Inform, Inspire, Embolden. Reconcile!

Adulisian Narratives: Standing Athwart The Abyssinian Paradigm

The ancient port town of Adulis or Aduli buried in a helluva of sand is not standing. You may not see its ancient monuments displayed in books and magazines. Its artifacts may not be as ubiquitous as some other historical places.  It may not have been thoroughly excavated and studied by archaeologists and historians like other ancient sites in the Horn region. And, through all these years, it has yet to engender a historical perspective that one may dub as an ‘Adulisian paradigm’ that identifies it as the epicenter of an ‘Erythraean civilization’ located about thirty miles south of the port city of Massawa in the Gulf of Zula.

Though Adulis may have undergone initial surveys and archaeological excavations spanning the years of 1840 to 1962, the artifacts of these excavations are still in Ethiopia. Eritrea, after its independence, has petitioned the Ethiopian government to return these Adulisian artifacts. To date, these petitions made by The Eritrean National Museum has been denied.[1]

Adulis was certainly a unique ‘port-town’ unlike any other Axumite towns, with sizable buildings and a wealthy international commercial community. The large structure that was discovered a long time ago from the relics of Adulis called “The Palace of Adulis”, potteries and wine amphorae imported from Aqaba and fragments of glass vessel found in the lowest layers of Adulis similar to those from the 18th dynasty of Egypt, attest to this depiction of Adulis. The fact that those tall obelisks and steles are conspicuously absent from these earlier and preliminary excavations bespeaks of one and only one thing, which is: Adulis may have been under the Axumite influence and maybe sometimes under its suzerainty, but continuously an integral part of the Axumite kingdom, it was NOT.

The pervasive paradigm in the historiography of the Horn region has been underpinned by an Abyssinian narrative that punctuated more on an empire that extended onto a boundless confines stretching from Congo to Egypt and India. This Abyssinian chronicle puts Adulis smack-dab at the middle of the Axumite kingdom and subsumes it as an integral part of this very kingdom. As a result, Adulis has been studied as part and parcel of the Axumite kingdom by most, if not all, scholars of the region. The question that has not been investigated and looked at seriously is this: was Adulis the epicenter of a kingdom that was NOT a part of the Axumite kingdom? Was Adulis the seat of a king who was independent of the kingdom of Axum?

There are two historical/archaeological pieces that militate against the Abyssinian paradigm in the sense that Adulis was the center of a kingdom that was not a constituent part of the Axumite kingdom, but a kingdom on its own right. The two historical/archaeological sources are:

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

This is how this manuscript narrates and depicts Adulis and the region under its control or influence around 100 CE.

Below Ptolemais of the Hunts, at a distance of about three thousand stadia, there is Adulis, a port established by law, lying at the inner end of a bay that runs in toward the south. Before the harbor lies the so-called Mountain Island, about two hundred stadia seaward from the very head of the bay, with the shores of the mainland close to it on both sides. Ships bound for this port now anchor here because of attacks from the land. They used formerly to anchor at the very head of the bay, by an island called Diodorus, close to the shore, which could be reached on foot from the land; by which means the barbarous natives attacked the island. Opposite Mountain Island, on the mainland twenty stadia from shore, lies Adulis, a fair-sized village, from which there is a three-days’ journey to Coloe, an inland town and the first market for ivory. From that place to the city of the people called Auxumites there is a five days’ journey more; to that place all the ivory is brought from the country beyond the Nile through the district called Cyeneum, and thence to Adulis. Practically the whole number of elephants and rhinoceros that are killed live in the places inland, although at rare intervals they are hunted on the seacoast even near Adulis. Before the harbor of that market-town, out at sea on the right hand, there lie a great many little sandy islands called Alalaei, yielding tortoise-shell, which is brought to market there by the Fish-Eaters“. — Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chap.4  [2]

According to the Periplus, the ruler and king of Adulis in the 1st century CE was Zoscales, whose rule was depicted as:

And about eight hundred stadia beyond there is another very deep bay, with a great mound of sand piled up at the right of the entrance; at the bottom of which the opsian stone is found, and this is the only place where it is produced. These places, from the Calf-Eaters to the other Berber country, are governed by Zoscales; who is miserly in his ways and always striving for more, but otherwise upright, and acquainted with Greek literature”. —Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Chapter 5 [2].

Through this very account one can see that Zoscales was a ruler/king of Adulis and other lands. However, many an Abyssinian historian is not deterred by this compelling corroboration and they have not ceased and desisted from their efforts of ‘Abyssinizing’ or ‘Habeshizing’ Zoscales. They have even tried to identify him as “Ze Haleqa”, one of the kings in The Kings List of the kingdom of Axum. Having failed to make a plausible connection of Zoscales to the kingdom of Axum, now some are trying to trivialize and derogate Zoscales as nothing more than ” a petty king whose power was only limited to Adulis”. [3]

Monumentum Adulitanum (ኣዱሊሳዊ ቅርሲ )

A throne is deeply buried under the sands of Adulis that has heretofore not been excavated. This third century AD monumental throne has inscriptions in Greek and G’eez written in Sabean alphabets carved onto it depicting the military campaigns of an Adulite king (ኣዱሊሳዊ ንጉስ). These inscriptions were not dug out and found by archaeologists. Rather, it was copied by a sixth-century Greek traveler-monk named Cosmas Indicopleustes into his book,Christian Topography.

” This anonymous inscription only survives in the copy made in the early sixth century AD by Kosmas Indikopleustes at Adulis (Wolska-Conus 1968: 372-8). 

. . . and after I had commanded the peoples near my country to maintain the peace, I entered valiantly into battle and subdued the following peoples; I fought the Gaze, then the Agame and the Siguene, and, having conquered, I reserved for myself half of their lands and their peoples. The Aua and Singabene and Aggabe and Tiamaa and Athagaous and Kalaa and the Samene people who live beyond the Nile in inaccessible mountains covered with snow where tempests and cold are continuous and the snow so deep that a man sinks up to the knees, I reduced to submission after having crossed the river; then the Lasine, and Zaa and Gabala, who inhabit very steep mountains where hot springs rise and flow; and the Atalmo and the Beja and all the people who erect their tents with them. Having defeated the Taggaiton who dwell up to the frontiers of Egypt I had a road constructed going from the lands of my empire to Egypt. 

Then I fought the Annine and the Metine who live on precipitous mountains as well as the people of Sesea. They took refuge on an inaccessible peak, but I besieged them on all sides and captured them, and chose among them young men and women, boys and virgins. I retained also their goods.

I defeated also the barbarian people of Rauso who live by the aromatics trade, in immense plains without water, and the Solate, whom I also defeated, imposing on them the task of guarding the sea-lanes. 

After I had vanquished and conquered, in battles wherein I personally took part, all these peoples so well protected by their impenetrable mountains, I restricted myself to imposing tribute on them and voluntarily returning their lands. But most peoples submitted of their own free will and paid me tribute. 

I sent an expedition by sea and land against the peoples living on the other side of the Erythraean Sea, that is the Arabitas and the Kinaidokolpitas, and after subjugating their kings I commanded them to pay me tribute and charged them with guaranteeing the security of communications on land and sea. I conducted war from Leuke Kome to the land of the Sabaeans. 

I am the first and only of the kings my predecessors to have subdued all these peoples by the grace given me by my mighty god Ares, who also engendered me. It is through him that I have submitted to my power all the peoples neighbouring my empire, in the east to the Land of Aromatics, to the west to the land of Ethiopia and the Sasou; some I fought myself, against others I sent my armies. 

When I had re-established peace in the world which is subject to me I came to Adulis to sacrifice for the safety of those who navigate on the sea, to Zeus, Ares and Poseidon. After uniting and reassembling my armies I set up here this throne and consecrated it to Ares, in the twenty-seventh year of my reign. 

The 8th to 10th century manuscripts in which this inscription is preserved have some explanatory glosses about some of these names; thus Gaze apparently means the Aksumites, still called Agaze, the Siguene are the Suskinitai, the tribes near Adulis are called the Tigretes (the earliest mention of Tigray?), the Tiamaa are the Tziamo and Gambela, the Atalmo and Beja are the Blemmyes, the Taggaitai (Tangaitai) are also called Attabite.. and Adra..s, the Sesea are tribes of Barbaria, the Solate are those living by the sea in Barbaria, called the Tigretai of the coast in Barbaria, and Sasou is the furthest part of Ethiopia, beyond which lies the ocean and the Barbareotes who traffic in incense (Huntingford 1989: 43)”. [4]

As one can easily discern from these military campaigns by the Adulite King, the campaigns had taken over and spanned from the Semien mountains to deserts and areas below sea level. The diversity of the territories subdued or brought under the Kings control is well illustrated in this monument of Adulis or Monumentum Adulitanum. Many a scholar of the Horn region assumes that this Adulite king was non other than the Axumite King Ezana. But, to my eyes, that is senselessly and preposterously absurd because the anonymous Adulite king was intrinsically ‘Adulisian’ as Ezana was inherently ‘Axumite’.

A herculean task awaits those who may take upon the responsibility of liberating  the Erythraean historiography from the perniciously insidious Abyssinian paradigm. Many a Eritrean mind would never bedecolonized from the surreptitiously stealthy Abyssinian narratives until ‘The Adulisian Paradigm’ is brought to the fore of the Eritrean national discourse and de-mythologizing these deep-rooted myths starts in earnest.

As a parting shot, I knew a person in the city I was born and grew up, named Adulis. He lived with his family close to our houses, in the same neighborhood. I have wondered even when I was very young why he was named thusly. Through my paternal grandmother, I found out that his parents hail from that part of Eritrea and how Adulis was such an important port  based on the oral stories she used to hear from her parents/grandparents a long time ago.

Notes:
[1] https://web.archive.org/web/20060620005055
[2] http://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/periplus.asp
[3]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoskales
[4] Stuart Munro-Hay. Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. [Pages: 186-87].

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  • ‘Gheteb

    Selam Tes,

    Again, thanks for the feedback and the challenge you are raising by asserting that ” Adoulis was an occupied port city”.

    No, Tes, Adulis was NOT “an occupied port city” in the years that this article dealt with. Here is what I want to add to what you can find in the article and my earlier response to you.

    (A) It is an accepted fact among historians and others who have studied these Adulisian narratives that the original name of Adulis as it was known by and called by the nearby villages to Adulis as ” AZULI”. It morphed first into ADULI ( check the top part of this article to confirm that I have used it in the first sentence of the first paragraph of this article). Then, an “S” is added to ADULI to complete its Hellenization.

    AZULI —–> ADULI——-> ADULIS

    Let me elucidate this point by way of offering another example close to home by citing one example of a place in Sahil, Eritrea. Here we see when a Tigrayit place name being ‘Tigrignaized’.

    ማህሚመት (Tigrayit) ——-> ማይህመት (Tigrignaized).

    Also, notice that ‘AZULI” is very similar to the term “ZULA” and probably was the base of its derivation.

    (B) The islands could have been named by Greek merchants or sailors. That, in and of itself, is NOT a sufficient condition to assert that they were occupied by a foreign country. All that is so far known is that ships heading to Adulis used to dock and anchor there so as to avert or avoid attacks from the local natives.

    (C) Sure, the name Zoscales was Hellenized, no doubt about it. Some scholars have suggested that his original/ real name was something like ZE ASKELE (ዘኣስከለ ), similar to what is a common name in Eritrea such as Zemihret (ዘምሕረት).

    ZE ASKELE (ዘኣስከለ) ——->Zoscales , when it was Hellenized. Notice again how an “S” is added to the name when it became Zoscales.

    (D) The only thing about the local people who may have lived in villages nearby to Adulis from this manuscript is that they sometimes used to attack the ships that were anchored in the islands close to Adulis. Nowhere did I see this attack on ships coming to Adulis as a sign of an attack against a foreign occupation. The motivation of the local people for attacking the ships could have been anything from not liking the ships for interfering with their FISHING ACTIVITIES or maybe for some looting adventures.

    (E) Your conclusion about Adulis not being an Erythraen civilization and ” is a civilization achieved because of occupation by outside force, the Greeks?”, is contradicted by:

    (i) The presence of Greeks and other international merchants was common in other places such as Egypt and this presence did not CONSTITUTE an occupation, but rather an influence in what is known as ‘material culture’.

    (ii) In the manuscript, we see the name of a place referred as ” COLOE” which is a three day journey from Adulis. Now many scholars of the region “COLOE” as the present town of Qohayto (ቆሓይቶ). This yet again indicates the “Eritreaness” and the indigenousness of the Adulisian civilization.

    (iii) The archaeological findings around Asmara, in Sembel that proved the presence of a prior civilization that may have given rise to the very Adulisian civilization.

    ” Dating back to 800 BCE, the Ona sites (located near Asmara’s Sembel district) were the first settled civilization in the Horn of Africa. According to archaeologist Peter R. Schmidt it was this civilization and not sites in Arabia that were the vital precursors to urban developments in Southern highlands of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia later in the first millennium BCE”.

    [[ Historical Archaeology in Africa, by Peter Ridgway Schmidt, 2006, p. 260 ]]

    Therefore and I conclude that The Adulisian civilization is as Eritrean as an Akat (ዓካት) from an Arkokoay (ዓርኮኮባይ) tree.

    • Haile S.

      Hi Gheteb,
      Let me interject in your discussion with Tes. I am not convinced in the hellenization of Aduli. What do you make of the names of localities during that time such as ‘Berenice’ and ‘Arsinoe’ in what is now Assab (ዓሰብ) area? Cosmas has also left some sketchs of things he observed in Adulis such as the town itself and the throne of Ptolemy. What do make of Ptolemy’s throne?
      Source: Kammerer. Essai sur l’histoire antique d’abyssinie. 1925.

      • ‘Gheteb

        Hi Haile S.,

        You are raising doubts about the thrust of my argument that the Adulisian civilization was an indigenous Eritrean civilization by querying that:

        ” Cosmas has also left some sketchs of things he observed in Adulis such as the town itself and the throne of Ptolemy. What do make of Ptolemy’s throne?”.

        ” Cosmas seeing Greek alphabets inscribed on the throne in Adulis ( Manbar — መንበር ), Cosmas thought that it followed King Ptolemy III Eueregete’s conquest in Asia. Cosmas MISTOOK the Adulite inscriptions to that of Ptolemy”.

        In his book, George Hatke, contends that Cosmas confusion of the Adulite throne and inscription being that of Ptolemy is at odds with what is known about the Ptolemaic inscriptions as it was not common for the kings to write on a stone slab (stele) while it was common practice of those Adulite kings and others in the region.

        For Cosmas’ CONFUSION on this issue, you can check, George Hatke’s book ( P: 40-41).

        [Axum and Nubia: Warfare, Commerce and Political Fiction in Ancient Northeast Africa]

        Even Alberto Pollera on his capacity maintained that the Greek/Egyptian influence as being materially minimal by stating the near total absence of any traces, captured as in antiquities, that show about their origin and genealogy in places like Adulis and Qohayto.

        The Greco-Egyptian influence on Adulis was primarily through a diffusion of ‘material culture’ as the language Greek being the lingua franca of those days.

        • Haile S.

          Hi Gheteb,
          BTW you didn’t say anything about Berenice and Arsinoe. There are few artifacts like the parfum vaporizer found in Metera that an art specialist of that period can analyze as to the indigenous or imported nature of the goods. But in general I like the academic exercise on this issue and thanks for the reference. What I have issue with is the politicization of it. I wouldn’t use the ‘Eritrean civilization’ for that period. We don’t need to install centuries old ዳዕሮ (sycomore) roots to a newly planted ሽባኻ (don’t know in english). We can take care to make that ሽብኻ beautiful, green and glistening without that kind of roots.

    • tes

      Selam Gheteb,

      Thank you for your indepth response. I think you are falling apart in your defense. Let me highlight what is still missing.

      Here is a strong proof that

      Here is about the alien civilization of Adoulis:

      1. Ships bound for this port now anchor here because of attacks from the land.

      2. They used formerly to anchor at the very head of the bay, by an island called Diodorus, close to the shore, which could be reached on foot from the land

      3. … the barbarous natives attacked the island.

      Here, we can clearly understand that the Native people were either not part of the civilization that you are claiming or were not welcoming these alien people to anchor ships.

      But there is another important link that need to be withdrawn and here it is:

      From that place to the city of the people called Auxumites there is a five days’ journey more; to that place all the ivory is brought from the country beyond the Nile through the district called Cyeneum, and thence to Adulis.

      This indicates, ships were coming there to take trade materials. There was no organized civilization and stable commerce activity. The port was mainly used for anchoring ships and the native people were not happy with the trade activity.

      But there was one important trace of historical significance here:

      Adoulis was an access port to Axumite trade lines..

      My follow-up question is then,

      1. why you want to separate Adoulis Civilization from Axum Civilization? As we can see from your statement, Adouilis and Axum had strong link. But to claim Adoulis had its own civilization is simply politicizing history.

      Or,

      2. You want to prove that history is according to the writer. And you want to prove this fact of corrupting history?

      3. Why you want to deny the undeniable link of Adoulis with Axum?

      4. Can’t we simply state that Axumite Civilization is an ancient civilization that flaourished in today’s geographical location of Eritrea and Ethiopia.?

      5. Can we really localize civilization?

      Before 1993, Ethiopians had to write Adoulis civilization as Ethiopian because they were sure Eritrea will remain under their forced annexation. What Italians wrote was under a title of Eritrea and we have many reference materials to be read. And since 1950s, Ethiopians had to merge Eritrea with Ethiopia and write accordingly. Now, what we need is to write Eritrean history. But this can not be done by falsely claiming or inventing something for the sake of saying, “History is according to the writer?”

      tes

      • Abi

        Hi Tes
        I think it is too early to write Eritrean history. The country is only 25 years old. What is there to write? The history before 1991 is Ethiopian history.

        • tes

          Selam Abi,

          I think you are missing the whole concept of history.

          What you wrote is already recorded as history and it reads as follows:

          Eritrean History

          In writing Eritrean hisotry there was difference of opinions/beleifs on date of references. For example, on 17/03/2017, Abi, an Ethiopian citizen, who was a resident Awate Forum member, argued that the history before 1991 is Ethiopian history”. In contrary to this, an article published on 13/03/2017 at awate/com was dating some 2000 years back and claimed civilization that was flaorishing alonng the coastal line was Erythraean Civilization.

          You see, this is simply a history. History is what is done just before you are reading this material back to millions or billions of years ago. This indicates that there is no reference lie “too early” in history.

          But there are procedures to release historical materials.

          Historians here in this form might say something but according to the degree of confidentiality and sensitivity, history is made public qt different times.

          For example, some historical records can be resleased instantly. Most sensitive materials are released not before 60 or 70 years. At least those who did it or people whom they can be affected directly need to say good bye/die. Then it can be released.

          I can discuss but it is more than enough I think.

          No to early in history but differs in perod of release and sensitivity.

          tes

          • Abi

            Hi Tes
            ” ታሪክ ነው!” ይላሉ ያገሬ ሰዎች

  • Hayat Adem

    Hello icolleagues,
    3 mixed bag observations and 1 extra
    1) if you are not loving mahmuday these days, nothing wrong but you are just incapable of loving a good thing
    2) if any of you are accusing SGJ of harbouring a hidden narrow agenda in favor of one and against any other people or group, well, i wish i could wish you good luck but, guaranteed, you will end up losing this game. the man has been around and we have known him enough.
    3) those of you who are advocating for protracted armed struggle should be able to pass first what i call the abi’s test: will you be there? can you guarantee the outcome?
    4) we all should thank gheteb for going back and so so back in time, as in aElilim just to introduce us with the calf-eaters.

    • Abi

      Hi Abbysinian Queen
      You know how much I respect Mr would be Present. I always liked him . He is the best camel and goat herder ever! Look how he is dealing with Nitric?

      The only time ጊንጡ ገጣባው ጌታብ is right is when he calls me እባቡ አቢ::

      • Hayat Adem

        Haha Abi,
        Does Nitricc know what choice you gave him to pick here: to be or not to be…
        Okay Mr. Nitricc, what would you like to be: a cute camel or a good goat?
        ———
        God made horse. In trying to copy him, a group of wise men made a camel. Camel is a committee made horse.
        God made sheep. In trying to copy him, a group of wise men made a goat. Goat is a committe made sheep.
        ———
        What did Mamuday see to pick these two imperfections over the other two perfections? I am sure he has his reasons. Because he didn’t tell us doesn’t mean he didn’t have one. And if only one looks back far enough into the Zoskale’s time, there might be new stuff to be revealled: something totally different, something totally Eritrean, something that was beyond or parallel authentic story contradicting the Abyssinyan myth.

        • Abi

          Say what??!!!
          Nitric is definitely a noisy and horny goat. ወጠጤ ፍየል

          I think both the camel and the goat have plenty of hamot. That is what the Veteran is looking all over.
          Somebody whispered in his ears that the people don’t have hamot anymore.

    • Selamat Hyatt Adam,

      Well, I will agree with your “…these days.” However, give it sometime and you will be hating him soon enough as you do not know very well us ShaEbians. Your respect is dully noted these days. And loving is deserving of reciprocal loving.

      AmEritrean GitSAtSE

      • Paulos

        Selam Tsatse,

        There is no part-time greatness. If ShaEbia as an institution is swinging back and forth between whatever to whatever, it sure is not a good sign and the new-Muhamuday has broken out of it while cherishing its legacy.

        • Selamat Paulos,

          I am sort od muzzled these days, though it is futile effort if you ask me. Contemplate on TerTarrAkatt, though ambiguouus word now, you will find clarity by asking the Enigma. Achesson and Hariman will follow. There is not turning back now from the clear vission I have aquired. In due time. መትከል ዝረገጸ ኣይሲሕትን ሽቶኡ፡ ንዝመጽአ ጎነጽ የትሕዞ ቦትኡ።

          ድፋዕ ዓዋተ ዶት ኮም፡ ንነብሰ ጥቕሚ ኣትሪራ ንትጻወታ ትካላኸል ኣላ። ብዘየገድስ፡ ግመለይ ትምርሽ ኣላ።

          ኣም-ኤርትረያን ጃይጻጸ

          • Paulos

            Selam Tsatse,

            They say, when a camel steps out of the desert, it ceases to be a camel. I wonder if the erstwhile symbol of ShaEbia still holds.

          • Selamat Paulos,

            ኣባ ጎብየ? ገመል? ወይስ ሓኾተ?

            ጃይጻጸ

          • Haile S.

            Hi Xaxe,
            I am interested in knowing tigrigna names of animals. What is ሓኾተ?
            Thanks

          • ሰላማት ሃይለ “ሓኾተ”፡

            አንሥሣ ኣይኮነን። ነባሪ ሂወት ግን አዩ።

            ጻጻ

          • Haile S.

            Thank you ጻጸ፡
            Here you go another miss! In tigrigna at that.

      • Hayat Adem

        Thank you, Gitsatse…
        “AmEritrean GitSAtSE Agnieya Azilo40 Children Books Press”
        What does this line you always put at every end of your feeds mean?

        • ሰላማት ሓያት ኣደም፡

          In your own words it means: “First of all, you can only make our world better by looking forward. From now and here->into the future… onward and forward.”

          AmEritrean GitSAtSE Agnieya Children Books Press

    • Yohannes

      Dear Hayat,

      I read you saying something judgemental about me. Saleh says he is disappointed by my ideas(or me?), the despicable Tesfaberhan says whatever comes in to his mouth and that does it for you? Whatever happened to the basics of understanding something you were not part of? Like asking…what hatred? where is the evidence? …

      Or have you grown too comfortale in this forum and started to see people instead of their ideas? I hope not.

      .

      • Hayat Adem

        Selam Yohannes,
        No, no, I am still there where you just left me. I would still like to think of myself as seeing ideas first, as opposed to ‘people first” (used to be yg’s slogan). Was not talking about you specifically and can’t be really judgmental about you. But there are things that make me say what I just said about SGJ. I can state them if they matter to you and you care to hear them. That is why I throw my thoughts when I feel like doing it.
        I like all kinds of ideas and the first thing I see is if they can make more people better of for a longer time for a lower collateral price. If you see something like that, say something and alert me to it. You will see me singing and dancing with you. But I detest reductionism and reordering for the sake of re-positioning oneself to a better place at the expense of others or the greater good.
        A very good example is our Gheteb. I see him polluting the innocent minds of our youth in the name tutoring and helping. And if you are part of the Agazian people, you are, too. First of all, you can only make our world better by looking forward. From now and here->into the future… onward and forward. No country was curved (except may be the Jew State) out of even true history, forget a cherry history. But all crazy ideas win the ears of some confused folks at desperate times. That could be deceptive and misleading if you are getting your clues from such attentions.
        Hayat

        • Nitricc

          Hey Hayat: I have a question for you and please answer me directly and honestly. I see people on this forum bending out shape with idea of Agazi, meaning the union of Tigray and Eritrea Tigrigna speaking people. From day one on this forum your solo mission is, as you put it, is “to bring the two people together”. from reading all of your articles, one will understand to say and to mean “to bring the two people together”. is to mean the people of Tigray and the Tigrigna speaking Eritreans. You have never mentioned the rest of Ethiopia, you never mentioned the lowlanders of Eritrea. Always it has been about Tigryans and Highlander Eritreans. My question to you is, what makes you any different than Tesfation, Yohannes and (envison, Erimias, VF, Binyam, etc?

          Your goal is “to bring the two people together”.so is Tesfation?
          Thanks for your answer.

          • Hayat Adem

            Hi Nitricc,
            Direct and honest answer: when I say bringing the two peoples, i mean the entire Ethiopia and the entire Eritrea. No less and no slice. Take that home.

          • Abi

            Hi The Queen
            Actually, you said it to me years back you wanted to see the two people/ countries just like Canada and USA. It was your first ever response to me.
            Thanks.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Abi,
            What USA-Canada? You mean we cannot have palaces at Entoto, to supervise what happens below?
            Hayat, please tell him you were joking.

          • Abi

            Selam Ato Saleh
            If only you reside in the EnToTo Palace.

          • Hayat Adem

            Yes Abi. I don’t remember giving you that response but that always what I think of about the two peoples. May be even closer.

        • Selamat Hyatt Adem,

          “…the first thing I see is if they can make more people better off for a longer time for a lower collateral price…”

          What do you mean by lower collateral damage? Would the entire and beutiful blue earth, for example, for the sake of the entire magnificent universe’s balance be considered a lower collateral damage? How about a 49:51 ratio (lower:greater good)? One could make this rehtoric even worse by asking what is greater, the past and now or the future. What I am driving at here is: What is it that you see? The ” things that you(“i”) see..”

          There are numerous applications to your statement above. I can deduce you may very well be a budding entrpeneuer, buying low selling high. Or, you could be thinking about the Eritrean-Ethiopian “these days” circumstances.

          Gheteb the always oscillator is a brilliant mind with significant trauma. I know him very well. It is all relative, isn’t it?

          ‘Am Eritrean ጃይጻጸ American Eritrean ‘AmEri GitSAtSE CABP

          • tes

            Selam Solomon,

            These days I am lost in between your lines. can you help me to come out from my lost world?

            tes

  • tes

    Selam Amanuel Hidrat,
    ___________

    Remark:

    I am opening this discussion untill Gheteb comes with proves that defends his thesis. I have challenged him by saying, ‘Adoulis is an occupied port cirty – depending on the materials he provided here. He can not disprove my challenge. Untill he comes, his thesis to make Adoulis as a center of Eritrean Civilization has no value.”
    ____________

    In one your comments below you wrote, “The Eritrean “Hamot” is non-existent what so ever these days.” I bet there is. What is missing is organization skills.

    Today, there is a mixing of civic societies with political organizations. Worse today we have reached to a stage where civic organization are thinking their are morally and practically superior to political organizations. In many meetings, these civic societies are competing and sometimes acting as political parties.

    Even there are groups coming today who openly denounce political parties. This is the worst political develpoments.

    Very recently I learned that there what political scientists call it, “Liberal Autocracy”. Meaning, in a state where civic societies are strongly present but no political organizations. This is where we are heading.

    Unless we are able to differentiate Civic Organizations from Political Organizations, this havoc will continue.

    What is worrying most is, today, Civic Organizations are becoming like a fasion while political organizations like an old and unneeded. This kind of mentality and approach to organization is killing our strategy to fight against PFDJ in a more organized manner.

    Can you explain to me/us your experience on Civic Organization and how you see Political Organizations?

    I read before that you represented your civic organization and tried to compete for a sit in Baito. Is it really legal?

    tes

  • envision

    Hi Tes,
    I wish it was like that. I am, however, able to read well. Do you read well? It was an attack against Kebessa. That is just an example, but his writings and the articles of others that he promote here are attestations.

    • tes

      Selam envision,

      I think what Saleh Johar wrote is here in this website. I didn’t read any line that attacks against Kebessa. If you read, please bring them here and make them available for us. Who knows I might have misunderstood or jumped some lines.

      On the other hand, Agazianism is full of attack, not only to the other part of Eritrea but the entire Eritreans. Above all, AgaAzianism does not believe on Eritrea. Its vision is to establish a new country called Agazian State. Hence it is Anti-Eritrea. And I think you seem to be proud of it.

      I know personally Yohannes. And he is not shy to support AgAziansim, as what Tesfazion is preaching. Tesfazion is a Master and Yohannes is a Discipline. He acknowledged it openly.

      What Saleh Johar promotes and writes for is known to the public. In his entire struggle, he stood for Eritrea and any other force that endangers this country. Though his main enemy is PFDJ, which he has no words to express on his level of hate, he is fighting also against cowards, opportunists, bigotry, extremists, etc. His struggle has always put him at a unique position. And this position is now getting clear. It is a sane struggle. I wish many listened his call.

      Cool down therefore and embrace Eritrea as a whole. Please be human. Don’t be Tigrigna. Your identity is your humanity though you seem to pretend not to be.

      tes

      • Abi

        Hi Tes
        Why do you oppose the formation of Agazian State? If the two people don’t want to live in Ethiopia or Eritrea, let them form a new country. Didn’t you fight for 30 years for independence? What changed now?

        • tes

          Selam Abi,

          Not only in place of origin, I am against any fascist country tobe created all over the world. Stay aware about this.

          tes

      • Yohannes

        Hi Tesfaberhan,

        I wish you spoke from evidence instead of ingorant anger. Or is it even anger? ignorant anger is genuine and truth can heal it; but I am inclined to think yours is just a puppydog syndrome. I have read you say you are a student of Awate university. Good. But will you ever graduate and have your own matured stance or you will keep taking the same classes forever? God forbid.

        Yes I do not shy away from expressing my ideas (even if it displeases a friend) and I hope all of the respectable people in this forum do.

        Fetika tselika I am not going to categorically reject Tesfazion’s ideas. Actually, many of his videos are extremely informative, enlightening and inspiring. (Remember when Semere Andom said he was a notch up from YG? Semere found something worthy in there, and so I have. Oh, this brings me to wonder if Semere has also been excommunicated…lol)
        Even though I watched tens of his videos, in fact I have not come across the video from Tesfazion that you keep saying is facsist. (send me the link or make on yourself).

        So you dont decieve others, I have expressed my take on Tesfazions ideas – both negative and positive. The way it shoud be. Believe me, my take on Tesfazion is much more reconcillatory than your extremely hatefull barking at all Tigrinya zbele.

        Lastly, I want to remind you owe me an apology for not only calling me a fascist but also photoshopping my picture beside hateful pics and posting it. Even though it shows how shallow and childish you are and I wouldn’t have cared if some anonimous person did it; this is something I take serious and personal – since I know you a little bit in person, like you said.

        • tes

          Selam Yohanness,

          My political approach is from Deductive to inductive approach. Yours seems the opposite. I don’t pick one video to make a conclusion. I see the totality.

          Regarding my university, you are lagging my friend. I graduated already but I am here because I am a professor now. I did really great here and thanks to Awate President he gave me full opportunity to stay and pursue my professional career here for the rest of my life. I am a resident professor. However I am also a visiting professor at facebook. I meet and discuss, challenge and rebuff people there also.

          I hears that you just dropped your study here at awate university after you found it tough to continue. Then you got an admission very easily into a Fascist School of thought. It is were you become an Aborted Graduate.

          My advice for you: Awate University is not a place for people like you. It is a place for people who have patience, tolerance, principle and eagerness to learn. Stay away therefore as it is not suitable for you.

          tes

          • Ismail AA

            Selam dear tes,

            Many of us in this forum have been closely following your diligent in puts in defense of SGJ and his contribution to free debate. The space he has provided them to freely post their views against him should have sufficient stir their conscience. I think this is a mark of a bigot, or is it?

            The reason I am writing this lines is just to voice out my testimony that you, and others as well, have been called to respond by no other incentive but human decency that dictates an imperative or responsibility to expose the madness in vogue we are witnessing.

            I should, moreover, note that such odd conditions arise in times of abnormality as the conditions that have rendered our society disillusioned. The fact that this madness is a child of such times is our knowledge that it is spearheaded by a convicted former criminal who has changed his tarnished name.

            The unfortunate surprise in all this is to witness educated and intelligent individuals that society expected them to fight such oddities falling into his trap. I think it might not have lost on them that
            such outlandish ideas and projects have no chance of survival let alone consummation in 21 Century. It would have been sufficient for them to just take glimpse of geography and demographics that surround the theatre in which they their dream to play out and forged to assumed republic of pure folks trying to craft an ideology from chapters of ancient history and mythology.

            Regards

          • envision

            Hi Ismail,
            “… trying to craft an ideology from chapters of ancient history and mythology.” Is Alula-Yohannes era ancient? Is the EPLF-TPLF collaboration in overthrowing Shewan rule ancient? What good does it do to reassure and deceive yourself publicly? An educated person is one who sifts important things out of anything. Categorical rejection and condemnation is not a hallmark of education. Tesfazion’s speeches contain a lot of despicable things, which should be rejected. But they also contain a lot of truth and foresight which should be applauded.

          • Ismail AA

            Dear envision,

            I hope you do not mean to tell us in this forum that “… EPLF-TPLF collaboration in overthrowing Shewan rule…” or Alula and Yohannes IV war efforts were done in the name of what you and others refer to as Agazian dream. Do I understand then that those men did not have anything to do with Ethiopia. Was Emperor Yohannes IV enthroned as Agazian king or Ethiopian?

            Certainly, as far as I am concerned, things said or done by a convicted crimal who had served term in prison do not qualify for attention of anyone, let alone and educated gentleman or lady. Personal integrity is an essential mark of leadership which this particular individual does not have. A thief or a liar can also say a lot good things, but that do not change the fact that such a person is a thief or liar.

          • Abi

            Hi Ismail
            It is like
            “ካዩኝ ስቄ ካላዩኝ ሰርቄ”

          • envision

            Hi Ismail,
            You seem to focus on superficialities. Forget the names, focus on the affinity of the people for each other. That is the essence. Names, we can always drop or adopt as we have adopted Eritrea, Tigrinya, etc. “A thief can also say a lot good things, but that do not change the fact that such a person is a thief.” Yes, it may not change that the person is a thief, but that he is thief does not change the truth of what he says either. Truth is truth no matter who says it.

          • Abi

            Hi envision
            History shows us if a movement is led by a criminal, it only brings misery to the followers. What guarantees do you have this time around?

          • envision

            Hi Abi,
            Tesfazion is not really a leader of the movement. He is a leader of his own strain. He is doing some good job at mobilising the grass roots though. That is only good. At this stage, the movement is only gathering momentum. There will be a time when it will have publicly visible leaders.

          • Ismail AA

            Dear envision,
            Amazing that the credibility of a person who is out to play a grand patriarch of reconstructing a republic of the imagined “The grandeur that was” Geezland (to borrow the words of J.C. Stobart) does not matter to you.
            Regards

          • envision

            Hi Ismail,
            In a big project, every one has a role to play. Tesfazion is doing a grassroots mobilisation, and that is only good. I believe his extremities should be pruned. Even if Tesfazion was a criminal as you claim, it has nothing to do with the ideas he expounds. Ideas are independent of people; they are transcendent. Eritrea was assembled by colonialists and criminals, do we need to throw it away?

          • Ismail AA

            Dear envision,
            To begin with I am not claiming that he was convicted for fraud and embezzlement. Ask him; if he is honest he will tell you, or if you care please log to one of the Tigrinya websites like Togoruba.org and find whole articles by people who know him well. But, do you really believe what convicted criminals say sanitize their credibility?.
            I am afraid you analogy about Eritrea is misplaced because, unlike the case of the person at issue, I have not seen a verdict(s) by court of law involving any of the Italian authorities who made the decision to invade the territories that added up to make modern Eritrea.

          • envision

            Hi Ismail,
            I do not think you are getting the essence of my points. I am saying his criminal record (whether true or false) is irrelevant. Your argumentation is purely an appeal to emotion. Get past the emotion and delve into substance.

          • Ismail AA

            Dear envision,
            Well, sir, then you are telling me that credibility does count as long as what the individual says does appeal to your ego and passion fixated on search of rediscovery of an identity you believe was lost in ancient times. By the way, you are not providing substance worthy of delving into because Eyob and others are simply bogged in legend narrated as history.
            Regards, and thanks for engaging.

          • ‘Gheteb

            Ahlan Ismail AA,

            A superb, logically coherent and to the point rejoinder that is well-thought and very illuminating.

            Splendidly well-done, Ismail !

          • Ismail AA

            Dear ‘Gheteb,
            Thank you.
            What worries me, and for sure fo many compatriots whatever persuasions as well, is the fact that seeds of bigotry and race-based ultra-nationalism are being sown to germinate and grow to endanger the unity of our hard-won nationhood. We had learned from recent history that that was the way German and Italian fascism started under the guise of national socialism but in essence racial and linguistic puritanism and cross border re-unification.
            Regards

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Ustaz Ismail AA,

            “…fascism started under the guise of national socialism but in essence racial and linguistic puritanism and cross border re-unification.”

            Precisely! I think it is safe to say that we have enough experience to identify divisive, bigoted, and unjust to the core rhetoric the so called “AgAzianists” undoubtedly are trying to advance.

            I have been stunned this week by those who openly expressed their support of AgAzianism with their incessant accusation of SJG among others. If their “movement” had any shred of “justice” in its inception, it would have been easy for them to see the fact that everything he says and does was/is about seeking justice. They don’t want to acknowledge or see that. The very fact that he is a “Muslim” is all the crime he had to commit to be their target. How dare he open his mouth and expose local bigotry! It is quite disturbing.

          • envision

            Hi Ismail,
            You can keep reassuring and deceiving yourself. It wont change anything on the ground. You can also rejoice in the company of some imaginationless forumers. The train is taking off; the movement is brewing.

          • envision

            Hi Moderator,
            I never had any nick, nor have I been a commenter in this forum. I take it as personal attack because you do not like my views. You can also say you are not welcome here instead of this indirect, dishonest, unpleasant and malicious comment.

          • envision

            Hi Moderator,
            Thank you for the welcome. I have not violated any rule, as far as I know. Decency requires that you retract the wrong accusation that I had other nicks though. It was truly uncalled-for.

          • Abi

            Hi invision
            You remind me of my old friends in this forum.
            Ermiyas, Gehrelibu, Mizan, Mizan1, Vota Force, Lamek(?)…
            I miss them all. They all wanted to ascend on Mt EnToTo.

          • Abraham H.

            Selam envision, the collaboration between EPLF and TPLF came strong and in full force after 1988, the demise of the Nadew Iz in Nakfa-Af’abet. At that time or even much longer before, EPLF was a multi-ethnic organization, where Eritreans from all walks of life and all ethnic groups fought side by side and died together for the sake of liberating their motherland from the Ethiopian occupation. We can also say the same on the Ethiopian side,; the TPLF had joined hands with other Ethiopian peoples like Oromos, Amharas and others forming EPRDF and ultimately the deafeat of Derg was realised. In short, the fall of of the Derg was not exclusively the work of the two Tigrinya peoples as you and your Ag’azian junk are trying to tell the young people.

          • tes

            Dear Ismail AA,

            I have to thank you for your compliments. It is an inspiration to me when it comes from a person of your caliber. Saying that, let me clarify few things.

            1. My intention is not to defend SGJ but “TRUTH”. In case, if what I defend for benefits SGJ, then he must be proud of it. My philosophical guide is, “There is truth”. Who knows then what SGJ is saying is the truth about solving Eritrean problems. And so far, I can assure you that SGJ holds this truth. All we need is to open our heart and listen to him. Of course, the whole has never being the truth, hence no perfection. But within the imperfection, there is perfection. This is what I am learning from SGJ.

            2. Awate website, hence SGJ and co, has provided us one of the most beautiful platforum. A platform that welcomes all thinkers, fighters, conservatives, progressive, radicals, extremists, etc. It is the most democratic liberal website I have ever come through. Hence, as you have said it precisely, it is a space provided to us to freely post our views even when it is directly and categorically aimed against the founders, even against everyone.

            Having said that I mentioned ‘Bigotry’ to mean that SGJ fights againts those who do not tolerate other’s ideas, views, opinions, beliefs, thoughts, directives, whatever it is. By creating awate website SGJ and co have stood against bigotry. This means, they have welcomed all sorts of ideas, liberal platform. What makes Awate Website unique is it has rules and the rules are strictly observed, hence Rule of Law. This completes the perfection of this wonderful website.

            It is this understanding that I put the word ‘bigotry’ – hope I didn’t misuse the word. If I did, blame my english vocabulary skills. But I won’t be free if I have abused it and hence I am accountable. Sometimes it happens to me in this website and Awatistas knowns when I go banana. I know my shortcomings and I admit when I get corrections.

            Th rest, I can not agree more. And thank you again.

            tes

          • Ismail AA

            Dear tes,
            Thank you very much, and totally agree with you. I understand your in puts did not solely meant to defend Johar per se. Perhaps I should have put what I wrote in a different way. Moreover, I used the word “bigot” to underscore the fact that had Johar been a bigot he would not have given a free space in his own website to individuals who are out to attack him.
            Regards

          • tes

            Dear Ismail AA.,

            I just have to say “Thank you again”. What you said before was sufficient enough by themselves. I just wrote to clarify. Otherwise, all you said was full of wisdom as usual.

            tes

        • Hameed Al-Arabi

          Salam Yohannes,

          The real Eritrean Christian Highlanders have no identity crisis, but Tesfatsen and his likes have.

          The new discovery of Tesfatsen assembled the (Miss-Identity) together, but I am sure they will cool down when they find out that AL-JAZAN/AL-JIZAN is in the South of Saudi Arabia or Northern Yemen. Tesfatsen and his likes suffer from identity crisis therefore when they discovered the word JAZAN they thought it is fresh and applicable to cover their crisis and feel content. Some of the (Miss-Identity) are content with the word Isaias coined for them; example, Nitricc.

    • Abraham H.

      Hi envision, please be honest in your opinions; you are telling us here “I wish it was like that” meaning that you wish Saleh Johar was attacking the racist and fascist plans of the so called Ag’azian hodgepodge. No I would not call it movement, because that would be giving it a meaning that it doesn’t deserve. But you cannot hide that you are actually one of the supporters of this malignant tumor seen among some disgruntled, and racist individuals among the Eritrean Tigrinyas and Tigray Tigrinyas. The following is what you said regarding the Ag’azian thing a few weeks ago exposing your real self:

      Hi Amde,
      I reposted it yesterday after I found out it was still held by Disqus. I think the Tigray-Tigrigni movement is the same movement, just not as strong and robust as it is in the form of the AgAzian movement. You see that is what a movement is, it has several stages and it can even undergo some changes, but the essence remains the same.
      By its nature, it will be a predominantly Tigrinya-speaking state, but that is simply a function of demography. Eritrea is already a Tigrinya-speaking state, let alone AgAzian which will be above 90% native Tigrinya-speaking. Other peoples and languages will exist, but they will not have a role in national politics and education, not because of coercion but because the market will make them out of competition. AgAzian will not require territories for economic reasons, it is simply a restoration of most of Axumite territories.

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selamat Ahwat Berhe & MS,

    An entrenched dictatorial regime can not be removed by nonviolece struggle from outside of our country (what our diaspora Eritreans are doing). All Nonviolence struggle that are successful so far are from the movements of inside forces,where the political environments permits. The current political environment of Eritrea is not suitable for nonviolence engagement. That is why young Eritreans are leaving the country in droves.

    The only things I could say, if praying from our comfort zones and debating in this forum could facilitate the removal of the despot, we shall see. Remember, we shall see, only bring death, starvation, dospesal and refugee in all corners of the world. The quest for nonviolence struggle comes only from uncommitted fellow citizens. The sad part of it, the regime is laughing at the ambivalence and indecisiveness of the opposition camp. Remember, you will be surprise when you see peaceful transfer of power with in PFDJ, when Issayas pass away by natural death. Because, the party is internally intacted, solid, and united for their common purpose and their common interest. As far as our struggle focuses on Issayas and our method of struggle remains as nonviolence, we are losers. There is no success without sacrifice. Just my political take.

    Regards

    • Thomas

      Hi Amma,

      Cannot agree more, those climbed up to power cannot be removed without violence. It is logical and if almost every nation in Africa has done it, why not Eritrea. Members of the mafia regime have repetitively told us that that is our only option. Issayas has time and again lauded the same echo, no election or change for the next 3-4 decades, that has no binding contract to be held to…………. I am really amazed that some people are being dishonest about how they feel about this.

      • Abi

        Tomi
        Are you ready to sacrifice yourself along with Amanuel Hidrat to liberate your people? Really?
        Tell me honestly.

        • Thomas

          Hi Abi,

          I live in the land of fortunes country. I am very happy with everything I have here in the usa. That said I also know I will of natural cause in approximately less than 40 years. If I die of natural cause, no one except my own family and some friends will know I am deceased, but if I sacrifices my self for the cause of the Eritrean people, over 3.5 million people will remember me every year or so:) That is how I see things, my brother. I am not selfish and sacrificing yourself for a good cause is a blessing. What do you think? To be honest with you, I was expecting what you have asked me to come from that of MS not from you:) That guy has been very quick and sneaky when asking that question:)

          • Abi

            Tomy
            I think MS sacrificed enough to liberate the mountains, the goats and the camels. Now it is your turn to finish the job and liberate the people. I see you are up to the challenge.
            I’m proud to call you a brother.

      • Berhe Y

        Dear Thomas,

        If people like me do not make its for lack of understanding and not being dishonest (I speak for myself). But I also feel that you do not understand methods of nonviolence. If you do use violence, you will just fall the trap that the regime is expert / specialize at and your chances achieving your goals are very slim.

        Let’s use the recent issues in Ethiopia. Which of the two methods, the crossing arms and mobilizing people, and the violence used to burn tracks and set fire properties, had a better impact to damage the ruling party?

        If they did not use violence, do you think the government would have successes in getting the state of emergency.

        Berhe

        • Abraham H.

          Selam Berhe, the Ethiopian gov is 100% controlled by the EPRDF, so it would not be so diffucult for them to pass whatever laws they wish.
          Inside Eritrea, the people can neither take up arms nor stage a peaceful arm-crossing demo. Change is not going to come unless we overcome fear, submission, and indifference. The objective of any diaspora pro-change moovement should be to help the people overcome the above mentioned menaces within the Eritrean psyche.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Dear Abraham:

            I quote you: “inside Eritrea the people can neither take up arms nor stage a peaceful arm-crossing demo.” How difficult it could be for the nonviolence advocate to understand this reality you put it in a crystal clear? It is really mind boggling. Who could be against nonviolent resistance if the reality on the ground is conducive and doable? We fought our armed struggle not because it was desireable option, but because there was no other political option at the time, when we were forced to be annexed with Ethiopia. I have no doubt in my mind, that we are confronted with the same reality and with different enemy. There is no objective conditions for nonviolence struggle inside Eritrea, and there is no anyone who want to make nonviolence struggle inside Eritrea as well, without being armed to confront their deadly enemy. The struggle demand commitment and sacrifice. Thank you for your short, precise, to the point response.

            Regards
            Amanuel Hidrat

        • Thomas

          Hi Berhe,

          You will be the last person to be called dishonest. Actually, I happen to see honesty all over your writings. I agree with almost everything you write here. I sometimes wonder if you are my twin brother who would come up with very identical line of thinking.

          I have to admit that I would have chosen the “nonviolent” approach because the word is cute and there is no attack of words from the opposition or supporters side as I would not be calling for threatening/violent action. Remember, we have been talking about the nonviolent way of bringing change for over 15 years now. Are we that close to get rid of these bunch of criminals there? I think you mentioned Ethiopians’ recent upraising to justify that nonviolent is a not a better choice to eradicate the bunch of mafias. One thing that has never been debated here is the violent way of removing the mafias the way to go. To be honest with you, I don’t understand why people would not even try to see if that can be a choice. In my opinion, violently declaring war against the mafias will be the quickest and easiest way in removing the mafias. Below I will outline the reason:

          a) Our people within our country and neighboring waiting for someone from their own to start shooting bullets. Once a united Eritrean oppositions start holding villages across the Eritrean boarders, we can talk about the reaction of the regime and the changing hands of sawa trained military. That will be the momentum.
          b) The world starts taking serous majors once bullets start flying. This has been the cause everywhere there is wars. Given the regime has angered the international community (we can talk about sanctions, migration, COI, HRC and all, whose side will the world be? Obviously, the regime has extremely bad record inside and outside of our country. Who is to come to support a rotten regime? More will follow…………………

          Well, let’s see the difference the people holding the power in Ethiopia vs Eritrea:
          1) Ethiopia’s diplomacy: a) almost a friend of the entire world except Eritrea. a) Relationship with African Union b) Even recently elected to serve on the world body’s Security Council.

    • MS

      Selam Amanuel
      1. “The quest for nonviolence struggle comes only from uncommitted fellow citizens” WRONG
      2. “All Nonviolence struggle that are successful so far are from the movements of inside forces,where the political environments permits.”
      Good. At least you recognize that nonviolent struggle do produce results. Just to add, political climates are created, they don’t present themselves. I mentioned some of the preconditions for creating those climates, including, the right proposal (program), and the right leadership.
      3. You have not answered my question. Just to repeat it: If the only way of dismantling is a violent means, and if the Eritrean Hamot is non existent, per your belief, then who is going to do the violent task of dismantling the regime?
      4. To conclude: dear Emma, commenting on a given political issue, or proposing scenarios based on theory is easier than having to see how you could translate those proposals to actionable plans. The first one could be drawn from far away places based on experiences and books. But the second one needs certain sets of skills. The actual leaders, who should have the sets of skills, will have to chose whatever tools they need. But it’s in everyone’s interest if we encourage them to first come together and draw a plan of action that meets Eritrea’s current challenges. At any rate, we will still need Hamot. So, brother, Hesebelu Ika. Think about this. I have criticized you on this same point in the past . The point is: if you think Eritreans have run out of Hamot, then tell us who is going to do the dismantling task?
      Refards.
      PS: Please also refer to BerheY (on nonviolence, and tes on your famous conclusion that Eritreans have run out of Hamot.

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Dead Mahmuday,

        As to the question of “Hamont” we need to activate the potential energy in our young generation to commit and fight like the generation before them. The preaching of nonviolence makes to our young docile, unasserive, and submissive. The rest explanation ditto to my comment for Abraham.

        • MS

          Ahlan Emma
          I’m still alive (check you greeting, bseHaQ Moyte).
          Anyway, that’s good. Now, we all agree we have the Hamot. Thanks for your efforts, I have already stated how that Hamot could be put into national purpose. Could you list things that have not yet been done that might activate the Hamot?
          Regards.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Sorry Mahmuday, I typed it when I am falling to sleep.

    • Yohannes

      Dear Amanuel,

      Like you said, the regime is laughing at the ambivalence and indecisiveness of the opposition camp. But as a learned man and as privileged with experience than I am, I would like have liked to see you give us more.

      For one thing, I do believe that non-violent struggle has the potential to change the status quo in our nation. We are on the same page if by the type of non-violent struggle you mean, the kind of struggle the opposition elites has been fascinated with. No, not that one…that is just about stating the obvious fact that ‘…the PFDJ is ugly and we should get rid of it….we should have a constitution and democracy’ ….blabla. Like you said this is just giving the regime time and keep substantial people like you in endless and repetitive dialogues (mostly whining) forever. May be some people might have a political interest in keeping it this way for some more time, but I assume you don’t.

      Thus, my version of effective non-violent struggle is one that approaches PFDJ not just as a dictatorial regime, but as a political and social enterprise in a grand plan to re-engineer societies. When we start to understand the underlying motives only can we defeat it effectively. Of course, this endeavour may force us to navigate in to territories where it becomes a necessity to choose truth …let’s say for example, instead of …the cozy friendship of people like Saleh.

      The lines above bring me to address what you called ‘loss of Hamot’ from our people. No sir, no, the Hamot from yesteryears is still there, but it a hatred of the regime based on administrative abuses(Miesar or Lamba mitfae) is not enough to inspire people to pay a heavy price. I don’t know when you last saw Eritrea, but I can tell you that the regime has made Eritreans forget who they are and what they deserve. It is not fear that inspires people but confidence.

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Yohannes,

        I thought you were Yohannes Zenai when forumers responded to you in negative way. Now we know you are different Yohannes who is sympathizer of the regime at Asmara. What need to know is your position on the regime as oppose to our people and handle as such. Let me ask you few questions based on your comment.

        A) what is a dictator? Can you define it to know if we have of the same grasp? Don’t you think the entire life of our people is controlled by the regime and become the object of oppression? If you believe the is authroritarian regime, what kind of regime do you think we have? Then we can determine what kind of struggle we need to employ. Please answer my questions not only for the record but also to know our differences? It also help us to know the intent of your accusation.

        • Yohannes

          Hi Amanuel,

          Honestly, I am surprised by your totally irrelevant response. Since I have no doubt that you can read and understand a small paragraph in English, it makes me wonder why you didn’t want to miss the opportunity to call me a sympathizer of the regime in Asmara.

          I haven’t been that involved except a few articles I posted about a year back. But now it seems that I have got to stick for a while; seems we have quite interesting people here.

          But before I go further, as is my habit, let me give you the benefit of the doubt:
          a. I am not pfdj sympathizer. I want it gone. Read my few articles here at Awate.

          Having given you an answer, I throw the ball to you:
          a. Do you now know you accused me wrongly?
          b. If however, this doesnt chage your first impression, could you please tell me why you said you know I am regime sympathizer?

          Regards,
          Yohannes

    • abysinay

      and no one could win pfdj with out z kebesa …thats why pfdj is trying to disperse them made eritrea no mans land.

  • Peace!

    Hi Abraham H,
    Don’t mean to drag you into an argument rather to get your thought on what would be the best option to deal with PFDJ supporters in a way that ensures sustainable peace and stability, or do we just dismiss them as if they do not exist which exactly what we have been doing for the last fifteen years and hasn’t led us into any thing tangible.
    Peace!

    • Abraham H.

      Selam Peace, hey, again it will be just a reppetition of what I said before; you cannot negotiate with those who do not look at you as normal human beings let alone as rightful stakeholders in the affairs of our country Eritrea. One must be extremely delusional to believe otherwise.

  • Haile S.

    Dear Awate Team,
    My response to Gheteb of 15 hrs ago is still awaiting Awate approval or moderation. Is this something technical or have I said anything innapropriate or too speculative? Just so that I understand the reason.
    Thanks

  • Robel Cali

    Dear Gheteb

    Great article.

    For whatever reason, I always had thought/confused the inscriptions recorded by Cosmos was of a Greek King based in Egypt who came to subdue our region. I had no idea it was an Adulis king, which if true, shows Adulis was an empire and not just a city-state kingdom.

    I will research it.

    Thank you, this has opened my eyes as to the power dynamics of our region from that time.

  • Robel Cali

    Hello everyone

    Nearly all historians/archaeologists agree that Adulis was an independent city-state long before it was either conquered or absorbed into the Aksumite empire. Until the 3rd century AD, all of the ancient cities within Eritrea and northern Tigray were independent city-states, including Adulis (wealthiest city), Qohaito (largest city), Matara, Keskese in Eritrea and Yeha (religious city) and Axum in Tigray. It was similar to ancient Greece’s Athens, Sparta, Thebes, Corinth, etc. It was very normal for its time.

    One point Gheteb should of mentioned is Adulis predates Axum. So it’s hard for Ethopian historians to say Adulis is part of Axum or was attributed to Axum’s rise when the former predates the latter.

    Also, Steles were not limited to the Horn of Africa. Archaeologists found steles in Kassala, Northern Sudan and in Egypt. I believe this is an Ancient Egyptian cultural trait that was passed on to the ancient city-states of our region through trade and contact with the Kush empire.

  • MS

    Selam all
    The GOSE (I think it stands for the Government of the State of Eritrea) gave a reply to the 34th session of the UNHR, in response to the oral update of the Special Rapporteur. GOSE dedicated one paragraph, discarding the SR due to the ” selective bias inherent in the so-called testimonies that she brandishes; the lack of professionalism in her overall approach; the political bias and agenda that have marred her recycled reports…” instead it went on the offensive stating that Eritreans are vacationing in their country. A considerable portion of GOSE reply went to procedural grievances, and despite all these, it summarized how engaged GOSE is with the UN, and UNHR, indicating the SR was not necessary. At the end it tried to show how much has GOSE done to comply with the UPR Working Group’s recommendations. What caught my attention is the following:
    It indicated the government is in the process of introducing new legal codes and goes on to say that awareness campaign is launched to introduce the “…revised Eritrean Civil, Penal and their procedural Codes”.
    Reading the above information, you would think time has suddenly rewound back to the starting point ( may be 1991, 1992,5?). I will leave it to the professionals if they can tell has many times have those codes been revised and what procedures have been utilized in revising them, who actually is revising them, and if we have laws that govern the revision of codes. But that is not the point. The point is :twenty-five years later, Eritreans are watching the same circus of proclamations, grand interviews, promises, etc. However, they still continue to disappear; they still continue to languish in jails without a due process; they still have no idea where the government’s authority stops and where their rights begin. Every thing is murky, arbitrary, unsettled. It’s w world where abusers have unlimited power and reach. Now, one might ask:
    – Do you think Eritreans are languishing in unmarked prisons for the past 25 years because we lacked laws?
    -Do you think the private press and the national council were abolished because we did not have laws?
    – Do you think the reason abusive colonels and Generals are sending citizens to prison at will because we lacked laws?
    – Do you think children of the disappeared are growing without their parents because we have laws that say so?
    -Do you think any of the political prisoners we keep in our thoughts and prayers might not have seen a day in a court of law because we don’t have had laws that would enforce that?
    We have had laws. We have not had a political will that should have created an infrastructure that would enforce those laws. We may be told the government is writing revised codes, if there is no political will to enforce those legal codes, their fate will not be better than the revised codes they are supplanting.
    Enforcement of laws require impartiality. And if they are to be just and impartial to their spirit and letter, the first victims will be the abusive and corrupted officials. Therefore, there is no way you will have a just judicial system, with an independent court system and professional law enforcement agency (police), while the regime keeps its abusive, corrupt and totalitarian nature. There is no way that a totalitarian regime will remain just. And so, God forbid, if not rejected, the regime will display another round of promises and revised codes years from now. And the people will keep looking the other way.
    Should we have waited for UN, UNHR, UPR, SR… pushing and coaxing in order to revise legal codes and sensitize our people on the need of protecting the vulnerable? You see, all you need to do is releasing the innocent ones and sending the rapists and the abusers of power to where they belong. The penal codes of 1991, 2001, 2011, 2011 and the current one wound have done it. They could not do it because they were just codes on paper. So, what makes the current revised codes will in fact be enforced? I think GOSE must go.

    • Paulos

      Selam Muhamuday,

      The two horsemen of amnesia they say are old-age and brute Totalitarianism. The former could be redundant for it is not relevant to the issue at hand. The latter puts the populace in a loop so that the old becomes the new. The people who defy amnesia are the dead for that was precisely the reason they expired.

    • saay7

      Selam MaHmuday:

      All great questions.

      The thing that puzzles me about the GoE (I mean GoSE) is what does it think is the end game? As I wrote somewhere else, its sole strategy appears to be: attack the prosecutor. The Somalia Eritrea Monitoring Group (SEMG) has a report? Attack, don’t rebut. The Commission of Inquiry (CoI) has a report? Attack, don’t rebut. The Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Eritrea has a report? Attack, don’t rebut. In its diplomatic campaign, it tries to use the same tactics it uses in its domestic campaign: demonize the opponents (texabaeti) in mekhete, isolate them, claim their views do not represent that of the people, ostracize.

      Similarly, we are told the Monitoring Group and Sanction Committee do not reflect the views of the UN, but the US, and in fact not even the US but a senior staffer at the White House. The Commission of Inquiry did not reflect the views of the Human Rights Council but that of three individuals. The Special Rapporteur’s view do not reflect that of the UN but her own vendetta.

      But what is the reality? Well, the sanctions mandate keeps getting renewed. The Commission of Inquiry’s mandate is carried by the Special Rapporteur, whose mandate keeps getting extended by the UN. The senior staffer at the White House (Susan Rice) is gone, but this is what the representative of the Trump Administration said:

      Thank you, Special Rapporteur Keetharuth, for your presentation. Last year the Commission of Inquiry you served on concluded there are reasonable grounds to believe that crimes against humanity have been committed in Eritrea since 1991. The human rights situation remains grave and Eritreans continue to flee their own country. Under these circumstances it is vital that the Council continue its efforts to monitor and identify ways to improve the situation.

      One of the most serious concerns is the indefinite period of forced participation in national service, well exceeding the country’s own 18-month limit. This practice deprives young people of the opportunity to pursue their personal and professional dreams and robs the country of the energy, innovation, and economic contributions of people entering the workforce and building their lives. Ending this practice remains one of the most important actions the Government of Eritrea could take to improve the lives of its citizens. We continue to urge Eritrea to respect its constitution, hold national elections, develop an independent and transparent judiciary, improve detention conditions, and release individuals arbitrarily detained, including political prisoners, journalists, and members of religious groups.

      The HRC council summary of the interactive dialogue (which will not be shown at Eri-TV, tesfanews, madote, easafro) says:

      In the interactive discussion, speakers welcomed the moratorium on the death penalty and the renewed engagement with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and encouraged deeper engagement with the United Nations human rights system. Speakers called on the Government of Eritrea to honour its human rights obligations, end indefinite military service, address gender-based violence and forced labour, provide access to legal remedies for people being held in detention, and create sustainable and safe livelihoods. There must be accountability for human rights violations and in particular those amounting to crimes against humanity. Several speakers objected to the use of country-specific mandates, and stressed the importance of international cooperation and respectful exchanges between countries on the basis of the United Nations Charter and its principles.

      Speaking on the situation in Eritrea were European Union, United Kingdom, France, Switzerland, Belgium, Venezuela, China, Cuba, United States, Sudan, Norway, Djibouti, Belarus, Somalia and Ireland.

      Can you guess which countries objected to country-specific mandates? Oh, three with shining human rights records: China, Belarus and Sudan.

      So, what exactly is the end game for the Government of Eritrea as the mandates keep getting renewed and the country further sinks from bad to worse?

      saay

      • MS

        Hi SAAY
        As usual, a great input. The end game for the government seems to be hoping there is no end, just keeping buying time. The recommendations of this session, and previous ones, point to the need of overhauling the system (and no kidding, there is an entrenched system. I can see Emma saying aybelkun’do. Establishing a functioning judiciary system goes against their bottom line, they fear accountability. I mean the few political disciples of IA and the corrupted military officers who have been benefiting from the current state of affairs try to down play modernizing the political system. They are banking on “kbrtatna/our values”. Those kbrtat or struggle-era values, might have brought us to independence by practically killing the values that civil societies pertain and the rights that tegadelti and gebar had knowingly passed up in order to finish the war. But in post war era, those kbrtat could not guarantee you the bills to pay for food, the right to have a day in court, the right to have private plans and decisions, the right to plan for the future, the right to know how your free labor has been spent and where its dividends are going the right not to be unduly harassed by authorities, and so on. The culture of impunity is so entrenched that expecting the regime to renew itself is beyond the possibilities.

        • Selamat MS, Saay7, and all you Fabulous folks of awate forum,

          And thats how the cookie crumbles said the Oracle. Or how GOSE goes. Nintety Two and a half… Lets flip the “end game” to the begging game. Time to check out the brackets and integers of March Madness buzzer beaters. Sixth Man and Weopon X trailing-Pass The Rock! ON!!!

          AmEritrean GitSAtSE Agnieya Azilo40 Children Books Press

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Merhaba Mahmuday,

          It is not late to understand that we have an entrenched regime at the center and as such formidable to resist and maintain the statu sque. The question is: can an entrenched regime be removed by the instrument of none violence – making demonstrations and others? For how long we will let our people to be decimated by the regime? The Eritrean “Hamot” is non existence what so ever currently.

          Regards
          Amanuel Hidrat

          • Abi

            Selam Ato Amanual
            The 30 years long armed struggle ( sorry, I call it mass madness) did not bring democracy or equal rights for all.
            What makes you believe the next one which you seem to be promoting brings the desired changes?
            Are you or your loved ones ready to pick up arms?

          • Dear Abi,

            From what we have come to understand, Eritrea can exist and acquire a meaning only in an antithetical universe to ethiopia. That is why the present regime and the coming regimes in the future will stand opposing ethiopia on everything imaginable, for it is the mere existence of this country that is their existential problem. That is why history is re-written to negate everything ethiopian and to distance themselves from her people. That is why two kingdoms are made to exist in the same period at a distance of only 100-150 km away (a seven days walking distance from each other) from the centers of power in axum and the so-called adulis kingdom. Imagine an axumite kingdom that is supposed to have ruled over southern arabian peninsula and as far as meroe, not being able to control an area that is only a 100km from its power center. How could the army of the axumite kingdom have crossed the sea without having its own harbor and ships, unless the whole army could swim?
            Moreover, is it possible to expect eritrea to become a democratic and free country when its foreign policy is cemented on nothing else but on antagonizing ethiopia on everything, and an imaginary danger from ethiopia is cultivated to terrorize the people, which has militarized the nation? Small countries that live next to bigger countries have managed to become peaceful, democratic and prosperous by having good relations and not by having a confrontational attitude with their neighbors.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Horizon,

            Please do not make a general statement which does not represent the views of every ERITREAN. Gheteb, and his views, I don’t believe he believes in them let alone they represent the view of ERITREAN.

            As to our struggle, it was the right to stuggle the crimes committed by the successive Ethiopian regime.

            If you don’t agree that’s fine but do not say the ERITREAN people struggle was, to oppose Ethiopia. Eritrea didn’t bring the DERG, qey Shibir, TPLF, OLF, G7 or others who bear arms to fight the ruling class.

            If you are honest, you should ask yourself, why did successive Ethiopian rules failed to bring democracy to the Ethiopian people.

            And Eritrea did taste freedom and democracy between 1942 and 1962, until the Ethiopian government come and sent us to the stone ages.

            What we have in Eritrea today is the result of that venture.

            My view is that Eritrea has one of the best opportunity to implement true democracy.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hi Berhe
            You sound like someone trying hard to convince himself that the collective madness was right.
            So you think the Ethiopians came and sent you back to Stone Age? Funny, now you sound like WelWel.

            BTW, never heard of a party called qey shibir. If you are not sure of something just ask .
            I can tell you heard so many horror bedtime stories you are still shivering and shaking .

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Abi,

            Qey Shibir was not a party but a terror that spelled so many innocent lives. You mock us and our struggle and the result that followed. It was UN reference to your comment, that the ERITREAN “madness” has nothing to do with the madness of qey shibir and other atrocities committed by Ethiopian rulers.

            I am optimistic that Eritrea will have a true democratic government within our life times.

            We did it before and I we can do it again.

            Berhe

          • Dear Berhe Y.,

            My comment was direct to the eritrean regime and its supporters, for the eritrean people is the victim and not the perpetrator, and it has nothing to apologize for. It is the regime and its supporters who hijacked its dreams and enslaved it, and any problem in today’s eritrea lies squarely with the regime. I do not think that I said anything to the opposite.

            The king and the derg can not continue to be responsible for what is happening today in eritrea, 25 yrs after eritrean independence. The regime is to blame for creating the problems, and also the eritrean elites, either for supporting it, or for not doing enough. Moreover, no country can have peace, democracy and prosperity unless it works to achieve them with its neighbors, even with its former enemies, whenever it is necessary. That is what happened in europe and elsewhere.

            I believe that eritreans did not go to the field to bring independence that enslaves them. It was also to bring the freedom, democracy and prosperity they said they missed in ethiopia. The problem therefore does not lie in eritrean independence, but the absence of a program for the day after, to implement all the above. I do not see the reason why ethiopia continues to be seen as the culprit even today. One should at last give to caesar what belongs to caesar, and the blame game cannot go on forever, for ethiopia can not affect the future of eritrea in anyway anymore. It is in the hands of eritreans. If there are people on the eritrean side who say that they are worried about the future of eritrean independence, or on the ethiopian side who say they opposed to eritrean independence, it is a political ploy, nothing more and nothing less.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Amanuel,

            I like you and you are the last person I would argue with. But on this topic I think you need to be a little open minded, and if I a not misteken, please try to give it some good thought before you make up your mind.

            First I think the proper term should be “nonviolence” instead of “peaceful” means. Although both terms are used interchangeably and they may mean the same thing but there is a difference I think.

            “Nonviolence is an intensely active force when properly understood and used. – Mohandas Gandhi”

            Nonviolence is a method, a strategy, with final result is to overthrow the current system and replace with democratic system, with out using armed means. It’s not like begging, asking, ezgio Meharena CHRISTIAN mhlela, far from it. It just makes the armed struggle not important.

            For every 1 example that you have of successful armed conflict, you will have at least 10 examples of nonviolent means. You are right, you can say not all autocratic systems are equal, and that’s true but if you get the fundamental understanding that, all autocratic systems are made up of people then (which they are) then the nonviolent means will work in Eritrea against the PFDJ as well.

            Actually Eritrea has the best if not one of the best environment for such system.

            Like you said, know your enemy before you know your self.

            Enemy:
            The PFDJ is made up of a small group of people (core) group that can be identified easily. They are not a group of ethinically, racially, religiously and regionally organizer group (e.g. Al wayit in Syria, Han in China, Aparthaid in S. Africa etc). PFDJ group does not represt the Christians, the Muslims, the Kebesa, the metaHit, or any other religion or region). I know they are majority represented by Christian Orthodox from Kebesa but the fact is, they could never be an enemy worst to the existence of these Eritreans. It takes time to process it but that’s the fact at least today.

            The resistance:
            Today every aspect of the Eritrean society is impacted by these regime. It’s true that not all of the oppression are equal and we need to be sensitive about this, but the fact is most or all part of the society would be happy to see these group removed and gone.

            Priority:
            I think the biggest issue is how we prioritize our efforts and how we move forward. We all focus and we have lots of ideas in how we bring a perfect change, a perfect constitution, a perfect election, a perfect this or that which I think are not of the highest priority compared to the death spiral our country is headed.

            If we agree and make it a priority that we need to remove this regime with democratic elected government using nonviolent means then (at least those who believe in such struggle), there isn’t any reason that stops us to come with a frame work, a manifesto or a plan how to get where we wanted to go. But this means, the condition:

            1) no this or that religion
            2) no this or that constitution
            3) no this it that political system
            4) no this or that justice etc
            5) no this or that what ever

            In other words we are united by common goal to save our country and people from this regime, and we (all of us collectively) figure out what will happen next.

            The main advantage of nonviolence means is NOT to protect those in power, slap right chic and give left chic, NOT at ALL.

            It’s to save us from another organized military group who will dictate his will on the rest of us (and continue the cycle of violence) to get rid of him. But if we do not have such powerful organized party (who ever defeats the regime militarily will be the most powerful to dictate its will terms e.g. TPLF / EPLF when defeated the DERG, they become the de facto rulers) of their respective jurisdictions.

            Other advantage:
            1) we will be able to salvage what’s left of the country
            2) we avoid civil war and conflict
            3) we get empowered with knowledge / lack of fear and we develop the ability to stand up to authority wannabe dictators.

            But I am afraid our window of opportunityis getting smaller and smaller the longer this regime stays in power. He is leading us to many unknown territories, involving in regional conflicts, our people losing faith in our ability to build just and democratic system. Mushrooming of religious, regional zealots who are popping up to disrupt our unity and harmony etc,

            Berhe

      • Semere Tesfai

        Selam SAAY

        “Last year the Commission of Inquiry you served on concluded there are reasonable grounds to believe that CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY have been committed in Eritrea since 1991. The human rights situation remains grave and Eritreans continue to flee their own country. Under these circumstances it is vital that the Council continue its efforts to monitor and identify ways to improve the situation.”

        Why since 1991? Is that because they have no way of knowing the crimes committed against Eritreans in Massawa, SheEb, Ona, Wekidba, Aqurdet, UM-Hajer, Ad-Ibrhim……? Why not since 1958 – the time Eritrean demonstrators where massacred on the streets of Asmara in broad day light? Why not even prior to that?

        SAAY, this is my problem with your line of argument. You believe the PFDJ government is BAD (which is partially true) – and the SEMG, the CoI, the SR, the ICC and the whole white Western powers are here to fight for our (Eritrean) rights and freedoms from the evil PFDJ regime. Trump or not Trump, your whole argument is based on that premise. And that is dead wrong.

        The Western powers and the institutions that they relay-on to bully small poor weak nations around the globe, has been around Eritrea and Eritreans for decades (in different capacity shapes and forms) and never fought even a single day for the best interest of Eritrea and Eritreans. That is a fact.

        Yes, as the misery of indefinite military service and economic hardship Eritrea is facing today is for the most part created by the West, we all want to be on the good side of the West. And I’m all ears if you’ve any plan that works towards that end. But don’t tell me the SEMG, the CoI, the SR, the ICC are there to restore and protect the rights and freedoms of Eritreans that are violated by the PFDJ’s regime. Because they are not. Western powers don’t give a flying hoot about the rights and freedoms of Eritreans. What the whole PFDJ/Isaias and Western powers confrontation tells us is one simple fact. Western interest is not protected under the current PFDJ regime. The point:

        THE WEST’S PROBLEM WITH THE PFDJ/ISAIAS REGIME HAS NOTHING, YES NOTHING TO DO WITH PFDJ’S INTERNAL GOVERNING POLICY – NONE WHATSOEVER.

        As to the democracy, human rights…… they preach in the West? Well one can believe whatever he/she wants to believe, but as far as I can see (according the the West), from all the countries on the whole wide globe, the only “democratic” countries are the nations that are members of NATO and their close allies – which for so many reasons most nations of the world won’t be. And as far as I know, these Western “democratic” countries, are still struggling with ethnic minority rights, gender rights, rape, discrimination….. like any other nation on this planet. They just have bigger megaphone to vilify and bigger stick to hurt small weak and poor nations.

        Semere Tesfai

        • saay7

          Selamat Semere:

          I have heard of people (Gov of Eritrea) complain that the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in Eritrea (CoIE) stretched its mandate by going all the way to 1991 (that it is digging too deep) but until you said it, I hadn’t heard the argument that it didn’t go further back to 1958. In my view, the CoIE was exercising the mandate it was given by the Human Rights Council (HRC) correctly: it was directed to investigate the extent of human right violations perpetrated by the GoE, and the GoE has been in power since 1991. It didn’t have the mandate to report on what Haile Selasse or Derg do in Eritrea.

          Your premise about my premise is wrong. Let’s define what “fight for our right” mean. If somebody who is tweeting, writing an article, moderating a Paltalk room sees their role as “fighting for Eritrea”, then, for sure, the World institutions (UN, HRC, Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, Doctors Without Borders) are fighting for our right in much more effective way than (with all due apologies) you or me or the PFDJ guys organizing a mekhete or posting “I stand by Eritrea” graphics. When a police state goes to great lengths to stifle information and dissent and muzzle the voice of victims and then somebody (HRC, CoI, SR) goes and writes the stories of the victims (that is the part your side forgets, Semere: the reports are mostly the stories of Eritrean victims), then, yeah, I would say they are fighting for us. Not full time, because they have to deal with 190 plus countries, but enough to keep the stories of Eritrea’s victims alive.

          I appreciate that whenever you feel passionately about a subject you capitalize it but that doesn’t automatically make the statement true: it just tells us how you feel about the subject, and thank you. The West’s problem with PFDJ’s internal governing policy is only when it bleeds out (pun intended) into its foreign policy (fights with everyone) and/or results in exodus which affects the foreign policy of other nations (particularly Europe.)

          Finally, I don’t know why someone who has lived as long as you have makes democracy and human rights binary systems (with an on and off switch: either you have it or you don’t) when, in fact, it is a continuum between near perfection and absolute totalitarianism. And in this continuum, Eritrea is much closer to absolute totalitarianism than near perfection. I suspect you know that, and I suspect by making the good the enemy of the perfect, you are asking that we settle for the bad.

          saay

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam SAAY

            “When a police state goes to great lengths to stifle information and dissent and muzzle the voice of victims and then somebody (HRC, CoI, SR) goes and writes the stories of the victims (that is the part your side forgets, Semere: the reports are mostly the chronicles of Eritrean victims, in their own words), then, yeah, I would say THEY ARE FIGHTING FOR US.”

            They are fighting for us? I don’t buy that. And I don’t believe that is a winning argument for you and for the Eritrean opposition – if that is what they believe.

            Where were these human rights advocates when Eritrea was burning?

            For these democratic nations and their human rights groups, if human rights was the motive all along, the 3,000 year old cast system in India, women rights in the Arab World, the plight of the Palestinians….. would have topped the agendas of the UN, SC, Human Rights groups…………….

            But these topcs are not on their radar screen. Could it be because we Eritreans are special? Anyway……

            Thank you for engaging. Let’s call it difference of opinion and leave it at that.

            Semere Tesfai

          • Ismail AA

            Selam Semere Tesfai,

            Fine to have you back; you have been absent for some time.
            I always read your comments with due attention, considering your acumen and intellectual competence. But reading your comments above, and following your line of argument, and since you have judged that appealing to the UN and human rights organs, and the west by and large, to be useless, I anticipated you would come with an alternative Eritreans could turn to. But, after I finished reading, I could not help but feel that your message is that the Eritrean people should simply succumb to their fate under the regime until Providence relieves them.
            Regards

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Ismail AA

            1. – I don’t have any problem with regional, continental, and global organizations and institutions. I believe we should respect them, work with them, and have good relations with them. But we shouldn’t expect them or invite them to solve our domestic/internal problems.

            Meaning, you Ismail have great respect for me, you consider me as a close friend and as a trusted compatriot but, but, but…. you don’t want me to tell you how to run your life. While you and I remain close friends, you still would want to keep your independence. Right? Sovereignty is exactly my point.

            2. – I said this many times before and let me repeat it now. For us Eritreans, solving our internal problems, having a working constitution, a functioning parliament, elected leaders by their people, a government that has the confidence trust and respect of the Eritrean people as a whole…… is second to none. Having a government we all trust would strength our our unity as a nation and as a people. Our unity and strength, would help us to build a peaceful stable and prosperous nation. And as a result, the quality of life of every Eritrean individual citizen would change for the better.

            And all that starts and ends with trusting each other and negotiating with each other in good faith.

            3. – But that is completely different from dealing with Western Powers – the global powers that are currently punishing Eritrea. And please, please, please……….

            HEAR ME OUT!!! PLEASE, PLEASE, PLEASE…….LISTEN TO WHAT I’VE TO SAY

            To have good relation with Western powers, you don’t need to have constitution, you don’t need to have multiparty system, you don’t need to ha a functioning parliament, you don’t need to run regular elections, and even if you do it doesn’t have to be fair election, you don’t need to protect the rights of your minority groups, you don’t need to protect the rights of your citizens, you don’t need to bring back your refugees from your neighboring country(s), and if you do you don’t need to settle them in their ancestral lands……….. None of these are a requirement for having good relation with the West – because they don’t give a hoot about you and your people.

            All they want you to do is align your policy in a way that serves their (Western) national interest. it is that simple. Now, tell me: what policy change (from that of PFDJ) would you make to please the West?

            I hope I answered your question to your satisfaction.

            Semere Tesfai

          • ‘Gheteb

            Selam Ato Semere Tesfay

            A well-rounded and trenchant riposte. You said it all in your rejoinder and I wouldn’t add even a syllable more as your comment thoroughly covers all the angles of the issue at hand.

            Kudos to you and thumbs-up!

          • Ismail AA

            Dear brother Semere Tesfai,

            You have spent your time in reiterating the Obvious. I believe nobody will have quarrel with the general points you have enumerated. But the issue I raised was what the Eritrean people should do when an authoritarian regime that controls their lives violates internationally sanctioned laws and norms that entitle them to protection just like peoples of other nations. Gross violation human rights is one of the many areas I would imagine you would not gainsay.

            To underscore the point again, the issue has nothing to do with inviting or opening national channels to international organizations to solve domestic matters. Thus, without going to elaborate side issues, the question is whether the Eritrean people should or should not try to approach the working international bodies to have their own laws and norms that regulate behavior and conduct of member states should be duly respected.
            Regards

          • saay7

            Hi Semere:

            I think part of the problem here is that you see the world as unchanging. Your logic goes something like this: If the world didn’t care about us in 1940-1991, then when it says it cares now it must be lying.

            But the fact is the world and its institutions do change. Many of the instruments and conventions in force now, were not available in 1940-1970s. One example: the AU used to believe in “non inference in the internal affairs of sovereign states” (i.e., eritrea was part of Ethiopias internal affairs) and now they believe in the principle of non-indifference (the power of the sovereign state is not absolute.)

            As for what is the winning argument for “you and the opposition”, I am not sure you are aware that the opposition (particularly those who owe their origin to the armed struggle) mostly agree with you which is why they have no presence no voice in the international arena. Those in the opposition who think the world (Geneva, New York, The Hague are young opposition who are immune to the argument that nationalism means practicing politics by the rules of PFDJ.

            As for the rest of your points about the Untouchables in India, women in the Arab world, they are all part of the Universal Period Review that India and all Arab countries (and other nations whose gender parity gap is wide) get reminded to improve and to report on. This (UPR) was what the GoE would have been on indefinitely had it not been exiling its citizens by the tens of thousands and committing crimes against humanity.

            Saay

        • Haile S.

          Hi Semere,
          But what does the Eritrean leadership has to lose by relaxing some of the reins that it had tightened on its citizens, the practically limitless military service, the chargeless imprisonments and the access to legal help for those imprisoned for example? Or is it considering solving such issues amount admitting guilt to all charges thus tefusing solving problems till all charges are potentially lifted? Is the tag of war ending in putting the eritreans population hostage and all the missed opportunities the best solution to the nation?

        • iSem

          Hi Semere: I do not know, if you are willfully ignoring it or is lost in you but let me tell u that, any review or assessment has something called terms of reference and the terms of reference for the CI was 1991 and any Eritrean like you who in a different life time fought for liberty must applaud the CI. But we are living in an interesting times and yesterday’s liberty fighters are today’s tyranny supporters.
          Almost every Eritrean who is in West is did not come here as a result of the CIA’s project of brain drain, to strip Eritrea of its best and brightest. They came for human right issues, for education mostly from international help, so the West and USA that you guys decry has some soul. It is the West that is plucking our dead from their own seas, and from the kindness of their hearts, I might add, nothing to gain from it, except the welfare hogs that most of the Sawa enslaved youth bring.
          It is not that the West has the megaphone, this is just the dishonest, the embryonic PFDJ talking, the West, the USA and Europe have actually had something to show for: they have brought liberty and prosperity and peace to their own people and sometimes they dole these virtues to us and you are the beneficiary of it and your kids are the beneficiary to it. And also, they have created that megaphone, go ahead be in that position and then you can complain, the problem from your side is that you have not earned the megaphone but you want to steal it and use it

          Every suffering, every hardship, the endless servitude has been created by PFDJ and is been blessed by this longevity because former liberty fighters for reasons unknown to me have turned tyranny supporters. If you want to go to the root cause, and since you do not seem to believe in terms of reference then, we can blame the white colonization, and before that , we can go all the away to Assyrians and Babylon and the Pharos and even the Lucifer who tempted Eve and for Adam for listening to his wife

      • KBT

        Selamat
        What do you expect the eritrean government sitting and watch while he was been attacked and it sovereignty and integrity put into question by the so called nameless, faceless witness but by fare more the malicious failed opposition hoping a little Crack,
        The somalia eritrea monitoring group didn’t bring any evidence for eritrea involvement in somalia in fact it caught advocating for regime change in eritrea in behalf of the traitor ali abdu.
        Sheila keetharuth has been refusing to listen the majority of eritrean by selecting who she want to listen and she fail to look the impact of the economics sanction imposed on eritrea or the no war no peace situation that prevents eritrea to dispens the army .
        Conclusion the human rights inquiry and the somalia eritrea monitoring group are the same one body two headed snack that work for regime change.
        And the so called opposition will never succed they failed and they will always fail let them enjoy the money they got from the ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY to feed their belly ,for eritrea they are a shamfull disgrace

  • Haile S.

    Hi Gheteb,

    Your article is interesting in that it somehow reflects the idea of those who defend the existence of standalone pre- or para-Axumite civilizations. The problem I have and many other already expressed is the rupture you want to create in the more than imaginable connection that existed among these centers of civilization Adulis, Axum, Metera-Cohaito and others and on the area later designated as Abyssinia. Italy did not delineate present day Eritrea’s territory based on an existing boundary that it knew belonged to a self-governing entity. Italy’s objective was to go further occupy more land and establish a larger colony through its strategy of signing treaties intermingles with encroachments and wars. Imagine what would have been our present discussion and reaction had Italy remained limited to its first treaty it agreed with Yohannes IV or if it had succeeded in including territories until Tekazze and Wello? There is another less known colonization that didn’t materialize. France in the 1860s long before Italy was almost at the brink of signing a treaty* with Negousse (a close relative of Wube and claimant to the throne, defeated by Tedros) agreeing to cede what was called the Amphila (Adulis and the entire bay around) to France. Imagine another Djibouti in the middle or in continuity with? What would have been our discussion now? I and you in harmony might have been fighting for Adulis as being the indisputable port of Axumite civilization claiming it was its umbilical cord to the outside world! You never know.
    I agree with you and others to say Eritrean history and historiography should be restored, but with objective lenses, not by scalpelling it away with surgical precision. Eritreans can do it without necessarily trying to establish a standalone history and justify uniqueness. Possession of historical artifacts should also be attempted with the help of international (UNESCO) laws and agreements. But as you have heard from others in the forum, this could have been done had our
    leadership had a multifaceted approach to problems, i.e. dealing with all problems by starting with the most essential. Instead our country’s leadership puts emphasis on what is now considered to be trivial when weighed against the enormous difficulties the country faces. The leadership works on minor issues where it can objectively show quick results instead of concentrating on the fundamental and challenging issues of social, economic and political scope. I know you may tell me and enumerate all those projects the president talked about in his recent interview, but he was also talking about their failures; therefore we don’t need to duel on those endeavors. The biggest problem with this leadership is its non-inclusion, its absence of confidence in its citizens, its intransigence to the vivid calls of some of them and to the
    silent roars of desperation of all. Thus representatives of Eritrean diversity here in this forum feels exhausted and finds ridiculous when discussion about such innocent subject come up. It is not shocking in itself if you Gheteb talk of retrieving some artifacts from Addis Abeba museum; it is just that relative absurdity. I visited the Eritrean museum you talked about in 2008. It is a sad place like many sad places in Eritrea. Logged in an old Catholic Seminary, it didn’t have the structure and the facility to accommodate easily perishable historical materials like our newly disciovered human remaining, elephant jaws or the fragile potteries. Judging by the partially dried busts of all the wild animal collections I saw hanging on the walls of the museum corridor, I don’t think it was temperature and humidity controlled. Is this due to absence of money and poverty and sanction? Perhaps, but it is principally due to absence of plan and long term strategy. Had the government not discouraged foreign help, who knows a sophisticated modern museum could have been already standing there or the interior of that Seminary could have been refurbished to make it suitable to harbour museum materials? I am talking about the ‘we will do it all ourselves, tooth and nail’ bxfrna ብጽፍርና motto; good in principle, but lengthy and energy consuming in practice. We are not reinventing the wheel. If we are to walk with the speed of the world, we can only try to do things in a balanced way with our aspirations without deracinating our nails. Do you know what people in Eritrea say when you talk of ብጽፍርና? They say ብጽፍርና ክንብል ጽፍርና ተወዲኡ (bxfrna knbl xfrna tewedi’u). I am personally with you in attempting to retrieve those artifacts, that beautiful decorated perfume-vaporizer collected from Metera for example and many others in Eritrea, probably now residing in the Ethiopian national museum, but in a peaceful, cordial and considerate manner as per international treaties, but I would have also loved to see a flexible and listening and considerate leadership, a true backbone for any endeavor we citizens will be able to push for from where we are.
    *The treaty between France and Negousse failed because the French Envoy couldn’t meet Negousse. Negousse was getting chased and finally got killed by Tedros’s army. The Envoy returned back just meeting with Aba Di Jacobis (Aboune Yaqob) in Halai.

    • Paulos

      Selam Haile,

      Well put. ‘Gheteb could be right. I don’t know. New discoveries either modify the existing accepted facts or they completely throw the old out. That is the mandate and medium of scholarship. Thing is however, as you have aptly put it, does ‘Gheteb own the moral authority to lecture us about an “overlooked” historiography when we don’t have the luxury to even entertain if there are new findings when the clear and present danger begs for someone to do something about it. As much as ‘Gheteb is the heartbeat of the regime, we will listen to what he has to say only and only when he gives priority to the pain of the people and confronts the regime for its historic blunder.

      • Haile S.

        Hi Paulos,
        Completely agree with you. Just to point out that the possible pre-Axumite civilization is nothing new, it includes BTW YiHa a place outside of Eritrea; an idea promoted by historians like Francis Anfray (Please read his book, Les Anciens Ethiopiens Armand Colin, Paris 1990). As difficult it is to entertain such discussion given the situation we are in, it is through such medium we can learn of diversity of opinion, tolerance and reconciliation.

        • Paulos

          Selam Haile,

          Perhaps natural sciences including mathematics are off limits where totalitarian regimes more often than not do not trample with. It is said that, one of the reasons Russia produced one of the stellar mathematicians is that most of the students would major in mathematics for it was one of the safest fields of discipline where the Soviet regime did not interfere with as opposed to the social sciences where they were under the breathe of Marxist dogmas.

          When intellectual discourses enjoy independence under the sacrosanct nature of freedom of speech, not only the academia but the society at large ought to re-examine and revisit the accepted historical facts and reconstruct them as the new facts dictate. Before we do that however, it behooves us to instill institutions as in rule-of-law, transparency and accountable-state. Thank you for the book.

          • Haile S.

            Hi Paulos,
            As students of natural science we both would be safe in such an empire. However, given our visible taste at least of history, we both seem to belonging to Divergents. But we are not going to diverge on this subject as you are not proposing to quarantine things until such institutions are instated:)

          • Paulos

            Selam Haile,

            As it is often the case, certain academic institutions do prepare students for leadership where Kennedy School of Government among others come to mind. And law seems to be the academic background of most US presidents including senators as well. But of course there are exceptions where Jimmy Carter studied Aeronautical Engeenering and Margaret Thatcher studied Industrial Engeenering. In a world where interdisciplinary and overlapping academic disciplines rule our intellect, vocation and one’s calling in life should be rooted in an absolute freedom.

          • Ismail AA

            Dears Paulos and Haile,
            Entertaining exchange. In the world (nations) where sanity and freedom under rule of law reigns, unlike the sad situation in our country, opportunities would avail to every free citizen in accordance to his ambition and resourcefulness.
            Regards

          • Paulos

            Selam Ismail AA,

            The irony is Isaias was an aspiring and prospective engineer before he ventured into the world of politics. And not only his fate was completely changed but the fate of the Eritrean people as well. In search of consolation, more often we float on the “if” lane of thoughts and as it happened the other day after I watched Yemane Jamaica’s interview, I said to myself what would have been the fate of Eritrea and the Eritrean people if Isaias as well had opted to join the TPLF instead. My over-active imagination went into a full over-drive till I came back to reality to a harsh reality that is.

  • saay7

    Hey Fanti:

    Then I guess Cain vs Abel is a prequel ? 😏

    saay

    • Fanti Ghana

      Selam Saay,

      A good one! A preview brought to you by the Adam Brothers!

      • saay7

        Fanti:

        …you mean by the Adam (not his keeper) Brothers

        Saay

  • Dis Donc

    Dear Amde,

    *: borrowed from President Trump when he called on Russia to provide the 30,000 emails which would some how implicate H. Clinto

    Leaving aside the political contest, do you believe that the Russians hacked into Clinton email? How? I have few hours to spend….

  • Dis Donc

    Dear giHeTob,
    In this site all is welcome; provided that they abide by civility. And you were accorded of that with no taint of prejudice. Aside from being roughed by a few, many cordially debated with you, however deviates your belief from theirs. Moreover, I get the sense that you do not want to believe in the Habesha history, counted by some folks in and out side of Eritrea. Which, by itself or those who believe in their Habesha heritage, is not a bad idea so long as you can express, oppose, and demonstrate peacefully. Without bonding others at your whim. Nor being bonded yourself by others. In order for this to happen, we need a strong law (aided by the police and army) and an independet judiciary that sets every citizen straight; much similar to what the moderators do here. Leaving elected politicians to set policy for our economy and diplomatic relation with the world. Would you not rather see that than what we see in current Eritrea?

    Please do not tell me that democracy and rule of law are built by brick by brick because, as of now, the world has neither seen the brick nor the mortar. I also do not want to hear the imminent invasion of Ethiopia because we can still practice rule of law while waging war.

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Dear Dis Donc,

      His fight is against those who believe on Habesha heritage as part of their history – the tigrigna speaking social groups be it in Eritrea or in Ethiopia. For him if it is not his heritage, it is not Eritrean heritage. From generation to generation our history is either connected with or influenced by either our neighbors or thousand miles away foreigners. That is why if the young generation carefully studied it, they will find it as very rich related to different civilizations. I don’t understand all these sweating to disconnect our interconnected history and our evolvement to the current modern Eritrea.

      regards
      Amanuel Hidrat

      • Dis Donc

        Dear Aman,
        The legal profession terms it as defamation and have we had a legal system it could have been addressed in a civil and collected way. Moreover, he would have had the opportunity to prove his case.

  • Peace!

    HI Gheteb’,
    Good read and educating. I know you support the brutal regime but that doesn’t mean we can’t work on areas we agree. It is very embarrassing to see the Agazians and TPLFites flooding this great forum barking at you even although the article has nothing to do with PFDJ. What they keep failing to understand is that fighting for justice against PFDJ doesn’t give anybody the right to revise or rewrite our history, perhaps that’s why the struggle hasn’t progress an inch. Again Thank you!
    Peace!

  • Thomas

    Hi Gheteb,

    Congratulations, you wrote an article that talks about nothing!! A small advise from you brother, ask your boss to bring back Badme from the weyanes/ethiopia first and we will worry about the artifacts later. There were a history/geography lecturer at Asmara University in the mid of 90’s who used tell us that Aksumite kingdom is basically an Eritrean History. Her reason is because all business were mostly done around the Sea shores of Eritrea. The marketing and all business activities was through Adulis and other historical places (such ask Kohaito etc) of Eritrea. She never denied that Abyssinian history was our history. Why didn’t you summarize you whole article in a sentence or two instead of taking all the spaces above? In your way, are you trying to stop us from debating about real issue that is up-to-date serious issues that killing and displacing our people?

    • iSem

      Hi Thomas: Your theory of stifling discussion is valid. have you noticed Gheteb never criticizes PFDJ, Never, Never, even Nitricc did a few times, Nitricc said prisoners should be released. Whenever Gheteb is humiliated with facts by Sal, he is he never admits. And the reason is he knows deep in his bone, but he cannot admit it, because he would not be able to go to Keren and brag. I know for fact Gheteb goes to Eritrea to brag about the students he tutored and as a result for his pro bono services, because of his gratis services, because of the services he gives to Eritreans kids for free, they became successful and went to Stanford etc. And how he intimidated all the “sub nationalist in awate forum

      He wants to bring the history and artifacts from Ethiopia, I think whatever artifact he is talking about if there is indeed is safer for it to stay in Ethiopia under the Woyane, our people are safer under TPLF, they are much, much more safer in the refugee camps than in their homeland, so TPLF, Woyane, Ethiopia, are you LISTENING please, please keep our artifacts. PFDJ would sell the artifacts to the highest bidder, they have solved passports, human organs and people and women, so to sell artifacts is a breath for them. The hypocrisy of Gheteb is boundless and let me let you in one secret Thomas, if you have not read it before, Gheteb has joined EPLF when he was in Sudan and when the going got tough, he came back to Sudan, he may force some of us, the mere mortals, who are forced to look up his words whenever he comments, but his is not that tough and I am so fascinated what his answer would be when one of these days when with his head between his shoulders in one of the Keren tea shops and I go tab him on the shoulder, calling his real name and then using Gheteb as his last/ second name, “hakki melhey Gheteb ( tell me comrade Gheteb)

      • Thomas

        Thanks, iSem. I suspected that this guy is not real. He never has any heart for the people of Eritrea. I can tell that this guy does not care for our nation and our people as long as he satisfies his ego and his masters keep destroying our nation. With people like him around, there will never be Eritrea to talk about let along those crappy artifacts he is having fun blubbering…….

  • Abraham H.

    Selam Awatistas,
    (Sorry this is not related to the article’s contents)
    Gheteb has proven himself to be one of the staunchest supporters and apologists of the Isayas regime. If we were to symbolise all Eritreans riding a bus and the driver was Isayas Afwerki, Gheteb would not protest against him, even if Isayas were to drive the bus over a cliff. It amazes me, therefore, why Gheteb is using a pen name instead of his real name. What is he afraid of, since, thanks to his blind support to his Lord Isayas, he/ or his possible relatives back in Eritrea, are not in danger of reprisals from the PFDJ regime?

    • Peace!

      Hi Abraham H,
      The regime has hundreds of thousands supporters, what do you think of the best option as far as dealing with them concerned in a way that assures sustainable peace and stability? Do we just dismiss them and act as if they don’t exist?

      Peace!

      • Saleh Johar

        Hi Peace,
        I understand your concern, but remember they are our relatives, friend, neighbors, etc. no one is more concerned about them more than another. However, a struggle needs to be focused. The problem facing us is PFDJ, and it is the enemy. Other issues simply distracts the struggle. And we should not be worry less about other things that prevents us from focusing. I think we should not worry about some individuals who support tyranny and injustice against their people. Just an idea.

      • Thomas

        HI Peace,

        Ya weled:) It is not about supporters and opponents really. It has never been and will never be. Our people have never given a chance to support or oppose the regime, are you talking about the Eritrean people or some aliens living outside of the universe?

        Ok, What options do you have in mine? To begin with, I don’t think you are Eritrea because if you were one you wouldn’t miss the obvious? i suggest you make up your mind though, seriously!!

      • Nitricc

        Hi Peace: how about in trying to convince them with clear plan, defined program, a road map that shows your plan and agenda is better and best for the country and its people? You are not, I repeat, you are not going to move in inch by simply screaming “our people are suffering” ” the brutal dictator” and ” Issias this and Isaias that. Do you guys, the so-called opposition, do you even learn? it has been how many years? and your accomplishments are? exactly. I think about time you guys stop insulting the great silent majority.

      • iSem

        Hi peace:
        The thousands supprters will amount to nothing when regime is defeated, where are the millions who marched for Gaddafi, Dergi had supporters, when Dergi was defeated, they sneaked into churches, they immigrated, they accepted Jesus, they freqent mosquest etc
        But supporters are that, they are like fans, they will cry and then move on, but the group I am talking about, the real criminals, we can still negotiate with the criminals, in exchange of surrendering power, no raprissal against them, agree to banned for ever from running for office and they will tell it all and no revenge, the revenge would good life for us, liberty for all, due process for everyone including the criminals
        But the second rate supporters, they would amount to nothing, maybe give them mercy jobs like excavating for Eritrean artifact, task them with clearing the debris from the Pushkin monument when it is destroyed

    • iSem

      HI Abarham:
      Gheteb is not afraid from PFDJ, he is afraid from tomorrow. Because, though delusional, not that delusional to deny that one day tomorrow will come, tomorrow always comes, though this tomorrow that he is afraid of is not tomorrow.

  • Yohannes

    Hello all,

    Saleh, Burhan Ali, and now Gheteb. Is it just me or you could also see a feeble effort to undermine Geez peoples history? Sorry to say, but it seems to me not a scholarly effort but a thinnly veiled political endeavor; and more so – I think – as a reaction to the recent Agazian narratives. Emm…. just saying let’s all pay attention.

    • Abel

      Hi Yohannes,
      There is no substance in this fictitious diatribe.You could take it as an expression of the prevalent identity crises.

    • tes

      Selam Yohannes,

      It seems that you forgot awate/com’s mission is political. I don’t think any article published in this website is free of politics. However politcs does not mean that it is a free endeavor as your Master Tesfazion was doing. Now that you are learning for a any endeavor there is check and balances, welcome to the new world of conscioous political discourses.

      Second, everyone has a mission to be accomplished. Great writers and activists like Saleh, Burhan Ali, etc, are not just doing it for fun. Their struggle is genuine and legitimate. As you have recently revealed your shallow political understanding, they are not engaging with their fellow Eritreans for the sake of exchange of ideas. They have worth ideas to fight for and especially these two people you mentioned above are spending their entire life for a just cause. I wish you had some seed of wisdom to continue learning from people like Saleh Johar, whom they opened their heart for young people like you and me. Yet they are not going to forgive up on us. They always have hope.

      I wish there was a short cut to freedom. I strongly wish. Nevertheless the road to freedom is rough, bitter, long and steepy. Freedom is going up ward not vise verse. as you seem to look a short-cut for this liberty, what you recently endorsed is an indication of your immature but opportunistic political manouver. There is no freedom by taking away the freedom of others. Therefore think twice and come to the right path for freedom that endorses human value and decency.

      Coming back to Gheteb, he is on the same boat with your Master Tesfazion. The only difference they have is, Gheteb is Ultra-Nationalist and your Master Tesfazion a fascist. Gheteb uses distored history to prove his claim of supporting for the oppressors while your Master uses a distored and fabricated identity claim to create a nation of fascists. Otherwise, both are anti-humanity and merciless oppressors.

      What Gheteb has wrote here today is a continuation of Ulta-Nationalistic argumentative hypothesis. If you have some substances to challenge him based pn facts or academic papers, I think it could be wise to do. Otherwise do not forget that what your Master and you are promoting is absurd and easily challengeable fabricated identity construction.

      tes

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Tesfat,

        Just one correction: Yohannes, from all his writing, he opposes the regime and its institutions. Do not lumped him with the supporters of the regime like Gheteb. And he has no bigotry against any social group like Tesfazion. Just to remind you something you don’t notice it. If you don’t like his comment don’t lumped him.

        regards

        • tes

          Selam Amanuel Hidrat,

          I think you are talking about Yohannes Zerai, the one who is gracing awate with his beautiful articles and very engaging comments. This Yohannes I have addressed is different one. He is discipline of Tesfazion, who endorsed him openly in his social network and continuously advancing Agazian Movement manifesto.

          tes

    • Paulos

      Selam Yohannes,

      With in the art of medicine, there are two fundamental ways whereby the primary care physician comes into a possible diagnosis: signs and symptoms. When the former is objective the latter is subjective in essence that is. For instance, during history taking, what the physician observes or feels are signs and what the patient tells the physician are symptoms. The seriousness of fever can be measured by using thermometer but the intensity and nature of the pain, that is, if it is sharp or dull and location of the pain can only be ascertained from what the patient tells the physician—symptoms.

      What has been palpable in Eritrea with in the last 25 years or what Isaias has done to Eritrea with in the last 25 years are signs and as you have pointed it out, the new phenomenon (read: rupture) with in the social fabric are the symptoms where if one is to take a role of a physician, the symptoms are far more omenous than the signs.

      Tesfatsion is not a person but a movement, so is Gheteb. One can clearly see the magnitude of the rupture where what awaits Eritrea in post-Isaias are the options of treatments between out-patient, in-patient, ICU and hospice. The consolation comes, when the physician gathers that the patient has come back against all odds from the inevitable many times before. And one hopes that is the case this time as well.

    • ‘Gheteb

      Selam Yohannes,

      You say:

      ” … a feeble effort to undermine Geez peoples history”? ” and then you go on to assert that:
      ” Sorry to say, but it seems to me not a scholarly effort but a thinnly (sic) veiled political endeavor; and more so – I think – as a reaction to the recent Agazian narratives”.

      Now let me ask you this:

      What “Geez peoples history” and “Agazian narratives” are you talking about? Can you share in this Forum about the history and narratives of Geez or the Agazians based on scholarly works?

      Yeah, the challenge is right in front of you,Yohannes, and I hope you will raise to it.

    • Saleh Johar

      Hi Yohannes,
      My dear friend, sorry, I just saw my name and thought of giving you the courtesy of a response–I also just discovered who you were.

      I never thought you would mistake undermining (just using your term) a fascist and genocidal gang is equal to undermining the whole that is inflicted with a fascistic cancerous growth–I had hope you would be my ally in fighting genocidal fascism, not my foe. But restless people do restless things, and I understand peer pressure and psychological void. But I beg you to be fair and accurate in characterizing what I wrote, unless you can prove that I am against any history–though I feel the urge to challenge you to prove it.

      At any rate, there is a Tigrinya (you might call it Geez) proverb that I like: kab Hmaq zgebrukha, Hmaq zemhrukha. It is very appropriate for the situation. But who are Geez people and am I part of it?

      I guess not because it is religiously defined–in fact I am destined to the intern camp, if not the machete or klashinkov 🙂

      Honestly, I miss the humble, bright guy I used to talk to for hours. Losing a friend is painful.

      So long my dear.

      • Hayat Adem

        Selam the honorable SJG,
        I noticed what tes replied to Emma, and I thought, probably, if this Yohannes is a different Yohannes and you didn’t lose any good friend yet. The other day, I was surprised by the radical change of tone of an awatista whom I respect greatly. Fanti came to rescue me from the confusion. Just in case…

        • Saleh Johar

          Selam Hayat,
          I know the person I mentioned earlier. Emma was confused by the two similar names until Tes corrected him. Dear Hayat, rest assured, I know both of them. Indeed, it pains me to lose him, but I hope your wish comes true–I really hate to lose him.

      • Yohannes

        Dear Saleh,

        In your interview with TV Adal 5 years ago you summed up the Eritrean problem to be emanating from the clash of the PFDJ forces re-engineering identity against the identities of people before the Eritrea of 1950s. In retrospect, I think you said that because in your mind the identity under attack was just your identity. Well, Saleho, Tigrinya as an identity is also under attack big time and if it was not your job to protect it then I don’t see a reason for surprise or anger when a Tigrinya does the same thing you have been doing actively for years.

        And in fact, your recent article didn’t shy away from a head-on attack on Tigrinya identity – no, what identity am I talking about? According to you there is no Tigrinya ethnicity in the first place! This is what you wrote: “when I first said I do not know of an Eritrean ethnic group known as Tigrinya, quite a few people went bonkers”. Actually, that wasn’t even enough, you also advised the Tewahdo to go to wherever they came from and the Agazians back to Yemen.

        Of course no one reacts to you the way they react to Tesfazion or Aboy Habtemariam or Amanuel from Assena; or myself being labelled a number of things by emotional people like Tesfabirhan. You have somehow discovered the fine line that enables you to instill/promote whatever narratives you want without a backlash. I truly believe you are a good person; but your political interest/vision is in clash with mine and therefore our ideas are not compatible. For me that doesn’t make me unfriend you; but if this difference equates to losing our friendship from your side, then it yet tells another bigger story about the nature of the politics you are pursuing.

        This being said, I have always been and always will be working for reconciliation and not otherwise. But I never believe any reconciliation is possible without facing the truth. All attempts to suppress truth will only exacerbate the differences. Again, you had said it in that interview a few years back ‘shigrna nab nfas kiwexie alewo’.(unless, again, you were thinking that only applies when it is you who decide which shigrat nifas kiwiku alewom. Not fair.)

        • envision

          Hi Yohannes,
          I believe you have grasped Saleh’s outwardly deceiving activism, but actually a covert and overt attacks on highland Eritrea. Look no further than his recent article titled “The Malignant Cancer of Eritrea” where he heaped all type of curses and denigration against it with no sign of reservation. But it was delivered in the pretext of attacking AgAzianism. And guess what, there are highland Eritrea zombies in this website that would never utter “ዓገብ” in the face of such savage attacks. These zombies would , however, raise to the protection of any perceived attack on Arabic. I am glad there are people like you that have not lost their conscience.

          • Nitricc

            Hi envision: reading the posts between you, SJ and Yohannes; is it fair for me to say that you guys are Stealthily defending your own respective religion? I become more convinced this is about religion when SJ said ” Losing a friend is painful” if not why would anyone lose a friend over this thing that doesn’t even make sense anyway you slice it? Amazing, one guy mumbles from his basement on youtube and everyone goes crazy.

          • iSem

            Hi Yohanness and envision:
            If these feelings, the misguided feeling that an entrenched majority group in Eritrea would be threatened by a minority is the prevailing notion in Eritrea, then God help us.
            Well, before you rebut by giving good examples from recent history that a minority would wreak havoc on a majority too, let me say that whether they know it or not, the majority, the Tigrinya are in power and they are those who are wreaking havoc on the country, on themselves and everyone else, because no one without power can wreak havoc in the true sense
            I used to say, the Tigrinya won the demographic lottery and they have the power, but it is not serving them, that power that they are protecting so much like the immune systems that turns against the body is destroying them and they are still in denial, they are blaming it on the CIA, USA, Muslims, although according you Saleh, maybe “outwardly deceiving activist”, but the Tigrinya are inwardly myopic, like the Stockroom Syndrome, they are projecting the regime that is enslaving them , it is getting tad better but they are very late in figuring that out and that is outright stupidity and stupidity like what their religion, be it Agaiziansim or Christendom says, it must be punished.
            So, there is no one to blame for the suffering, time to look in ward, to ask the brutally honest question, instead of been mesmerized by the intellectuals for uttering obscure words and hammering that kobor with “qello”, they have to challenge them, the solution to what ails them is on their hands as their own parable tells them: a stick on you hand, a snake under your fit, why do you wait for a verdict.
            But the truth is for the last 20 years, Saleh Gadi Johar was at the forefront of standing up against the tyranny of the regime, the bigotry of both Muslims and Christians, he mocked both, he mercilessly criticized both, he called out the Muslims, he not only criticized the Eritrean Jihad but he through a Pencil Editorial called on the Alliance of Eritrean opposition groups to purge the Eri Jihad from its coalition, he wrote against ELL
            Also about the Identity, can you enlighten us that before the advent of Ghedli, there was references of Tigriniya as an identity or ethnicity, I was never able to find it in the writing of WelWel, who is considered one of the founders of Eritrea, nor on the verbal stories of Raasi Tesma and Raasi W. Solomon. So Tigriniya as ethnicity is a creation of Ghedli, it was a langauge before it became ethnicity, like “Debub” was a direction before it came name of a region
            If you anyone with sharp mind like both of you as can be discern from your writing here cannot see behind the curtain in the PFDJ land, the tell-tell signs of a regime protected like the iris of one’s eyes by the so called Tigrinya is a willful ignorance
            And the so called “zombies”, I have an other name for them, they tell the truth, no matter what, sparing no ones feeling, neither a brother nor a sister, nor kin or kith.

          • Saleh Johar

            ISem,
            My crime is that I do not believe any Eritrean officially called himself Tigrinya before the the PFDJ. My other crime is my name is Saleh (Saliho) and they cannot cross it. I bet if they read and listen to what I ever said and write imagining my name is Tesfay or Abraham or Isaias, they wouldn’t have a problem. I am sure the problem we are having is not religious, it’s cultural and a severe myopia.

            Finally, let’s pray: Oh God, protect me from my seemingly friends, I can take care of those who chose to be my enemies.

          • envision

            Hi Semere,
            You are right the number one enemy destroying highland Eritrea is PFDJ. You are wrong to assume I do not see “behind the curtain in the PFDJ land”. PFDJ’s crimes do not make Saleh’s and his companies’ non-stop covert and overt attacks on the identity, history, and ethos of highland Eritrea right. We fight both of them. Your view on minority/majority is simply misguided. I admire most of your writings and posts, but I think you are too much under the spell of Saleh to stand up to his savage attacks. How else can one not see, for example, the malicious attack in his article “the malignant cancer of Eritrea”?

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello iSem,

            I heard the following on a NPR radio years ago.

            There was an arrogant kid who bullied everyone at his school, and one day, he started to bully one of his regular victims, and a fight broke out. The teacher who arrived first asked both of them: who started the fight? They both shouted “he did.” The teacher decided to ask them one at a time and turned to the bully first and repeated the question.

            Teacher: who started the fight?
            Bully, pointing at Victim: he started it.
            Teacher: how did he start it?
            Bully: when he hit me back!

            This is the type of dilemma, you are only allowed to be a victim dilemma, we all need a solution for.

          • Abraham H.

            Selam iSem, so you guys are telling us the so called Tigrinya’ ethnic group is a creation of Ghedli? This is very strange; what do you call the almost half part of Eritrea’s population who speak Tigrinya, and who traditionally lived in the Eritrean highlands? Even if you call them some other name like ‘Kebessa’, what difference does it make than calling them Tigrinya? As far as we know it, the main criterria that was used to classify the various social groups in Eritrea during the Ghedli era was a commonality of the language; hence we have Tigrinya, Saho, Tigre, Afar, Kunama, etc.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Abreham H.

            I think you answered your own question..that is Tigrina is the invention of Ghedli. When you refer to Kebessa, we are referring to a region (high land) but not the people.

            We identified the people from this region as Habesha…and if you go specific then you call them Serewetay, Hamasenay or Akeleguzetay..and if you go more specific..Adi QunSi, Adi Nifas, selaE daEro etc..

            Berhe

          • iSem

            Hi Abraham:
            One of the sharpest guys here is misunderstanding, that is good for CHANGE though, pun is of course intended
            Of course the people who speak Tigriniya existed way before Ghedli, maybe for thousands of years, the language too, these people who spoke Tigriniya before and still speaking did not call themselves the ethnic Tigriniya, that is what I am saying, they live in Akel Guzay, Hamassien, Seraye and Tigray. Ghedli without any anthropological study, at a whim by the kids, they named people after their language. I am not sure what the other ethnic group called themselves before , but I would be intersted to know if your grand parents, even your parents called themselves Tigriniya, of course if you are very young and your grad parents/parent are of Gheldii generation that is different story.
            Like many thing in Ghedli, this was arbitrary. It is not unheard of that the people are called by their langauge, the English speak English, and they can be American, Canadian Australian etc, but also the Irish do not speak Irish and the Walish do not speak Walish, they speak Gaeli and Celtic respectively
            Now type away, your answer. and the Norwegians do not speal Norwegian, they speak Nosk.
            PS, did TPLF call their people Tigriniya biher?

          • Abraham H.

            Selam iSem, what I wanted to say is we are basically speaking about same type of people with common language, religion (almost all), traditions, way of life, customs, traditional area of residence (Kebessa), etc. Then you can call them whatever name you want as long as you are refering to the same group of people/ just for the sake of reference. From my uninformed guess, out of the many commonalities within each ethnic group, the Ghedli “Anthropologists” used the language common denominator to classify the various ethnic groups, hence we have Tigrinya ethnic group. I’ve for example, seen some references to these same group as ‘Kebessa’ people, may be this was used also in ELF at some time, not sure. But in my opinion calling them Kebessa is even more ambiguous because this being a region, it has a number of other inhabitants than Tigrinya.
            Regarding the Norwegian people, they are called Norwegian and they speak Norwegian (in English). In Norwegian they are called Norsk and they speak Norsk. So probably you’ve chosen a wrong example, here:)

          • Abi

            Hi Abraham
            Interesting conversation. For a change I’m on your side. Ajoka!
            Let’s bring your conversation to Ethiopia.
            There is a gondere, a gojame, a welloye, a shoan all speaking Amharic. Aren’t they Amharoch? The same to Oromos.
            Their ethnicity is Amhara and Oromo. Not gonder or wollega.
            Doesn’t the same apply to Akaleguzay, seraye, hamasen? Aren’t they all Tigrewoch?
            Kind of confused.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Abraham,
            If you recognize that the PFDJ imposed a name for social groups, then you should also recognize that son people do not accept the imposed identity. If one accepts the PFDJ proclamation then that is the difference. For example, I am a Tigrinya speaker but I do not accept being identified by my language. Another example, many Eritreans consider that proclamation part of the social engineering project which many of us reject. Also, remember the common identity name that people used is Habesha and below that there are other layers of identity. Still more, there are some who want to be called Agazian, or Tigrawot. We shouldn’t have a problem if the concerned people accept the naming But if they reject it, as I do, calling me Tigrinya is offensive. No proclamation forced me to adopt a name I don’t recognize. I hope that clears it for you.

          • iSem

            Hi Abraham:
            When naming a group of people, we are not caring of clarity (about fess confusing names), we are talking about identity, you call them what they call themselves, because they know better. And regardless who is doing the naming ELF and /orEPLF, I have issues, (yea, as you may NOT have noticed -)) with arbitrary naming and assigning the ethnic status or stripping it : case in point we are forced to call a Jeberti Tigrinya, while they tell us they are not, EPLF also removed the status of some people the “Elit” and told them they are Tigre or Saho or Asawrta, I am not sure, but they are no more a recognized ethnicity, ELF recognized them as one, and the Rashaidas are recognized, you see we did not call the Rashaidas Arabs, they call themselves Rashaida and we accepted as them as the 9th ethnic group. So we call people what they want to be called, what identity they identify with.

            There are lots of people who are generally called Tokrir in Eritrea and it is a matter of time that they will be a recognized group to demand one, what are we going to call them, Felata or Tokorir or Nigeria, again we call them what they feel identifying with. to give you an example in the second EPLF congress, the There is a pattern here, if they can name you whatever they feel like, they can take it away, they can even take away your Eritreanness, if they wish so. Identity is not taken or given, it is who you are and who you should be determined by you.

            Now, I know I am being gung-ho about this because there seem to be no opposition to be called Tigrinya by the “Tigrinya” people, they seem to have accepted the arbitrary label by the kiddie anthropologists in Ghedli, and this assigning identies and regions and is one of the many ghedli over reach

          • Yohannes

            Hi isem,

            Just a few notes until I come back to address your points at length. For the time being – a. Tigrinya fought and bled(with other ethnicities on its side) to see a prosperous country for all. How dare you blame the whole society when you know why we are where we are.
            When you redicule by saying majority(Tigrinya) is not threatened by minority, then I got it clear that you have not fully understood what I said on my comments.
            Infact, I have confidence in the minorities of Eritrea whatever their religion is. But I am aware of the how much harm can be done by an elite class of psedo-arabs and heavy hearted jebhas when they play a role in politics, specially when they try to appeal to their social groups based on religion. On top of that I am aware of the geopolitics of the region and the demography of the people you say should sit back cozily. Lol…and you said Tigrinya is a creation of the Ghedli? Oh Lord, should I waste my sleep time on this?

          • iSem

            Thanks Yohannes:
            Sure you should waste your sleep over this because you deserve the punishment of losing sleep:-)
            I will just borrow an EPLF line used against those who said they were Arabs and it went like this: when you mom was in labor, she did not express her pain in Arabic, when she was happy she did not express her happiness in Arabic. So I say to you, did you ever hear your grad father say he was a Tigriniay, I doubt it, unless you are so young that your grand dad is a Ghedli generation. So when I said Tig was a Ghedli creation, I do not mean Tig as a language, but as the name of ethinicity. Show me a reference that says that
            About Jebha, they say Awate founded it, Abu Shenneb fought in its ranks, Omar Ezaz died fighting a battle in its name, all Muslims, but I never met a Muslim ELF fighter and by that what I mean is that Jebha was so overwhelmingly Christian and Kebessa that the Muslims were minority in it. by the time it was dissolved. So it Jebha as Muslim org is a myth, created by EPLF/PFDJ and still believed by many.
            The logic is reversed, what has the majorty Kebessa has to fear the minority, there is no alliance against the Kebessa by the 8 others, if there is, it is a conspiracy theory and since the Kebessa are in power and own the majority, no need to be paranoid about it, is that false assertion?
            Given what I wrote regarding the Agaazian strain that Tesfazion is infusing into the debate, do you think that it is good for Eritrea or even for the so called Agaazian nation in his imagination. Amending the relationship, building the historical brotherly kinship with the Tigray people of course, am for it, but redrawing the map is dangerous, and given situation of the two dogs you wrote about, do you think it will solve our problems, I think the Agaazian nation is nothing more than an Orthodox Califate

  • tes

    Selam Gheteb,

    It is good to see you coming from your mythtic world.

    Here is what it caught my attention.

    They used formerly to anchor at the very head of the bay, by an island called Diodorus, close to the shore, which could be reached on foot from the land; by which means the barbarous natives attacked the island.

    Questions

    1. As this was believed to be written around 100 CE and the king of Adulis at that time was Zoscales, could we say that Adulis was a an occupied port city by foreigners?

    2. I am asking this because in the narrative, it is noted that barbarous natives attacked the Island?

    3. Have you ever thought why these natives attacked the Island?

    4. Have you ever come to read who these natives are?

    I thank you for your kind responsse.

    tes

    • ‘Gheteb

      Selam Tes,

      First of all, thank you for your feedback. You are raising great questions, tes. I will try my best to share with my thoughts are on the questions you are posing.

      (1) I don’t think “that Adulis was a an occupied port city by foreigners”. Here is what we read in the manuscript Periplus of the Erythraean Sea:

      ” governed by Zoscales; who is miserly in his ways and always striving for more, but otherwise upright, and acquainted with Greek literature”.

      Notice the last 4 words about Zoscales: “acquainted with Greek literature”. That tells us that although Zoscales name seems Hellenized, he was not Greek. It is more likely that Zoscales was a king from the local areas and if Adulis was occupied by foreigners, the manuscript would have mentioned it.

      (2) ” an island called Diodorus, close to the shore, which could be reached on foot from the land; by which means the barbarous natives attacked the island”.

      You got to remember that this attack by what they called ”barbarous natives” was an island very close to the shores of Adulis. The attack by the natives on the ship could have about anything else, but I don’t think it was against a foreign occupation.

      (3) Well, I can only guess why the natives attacked the island of Diodorus. The ships that were headed to Adulis used to anchor or dock on this island and it could be for any reason why the natives would want to attack the ships in the shores of this island. It could be that they did not like the owners of the ships or some may wanted to loot them.

      (4) The natives could have been any of the tribes living around Adulis. Some are identified as Tegretes or Tegetai — probably the ancestors of the current Tigre people or others identified as “fish-eaters” or “calf-eaters” probably the ancestors of the Afars and Saho and maybe some other ethnic group that one finds in Eritrea.

      • tes

        Selam Gheteb,

        Thank you for your expanded response. Since your article can be a subject of acadamic debate, I will be abaided by academic rules to challenge you.

        In your response what I can understand is that there is no historical reference to claim that Adoulis was conquered by outsiders. Lets stick then for the supporting phrase that you highlighted about Zoscales.

        Hypothesis – Adoulis was an occupied port city

        Obsertion

        1. The word “Adulis – is a greek name, Ἄδουλις – hence Helenized
        2. The island name, Diodorus – is a greek name – Διόδωρος, hence helenized.

        According to wekipedia, there was a greek historian called Diodorus Siculus, Diodorus of Sicily.

        He[Diodorus Siculus] is known for writing the monumental universal history Bibliotheca historica, much of which survives, between 60 and 30 BC.

        Source: wikipedia

        4. Zoscales – as you hinted out is also a helenized name. According to Wikipedia, it seems that he was only ruling Adoulis. And his reign years spans 13.

        5. Zoscales is acquainted with Greek literature – this means he had a strong link with Greek Culture and Tradition.

        5. The enemy of this port city are native people, as referred by “the barbarous natives”

        Limitation and Assumptions:

        No fact check is done so far. As the observation is based on your claim that Adoulis was a separete civilization on its own. The question of Axumite Kingdom is ignored for this special argument building.

        How about now? Can you conclude that Adoulis civilization, as you are trying to expand it into “Erythraeab Civilization, is a civilization achieved because of occupation by outside force, the Greeks?

        tes

        • Simon Kaleab

          Selam tes,

          Axum did not become an empire instantly, various territories were acquired gradually. In an earlier period, Zoscales may have been the ruler of the coastal regions, including Adulis. It is not surprising that Greek was spoken in Adulis as it was the language of international trade, and foreign merchants resided there. But later on, many credible authors refer to Adulis as the trading port of Axum. This indicates that at the height of Axum’s power, Adulis was part and parcel of the Axumite empire.

          • tes

            Selam Simon,

            I think I have purposefully ignored anything about Axum for the sake of argument directives. I wish you asked this question to Gheteb directly though.

            tes

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam tes,

            History, anthropology and archaeology are not my speciality, so I prefer to read books written by people with proper academic credentials not quacks.

  • jacob abreham

    Dear Gheteb,

    It holds much water when it should and must be narrated to the appeal of many that the Adulis/Aga’azian/Axumite for being a ‘lost’ civilization, yet one that was African (not an Arab /Muslim), rather a Christian, with its own script and coinage, and with an international reputation. It was arguably as advanced as the Western European societies of the time(Higi Inda Aba/as old as the Magna Carta) . Instead of broad brashly claims it to be that of “Eritrea”,the owners of this heritage are still in Eitrea and Northern Ethiopia NOW. By the way, you have put it plainly what you meant when you replied a comment to one of the participants by the pen name “Sara” .In that response,I will quote your comment by copy and pasting it:
    “Selam Sara,

    Thank you for your feedback and your comments.

    The name “Andalusia” is more likely derived from its Arabic name “Al Andalus” when these territories came under Muslim rule in the years spanning 711 to 1492.

    There are some historians that view Adulis, Eritrea, was under the control of Muslims.This probably happened at the end of the seventh century AD.

    Well, both Andalusia (Al Andalus) and Adulis were occupied by Muslims in the same periods, probably Adulis falling to the Muslims earlier.There is some similarity and closeness between “Andalus” and “Adulis”.

    Though I haven’t seen anyone one making the connection yet, I applaud you and thank you, Sara, for thinking outside the box.”

  • MS

    Selam Ghehteb
    Thank you for the additional elaboration. I will be delighted to read more about Adulis and other areas’ archeological discoveries. Those discoveries belong to all of us. The point I’m trying to make is that history is about people. It’s not about physical locations. As Africans, we refer to Egyptian, Malian Ghanaian, Songhai Empires, and the libraries at Timbuktu, and so on, while Axum is in our backyard. Therefore, whether discoveries happen in Adulis Metera , Axume, Kassalla, they are the treasures of the people of this region. If this article came in the seventies and eighties, it would have been a strong rebuttal. But today, we discover and share it with humanity. First we don’t believe the ancient Abyssinia is the current modern Ethiopia. Secondly, we never deny the fact that our people have always been an integral part of the region’s civilizations and history. Thirdly, we don’t know the genealogical and cultural spread of those people who lived and ruled in that area. Parts of the people who built Adulis might have migrated to Western Ethiopia, while part of the people who built Axumite Kingdom might migrated north to today’s Eritrea. So, the political part of it is I think over. However, the humanity part of it is the one that makes us proud. And when we share it with our region, we feel prouder.

    • Paulos

      Selamat Muhamuday,

      You sure are looking superb these days where I seem to confuse you with Fantination till I put on my reading glasses. The striking difference between you and the author of the cut and paste article is that, you own a time tested wisdom and intellect where in the deepest recess of your heart, you’re convinced that, mending bridges is the way forward as opposed to burning bridges. They say, the trade of cherry-picking in the field of history is the faculty of the weak and the wicked.

    • ‘Gheteb

      Selam MS,

      Thanks for your thoughtful input and feedback. Through this rejoinder, I would like to highlight the following points:

      (1) These artifacts and archaeological findings are about the people who lived in these particular areas in what is now Eritrea. Though these artifacts are mere objects found through archaeological excavations and investigations, they are the repository of history that tell us about the people and the polity they had and as such are what they have bequeathed to their progenies or descendants.

      (2) The search for Eritreas antiquities such as through artifacts is not in any way about its struggle for independence. We all know that Eritrea is a legitimate and recognized country. That need not re-litigated again and it should never be read as such. I daresay that Eritrea is probably owns one of the most cogent and coherent ‘National Narrative’ among African countries through its long Revolution/armed struggle so much so that its national cohesion and national survival is solid and not to be easily rent asunder .

      (3) All countries have National Museums that act as the repository of their archaeological and historical artifacts that reflect their history and civilization through which they share it with their region and humanity at large. The Eritrean National Museum is doing precisely that and any and all findings from this very epicenter of ‘The Erythraen Civilization’ — ADULIS — will find its place in this very Eritrean museum and will be shared with our region or the world as an Erythraen artifact.

      (4) I don’t see why some are downplaying the significance of these findings within the Eritrean context. I see that this ‘de-abyssinizing’ and ‘erythaezing’ of Eritreas ancient history is paining those who find utmost comfort in the Abyssinian mythology. However, this is now all about Eritrea and Eritrea will free its history from the suffocating myths that the Abyssinian polity has produced and had so much suffocating hold not only on Ethiopians, but sadly on some Eritreans.

      (5) Through archaeology and archaeological history, Eritrea not only is liberating its history from an Abyssinian paradigm, but has upended and turned upside down the old idea/notion that claimed the Eritrean and maybe Abyssinian civilization of Arabian emanation or source. However, through the recent “Ona Sembel” archaeological excavations, it was shown that there existed a settlement that predates any South Arabian influence to what is now Eritrea and even Ethiopia. Here is what is liberating ones history from deep rooted myths really means.

      (6) It is true that people could have migrated from Adulis to other places. By the same token people could have migrated from Axum or Yaha to other places. If these migration did not stop the Ethiopians from claiming that Axum is/was the center of an Axumite civilization, then why should Eritrean NOT claim that Adulis was/is the epicenter of an erythraen civilization? I am sorry to say this, but you are putting an undue onus on Eritrean historiography.

      • MS

        Ahlan Ghehteb
        Thanks for the reply. It was more than helpful in clarifying the purpose of the article. I agree with all the points with the caveat that I’m not putting “an undue onus on Eritrean historiography”. My point is that this is purely academic as the question of Eritrean independence has once and for all been settled. In this regard I have to reiterate what I have been saying on this subject:
        1. Future relations of both peoples should be based on the recognition that it’s a relationship of sovereign neighborly and sisterly countries. Our motivation of establishing relations should be based on the NECESSITY of FUTURE POSSIBILITIES, i.e., complementing mutual interests. The guiding light should be what we can gain by future cooperation and not based on revisionist tendencies of who was the center of the universe thousands of years ago. Please note this is not to minimize your take, but to address the fact that this ethno and culture-centered narrative has cost the region many opportunities.True, we have historical and cultural relations with the people of Ethiopia, and the same is true with the people of the Sudan and Djibouti. Therefore, an argument only based on “We are the same people” does not hold water. History has already dealt that notion. And you should focus on the discoveries and their importance to Eritrea and humanity, unless you are to address a specific pseudo historian. I admire your grip on the subject (by the way, just personal and you may skip it, is your expertise related to history?)
        2. While it’s undeniable they could solidify national identity and straighten up the chronological lineage of history, I primarily view archeological discoveries from the point of economic benefits. For instance, dailynewsegypt.xx reported that Egypt’s tourism sector employed 12% of its working force, and generated 7.5 billion (2014). Ethiopia’s booming tourism industry reported an income of 252 million for the half fiscal year 2012/13. Of course, I’m not comparing Eritrea’s fledgling tourism industry with both countries. To do that we need a government that enjoys the legitimacy of the people through the ballot. It’s long over due that we have modernized our political infrastructure in order to cope with today’s fast moving world economy.
        Regards.

        • ‘Gheteb

          Ahlan MS,

          Thanks for your thoughtful and constructive feedback/input. Allow me respond and address what you have raised in your comment this way.

          (A) I agree that there should a HEALTHY and mutually beneficial co-operations amongst the peoples of the greater Horn region in general and the peoples of Ethiopia and Eritrea in particular. But these relations should be based on mutual respect/recognition and on an equitably equal footing. Therefore, I agree with what your take is on this issue.

          On my educational background, I will tell you the following:

          (i) No, I am not a historian nor did I study or concentrate on history or social sciences in any of my university studies.
          (ii) I was a student at the School Of Biological Sciences in Khartoum University. I was there for two years and then left for The USA. I had the grades to be admitted to the Faculty of Medicine of University of Khartoum, but was not afforded that opportunity because of the stands of the Eritrean fronts, such as the ELF on the Camp David Accord. Both Egypt and Sudan prohibited admission to faculties or schools such as Engineering or Medicine to Eritrean students.
          (iii) After coming to the USA, my major was on Biochemistry/Biology and after completing that, I was a student at a School Of Medicine for two years at a university center here in the USA.

          ( B) You are absolutely right that historical and archaeological sites are good source of national revenues. The economic benefits that a country generates out them is quite evident. The reason why the issues of archaeological sites and other historical places is emphasized here is that Eritrea is young and still a nascent state, though internationally recognized with a solid national narratives, it still needs to historically and archaeologically solidify, entrench that it was not a mere appendage of an Abyssinian entity throughout history.

          This should never be viewed as trying to isolate or separate Eritrea from its neighbors, nor should anyone read it as if Eritrea is trying to compete with Ethiopia. Not all. What is trying to be achieved through these Erythraen historiography is that the Eritrean people, just like the Ethiopians, Sudanese, Egyptians or Somalians, are saying that we as Eritreans do indeed have own history just like others do, and for us, Eritreans, and the rest of humanity, we will share it through The Eritrean National Museum.

          I am with you that as an Eritrean I aspire to see in Eritrea ” a modernized political infrastructure in order to cope with todays fast moving world economy”.

          • MS

            MerHaba Ghehteb
            Thank you so much for the rich feedback. Yohannes Zerai is legendary in his engagement skills. Once his article is out, he puts on his field jacket and engages his readers. His replies are equally rich if not richer than the articles. If IA is off the scene (joke), your engagements are phenomenal. Now, that you have proved that you can use English that the commoner could understand, I call upon those who use Chinese to Anglicize themselves. Cuz SAAY is still practicing metkel and Arki Hilfot, getting better by the day.
            Adulis: I’ve some personal attachment to the place. My best-best buddy was from Afta, just a few Kilometers to the north of Adulis. He was martyred in 1988 in Rora MenSae. Another best friend, from Keren, died in the Gulf, between Adulis and Engel (a peninsula that stretches north east of Arafaile). They were encircled by Ethiopian Navy, they did not want to surrender. Also, I have memory of Dr. Ahmed Dahli and his Adulis magazine that was published in Arabic and English. Many more memories, but that should be enough.
            Regards.
            Thanks.

      • Ismail AA

        Dear ‘Gheteb,

        I have been following the your defense of the article, which is robust and commendable. But I also noted that the discussion is becoming more of academic nature in pursuit of making sense of a historical hypothesis that the current population of Eritrea or part of them did have particular unadulterated civilization that had nothing to do with civilizations of peoples to their south or east across the Red Sea. I came to this understanding when I came to your take at point number 5 above. I mean the assertion about “liberating” history from another history renders the argument hard to follow.

        Thus, my question is this: What value can separation of what you referred to as “Abyssinian paradigm” add to the study of the past pertaining to the territories that fall within the geography of modern Eritrea, unless one is desperate to sever historical links the current inhabitants of the state of Eritrea had with civilizations that came and gone in the general and large geographical region? The only value is perhaps satisfacting a national ego that seeks to build past identity in isolation.

        Regards

        • ‘Gheteb

          Ahlan Isamail AA,

          First of, allow me to thank you for your incisive feedback and input. You have raised important questions and let me try to render a rejoinder this way.

          Firstly, Eritrean history was mostly not written from an Eritrean perspective as most of the scholarship was done through an Axumite/ Abyssinian prism or focus whereby Eritrea was portrayed as a mere appendage of an Abyssinian entity based a narrative suffused with hoaxes and erroneously inaccurate historiography. I am of the conviction that these Abyssinian history was at the core for the annexation of Eritrea by Ethiopia and the long and arduous national struggle of Eritrea in its quest for independence. I am more than sure you know about this more than as you were part of that national struggle.

          Secondly, Eritrea did NOT have an independent access to its historical/ archaeological sites until after it has attained its independence from Ethiopia. What this means is that the Eritrean history or its ancient history was never studied independently from an Eritrean perspective. Therefore, the study of Eritrea, its recent or ancient history, are been conducted in earnest and freely after the yoke of Ethiopian occupation was thrown away and removed.

          Thirdly, Eritreas effort and endeavor of writing its history is no way an attempt of “liberating history from history”. Rather, it is a task that aims at liberating Eritreas history from an erroneous Abyssinian rendition of “history” and nothing more. It should never be seen as an attempt of “sever[ing] historical links the current inhabitants of the state of Eritrea had with civilizations that came and gone in the general and large geographical region”. Eritrea is just writing its history based on factual archaeological and historical findings and never denying any REAL and not fictional historical or civilizational relations with others in the region.

          Finally, these archeological and historical sites, findings, artifacts are Eritreas national treasures. Egyptians have their national treasures; Ethiopians do have national treasures; The Sudanese do surely have them and they have never hesitated showing them; The Somalis on their own right possess national treasures. Now the question is this: Why should Eritrea not allowed to find its national treasures, show them to the world and should be asked to be shy about it?

          • Ismail AA

            Dear ‘Gheteb,

            Thank you for your well-thought responses.
            If I were to summarize your comments, you are saying Eritrean should re-study their recorded history to sift facts from myth or legends, that Eritrean historians now have better access to historical sources and sites, and finally that Eritrea as a nation should have custody of its historical treasures.

            I do not differ with you on all those points and arguments. But the issue is whether the call for repatriating artifacts or relics that had already found home in museums of other countries is tenable or not. Otherwise, you bet; Eritrea and its people do have the right to research and record their history.
            Regards

          • Abi

            Hi Gheteb
            I am pleasantly surprised by your calm and collected manner in communicating with formers.
            I always thought Eritrean treasures are its people . The people you and the government you support never protect or care for. Now I see you are trying to collect and bring back Eritrean artifacts from around the world. Great idea!
            How about you start by collecting and bringing back your people from the Sudan refugee camps? Then from Abbyisinian Refugee camps, then from Israel refugee camps, then,then…
            That is what እባቡ አቢ calls bringing back Eritrean treasures.
            What do you think?

          • iSem

            Abi:
            This is one of excellent comment, comment of the year 2017, it will go down.
            But to add to your comment, to elaborate I add this:
            the artifacts of the government that Gheteb supports are stones, and dusty lands
            But you get to give the government that Gheteb supporters credit, credit is due when it is not due:, they have collected people artifacts, they have built a monument for a foreign poet, that is a hell of people artifacts, they do collect people but not Eritrean people

          • Abi

            Hi Sem
            Thanks for the good words.
            I like to share from my morning bible reading with you and whoever is willing to spare two minutes reading a bible
            Read 1 Chronicles 17:9

          • Paulos

            Wow Wow Abisensation, you’re lookin’ smooth n’ slick this mornin’ swingin’ swingin’ tapin’ and tapin’ to the tune of the year that made the rest of us smilin’. Damn, da was brilliant. And keep dem comin’ ma bro!

          • Abi

            Paul
            You are rapping and singing
            Tapping and dancing
            Always amazing!!
            I’m glad you are laughing .

          • tes

            Selam Abi,

            I might not support Gheteb’s essence of confining Eritrean history as if it is local though I am in the camp of those who claim that artifcants and monuments collected from today’s Eritrean terrory is owned by Eritrea. As sovereign people of this land, we have a right to own it back if it is outside Eritrea.

            It is like what Ethiopia did for its Axum monument clail from Italy.

            tes

          • Nitricc

            Hi Abi: at least those Eritreans were fleeing war and endless national service due to your war mentality and brutality. Having said that I am glad they are somewhere safe than getting buried alive with a pail of garbage. How about worrying about garbage feeding people before you can talk anything about Eritrea? shame on you and to those weyane lovers who are encouraging you.

            here what I read and I can’t help but shake my head. Get Semere Andom to translate for you.

            ” ሰባት ኣብ ዕደና ወርቂ እንከለው፡ መሬት ሃሚሙዎም ተጸቒጦም ክንድዚ ሰባት ሞይቶም ዝብል ዜና ኣብ ዓለም ኑቡር ዜና ኢዩ። ሚልዮነራት ወይ ሩኹባት ሰባት ዝጋሓፍዎ ጋሓፍ ልክዕ ክም ዕደና ወርቂ ኪዒቶም እና ኣረዩ እንከለው ጋሓፍ ጸቒጥዎም ሞይቶም ክትሰምዕ ግን ኣዝዩ ዘሕዝንን ዘይንቡር ዜናን ኢዩ። እዚ ካኣ ንመጀመርያ ግዜ ኣብታ ዝቐልጠፈት ናይ ምዕባለ ገስጋስ ተመዝግብ ኣላ እና በሉ ዘጽምሙና ዘለው ኣብ ሃገር ኢትዮጵያ ኢዩ ተፈጺሙ።”

          • Paulos

            Hey Nitrikay,

            How about the flip side of the story where a mountain size of garbage is a sign of a good life where people have plenty to dispose of 😂. With in the tag of wars to score points, what really matters is what is the government doing about it? Covering it up or swallow the pride and own the national himmulation? I think in all fairness, the government is doing what it can to support the grieving families and fighting poverty for it was the main culprit to begin with.

          • Nitricc

            Hey P: I think you have lost any partiality what so ever. At lease be honest to your self. Why are the people there to begun with? Come-on now! The Ethiopia government the most corrupted, the most evil and the most irresponsible government there is. There is nothing you can do to defend them. by the way, it is great insult to humanity when you try to make a sign of a good life. really?

            forget this here what I have read today and it reminded me you.

            ” The Girl With the Dragon Tattoo’ Sequel With New Cast Set for October 2018 Debut

            Ashley Lee Mon, Mar 13 11:41 AM PDT
            Rooney Mara in ‘The Girl With the Dragon Tattoo’ (Photo: Baldur Bragason/Sony) Lisbeth Salander is nearly back. The titular heroine of The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo will return to the big screen in The Girl in the Spider’s Web, adapted from the first book famously not written by creator Stieg Larsson. Sony will release the film on Oct. 5, 2018, opposite Warner Bros. superhero flick Aquaman starring Jason Momoa.”

          • Paulos

            Hey Nitrikay,

            I agree the government is corrupted to its neck but I won’t say it’s evil. That said, the motto of the day seems to be you ain’t a crook till you get caught and when you get caught, pull ግምገማ and ተሃድሶ under the rug and everything is dandy

            Great books more often suck when they are made into a movie except of course Mario Puzo’s “The God-Father.” Thanks for the heads-up.

          • Abi

            Hi General Nitric
            Soon we will have enough dabo for all. We all know Ethiopia is the poorest country in the world. Thanks for reminding us.
            Last time I checked you were accusing those Eritreans who perished under the Med Sea. Now you pretend to be sad for the Ethiopians.
            I see your canines. All 32 of them. Fara

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Hi Abi,
            Eritrea treasures its people. If they are dead. Especially if they are nameless dead “suw’at”. And now it seems it treasures them if the are long dead. If they are living… not so much. Even its staunchest supports are tolerated for a few months at a time. If they stay too long, they see an announcement to report to military training.

          • Abi

            Hi Abrehet Haftey
            No wonder there is no census in Eritrea. The government doesn’t consider the living important or necessary. It counts them when they are dead. Bizarre world.

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Hi Abi,
            I wouldn’t say there is no census. It depends on how you see it. If census was to lead to being considered a constituency you are right. Otherwise, we are counted and numbered like chattel. Recently they issued a new set of identity card and members of a household are constantly checked and re-checked to get their rations coupons. Everyone above 17 has a number (Kifleserawit, brigade, botoloni, Hayli etc).

          • Abi

            Hi Abrehet
            It is a “catch 22”.
            In the derg times we used to increase the number of a household to get more sugar or cooking oil …with no consequences.
            I don’t think it is a good idea in your situation.

          • Abraham H.

            Selam Abrehet, the regime in Eritrea is so bizzare that it reminds one of whether the country is not like a one big Nazi concentration camp, people identified by certain numbers. We have the gulags, the torture chambers, only missing the furnaces.

  • jacob abreham

    Selam Geteb,

    What makes your article unscholarly and immature is that the fact that it mingles “ Eritrea” and “Ethiopia” to your context .The Adulis heritage and history linkage to the Axumites/Aga’azians is impossible to disentangle and associate it with the Italian colonization project that later named “Eritrea” and for that matter to the less than 100 years old integral modern “Ethiopia”. Don’t mix history of over 2000 years old with the history of last century. My question to you is then, which people inside the Italian project “Eritrea” or “Ethiopia” owns the Adulis heritage???

    • ‘Gheteb

      Selam jacob abreham,

      You are asking : “who owns the Adulis heritage”? Well, Adulis is in Eritrea and therefore Eritrea owns all the findings and artifacts found in Adulis belong to Eritrea. Ethiopia/Abyssinia owns all the findings from Axum/Yaha areas.

      As Italians have to return all the historical artifacts they took from Ethiopia during their occupation of that country, Ethiopia must and should return all the artifacts it took from areas such as Adulis. Metera, Qohato, Keskse etc. to its rightful owner, Eritrea.

      Almost, if not all, African counties are the result of colonial experience or what you may call as “colonial projects”. Ethiopia and Eritrea are no exceptions.

  • Zee Best

    Have any body cared even to look or learn what Adulis means ? have you thought about whether it is indigenous name or a misspelled or miss pronounced foreign name or both? It is so sad that a lot of Eritreans do not even know that there is a village still called by its original name in the highlands of Eritrea, not far from Adulis itself. That village is still called Ado Lay.

    • envision

      Hi Zee,
      The most plausible explanation, also as hypothesised by the book “The Throne of Adulis: Red Sea Wars on the Eve of Islam” is that it is originally a local word, ዓዲ-ኡሊስ, the place of the ulis (ulis being some tribe or clan) and then a gradual change of that resulting in Adulis. As to the content of this laughing stock thesaurus memorising man-child, well let him fall off the cliff running away from the long past. Axum/Abyssinia/Ethiopia makes history, others perish trying to demolish its long past, only to find out it has marched on by thousands of years.

    • sara

      Dear
      Ado lay indeed is even a name of place … Even a person….in south east Eritrea….the meaning…. Al moya altahera…xuruy may…

  • abel luulseged

    Selam,
    Science, history, and archaeological findings are mainly
    tasked to broaden our understanding not to contradict things that we can easily
    see, touch and recognize at present. The article instead of broadening is
    trying to minimize Eritrean history and kinship with Ethiopia while we are
    being ruled by a descendant of Emperor Yohannes. Let’s end this us versus them
    game and focus on the day after Isaias, ( that is of course after his natural death),
    because from the looks of it our suspicion towards each other seems to trump the desire to rid of the ruthless totalitarian at home.

  • sara

    Dear Awtistas,
    why all this hysteria ?
    haven’t we been tolerant when we got visited by AGAZIANS recently? actually such articles should be seen as an anti dot or a vaccine against the Agazian virus-Cancer

  • Paulos

    Selam iSem,

    The intellectual lock stock and barell of ‘Gheteb and his xerox is to immortalize Isaias by Roman numerals as in Isaias II. Excavating Isaiasism should have been the mandate of a scholar in a bid to deconstruct the PFDJ instead it is turned into Spielberg’s Indiana Jones.

  • sara

    Dear Mahmuday
    fair comments as you have included something for every one to appreciate in this forum , but to tell an average eritrean at home or in the neighborhood “there is no threat of invasion from Ethiopia” is a bit excessive to say the least. i will agree with you if you mean to say that is the thought of most diaspora Eritreans ( specially in the west) either because they dont feel/live it or because of other reasons is understandable.

    • MS

      Dear sara
      I think we need to think deeply. I commend you for your patriotic stances; nothing wrong with that. However, the source of our patriotism should come from our desire to protect the wellbeing of our people, not from blind hatred towards others or from lending a blind support to the leader. As far as Ethiopia’s threat is concerned, you omitted the conditional subordinate clause that read “if Eritreans’ conviction about the prospect of their country is still legendary.” Please don’t that. Eritrea has never had missiles, air force, or other modern war gears. Its pride was its people. Eritrea was stronger in 1982 (6th offensive) than it’s today. Politically, its people have become disillusioned, its youth have lost hope, factionalism has been taking root, alien ideas and movements that erodes its unity have been proliferating to the point they are becoming mainstream; no signs of generational or leadership succession-plan, no clear political roadmap, no sign of national reconciliation; aging population with no social safety net, abuse of power has become a culture to the extent arbitrary detention and disappearance have become normal, and the list goes on. I think we need to really think deeply. The source of real patriotism should be a burning desire for solving the problems. Only a free and hopeful citizen guarantee the safety of a country.
      Regards.

      • sara

        Dear Mahmouday,
        as in my earlier comment i said your comment is fair with every one here, and i am not commenting or disagreeing on most of what you wrote as it is something we daily read about here , my comment is about the Ethiopian threat , that”s all.

        • Abrehet Yosief

          Selam Sara,
          Please explain to me why the people inside Eritrea would fear an Ethiopian invasion. Aren’t they being told that Ethiopia is about to implode anytime now? You cannot have it both ways.

          • Dear Abrehet Yosief,
            The only way to explain and legitimize the present situation in eritrea is by using ethiopia as a scare factor. Of course, young eritreans do not believe it anymore, and that is why they are leaving the country in droves, not only towards sudan, but also towards ethiopia, the land of the enemy. Otherwise, they would have remained behind to defend their country.

          • sara

            salam Abrehet,
            i wish your comment has explained to me why the Eritrean people shouldn’t fear from an Ethiopian invasion?

          • Abi

            Sariti Arabia Habibti
            Let me help you here since we are coffee friends
            Eritreans are not worried of Ethiopian invasion at all. They are dying to get to Ethiopia to avoid an open prison or slavery camps in Eritrea. They are safe in Ethiopia. Eritreans have always been safe in Mama Ethiopia, their Original mother. They are running away from their stepmother.
            Relax, Habibti

          • sara

            Ato Abi-selam
            for sure we are coffee friends and more…. you know well i agree with the “good riddance”
            thing you always bring, but i want to you to be a bit more sensible and agree with me on how we can finance constructing a big/long WALL, you see unlike trumpita i am reasonable person and wan’t insist that you only pay for it.

          • Abi

            Hi Sariti Habibti
            Abol jeba bereka jeba
            I think we have to hammer out the details of this wall over your legendary coffee before we use a hammer to build a wall.
            However, I will personally finance for the design and construction of the wall if it is located north of Assab.
            Deal??

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Selam Sarra,
            Whether Eritrean should fear an Ethiopian invasion should be the main concern of Eritrean security institutions and it would be good to hear their analysis. Alas they are more focused on ensuring the people do not escape the country, conscripts are working obediently and the prisons are not lacking every imaginable depravity. The people on the other hand, who have a choice of following EriTv – which confirms to them Ethiopia is about to collapse or following the ridiculous soap operas (the recent craze being “Raza and Chandra” dubbed in Amharic, have no reason to fear an invasion.

          • sara

            salam..Abrehet.
            its me sara…. #***/**/***/**/*
            you must be one of those lucky once who hit the road early before past Ethiopian invasions..
            good for you -“haftey”
            Eritreans at homeland and near abroad, apart from their routine life struggle , their main concern is if/when this new PM will get crazy like his predecessors, haileslassie-megestu-zenawi to provoke war and invade eritrea. The eritrean people have gone through many woes coming from the south and will never feel at ease until god knows when there will be
            un-hostile party reigning there. This is my belife and many of my compatriots and it for you to belive it or not… the rest of your comment it just .. normal..not a big deal.

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Selam Sara,
            No I am not. Whereas, I as a child run around to alert my brothers of the movement of Ethiopian soldiers, my grand kids’ cousins and nephews and nieces are now experts at alerting their exhausted older siblings to hide from “gifa”.

        • tes

          Selam sara,

          There is no threat from Ethiopia at this time. Ethiopia today is like South Korea,focusing on transforming its people from poverty to prosperity. On the hand, Eritrea is like North Korea – building its muscles seeing that Ethiopia is prospering. In fact, Eritrea is a threat to Ethiopia.

          A country deprived of poverity is a threat to anyone.

          The only thing Ethiopia is looking eagerly is to use Eritrean Sea Ports legally by doing all possible legal contracts. For this, they always wish to see a civilized government in Eritrea. And I fully agree with their desire;

          On the other hand, Eritrea under PFDJ wants Ethiopia stay in its poverity and never come. As we can witness what is published at tesfanews/net, the exact wish they envision is a country called Ethiopia which suffers from famine, poverty, unstable political situation, a divided nation, ethnic conflicts, back wardness, etc. If you are not sure, just visit tesfanews/net.

          Therefore, it is better to work in removing threats Ethiopia is facing from Eritrea.

          The other threat, border conflict, is not a threat at all. There is a law that bids the two countries in check. No matter how many years it takes, both countries know their respective boundary. No war can solve border conflict except legal procedure and agreement.

          tes

        • Nitricc

          Hey Sara, please leave Mahmuday alone, he shaking in fear about the Tigray-Tigrigni unity. He is having a second thought about liberating Eritrea. If you don’t believe me ask envision. hahahahah wow!

          • MS

            Hi Nitrickay
            You bet, and unless we Re-liberate Eritrea soon from the evils chocking it from within and without, the way it is handled is ruinous. It is very serious. If you love Eritrea stand up for its salvation from the riffraff who are menacing it from inside, and from those who are using the situation our wedi-Afom has created in order to blow the country we so dearly love to pieces. We would not have gone through UN scrutiny and delayed developmental pace if IA had chosen prudence over arrogance on day one. We would not have been going through the chaotic mess of divisive politics where the enemy of united Eritrea have found space and thrived had IA CHOSEN a state-manly and sensible political choice of including the people of Eritrea with all of its political inclinations. Rather than becoming inclusive IA chose to be exclusive, rather than behaving visionary, IA chose to remain revisionist and vindictive. Rather than employing ratiocination, IA has become a prisoner of 1960s bitterness. Citizens curb out a nation so that they can improve their livelihood. They don’t curb up a nation in order to live in perpetual siege mentality. The government has the responsibility to solve its regional and international disputes, it has the responsibility to ensure the wellbeing of its citizens; it has the responsibility to create jobs, it has the responsibility to investigate itself when citizens complain of their government’s ineptness, abusive and corrupt behaviors, it has the responsibility to make sure the rule of law reigns, and the list goes on. And please don’t tell me “Eritrean reality does not allow it.” As a small and underdeveloped country (thanks to war) that emerged after a long war, from day one, Eritrean reality actually called for summoning and coordinating the little resource (human and material). Eritrean reality actually would dictate to its leaders that they would not repeat what African counties had gone through of autocracy, and waste of resources (all the bridges that were built in 1995 are crumbling, most of the mini dams are already full of sedimentation, roads are back bad , everyone knows the state of electricity, people are suffocated, the young people who built these infrastructure in 1995, are now middle-aged folks with no security of livelihood. Those infrastructures have not changed the quality of life of the people; they have not generated economic activities that would help maintain them; the president himself acknowledged the failures. All that is remained is he has not summoned courage to follow suit of Julius Neyerere. I think that’s enough. Please don’t let me roll on.

      • Berhe Y

        Dear MS,

        I don’t know what’s changed but I want to tell you, you have been sensational lately.

        Keep up the good work, your ideas and your writing is not only worthy of a General but a Presidential.

        You have my vote.

        Berhe

        • MS

          Dear BerheY
          Nothing has changed except my decision to slow down, contemplate, revise the journey that brought us to this point, and focus on core issues rather than chasing individuals who come to sully Eritrea and its heroic struggle for self-determination. At this time, I have nothing more important than seeing our people get some sense of semblance. Once they get that, they can do the rest of the task. So, the core values are there. What I’m struggling to relax is the emotional stiffness towards the experience that had brought independent Eritrea. I think, we all can relax, and focus on common ground. That experience, good or bad, belongs to all Eritreans. What’s killing the nation is also killing the ideals of the heroes whose images keep disturbing me. And therefore, focusing on the immediate task will eventually result in restoring the ideals of our martyrs. In a nutshell, it is a sober assessment of the current situation. Currently, there are enough of a divisive elements and trends out there. It is incumbent upon us that the ones who have more in common to focus on the major tasks. Most of the areas people get entangled in resolving could be decided by the people. Sometimes I think we are putting the cart before the horse. Anyway, thanks. And pray for me not to relapse.

          • iSem

            Hi BY and MS:
            BY, am glad you noticed that
            MS, come on now tell the truth body: this is what happened:
            Before you were saying mai tsemaaeko astini min hshikib
            mai tsemaaeko astini min arrarib
            mai tsemaako astini mai himet
            mai tsemaaeko astini min taba fernello
            but now:
            you are are singing
            mai tsemaaeko astini min adkemmo
            mai tsemaako astini min main
            mai tsemaaeko astini mai seattle
            And Amna said
            abkeko,
            lakin ennehelka mai zemzem
            That mai zemzem is doing the mgic

            But Sal would say what is the difference, all the same, poor georaphy lesson

          • tes

            Selam Mahmud,

            I think from now on, we can agree in our take. You wrote,

            …and focus on core issues rather than chasing individuals who come to sully Eritrea and its heroic struggle for self-determination.

            This is good point and a transcedence. I hope you will listen the cry of young people like me and many others who are fighting to liberate themselves from oppression of all kinds: be it historical, political, social, economic, or whatever it is.

            tes

        • envision

          Hi Berhe,
          It is the AgAzian movement my friend. The fear that highland Eritrea might strengthen its ties with Tigrai is doing the miracles. Tesfazion’s AgAzianism, with all its faults, has achieved much more than all the oppositions 25 years activities combined. All the toning down, the calls for unity, etc from muslims and lowlanders are to preempt the budding and growing Agazianism (Tigrai-Tigrigni). AgAziaism is an antidote for all ailments: PFDJism, Arabism, Islamism, Amharization, etc. Brace for for more miracles in the near future.

          • Nitricc

            Hi envision lol a good one. lol OMG! lol I disagree with your point but I love your take, very classic. lol

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello envision,

            I cannot believe as reasonable and as intelligent as I think you are to have fallen for the “Tesfazion’s AgAzianism” type of mania.

            Mahmuday, a man who fought tanks and mortars with stick and stone is now terrified of YouTube shot AgAzianism! Aye gize!

            I see that he is cured now, but how was he implicated to begin with? Was it his PFDJism, Arabism, Islamism, or Amharization?

          • envision

            Hi Fanti,
            I would like to mention that I hate the use of rhetoric to suffocate thought, to coerce others and to ascribe ideas to others. I mentioned that Tesfazion is having an inpact, and that is verifiable. AgAzianism (Tigrau-Tigrigni) is not a new idea, and yes I subscribe to a lot of it, albeit with some changes. Now what of it is a mania?

            Mahmuday can not be cured, but he is made to tone down. He will always be a PFDJ foot soldier. Fighting with guns does not mean bravery. Any coward can fire a gun. There is more bravery in expounding one’s ideas than in firing guns. Youtube is a medium, and as such there is nothing bad a about it. Where should an idea be presented for it to be good, according to you? Donald Trump was able to do a lot of his campaigns on Twitter. Please do not spend your time on contentless rhetorical talks. Focus on content and tell me what is contemptible about citing AgAzianism having impact and me subscribing to some of its sentiments?

          • Abi

            Hi invision
            I’m confused here
            Is the goal of agazian movement to bring Kebessa to Ethiopia? Or is it to form tigry tigrign?

          • Nitricc

            Hey Abi, lol you are the Fara one, listen dummy; The AgaAzi is bringing the two Tigrigna speakers, meaning uniting the Tigray Tigrigna speakers with Eritrean highlands who speaks Tigrign. once the union is done, then the Amhara, the oromo and the lowland of Eritreans will be under the control and mercy of the AgaAzian. The good news is it will never happen. if it had any chance to come to reality then the 1998-2000 Weyane’s attack on Eritrea killed for good and for ever. Don’t worry, we Eritreans killed the idea of Greater republic Tigiray and We will kill this Agazi stupidity. You see Abi, we help you on so many things but you don’t give us the credit.

          • envision

            Hi Abi,
            The main point is the ending of the artificial and imposed separation of the AgAzians and coming together. Whether they want to go a separate way or join Ethiopia is a minor point. No matter what, though, their relationship to other peoples and their history must not be severed for Arabist and Islamist agenda.

          • Abi

            Hi invision
            What can the non -Tigray and non -Kebessa people do to expedite the union to form Tigray-Tigrign?
            Honestly, I care less if you form your union tomorrow and leave us alone. I will help you packing up , I will drive you to the boarder or wherever you choose to go, anything you desire. I’m at your disposal.
            Just make it fast. I’m warming up the truck as we speak.

          • envision

            Hi Abi,
            You do not need to do anything. We also do not need your help in packing for we are not going anywhere. May I ask what irritates you about the brotherhood of Kebessa and Tigray?

          • Abi

            Hi invision
            Honestly, nothing irritates me if you become one. I encourage brotherhood. Just decide whether to
            A. Merge and live as Ethiopians in Ethiopia
            B Merge and live as Eritreans in Eritrea
            C Merge and form a new country
            You can not be all at once. Your choice, your move.

          • Nitricc

            Hey Abi, NO! the plan is to unite the two people, the Tigray Tigryans and The Tigrigna speaking Eritreans and loot your Ethiopia for eternity. There was a time that the Tigryans thought they can defeat ShaEbia then after control you for life with out the need of ShaEbia but not only that didn’t happen but your people has waken up and the Tigryans need more supporting cast to keep you subdued this is the very roots of the idea Tigray-Tigrigni emanates. Don’t you see, even the great Mahmuday is so shaken in fear, he has changed his tunes. lol. I have a source that the Tigryans lisnted to the current PIA’s interview than the Eritreans which i can’t disclose. the point? PIA became a leader of Tigray and Eritrea. Once PMMZ died, PIA is the man. ask envision, he will tell you that is if he is honest person. You see Abi, every time PIA comes on the top. lol, okay that was a cheap shot but true. lol

          • iSem

            Hi Envision: Well coming together is not new concept and the Kebessa never really wanted to separate in the first place as kind of BY alluded, they forced by the Luddites And then overnight we were called Tigrinya and the same people who did not want to separate, the same people who named their kids Hebert and Arefaineh and Alganesh turned against their brethren, so before the coming together there should be stopping the hate mongering toward Tigray and that is not Saleh’s fault and I do no think it is the doing of the Arabs or Muslims. I have Eritreans friends who are high on Gaddafi for saying that Africa must be united, and my reply is that that idiot did not even unite his own people let alone the entire Africa, and we are talking about Tigray and Kebessa uniting, we have a lot of work to do, but the Agaazian movement is a dangerous one and especially the Tesfazion strain, it is alienating every one, the Kunam, are uncivilized, the Afara are monkeys with no table manners (meaddi), the Tigre are “sehabti gemel” (that is what he called tegadail MS), and the Agaazians are a special pure race and the Nazi movement with its Arian race is not different. Not just these, the Agaazians are so God fearing that they do not rape and invade, while in the same season as Tesfazion debuted 800 Eritreans testified, the Agaazians of rape and murder and slavery and torture
            Envsion, it is my first time debating you, but since you debuted, I liked your to the point commentaries, so are the above truths I mentioned about Tesfazion’s strain something we must heed? I am sure, you know how I feel about Tigray from my writing, certain PFDJ foot solider called me dedebittan” and the witnessing from our rhetoric just during the 1998 war, what the Kebessa, PFDJ or anti PFDJ alike calling the Tigrayans all those names just because almost two equally crazy orgs sent them to war was minding boggling and eye opening, so the Agaazian movement and for sure the embezzler Tesfazion’s brand is a a recipe for disaster if in deeded it gets some traction in the main lands of Tigray and Eritrea.
            There is no artificiallly imposed separation, it is really. We have moved on, things changed, like Bable is no more, the Phonicians are no more, the Assyriyans are no more, and the Nubia and Egyptians are no more and so the Agaazians are no more, Tigray and Eri Kebessa can trace their roots all the way to them, they can study them and if you are like me an like Semere H, you can be fascinated by the language and the ziria and the qunnanno all we want

          • envision

            Hi Semere,
            Thank you for your comment. I can tell you for sure that the AgAzian movement has a serious traction in both. I believe that the Tesfazion’s strain has unnecessary extremities (the ones you mentioned above) that need to be pruned, but I support the central message that the Kebessa must unite with their brethren in Tigrai. It is foolish to separate with your brethren and seek brotherhood from others.

            Your comparison with long-extinct peoples and cultures is plain wrong. AgAzianism is not dead; it is a “dgul Hawi”. It is artificially imposed on us by our enemies (Menelik and Italy). Granted, we have fallen for that ourselves for we did not work to correct it. You can imagine how strong it is by the extent Tesfazion has been able to garner fellowship by producing simple youtube videos in a short time. Many others are joining the movement. Aboy habtemariam and now Amanuel of Assena have joined the movement.

            As a man who seeks the best for his people, you should work towards unifying the people for the benefits that can accrue from that unification are far greater than anything. Countries wage wars to create markets by imposing their cultures and language. We work to ruin what has been created for us in millennia? That is myopia of the highest order.

          • envision

            Selam Semere,
            Thank you for your comment. I can tell you, for sure, that the AgAzian movement has a serious traction in both. I believe that the Tesfazion’s strain has unnecessary extremities (the ones you mentioned above) that need to be pruned, but I support the central message that the Kebessa must unite with their brethren in Tigrai. It is foolish to separate with your brethren and seek brotherhood from others.

            It is artificially imposed on us by our enemies (Menelik and Italy). Granted, we have fallen for that ourselves for we did not work to correct it. Your comparison with long-extinct peoples and cultures is plain wrong. AgAzianism is not dead; it is a “dgul Hawi”. You can imagine how strong it is by the extent of fellowship Tesfazion has been able to garner by producing simple youtube videos in a short time. Many others are joining the movement. Aboy Habtemariam and now Amanuel of Assena have joined the movement.

            As a man who seeks the best for his people, you should work towards unifying the people for the benefits that can accrue from that unification are far greater than anything. Countries wage wars to create markets by imposing their cultures and language. We work to ruin what has been created for us in millennia? That is myopia of the highest order.

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello envision,

            Given our collective history and thousands of years of regional relationships, a rhetoric which seems to pitch MetaHit against Kebesa, Tigray against Amhara, Christian against Muslim doesn’t strike you as a mania?

            I don’t even understand how AgAzianism is equated with Tigrai-Tigrigni, but we will talk about that some other time. For now, just tell me who is attacking whom or what and who is defending whom or what when you get a chance.

          • envision

            Hi Fanti,
            I do not support pitting”MetaHit against Kebesa, Tigray against Amhara, Christian against Muslim”. I support the ending/blurring of the border and any difference between Kebessa and Tigray.

      • tes

        Selam Mahmud,

        Never too late. It is good to hear this finally coming out from you. I have observed and sensed a changing quality of your discussion in your recent exchange with me. Before I used to read words that irritates me. But now, I could say, your writings are flowing easily. It helped to discuss on matters that can help us move on.

        I hope you will refer this paragraph from now on whenever you feel some blind patriotism/nationalism.

        This take will definitely help you to reconcile with youth. I hope many to join you.

        I have to thank you.

        tes

  • Kebessa

    I am liking the tone of problem-from-with-in focused Mahmuday. The rigid PFDJ and its one-man regime is the gravest threat Eritrea faces today. Not the Woyanes, not other external forces, as there is no force that can defeat united Eritreans. The only force that can hollow out Eritrea of its precious youth and destroy its fabrics is the force from within. And that should get the lion’s share of attention in the struggle for normalcy.

  • saay7

    Hey Gheteb:

    Innnnnteresting.

    In modern context, the self described conquests of the Adulis King (with the Hellenistic name) sound like something somebody would say at the ICC when being tried for crimes against humanity, no?

    Adulis is deep deep in the Eritrea psyche. Just think at the number of businesses named Adulis: restaurants, markets, even, ahem, institutes of higher learning.

    Anyway, good read. When the king was chronicling his conquests, one song repeatedly came to mind:

    DiHri eten geTerat
    Hazet ketematat
    Axwar ny xelai
    Ms mulu Etqtat
    MesarHi Haili
    Gziyawi tank’tat::

    MS and I did a duet of that song once: him with his beat up guitar, me with my froggy voice.

    saay

    • A.Osman

      Selamat SAAY,

      The jahra bit came to mind as I read about deep snow (did he reach Kilimanjaro :), so he must have been presenting himself to the world power. But, while Gheteb may want to present a counter great King/civilization, the valuable information is about the names of people/tribes who lived the region that get lumped to one civilisation story. Ghetebs lampadina is quite helpful there ….

      Regards
      AOsman

      • saay7

        Hey A.Osman, the Calf-Eater:

        The deep snow was before climate change, when Adulis hosted rhinos and elephants.

        That whole fought and subdued chronicle, well, you have to set it to music. I recommend Fihira’s “Arki Hlftot” (which is also a chronicle of military victories). Like this:

        I fought the Gaze,
        the Agame, and Suguene
        kept half their land,
        of mud and sand.

        I reduced to submission
        the Aua and Singaene
        the Aggabe and Tiamaa
        and the Athagous and kalaae
        who knew not of kinoa
        but had plenty of kale

        Hoop!

        I humiliated the Lasine,
        the Zaa and Gabala
        Taxed their steep mountains
        and their host springs

        Then came the Atalmo
        defeated with the Beja
        in the hot tails of the Taggaiton
        No defeat, ’til Egypt!

        Hoop!

        I besieged the Anine
        their buddies Sesie and Metine
        chased them to the precipice
        aforethought? Malice!

        Hoop!

        Then the barbarians of Rauso
        and their aromatics trade,
        defeated the Solate,
        made ’em guardians of sea lanes!

        Hoop!

        I subjugated the Arabitas
        (not the same as Al-Rabita)
        and the Kinaidokolpitas,
        tribute here, virgin there,
        befitting my class!

        Hoop!

        War all over Leuke Tome
        and the Sabaeans
        the land of Ethiopia
        and the Sasou
        how do you do?

        Hoop!

        Gheteb is sending a shot across the bow of the Abyssinians: hey, we too had terrible kings. His title, “Standing Athwart…” comes from William F Buckley’s motto when he founded Natioanal Review and defined conservatism thusly: “Standing Athwart History and yelling, ‘stop!'” He is telling the Abyssinians who are always searching and imposing glorified narratives, stop! Right cuz?

        saay

        • ‘Gheteb

          Howdy Cuz SAAY,

          While your invocation of Fihiras songs from the EPLF is quite witty and humorous, the military campaigns of the Adulite King inscribed in “Monumentum Adulitanum” is one of the oft-quoted primary source of any Horn of Africa scholar/historian worth his/her salt. As such, one can say that this Adulite Monument has become the locus classicus of all those who have seriously studied this region of the Horn.

          You say that “standing athwart” is an import from WFB? I say you hit the bulls eye and so is locus classicus.

          • saay7

            Hala Cuz Gheteb:

            I am at that age where ancient stories of “and then I slayed them, and then I conquered them, and then I took them prisoners and had them pay tributes and I captured so many virgins” make me wince. Particularly since all those who are being conquered are common folk. I don’t know anything about this king but a dime will get you a dollar: he was a slave-trader.

            I will tune in when you get to the part about the king who built libraries, introduced new technology, improved the people’s quality of life and ruled with justice. You know: civilization Otherwise it’s “my king was just as vainglorious as your king” pissing contest with Abyssinians.

            I am standing athwart the glorification of strongmen and yelling stop!

            saay

          • ‘Gheteb

            Cuz SAAY,

            Now you want a narrative about a 3rd or 4th century AD or CE king who ” built libraries, introduced new technology, improved the people’s quality of life and ruled with justice”. Where is one to find such a king? Did they even exist? I doubt it.

            I think you are looking at this account through a twenty first century prism or benchmark. You are talking about a library? The libraries of those times consisted of stone slabs with written inscription in a language that was on its very infancy.

            It is called a civilization not as compared to contemporary civilization, but to the lives of prior or previous eras. And, the Erythraen Civilzation with Adulis at its center precisely captures that development and it ain’t about the glorification of its kings alone.

            You are proclaiming that:

            “I am standing athwart the glorification of strongmen and yelling stop!”.

            ወይ ወዲ ኣፎም ዘይረኽቦ ዘይብሉ!

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Saay,

            You may as well start packing because the best you can hope for, at least according to wiki, is a coinage motto that says: “May this please the people” during Ezana and later Ouazebas’s reign.

          • saay7

            Selam FG:

            Who are you and what have you to done to His Fantiness? Should we expect a picture with him holding today’s paper? This version of FG is a pessimist; let’s send him packing. Abi, prepare the pack animals: not the asses, but the camels 🐫

            East Africa’s classical period was 1000 BCE to 300 CE. That’s 1,300 years of civilization. Somewhere within the various competing kingdoms of Axum, Meroe, kush, and the Headless Cannibals* of Blemmeyes there’s got to be more than “and then I slew them, yay, I took their land and took their virgins” narrations.

            saay

            * of course the “headless cannibals” were neither headless nor cannibals: they were mythologized so because of that Pliny the Elder guy who just made up stuff as he went. They were Eastern Sudanese Beja which makes them Western Eritrea Beja.

          • Abi

            Hi Saay
            ዝሆኖች ሲጣሉ ብዙ ነው መዘዙ
            ራስ አቢ ይሽሹ ጥግዎን ይያዙ::
            Since you are into soccer these days don’t miss the champions league today.
            What? You don’t know champions league? Eway wurdet!!

          • saay7

            Hey Abiyot:

            ራሳቸው ራስ የሾሙ ራስ አብዮት
            ረጋ በሉ አትደባልቁ ሁለት

            Guy who hates every sports ever invented and is proud of it: SGJ
            Guy who loves every sports or can easily love it if given time (including baseball and hokey): saay

            Please make a note of it:)

            And, while I am talking about pack animals (because Fanti told me to pack my bags) why are you introducing elephants and ruining the flow? 🙂

            saay

          • Abi

            Hi Saay
            ጨዋታ አቆረፈድኩ እንዴ?
            እንዲህ ያደርገኛል አንዳንዴ
            ይቅርታ አርግልኝ የተረባ ጏዴ

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Saay,
            You are behind on one sport: watching “professor” sebhatu. I suspect professor is his name not his title. Anyway, he says something close to “Jesus’ language was Tigrinya…” then the king came to a place and said, “krttttm bel” and the place was named Khartoum! That is the new sport that’s gaining ground. Catch up sporty man:-)

          • saay7

            Hey SGJ:

            Is he one of the Facebook Live* broadcasters? There used to be a time that when you talk to yourself you were mentally off but if you talk to yourself but you have a camera facing you, you have Something Very Important to say.

            No sir I am not aware of the good professor. I am sure he has pages of research and footnotes for how and why Khartoum is krtm bel? Years ago, (back when all Eritreans said they were from a place which is NOW PART of Ethiopia) an American friend told me that he was in awe that I could speak Amharic, the language spoken by Jesus. I said you mean Aramaic and he said they are both Semitic so close enough. Winning!

            saay

            * god bless their heart, our people call it “Facebook Life”.

          • Saleh Johar

            Saay,
            No, he didn’t lose his virginity to facebook yet. He is interviewed by Antonio Tesfay three years ago–I brushed it off then but somehow, his clips are making a comeback–someone must have discovered his deep scholastic endeavor. It is worse, he quotes the bible and Babylon, when people were made to speak so many languages to be confused, Tigrinya was one of them, in Babylon, and more halewlow follows. The guy has a lot to say about Tigrinya grammar, but instead of staying there, he goes to subjects beyond his village mentality. Do you know what he calls Islam? Nay Arreb haymanot n’tigrinya godiouwa eyu–Abraham nab Ibrahim qeyiromo. It’s good to watch to see the source of inspiration of some supremacists–and with this exhibit, it’s time you conceded I am into sports more than you are.

          • saay7

            Ha SGJ:

            Our sports correspondent Abi may have more to say about it but some activity to be classified as sports (1) there must be a contest; (2) there must be clearly defined rules of engagement; (3) a score and score-keeper and most, most, most importantly (4) it must end.

            As you just pointed out, the professors address is 3 years old. To paraphrase Samuel L Jackson “3 year long sports is not one I ever saw.”

            Saay

          • Saleh Johar

            Saay,

            1. Contest: Solitaire is a popular sport. Check Las Vegas where those who play alone are more.
            2. Rules: They change with time–bashing is in, and it’s the rule.
            3. Engagement: You mean you do not count the “Likes”?
            4. Must End: If you start to play Cricket today, your child will o through high school and college before you finish it.

            Old sport: You and Samuel Jackson are wrong. It’s like Pele’s old tapes, immortal. People bring it up again for inspiration and guidance–who is Samuel Jackson?

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Saay,

            ” there’s got to be more…”

            No! I have read 5,000 years history of our ancestors and I have concluded that the number one task of any “King” was to do nothing (rare) or conquer and subdue the next available target. There doesn’t seem to have been any other purpose. Which brings a very terrifying thought. What if it is in our DNA?

            PS:
            This is the monument Ageze erected in memory of his forefathers after defeating the powerful [heroes], Awu’a, Alefe, and Tsebele.
            That is the translation of the nicely preserved Metera Monument near Senafe.

          • saay7

            Hahaha FS:

            I particularly like the emphatic “NO” which is the definitive sign of epistemic closure:) what if tomorrow some diggers find something? You dig?

            And um UNESCO seems to disagree with you: aren’t they declaring the walled city in Harrar a world heritage? They did more besides raiding and preventing raids: they had a flourishing community. They even had a library 🙂

            saay

          • Fanti Ghana

            Selam Saay,
            Okay, ok. Give me the year for my disclaimer: “from Noah to just before the Harar Wall…” followed by everything above (assuming a complete DNA check is done first on these spoilers).

            PS:
            Remember when SGJ said something like warmongering nature of Habesha not long ago? Although misunderstood by some, I knew exactly what he meant and I agreed 100% with his assessment. We may be clouded with too much “natna iyomye, Alilalomye” but something is wrong, has been wrong, for a long time.

          • saay7

            Haha Fanti:

            Why did your calendar start with Noah? Actually upright standing humans originated in East Africa. Farming was invented in East Africa, then the Fertile Crescent stole it. Well at least farming in highlands. So was domesticating animals, including hyenas. Sources not available Eich embley. Churches, monasteries, alphabets. And of course the original taco salad: using injera to scoop up lettuce drenched in lemon juice and the ocassionally lemon seed. Yummy

            saay

  • Ismail AA

    Hayak Allah ya Maulana MS,
    Yaslam qalamak. I won’t change a word. Thanks, that is what we, the ghedli generation and the young, and posterity at large, desperately; not launch ancient artifacts-oriented jingoistic patriotism.
    Regards

  • sara

    Dear Geteb
    ma’ashalah interesting article about Adulis -civilization and Zula in Eritrea , one thing which stroke me when reading your article and want to ask you is if there was connection between Andalus and Adulis ?, i am sure you know the Arab/Islam contribution to Andalusian history, can we say all the past glory of Andalusia started in Adulis by extension in modern day Eritrea..

    • A.Osman

      Dear Sara,

      You are way off, by span of time. The 800 years of Andulus ends around the “discovery” of USA…of my head. Gheteb is covering a period nearly 1000 years earlier. Am just throwing rough numbers, not a History buff, so feel free to correct.

      Regards
      AOsman

      • sara

        Dear Osman,
        thanks for your input , but still will be interesting to contemplate to find the possibility considering the migration from al jazeera north towards maghreb and forward.

        • ‘Gheteb

          Selam Sara,

          Thank you for your feedback and your comments.

          The name “Andalusia” is more likely derived from its Arabic name “Al Andalus” when these territories came under Muslim rule in the years spanning 711 to 1492.

          There are some historians that view Adulis, Eritrea, was under the control of Muslims.This probably happened at the end of the seventh century AD.

          Well, both Andalusia (Al Andalus) and Adulis were occupied by Muslims in the same periods, probably Adulis falling to the Muslims earlier.There is some similarity and closeness between “Andalus” and “Adulis”.

          Though I haven’t seen anyone one making the connection yet, I applaud you and thank you, Sara, for thinking outside the box.

  • Ismail AA

    Dear ‘Gheteb,

    The patriotic nationalism the call invokes aside, which can only be thinkable in terms of an economy of tourism, drawing national borderlines to separate knowledge accrued from history and human heritage on the aftermath of geopolitical divorce sounds to me as an overstatement. I hope some hot-headed compatriot would not take me as unpatriotic.

    But, irrespective of whoever happens to be the custodian, knowledge of any kind belongs to humanity. The historical
    relics of ancient Rome and Greece belong to me as they are to the citizens of modern Italy and Greece.
    When the case at hand is considered, forces of history that connected our nations with our neighbors had also brought about conditions that made scholars and archaeologists to deposit their findings in Ethiopia. In future, too, similar findings that may concern Ethiopians more than us could be discovered inside our borders and will have to be kept in custody of our own museums. It will odd for them to claim them and request their repatriation merely because those relics concerned their past.

    Thus, I would opine that we should not start wars for the sake retrieving scientific and archaeological relics of ancient times. We are not yet done with the wars of politicians and soldiers for sake of little disputed border areas for which families of both nations had paid unimaginable costs in lives of their loved once.
    Regards

    • sara

      Dear Mr Ismail,
      i more than up-vote you – for your usual wisdom laced comment- keep it that way please, your kind are becoming rare and less this days.

      • Ismail AA

        Dear sara,
        Thank you, dearest, I am humbled. Moderation and bridge-building are the only assets we have for closing ranks and salvaging our nation.
        Regards

  • Graviton

    peace new?

    Belew, is this the finest revisionist and reductionist expert the machinations of ghedli can come up with? In Amharic its called “Tahtawi wusibsib”.

  • Paulos

    ‘Gheteb,

    Was scratching my head till I find the word I was looking for—nonsense!

    • Abi

      Hi Paul
      I’m waiting for the English version of the article.
      Do you understand Latin?

      • Paulos

        Selam Abisensation,

        This is classic ShaEbia-consent. Manufacturing an identity through a high dose negation. The only thread that is still holding the umbilical cord is proper names as in Hailemariam D’ruE in Eritrea and Hailemariam Desalegn in Ethiopia. This commonality in names is just a matter of time till it gets a face lift as the New Year is face-lifted as Ge’ez New Year come Meskerem when January is we-are-not-the-others New Year.

        • Abi

          Hi Paul
          It can be a great bedtime story for the next generation.

    • Dear Paulos,
      According to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, the ruler of Aksum during the first century C.E. was Zoscales, who besides ruling in Aksum, also controlled two harbors on the Red Sea: Adulis (near Massawa) and Avalites (Assab). (New World Encyclopedia).
      .

  • Hayat Adem

    Gheteb,
    First of all, i think this is the first time we are reading you as an article. So, i think that is a growth and every growth has to be appreciated.
    On what you just said, I’m laughing and it seems I can’t stop. There is a story I have in my head from long ago and let me try to relate it to what is written here by Gheteb, if I can.
    ——————-
    A man with a cruel look showed up with a whip, a hammer, a gun, an ax, and a lighter, and firewood. He was meeting another person in a secluded no-man’s place. They knew each other, and the moment of their encounter looked very scary. This meeting was well planned by the armed man, and the other man was empty-handed and unaware of the purpose of their meeting.
    “Why are we meeting here?”
    “Because i wanted to tell you that we are no more partners. It is over! We are breaking up!”
    “Why?”
    “Because I say so.”
    “But does it have to be here? does it have to be like this?”
    “Yes, that is how it should be!”
    “Okay, now what? Why are you carrying all these stuff”
    “What stuff are you talking about?”
    “The lash, the hammer, the gun, the ax, the lighter, the gas and the woods..”
    “Because i need them; first, I will flog you 40 lashes; then I will knock you with the hammer; then i will shoot you, then i will ax you into pieces, then I will burn you down to ashes and then I will blow the ashes into the thin air,.. afterwards, i will think of you as a small useless particle that doesn’t exist any more in any form…”
    [Well the story doesn’t stop there but my analogy ends here…over-killing!!!]
    ————-
    Gheteb, separation happens for many reasons, some more justified than others, but it is always about the future.Never been about the past. You are trying to make it about the past. Eritrea is independent. You have it, okay. That is real! Now think of making it a suitable place for its citizens. It is not important nor necessary to effect separation of history in back-timing. That is like over-separation. Look to the future. Present day Adigrat or Ethiopians of this generation should be more important to me than Erythraeans of thousand years back or Adulis.
    ————-
    Oh, man: “A herculean task awaits those who may take upon the responsibility of liberating the Erythraean historiography from the perniciously insidious Abyssinian paradigm.” I know the merit of excavating archaeological evidences in support of authentic histories. Yours is in reverse: making up history to a claim of false evidence, and all to no good use. You are an interesting piece of human being. Two extreme positions that will always amaze me about you are the lengths you are willing to go to defend the IA regime and the lengths you are ready to go to deny the historical commonness and ties between Ethiopians and Eritreans. The separation of today is now at hand, you want to take the separation project to the past, to the Adulis era, to the Adem-eve time! Did Eritreans come from a different Adem and Eve?
    ———–
    There is an Ethiopian poet and philosopher I was told about recently. His name is Samuel Deressa (?). He was on an interview with a local media, and the interviewer asked him about his origins in a very awkward way (paraphrase):
    “Some people say, you are pure Oromo, 100%, and others say partly Amara, partly Oromo. What is the truth?”
    The poet went on pause for a while. He must have been thinking the vanity of an aspect of humanity loaded in the question, it self, and then he had to say this:
    “In a region where many Oromo Nomads touched almost every part of the land, no one would know if any one of the cattle herders happened to visit the doors of our great, great grand mothers and; hence it is totally a futile exercise to claim purity of this or that.”
    ——————
    TGheteb, a person like you, who fondly speaks of the “The Other War”, back jumps in time thousands of years and claim an alternative story?! That is a personality complex enough for a subject study. But thanks for the entertaining aspect of it .

    • iSem

      Hi Hayat and Paulos:
      Hayat: You found this funny: “A herculean task awaits those who may take upon the responsibility…..”
      But Gheteb is correct to go back centuries to use the proverbial antropological sieve to construct ” macro” Identity , to separate the Eritrean Genome is indeed herculean, not easy task
      But there is huge dose of irony from Gheteb, he is that purist, yet he argues that IA is Eritrean
      But I find the following of his comment funny, funny as in weird, unhinged, given the state of Eritrea is in, he has his own universe and this is what he said to Sal:

      “Let us suppose that Abraham the son of Isaias happens to be a smart, energetic and competent person with a huge potential of growth. Let us also say that he is as visionary as his dad and has hoarded and inherited a repertoire of experience by watching his dad in action and having been in the close proximity to the nerve center of the Eritrean body politic.”

      Paulos: how can one hoard repertoire? hoard means to collect valuable things secretly and repertoire means a set of skills that some one reguraly uses, so how can you hoard some that you habitually employ and you exhibit. For example Gheteb’s repertoire is obscure, Latinated words, he does not hoard them, he generously abundantly , bountifuly shows them off

      • Paulos

        Selam iSem,

        You’re precisely right simply because there is no point in defeating the already defeated argument.

      • Hayat Adem

        Sem Anbessa,
        That is funnier… but that is Gheteb. he made his world by IA standard. Then, he is trying to right-size the entire world into the IA box. He is playing it like this: Since Abraham is coming from the blood of IA, then it must be assumed he may be the best choice. It has to be automatically assumed and approved instantly. If you were to propose a different name maharbA, he would suggest endless vetting processes assuming he might be the wrong person. If it is Abraham, he assumes for all qualities to be there.
        Gheteb acts a dog in dog world when comes to IA. Dogs time sense is simple: yesterday, now and tomorrow. To the dog, anything outside the now is either yesterday or tomorrow. If something happened a minute earlier, to the dog, it happened yesterday. If a dog has saved and buried a bone somewhere days ago, he will go to revisit the spot thinking about the bone it saved yesterday. Dog’s future time is all bundled together as “tomorrow”. I don’t know if Gheteb has ever been a dog in his other life, but dogs also divide all animals as bad or good or favored and disfavored. Rita said I wonder if other dogs think poodles are members of a weird religious cult. So Gheteb is thinking of Abraham as a poodle and his cult about IA is well known. For Gheteb, the world is divided into three eras: before IA, IA and after IA.

  • Selamat GiAwatistas,

    ^ your graphics! Abu AAshera Weopon X.

    tSAtSE

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