausting plantation work from dawn to dusk, and the sheer brutality of human beings inflicting on other human beings, the reader is made to experience it at a visceral level. Dottore, this novel is so tightly structured, you will be hard pressed to find a hole to poke in to compromise its logic or the narrative itself. Gotta go now!

            Cheers,
            Beyan

          • Paulos

            Selam Dr. Beyan,

            This certainly is tour de force in its own right. High caliber through and through! Thank you!

            As you have aptly put it, context matters and to understand a writer is to know the factors that influenced him or her in his or her formative years.

            And not sure if I should pity those who arrogantly look down to the discipline in Social Studies for they do not have an inkling what they are talking about including Ali Salim. As I said it before my field of study is in the life sciences but I found a sea of knowledge in the Humanities and made an effort to learn for regrettably, the only course I took in college outside of my field was Psychology.

            Recently, I watched with interest a brilliant movie titled “Mudbound” which I think is one of the best movies I have seen in a decade or so. The plot certainly revolves around the power of race where a society is torn apart by the skin color but strangely enough finds commonalities as the nation crosses the oceans as John Quincy Adams famously put it, “….in search of monsters to destroy” and to play a custodian of liberty around the world. The stark reality is vividly seen when the black man in uniform came back fulfilling his duty and is received with an abject indifference in the country he calls home. It is a must watch and is released on Netflix.

          • Selam Paulos.

            Italians came to the region to remain there for a thousand years, and therefore the main reason they built an european city that was settled mainly by italians, and they also invested in industries and agriculture. Fascist italy wanted to create the so called, the new roman empire, reminiscent of the old, in italian east africa that included eritrea, somalia and ethiopia. They also wanted to use eritrea as a springboard for their next adventure, which was the occupation of ethiopia. Hence no wonder they thought eritrea was one of their own, and the reason they brought many settlers that outnumbered the local population in asmara. In addition the local population did not show a sentient that was opposed to what italians believed.

          • Paulos

            Selam Horizon,

            It sounds like communication is breaking up between the gist of my comment and your rather academic angle of your input.

            Sure enough, as much as the possession of nuclear arsenal became the measure of a nation’s standing among nations after World War II, the possession of colonies afforded the same privilege to nations particularly after the so called “Scramble for Africa” right after the “Berlin Conference” in 1884. This again is the more academic and technical aspect if you will. And consequently, as you have aptly put it, Italy set out to establish what is to be known “Orientale Italiana.”

            My point was, in a complete depurture from the Ivory Tower of academic “posturing”, what would the colonial experience exude say from an average Italian. And it was home for him where he gave it everything he had to have the new home on par with his birth place till the military communist junta take over and close to 100 thousand got evacuated and many more remained behind for they said one can not be kicked out from home.

          • Haile S.

            Dear Horizon,
            You said …..”In addition the local population did not show a sentient that was opposed to what italians believed.” I think the sentiment of the people was elswhere. Italians came to a land inhabited by people who were devastated for decades by insatiable tax collectors and killers, greedy local chiefs, kings and pretendors to the throne of the kings. It was a time where NO king or leader spared a day of respite to the self-insufficient farmer, other than to ask for tax, feed his soldiers (whose salary was razia) and join him in his interminable campaigns. Eritrean/Ethiopian history was note written from the people’s perspective. Let me just translate to you paragraphs from the recollection* of abba Jerome (Gabra-Medhen Gebre-Musye), who was a kid at the advent of the Italians, later priest in the catholic mission, abondoned the fascist Italian apartheid administration and decided to serve Ras Teferi/king HHI and later a professor of amharic/tigrigna/geez in Paris. He is talking about the years ~1887:
            “It was a time of war, famine, epidemics and anarchy. The whole Ethiopia was devastated, locust has eaten everything including the weeds. Cholera was reigning. The king of Shewa and of Godjam were in tevolt. All were behaving like an usurper ravaging the provinces. Soldiers coming back from war fronts had nothing to eat at home…. Godjam was first devastated by Yohannes and then by the Dervish. Then Yohannes had to go against the Dervish where he lost his life…. Because of this disorder we had to leave our village egri meKel in Sera’e (eritrea) and live in the forest for a whole year. My father had hidden some sorghum in a ground whole. People were surviving on wild honey and wild berries…. At that time Italians were importing cereal from Yemen and India; therefore, we along other Tigrians like us and large number of people from Gonder flocked to near Massawa in emkullu, where there were also helping missionaries. In Emkullu we didn’t have tukul, thousands of people were sleeping on the ground exposed to the thousands of hyenas regularly taking away people. The Italians forbid us from entering the city for fear of cholera…..”.
            Let me stop here. This is all to say the sentiments of the people was somewhere else. Later after everything subsided, all the local people’s leaders who opposed the Italians were sent to the Eritrean Alcatraz (NaKura) before they even had the time and capability to mount a rebellion.
            * Pour Abba Jerome, compiled by Joseph Tubiana, edition Le mois en Afrique, Paris,1983.
            Best

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Hailat,

            On the second word you mentioned in your comment that is used in fightings, it is a provoking word calling for a fight. The word itself can not be written as a vocabulary word, because there is no alphabet that represent to its sound. Refer to this: እን‘ ’ቆኻ – there should be an alphabet between the inverted commas that represent to its sound, but it can not be written. Back then we had been using it in our riddle game of “ሕንቅልሕንቅሊተይ“

            Regards

          • Selamat HS,

            EgnaQQqoKha. Press the tung .467 with the ceiling and slide quickli at point QQo like in Chaff(=tip, as in tip of the iceberg.))

            AtSabiEEti derawih mss sgo TTioumm iyu.

            iignaQQokha,

            tSAtSE

          • Beyan

            Selamat MS,

            The closest meaning to ትጉሽተተይ I recall using it growing up was in a context of playing, say, a game. So, when someone recants something he said and realizes it was a mistake – slip of a tongue of sorts, which requires no apologies – that person is understood to be requesting a discretion to redo/replay whatever it was he was doing. It’s admitting an inadvertent error, so it is not addressed to challenge others but requesting a discretion for repeat (this is one context). The context in which that you quoted Ambassador Adhanom to have used it, “ነዚ ዘይቅበል ከኣ ትጉሽተተይ” ይበል would mean that he is requesting of others to admit on their errors based on the quote you provided, that is. At any rate, the two variations thereof listed above, በኹሪ እዝነይ እየ ዝሰምዓን ዘለኹ – so, I can’t say much about it.

            By the way, I looked the three words in that famous Orange dictionary from 1982/1983, which was published by Eritrean People’s Liberation Front through Research and Information Centre of Eritrea (RICE), none of the words can be found there. Furthermore, I even checked in Tigrinya to Tigrinya dictionary, published by Tek’a Tesfay (1999), which has something like 1083 pages, I was so sure the word would be found there, but, again, to no avail. So, this might be a slang that came to exist is what I am thinking based on not making it in any of the dictionaries.

            Cheers,
            BN

          • Paulos

            Selam Muhamuday,

            That is precisely the magic of this forum where a chain reaction is at play more often than we would like to admit or to put it colloquially, ንዘረባ ዘረባ የምጾኦ. And the forum is blessed with resident experts as in in languages where Dr. Beyan and Hailat among others come to mind.

            It looks like certain words do not follow us as we graduate onto adulthood where the words remain limited or confined to teenage or adolescence years and ትጉሽተተይ is not an exception either. The thing is though, if the tread on ትጉሽተተይ is going to go political before it is replaced with other different tread is yet to be seen.

          • MS

            selam Paulosay
            Indeed, this, by the way, is the most dynamic and educational forum. It is studded with brilliant minds who are ready to share from their stores of knowledge. I appreciate your inputs, your philosophical made me read some classical works, a positive influence. I’m learning a lot. The magic of the forum is that it is so versatile, it could move from linguistics to philosophy, to politics, ghedli, economics, international relations, music, etc., very quickly and seamlessly. The dean of the college is coming back soon. Until then, keep up with the role of custodianship.

          • Paulos

            Selam Muhamuday,

            Glad to hear that you found some of the treads intellectually stimulating where the same is true as we all learn issues of a substance from your inputs as well. Most importantly however, I really hope the younger generation get inspired by the exchange of ideas we all contribute in this forum so that it helps them broaden their horizon.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Dr. Paulos,

            Do not forget that we are using the word in modern political communications.

          • Paulos

            Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

            The Ghedli experience is a scholarship in its own right where its merits and demerits ought to be seen of course in a wider context utilizing serious critical thinking. Certainly, what I have in mind is not the political vortex with in the dynamics of Ghedli but if it has enriched the already existing cultural norms including the structure of language as well where some people allege if Ghedli brought with it “vulgatity” not necessarily obscene words but indifference to the elderly for instance when ኣቦይ ዓቢ gave way to ኣታ ሰብኣይ as the former receded into the back burner by the new generation.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Dr. Paulos,

            I am not talking about the cultural languages pertinent to ethics. I am talking about our new and recessive words as to how we were/are trying to apply in all disciplines of knowledge, such as in political science, economics, philosophy, physical and life science extra extra. For sure I can sense your “ሓሳስያ” on ghedli, and is understood for obvious reason. But there are many you could cherish from the work of our ghedli, including the subject we are talking.

            Regards

          • Selamat Professor PPaulos Denmarkino AArkey,

            tgushtetey entebelka ‘Hsheka….

            I wonder why this word “gushtetey/gushtetey/dgushtetey” is unpopular or barely used. So much so it brought me to think fission, as in chain reaction.

            Dear PPPDAA, Farsi in Arabic script…
            tgushtetka dna code I
            PDA 😉

            tSAtSE

      • Selamat HaileS,

        Dimsum very tasty. Join me on 4th and D.. sauce Sausalito. Temam!

        tSAtSE

  • Nitricc

    Greetings good people. The current topic of opposition reminds me what Ethiopian opposition say about Eritrea and what Eritrean opposition say about Ethiopia. I don’t think I have ever heard an Eritrean opposition talking positively about the Ethiopian government while I hear many nice thing about Eritrea from Ethiopian oppositions.
    listen to this short video. Moda, forgive me on this one, my bad.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aftUCVEtuwg

    • Mez

      Hi Nitricc,

      These are people who want to, marry one of ours and, settle in Asmara for good.

      When we handout green cards we have to make sure that they speak and write in one of the six Eritrean languages (at least)–which are not used in neighboring countries; this is to minimize the future integration challengs.

      We need also more of young and educated ones–not those on retirement age.

      thanks

      • Teodros Alem

        Selam mez
        U and Thomas have serious women problem man.

        • Mez

          Dear Teodros,

          Nothing is wrong wit that–I think it is more of natural.

          Thanks

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam mez
            I know u want to downgraded them but still assuming all the sacrifice that they r paying just to marry a women in asmara tells how your views about women.

          • Mez

            Good Day Teodros,

            The way I wrote applies to all genders.

            Thanks

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam mez
            Play it in your league am sure u will find at list one without going all the way to asmara.

          • Mez

            Hi Teodros,

            It was not me, it is Nitricc.

            Thanks

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam mez
            It is u .anyway like i said play it in your league. It is just like the same feathers fly together kind of thing. U will find one .

          • Mez

            Hi Teodros,

            Thanks

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam mez i respect your right to support or oppose g7 or any party.
            What am trying to say is , not every body who go to asmara or tigrai(in your case) looking for a women.

          • Mez

            Good Day Teodros,

            I beleive you really are mixing up things–like PIA frequently do on a daily basis.

            PIA do it to stay in power–at any cost. I miss to know your objective; but I don’t have to know to start with.

            Any how thanks.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam mez
            U know it but i don’t expect. And those kinds of u to admit it.

      • Nitricc

        Hey Mez, hahahahah, really. well wait to weekend and I will show you something. But in the mean time, once this darkness passes between the two countries, Eritrea will benefit immensely. Ethiopia is the youngest nation on the face of the earth. 65% of her population is 24 yards old or younger. The Way Ethiopian population is growing, Ethiopia can’t satisfy the demand for the job for those young people. then the youth will head North. all Eritrea had to do is build it and the work force never to worry. So, there is no doubt that they will be young educated and the finest Ethiopia has to offer.

    • blink

      Dear Nitricc
      I admire the man decision minus the 1998 article he wrote. It is simply admirable to see a professor who sacrificed his own life to fight for what he believes in , his idea may be against my principle because he wanted to remove weyane by force, I find that simply not fair to the Ethiopian mothers and fathers who lost many of their kind from 1960-1991 and again from 1998-2001 and still paying in Somalia. ESAT is bigger than EBC and any network because of such people and I am sure the Ethiopian people will get what they aspire.

      • Selam blink,

        This is the first time i hear that the PM is going to resign. I believe you mean the PM of ethiopia. Two terms and rotating PMs, among the coalition parties in the eprdf government, is not really a bad idea. This time it could be an oromo PM, my choice.

        I hope it will help all partners in the coalition feel that they are equal partners. It is possible that each new PM will try to outshine the previous one, by bringing new ideas, implementing things that have yet to be accomplished, such as more democracy, economic opportunity for all, equality, etc. This may bring peace to all regions and may create the feeling that all ethiopian ethnic groups, big and small, are equal stakeholders in their country’s affairs. Every cloud has a silver lining.

        • blink

          Dear Horizon
          I think so too , I think the coalition can only work if they answer the Ethiopian demands at the current picture they can’t even solve their own problems, don’t forget TPLF OR other internal parties problem is not the same problem as the general public problems. What is sure is he will resign. The only hope the region can have is a peaceful way of doing it and a second chance given to the elite unless I don’t believe TPLF have gone through any change in their 35 days marathon shuffling dance, once the power of TPLF got down sized equal to it’s size and the others find their fitting size jacket we can say it gone through change unless there is no way Dr. Debretsion and his cronies can rule Ethiopia at this juncture of time.

          • Nitricc

            Hey Blink, it is getting very concerning. At this point, TPLF has to decide. Relinquish dominancy and enter in to real, frank and serious dialogue. Or, go out in all out force. Eliminate all problem makers to you and replace them with your puppets like you have done the last 26 years. The indecisiveness TPLF is showing is bad for the country. In the meantime, for the sake of the country the following steps must be implemented immediately. Re-instate the state-of-emergency which was prematurely lifted. Ban social media outlets such as Facebook and Twitter all together the internet for an indefinite period of time. Go dark in to deep state and handle your business. demote PM HD and make Debretiozion as Ethiopian PM. Clean the house. you got to Save the country at all costs.

          • Fanti Ghana

            Selam Nitriccay,

            besme ab bel!

            If by some miracle Debretiozion becomes our PM, I will be the first one to revolt. It is so bad in so many ways I can’t begin to list them all. The next PM has to be from the younger generation, someone capable of slowly preparing the country to get out of ethnic federalism, and preferably from Oromiya.

            Do not believe the hype about the extent of Ethiopia’s crisis. It has survived the storm, but it is dealing with the after effect as we speak.

            TPLF is poised to pay more attention to Tigray. Out of the 9 Executive Committee, 5 of them, including Debretiozion, have decided to concentrate in Tigray, and only the remaining 4 will be stationed in Addis. I think that decision will gain them strong support from TPLF cadres.

            TPLF’s #1 strength: They don’t let anyone know what they are thinking.
            TPLF’s #1 weakness: They don’t let anyone know what they are thinking.

            One thing is for sure: Ethiopia will come out much stronger and united than in any time before (I am not boasting, I have seen a glimpse).

          • Nitricc

            Your Fairness; Somebody go to lead. I say Debretion, he seems strict, conservative and go get it guy. hailemariam is not the answer. I hope you are right and they worked it out but I don’t like what the likes of Lemma, they are saying “we have wounded the devil but that is enough.” this kinds of talk is not helpful. No should not forget that even though TPLF went south some where in its time but TPLF is the one who paid dearly to bring the change in Ethiopia in the first place. if it wasn’t for TPLF, Derg will probably be still in power. So, let them sit down and talk with out hidden agenda, animosity and grudges. However; if comes to go down dark and deep state, TPLF have the military and the guns.
            in anyway things will never be the same in Ethiopia. Ethiopia may come stronger as you said it or there will be a darkness before the light comes out. It will depend how they deal with the situation. At the End of the day, Don’t forget TPLF is holding the Tigers tail.

          • Selam Fanti Ghana,

            It is said that they come in different colors and shapes, as enemies whenever they can, as friends whenever they can’t, full of sinister advices with sinister motives in mind. Distorted facts are brought as the only truth.

            Difficult times indeed; one does not know whom to trust and what to believe. Beware of past enemies, especially when they come disguised as friends.

            Applying reverse psychology, to get tplf do something the people of ethiopia will react to, in the name of saving the country, is a good trial, but not enough to do the job. Ethiopia cannot be kept in deep freeze by anybody, and tplf is not so naive to believe what others say, especially those who demeaned and demonized them day and night in the past, and will continue to do so.

            Trying to put tplf in a dilemma, telling it that it is damned without complete power, and with the main aim to get it in confrontation with the people of ethiopia, with consequences they will only be too happy to see, is really interesting.

            Beware of those who shed crocodile tears for tplf, and those who come with a new skin. Some people are trying to insult our intelligence.

          • blink

            Dear Nitricc
            Debretsion is the copy cat of the old and the corruption center of all about the current problems.Do you think there will be any another views towards Eritrea and the border issues? Because if the young Oromo or Amhara leadership can’t go after new Frazer or Susan rice who wanted to play games with them . And I think there will not be people in the state department like Vicki Huddleston who kept the Ethiopians and Eritreans at a gun hornes.

          • Nitricc

            Hey Blink; Never trust TPLF. I will not be surprised if TPLF find its way out of this mess. never to be undermined. I just read somewhere that Aba-Dula TPLF’s yes man is back at his old position. I don’t if you remembered but he has resigned few months ago. If he is back and the news is true, it a winning sign for TPLF and bad for Ethiopia. You need the old people in the old system to go and replace them with young and the uncorrupted once. that way the real change could have come to the people of Ethiopia. TPLF method the same, weather the storm, play nice and then go hunting. Regarding the border issue, it is none issue. TPLF will comply one way or the other. if not, G-7 will give Eritrea her land on a platter.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Nitricc
            If aba dula or bereket come back to their post again it means their demand must have been accepted by tplf unless the whole resignation thing doesn’t make sense.

          • Nitricc

            Hey Teodros: no, it means TPLF won, hands down. It seems Aba dula is intimidated, perhaps treated with corruption and terrerism charcges. Look at the wording, not only he is back but he will accept whatever position the party assigns him. That is very telling. Regarding Bereket, he never left just a usual TPLF poly. You got give TPLF the credit and respect for how they play their game. For they have won and see what follows.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Nitricc
            Yes i just lessened eprdf statements and it is all same old same old .they even probably will arrest the like of lemma, dagu kind of people( u can sense that in the statement) but my questions r
            1,in the first place they r at this gemegama is because to solve the people’s grievances(last 3 years protest) so with business as usual how r they gonna solve the problems that put them in this gemegam in the first place?

          • Fanti Ghana

            Selam blink,
            Sorry, I saw this post a little late this afternoon. I will get back to you hopefully, tomorrow.

          • Fanti Ghana

            Selam again blink,

            Almost every Ethiopian individual or group who is opposing TPLF since 1991 started out with the accusation of cooperating with Eritreans in their quest for independence and making Ethiopia a landlocked country. Usually, that accusation was accompanied with Tigray following suit and seceding in the future.

            This was the primary complaint that began the flood of opposition we have today. Upon realizing the inevitability of Eritrean independence, some did improved and focused their rhetoric on ethnic federalism, hegemony, corruption, and Mal-governance among other complaints. Some even went farther and accepted ethnic federalism as the only alternative for now and became respectable organizations by concentrating on achievable goals.

            Teddy to perform in Asmara!? Hmmm! Since he was denied a permit to perform in Addis recently, this move could be an attempt to show defiance of Ethiopian government, but let’s err on the positive side and give him the benefit of the doubt and assume his objective to perform in Asmara now is an attempt to “repair relations” as he is supposedly quoted as saying. Besides, what harm is there?

            However, I must say that those who believe in the “befriending Eritrea, removing Tigray and every thing will be hunky dory” philosophy are as comical as they are childish. Somehow, this group’s love of Eritrea/ns seems proportional to their hate of TPLF. It is obvious that it is opportunism, so I wouldn’t dwell on it too much.

            Having said that let me also say that for most Ethiopians who express love toward Eritreans and make a peaceful and honest call for unity, the love is real, and their confusion with the “unity” is understandable because three consecutive governments have lied to them regarding the history of Ethio-Eritrean relations. It took decades of lies and indoctrination for them to form the attitude they have toward Eritrean independence today.

            That is one reason why Eritrean’s complaints fall in deaf ears for most part. The harder they try to convince Ethiopians about their just cause for independence, the harder those Ethiopians seem to respond in the contrary.

            Then, of course, we have the well informed reasonable ones. They accept Eritrean independence, but they also envision unity based on cost benefit analysis. To those I wish them good luck with all my heart.

            PS:
            I had to shorten this although I had several points to add.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Fanti,

            A very good post.

          • blink

            Dear Fanti
            The problem with you is sir , you are almost Eritrean than most Eritreans in this forum and it has been very hard for anyone from either side to paint you any color but we have very few of you .
            As Eritrea’s independence, I think anyone in Tigray who was at the Dergi time fought and died beside Eritreans knowing the aspirations of Eritreans. There many Tigrians who wish a peaceful existence and there are many Elite Amhara who wanted the Feudalism of Ethiopia but we can not look to such people again. My simple question to any Ethiopian leaders is ,Do you want to go crazy about Badme in order to demand a hand of surrender from Issaias or give the two people peace ?

            The wrong assumption about some Ethiopian opposition is they think “ Eritrea was given by TPLF to be a sovereign country “ that is simply irresponsible and not fair to the Eritrean people.
            Fanti let’s hope Debretsion and his three partners come up with solutions to Ethiopia and then to the border issues. Teddy really doesn’t have any knowledge about Eritreans and I guess he can be excused for his super high live. Can the dijubiti and Ethiopia relationship be called Unity ? I see no reason why we should not have that kind of relationship, below that it is simply irrelevant to both . We need peace that can stay for generations to come until people see things more of the EU system is more effective to prosperity. Thanks for reaching out to all kinds of people , that is what the ordinary farmer needs.

          • Fanti Ghana

            Selam blink,

            I couldn’t resist this one: “The wrong assumption about some Ethiopian opposition is they think ‘Eritrea was given by TPLF to be a sovereign country’.”

            While I was being pulled by the arm and forced to shorten my hateta, one of the paragraphs I had to delete had something like “… some opposition makes it look like the 30 years struggle was in reverse. That is the struggle was about Eritrea wanting to unite with Ethiopia and Ethiopia refusing. Then Ethiopia wins the war and Eritrea is stranded by itself in the middle of nowhere… blah blah.“ It is funny you ended up saying the same thing.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam fanti
            That is your assumption that “eritrean was given by tplf to be a sovereign country “..
            The fact is almost all ethiopian believes tplf was sidekick . not even a real players at the time but if thier motives was not just power they could stop the un to run referendum.

          • blink

            Dear Fanti
            Unity is a very loose word. What I wish not to happen is bloodshed in any form .

          • Selam Fanti Ghana,

            I do not think that any ethiopian ever said, or made it to look like or insinuated, that the struggle was about eritrea wanting to unite with ethiopia and ethiopia refusing. Nevertheless, one thing can not be denied, that tplf had said that it fought for eritrean independence more than eritreans themselves (pre- and post 1991), and if need be (sibhat nega), it will fight again on the side of eritrea against ethiopia. This was interpreted by many ethiopians as if tplf was saying, you wanted to go and we helped you go, and now we will do our best to keep you away. It was said in a time when most ethiopians were settled with eritrean independence, and there was no ethiopian force that was in the position to doubt eritrean independence.

            Most ethiopians are comfortable with eritrean independence and the few elderlies who are still nostalgic of the old days is due to the fact that it helps them pass their time, discussing about ancient history. I am of the opinion that tplf will be at the head of those who do not want to see unity between the two countries, now and in the future, unless it finds itself in a situation that forces it, for α reason no one can forsee for the time being.

            Do you say that the love that was pouring from the mouth of berhanu nega, in the video brought by nitricc, was genuine and he should be trusted by eritreans, or they should trust anybody who is ready to say soothing words to their ears. I personally see the person as an opportunist, who is ready to rub shoulders with anybody who can help him ascend to power. What he would do later on is a different story. None of his audience was below 45, which means that he stands with the older generation and not with the new generation.

            Finally, unity is not the burning issue in any way imaginable for the time being, between two governments in more or less a war footing, and when ethiopia has already charted her new course, socially, economically and politically. Therefore, no miracles should be expected in this age and times.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam blink
            It is not as u guys trying to tell us .
            The fact is tplf and eplf alliance were based on my enemy’s enemy is my friend kind of cooperation and 2nd the reason tplf supported eritrean independence was because of two main reason 1, to control ethiopia poltical power alone(their action after 1998 can prove that) and they didn’t have the power to atop eplf at the time.

          • blink

            Dear Teodros
            I agree no one is telling anyone, I also agree TPLF in 1991 has zero power to hold Eritreans independence because EPLF power was simply beyond and power the TPLF can manage because at that time OLF was there and there was no a single person that celebrate TPLF forces in Addis. Third I agree weyane used the 1998 war to get accepted by other Ethiopians but the reality Fanti said about the Fringe part of some opposition who say, weyane land locked Ethiopia was with the professor in Asmara, we can find his 1998 article plus Teddy map.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam blink
            Twisting the fact don’t solve a problem but also it will deepen it.
            When i said thier action after 1998 prove it ,i meant they were waiting until the right time and start showing they don’t care about eritrea’s sovereignty.

          • blink

            Dear Teodrose
            I think the weyane leaders don’t care about any thing , I suspect they don’t care even about aTigray farmer too , what they care is EFFORT and their private fat accounts. If it was not for their power hungry appetite we could have have peace.

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam blink
            Effort, i don’t want to talk about it but i know it is not what most people think it is.
            Tplf , they don’t know anything better. That is all i can say about tplf .

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam fanti
            Who is right or wrong to accept or reject when part of his country break up from the country? Name one people(any country) except tplf that was happy when part of the country break up?
            Yes After independence life will goes on and u have to accept the reality .

          • Selam blink,

            Forgive me for intruding.

            “He hopes to have a concert in Asmara, Eritrea, too”, which could be said by anybody, that is far from what actually is going to happen.

            If such miracles happen, having in mind what teddy afro believes about eritrea from the point of view of his pro ethiopian dynasty sentiments, it means that pfdj wants to patch relations through indirect ways bypassing tplf, thus isolating it, or pfdj is not aware of (not really possible) how he could change the opinion of the young in eritrea, opening their eyes to what they are missing and start resenting the regime, or the regime has reached its limits and it wants to unchain the young, and maybe more would follow in the future.

            Nevertheless, in my opinion none of the above are going to happen, unfortunately.

  • John591

    Hi deki hager,
    Is this not about a simple matter when the people are continuously being abused and disabused by a maniacal dictator using cruel and crueler control tactics knowing fully well he will not be resisted by the people? It is like the proverbial frog being slowly boiled alive.When I attended primary school in Eritrea, our teachers and principals had no qualms to use their feared betris to bring order. It is high time the Eritrean people think on using their betris to regain their dignity. We did it against the Amharas. We are way past the era begging the illegitimate Isaias and his henchmen . It may not be pretty; so is what we are experiencing as proud people.
    Ezi wedehankum

  • Peace!

    Hi all,

    The country is set to hit the bottom as long as it remains under the current regime, and sadly enough, needless to say, help is not underway. It is bewildering that despite gruesome reports on the state of the country, there are no reports of progress or new efforts to challenge the perpetrator and rescue the nation that paid the highest price for its independence. Why is it then the country finding itself betrayed by its own people and friends? Is it because there is no viable alternative for the current disastrous regime as Ms. Bruton, a foreign lobby, and regime supporters trying to portray the situation, is it because the border issue with Ethiopia giving the regime enough excuses to deter and squash any sign of uprising, or is it because there is a hidden “wait-and-see” scenario that a complete downfall of PFDJ might provide an opportunity for remaking the county. While the wait-and-see and the no viable alternative notions can be dismissed as clueless and financially motivated respectively, knowing why, despite the ruling, the border issue remains a huge impediment in building a working relationship between Ethiopian government and Eritrean opposition groups is worth of pondering given Ethiopia is an integral part of the solution as long as Sudan continues to shut its door and align itself with the regime.

    On the political aspect, certainly Ethiopia could have done a lot more to help Eritreans, but its blurred position, perhaps as a result of internal division, continues to polarize the opposition groups and make forming a united opposition force nearly impossible. It appears its policies all packed and sealed in one big box—the NORMALIZATION box that even Meles Zenawi himself was not ready to reveal what exactly in the box, despite he indicated his country accepted the final and abiding, he continues to say dob tehanxixu bezay selam entay kigebrelna as if the opposition groups are irrelevant with no potential to stabilize the country; and similarly, Gebru Asrat, TPLF hardliner and the leader of Arena Party, also believes dismissing the Algiers agreement and reinstating the federation is the only viable and realistic option for his country to function, which indicates the pre-war relations and arrangements were not authentic and thus there is no appetite for going back to similar situation even should PFDJ falls tomorrow. The underlining point here is not to beg for TPLF to solve Eritrean problem, or to make an excuse for Eritreans for failing to come together and solve their problem, but the fact that the impact of its blurred policy continues to polarize the opposition camp and leaving the Eritrean people helpless.

    peace!

    • Selam Peace,

      When you say. “its blurred policy”, do you mean ethiopia’s policy? If so, what is the agenda of the opposition in the first place? To depose the dictatorial regime is not an answer. The answer is how, in what way, with armed or peaceful struggle, and who is going to accomplish it.

      It is going to be only through armed struggle, as long as the opposition is to function from an adjacent country that is not in good terms with the regime in asmara. Almost two decades have passed and the opposition has not shown any will towards deposing the regime by force. Here the policy of ethiopia is irrelevant. It is the policy of the opposition that counts. It is upto the opposition to raise arms and fight.

      The other method is peaceful struggle, which needs no explanation. If there is the level ground for that or not is another thing.

      Up to now what we see is only wish, rhetoric and accusing ethiopia for somebody else’s responsibility, as if dictatorship in eritrea is an ethiopian problem. It is mainly an eritrean problem, and unfortunately, this does not seem to be clear in the minds of many eritreans. If badme and ethiopia are the main reason for the failure of the opposition, then the big picture of eritrea is being missed.

      In no way should ethiopia meddle or play a role, more than may be helping in logistics. The opposition as it is today stands no chance to depose the regime military. Accept it, there are many, even in the opposition, who are not ready to put their hands in the fire against the regime. That is why it has stalled for so long.

      From what i understand, after so many years, the opposition is not in the minds and hearts of the people of eritrea and that of the armed forces, and without these two the wait-and-see scenario may not look farfetched.

      • blink

        Dear Horizon
        I agree , the opposition that wanted change by force is dead and we can not even find its skeletons. The main reason for that is sir, Eritreans especially the youth like me will not pay our life for some people like Amanuel Hidtat and Semer isem as well as Ali salim to celebrate on this site while they visit their grand children in festive days. We will not be cheated by old wounded revenge attitudes. You know the youth who are or were in Ethiopia know how to shoot and they even have the list of all logistical issues yet , tell me to whom am I going to die ? To people who wanted to split Eritreans? To people who wanted to destroy our founding fathers work ? The notion PFDJ will be removed by youths who listen and read Ali Salim and semere article is simply day dreaming.

        Back to Ethiopia role, EPRDF could have done better in minimizing the divisions among Eritrean opposition leaders, EPRDF Could have done better job by removing any possible reason for Issaias to name border issues because if you see all opposition leaders have problems explaining the border issues. I don’t mean Issaias would listen and care but the general public would loosen up the border issues. Ethiopian government also gave logistical help to ethnic and religious based opposition and that do play a negative role in shaping public understanding.

        One thing stays clear to Eritreans and that is opposition and PFDJ elite cares less about Eritrea than the general public.
        I blame weyane for not distancing themselves from sick hands . They should not give landcrusers to people like ASMEROM asmelash and others while the saw the killings of Harestay .So my expectations tells me that PFDJ cannot be removed by old wounded people wishs. We are here in this site and I have been in this site for over 10 years the only hope for change I dream is from inside like the Haji and wedi Ali kind to galvanize the population. That way can guarantee Eritreans future to be democratic and secular than Ali salim and other sick peoples dreams.

        • Fanti Ghana

          Selam & Happy New Year blink,

          “…especially the youth like me will not pay our life for some people like Amanuel Hidtat and Semer isem as well as Ali salim to celebrate on this site …”

          I think I understand what you mean, but I believe the only question should be whether there is good enough cause for Eritreans to sacrifice their lives for. If the answer is yes, you do, otherwise you sit and watch like the rest of us.

          If you think about your statement I quoted carefully and take it to its logical conclusion it would mean that no Eritrean will ever fight for Eritrea ever. Why, because there will always be some individuals or segments of society who may benefit from it undeservedly, which in turn, implies that the great majority of Eritreans are irrelevant. I know that is not what you meant, but that is exactly what it means.

          It has been very frustrating 20 plus years for everyone. The people you mentioned and others are as frustrated as you are expressing their frustration and suggestions like everybody else. All Eritreans cannot possibly come up with the same “solution” about every problem all the time. So, let’s take differences as a permanent condition and find ways to work around them.

          • blink

            Dear Fanti
            I guarantee you if the divisiveness and betrayal amongst the leadership of the opposition could cool down and if we can find a voice that shows a mature way of negotiating their differences, we would be in a better position to dismantle the system but the opposition leaders are unable to show us that. Fanti as always the reasonable one , you could not underestimate the different realities we have among Eritreans about this. I don’t believe these I mentioned will benefit more but I believe they haven’t been an honest opposition at the heart. I know for sure Eritreans are dying daily but most of them choose to die in private while they know the suffering of their people. Give me any reason why they rejected the call to pick arms in Tigray. Most of them rejected the call due while they jump to the sea. If you pay me , I suspect Fanti will expect a return up words not down words for 20 years.
            The only honest reason I find from EPRDF not to send Ethiopian boots to remove Issaias can only be “ why would an Oromo, Tigray , Southern and Amhara kids die for me ? Why would they ? No reason but I truly believe these on leadership do not care about that because they have done it many times for no reason. The losers on this are the two people on both sides I hope their peace come with out bloodshed because we have been there before and they know the price .

          • Kokhob Selam

            Hi Dear blink,

            So, be one who will start and definitely I will be the first to support you… keep going and don’t give up…

            KS,,

      • Peace!

        Hi Horizon,

        I agree with you there are plenty of weaknesses on the Eritrean opposition part although that was not the point I was trying to make. When I said Ethiopian policy is blurred, not because it has an obligation to solve Eritrean problems rather given the country is a stake holder, playing a productive role can help her advance its economic and political interest in the region. Out of those years you mentioned, not a single year has passed without Ethiopia accusing PFDJ of terrorism and disestablishing the region, and its fear the fact that the port of Assab has become a backyard for GCC countries is too obvious for everyone to see.

        Peace!

        • Selam Peace and blink.

          I was almost ready not to post my first comment, because i was afraid it will bring back badme to the forefront for another never ending discussion. Anyway,

          Peace, if ethiopia is to go to war because the eritrean regime sends now and then some armed groups over the border, and they kill tourists or they do something else, then, there is no other way to call ethiopia than an aggressor. Such things happen all over the world, and no one goes to war. There could be border skirmishes sometimes, e.g. kashmir, and not an outright war, .

          The ethiopian government was accusing the eritrean regime that it was responsible for the last uprising in oromia and amhara state. It seems that much more it is about olf and g7 (although hosted by eritrea ) infiltrating, and having mobilized the young for the right reasons (joblessness, absence of democracy, inequality, etc), but armed them with the wrong weapons, destroying the economy. In both cases, the federal and regional governments were responsible for failing to create opportunities for the young, and in not being able to secure the tourist area.

          The gcc countries are making a knee-jerk reaction to the presence of iran and its shia influence in the region. These countries are an oil bubble that will burst in the future. If they will have the money for their aggressive regional policy in ten or more years, it will show. This means that they did not come to stay, and much more, they can’t. They will soon see that their presence in the red sea area other than for the war in yemen has no meaning in the presence of the superpowers stationed in djibouti, that dwarf them in everything.

          Blink, if eritrean oppositions want to be divided on ethnic, religious and regional grounds, and remain divided, there is nothing the ethiopian government can do to correct it. It is up to eritreans to find the right solution for this problem and for their country. If the ethiopian government wants ethnic federalism in eritrea too, it is up to the eritrean opposition to discuss the matter and come to a common decision, and present their choice. If the ethiopian government insists, then eritrean opposition should tell it thanks but no thanks, and find another venue.

          As much as badme is concerned, even today i find it difficult to explain why tplf decided in the first place to go for arbitration. Look, if tplf had said badme is under my administration, i do not accept pfdj’s claim, case closed; instead of creating the present complicated situation by renegading on the decision, it would have been much better. The world community would have said, go and find the solution by yourselves. Yes, the eritrean people would have been unhappy about it, nevertheless, it would not have fallen for pfdj propaganda and making it the main national issue. There are many countries that are in a similar situation. Today, it has become a matter of injustice, infringement on international decisions and a powerful weapon in the hands of dia/pfdj. If i am not mistaken, there could be american farmers who have farmlands as big as badme.

          Why tplf thought that it will be vindicated 100% at the court is mind boggling. Now, it is in a tight corner, pushed by pfdj which has the legal rights, and the ethiopian people, and especially the people of tigray, who think that it is a big betrayal.

          • Peace!

            Hi Horizon,

            I don’t know why you keep mixing things up all I sad was Ethiopia, too, can benefit from the departure of PFDJ for reasons I stated and thus working with Eritrean opposition groups in good terms serves its interest. If you disagree with that, that’s totally fine otherwise Badme, which I didn’t even mention it once, is not the talking point here rather it is about the relationship between Ethiopia and Eritrean opposition groups from Ethiopian interest point of view.

            Happy New Year!
            Peace!

          • Alex

            Hi Peace,
            Why is the opposition in Ethiopia in the first place. By being there they are not gaining a lot of support from Eritreans, since TPLF does not want anything good to happen in Eritrea period. The opposition will be in a strong position because of lack of good governance by the current Eritrean Gov.

          • Peace!

            Hi Alex,

            My understanding is there is no convenient and available venue other than Ethiopia, and I don’t know if the lack of support can be attributed to the fact that the groups are stationed in Ethiopia. But what’s sadly confusing is that everyone is losing in a win-win situation.

            Peace!

          • Hi Peace,

            I am not mixing anything. Ethiopia will be happy to work with the opposition. Nevertheless, for that to happen, they have one important job to do first. That is to ascend to power and replace the pfdj, which is a job to be done exclusively by the opposition.

            How do you really want the relation to be other than what it is today, which may not be satisfactory, as you say. Can you give 3 or 4 specific examples, which you call relationship in good terms that can help the opposition to ascend to power, that could also help ethiopia benefit from its relations with the opposition?

            It is said that the ethiopian government favors this or the other opposition group, which shows the absence of unity of opinion on the side of the opposition, as much as the solution for eritrea is concerned, hence the so many opposition groups. What do you expect the ethiopian government to do when so many opposition groups come with different agendas, when the problem is just one.

            The burden of responsibility therefore still remains with the opposition, and not with ethiopia, whichever way one examines it.
            Happy New Year!

          • Selamat Horizon,

            Bademe is an anagram of ambde e flat. in Eritrea Anbde b silent Ande.

            Blue Island Swimming Complex M X. Brother Malcom X.
            BMX … B..r

            Xaxe

  • A.Osman

    Selamat AT,

    PFDJ is quite creative at digging holes. With each news it feels we have reached the bottom of the pit. But they always have something under their sleeves to surprise us with.

    The intervention to force people to deposit their money has created mistrust and a one way flow. Now they want to force compliance and to achieve they are killing the market. The problem will remain and these interventions to adjust a imbalance will persist.

    If the objective is to get people to deposit, to give the bank some cash to keep it functional, why are they not adopting e-payments as is implemented in Somalia through credit transfers by mobile phones. Even if mobile use is limited, they can easily expand on accessibilty and at the same time have some type of control on transactions that they so obsessed with.

    Regards
    AOsman

    • MerHaba AOsman,

      DaeoOOO DaeoOOO …

      Harry Belofante and Sidney Poitier in Buck and the Preacher…

      Good to See You…long time…

      From Across the Pond gather and come in support of The Imperative Narrative – AbbuAshera Weapon X- Evolution.

      Triple A on Lead guitar – Entay? FtHi!

      And YES! THE RESILIENT Kokhob Selam Awatista of 2018!
      “Meriet Semay enter telagebe kemm Ayyni merfiE Walla enter tSebeb! Tegadalay zblukha entayy iyyu fTretka..” Tegadalay Kokhob Selam zblukha ewe…

      WekiDuba 20I8!*

      See January 2017 Admiral Sa^2yV… PB Cream Crunch.

      I have a friend, a colleague of long ago with TWO tournament bracelets way back then. By now he could have X!
      Saay7 my thoughts with you and your family.
      Texas no Limit Hold ’em
      Zen for Poker. My friend’s name Tenzin “Choppa!”
      Dashi Dele.

      tSAtSE

  • Selamat and Merry Christmas to all,

    If I am not mistaken the Eritrean spirit that shaped me is such that this story I am copying and pasting will resonate with all of us. Also, parallelism goes without saying…

    Here is the donkey who fell in the well! We are all mindful of the donkey being the unsung “workhorse.”
    Eritrea the Donkey:
    https://m.facebook.com/kerwinrae/photos/a.260666710647080.57805.123581684355584/591275350919546/?type=3&ref=content_filter

    AmEriGitSAtSE A40II40A& a Donkey.

    • Kokhob Selam

      Hi brother GitSAtSE,

      Nice lesson brother,,for every person of this nation..

      KS,,