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Reflecting on Eritrean International Women’s Day

Saying that Colonialism changed the trajectory of the world history for the worst is to state the obvious. But, historicizing and contextualizing in order to understand the process by which it “essentialised, totalized, and dichotomized” (see Spivak’s work on this) the societies it subjugated, thereby creating an “Other”(with big ‘O’) out of them is one clear way it delineated a marker of separation from its civilized Western ways. The ‘Other’ is, of course, the indigenous community, one that is in need of civilizing. Now, enter the postcolonial world of International Women’s Day (IWD), a day in which women from across the world continue to highlight their achievements and the struggles that have yet to be won. A little over a century since the inception of International Women’s Day (IWD), for examples, women in Saudi Arabia highlighted IWD by running, yes as simple as jogging, that Western women take for granted is a monumental milestone for these women in Saudi Arabia in their journey for equality. Eritrean women of Europe decided to do everything by themselves without any intervention of their counterparts, at least, that was the initial plan. Somehow, one Eritrean man managed to be on the guest list – one couldn’t help but wonder why. The latter is the least of the worries here, a mere passing statement.

The central aim of this article is to try to nip the noticeable mimicry of the colonial project in postcolonial world by Eritrean women – wittingly or unwittingly – falling into this essentializing trap, creating a subaltern woman out of Eritreans as this “other” with a small ‘o’ if you’d like.

Look closely at the lonely woman victoriously holding the torch. Who is this Eritrean woman? Who does she represent? Must only one woman be the one to hold the torch of victory?

These issues are being raised, mind you, not necessarily to target an individual; rather, it is meant for Eritrean women to avert from falling into the trap of the Western feminism, where there is this one heroine who burns the bra, and she is an instant celebrity who speaks on behalf of all women forgetting all along, the other group of women from minority background, whose experience, whose oppression can never be represented, nor could be addressed by this Western woman who has had all the privileges when there was a master and a slave history; she was the privileged one whose servant was a black woman when the world rid off slavery and whose servant today is other minority groups. The shades and the hues may have changed in that it might be an African/Eritrean or Latina, woman servant cleaning her house to this – yet – privileged woman from the dominant culture.

This is what I found worrisome in the Eritrean version of International Women’s Day. That the dominant culture dominating the entire narrative to a point of the letter that was written to the ICC was not shared so those of us who weren’t able to make it to the event could at least give our feedback – some such request fell on blatant deaf ears. IWD is a moment to evaluate on improvements made, to call for change and to celebrate acts of bravery and willpower made by women who have played an amazing role in the history of their respective countries and communities. It goes without saying that Eritrea is a home to all of us, particularly, as Eritrean women we have unique responsibility and role to play as we try to puncture the deeply rooted patriarchal system that exists within Eritrea and the attendant intersectionality that makes it rich with various traditions, cultures, and religions.

A person’s sense of belonging is mediated through one’s engagement with the social environment – in Eritrea’s case, by one’s political social and religious affiliations, among other factors. Consequently, people respond differently to discourses about Eritrea – but in each case seeking recognition and respect for their point of view in the community/country is of monumental importance. I am aware that the principles behind this conference initiative is meant to elevate the discourse from within our internal differences that I alluded to above.

I commend my sisters’ efforts to make amends in trying to accommodate to all sectors of Eritrean society. I must, however, make a mention of future goals in how they should be planned with an all-inclusive body of eclectic backgrounds coming together from the start because making changes to accommodate others’ needs as a hindsight is like changing course midstream, which is difficult to do.

Next time, I hope and trust that there should be representational equity where the invitees and inviters are equitably distributed. In other words, we should work together as associates. What I mean here is to start everything we do together and help each other and raise the issues that should empower us as globally conscious Eritrean women. We can certainly learn from the Western feminism where white women were at the forefront speaking on behalf of all women across the Western hemisphere as stipulated above, the unintended consequences of such ‘othering’ would only lead to fissures and divisions. The obvious lessons that one can learn to avert splits is to be not only cognizant of that fact but to act on it appropriately and adequately. Otherwise, much as feminism continues to be divided along the color line (Black feminism), along ethnic line (Latina feminism and/or Asian feminism), which were left with no option but to rise to the occasion and address their own issues that they felt was being neglected by the dominant white feminist movement.

Eritrean women can hardly afford to be divided along similar divisive lines, where such divisions are delicately held together. I am not saying we are there, but if we don’t be cognizant of this fault-line, it will forever hamper us from making the much-needed progress that we want to make as we wish to change the mindset that has deeply held cultural and patriarchal roots.

Like many Afro European women, we are citizens of several countries, nevertheless, we are women who care deeply about our people/women in Eritrea. The Eritrean women contributed and participated as other Eritreans in the struggle for independence. During the war of independence, all Eritreans overlooking their religious, ethnic and regional differences fought together against a common enemy. In the process, strong bonds of trust were developed. However, in the post-independence period, the exclusion of women from the political power structure in various civil and political organizations has had a very negative impact on the relations between the groups that support different political enclaves. The later affected us on different levels and as women, we should empower ourselves and by extension, the rest of our society.

For this to happen, however, we must find common ground that we can all agree upon so as to overcome our dysfunctional ways. Duplication and replications have been our folly in every attempt that we undertake: In civic/civil societies, in humanitarian work, in the political landscape, the proliferation of Eritreans wanting to do something about the plight of their sisters and brothers, about their countrywomen and countrymen while impressive, it must be curbed down. Our efforts are not being maximized if we keep on replicating the very work that many others are doing. We must find a way of working together. Let this event that just passed be the beginning. Let this be a turning point toward working together, toward a common goal: To alleviate the pain being endured by Eritrean women/men abroad and inside the country. If we do a good job as women and men, namely by working together and by recognizing each other’s pain we can achieve what has been impossible in Eritrea and the diaspora.

Thank you!

Sadia Hassanen, PhD, Stockholm University
sadia.hassanen@socant.su.se,

 

 

 

 

About Dr. Sadia Hassanen

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  • Kbrom

    Dear all,

    Tzigereda has brought very important topic, do you think we have discussed enough about terminologies and words, what about we discuss on this important issue that deals with the questions how articulate are Eritreans, why do not we have the culture of political discussion, is there difference in the different social and language groups? I am putting a new thread so we can easily see it and discuss, sorry Awate if I am overstepping my boundaries and hijacking the moderators authority. Please tell me ብእዋኑ if I am doing so ንኢሳያስ እውን ከምዚኣ ኢላ ኢያ በብቑሩብ ጀሚራቶ ዲክታቶርነት፡ ህዝቢ ድማ ብኣግኡ ያዕ ኣይበልናዮን፡ ብሻብኡ ዳኣ ያዕ በሉኒ።

    Hi Tzigeta

    This is a great lesson Tsigeta, I did not see it from that perspective, thank you for the heads up. I stand corrected.

    In regard to your question ‘how articulate are we eritreans? Is there a difference in the different social groups of Eritrea?’ I think it is difficult to generalize buy yes there is there a difference in the different social groups.

    The Tigre speakers are more articulated, confident and honest when they speak, this has to do with the way they are raised. In Metahit there is more democracy, say for example if an old man meets in the Wadi (ruba) a young boy (6 years old), he will greet him like an adult, ask him (discuss) about the graze, the cattle, the rain etc. for a lengthy of time. Unlike what we do in Kebessa during the meal time, in the Metaht the children eat with their parents, discuss the topic of the day – compare this with how we grew up ኣቦኻ ክሳብ ዝበልዑ ውጻእ፥ ጋሻ ተመጺኦም ሰላሕ ኢልኩም ደገ ውጹ ሙሽ ተባሂልኩም።

    In Kebesa you hardly see your father, whilst in the Metehat he is your friend and your mentor. I remember an incident that happened in one household during ዕግርግር ኣስመራ። Due to the state of emergency the father started to come early evening to his house, so the first day he came early his son went out of the room and his mother asked him ናበይ ደኣልካ ትወጽእ እገለ ወደይ and the son replied ሙሽ ጋሻ ተመጺኡ ውጹ ኢልክና።

    The is also more transparency and honesty in the Metaht compared to Kebessa. This has to do with the landscape. Especially during the ወራራት መሳፍንቲ ትግራይ in kebessa people tended to develop the culture of cautiousness, ኪድሞ ደድሕሪኡ ስዒብካ ኣበይ ከምዝኣቱ እንታይ ከምዝገብር ረኣዮ፥ ሕቶታት ተሓቲቱካ ልብኻ ኣይትሃቦ፡ ኣቦኻ ገዛ ኣሎዶ ተይሉካ ባሕሪ ወፊሩ በሎ እንታይ ከምዝገብር መታን ክንርእዮ።

    Unlike Kebessa the landscape in Metahit is plain field where they can see any one including their enemies from afar; that makes them straight forward or chiaro, as we use to say in Italiano; hence they are relaxed, they do not need to mislead and misinform each other. There was not much werarat either that makes them suspicious and cautious.

    The landscape in Kebessa which is so mountainous, had the history of some one coming from behind and back stabbing (not literally meaning), hiding until the time of the attack, waiting the right time to revenge, hence the culture of honesty became like the landscape with much hiding places and opportunities for intrigues.

  • Paulos

    Howdy ‘ol,

    The buck certainly stops with Aya Saleh Johar. If he says, the Tigrinya equivalence has overstayed and gone too far, well, we will have to shift gears and comment on something else instead but till then here goes an extreme mini-Hateta.

    The word ከኒና has been a generic name for us for all kinds of medications ranging from antibiotics to say blood pressure medication. Of course, the corrupted version we adopted from is Quinine, a versatile natural compound which has saved as historians put it, Africa from being a “White-man’s grave yard” simply because Quinine significantly reduced the spread of Malaria through out. As it happened, Quinine itself is a corrupted version of a tree-bark called Chincona [pronounced as kinkona] where the alkaloid compound Quinine is extracted from.

    Here is another cool stuff where Hailat, Abrehet, Kbromay, Emma and the new thesaurus on the block Kebessa will be needed: the name Malaria was derived from an Italian word “Mala-Aria” as in Bad-Air for they assumed that bad air was the main cause. The question is why do we call it ዓሶ?

    • Denmarkino,

      Bad air ha? I will just clear my throat like ኢሕሕሕምምም and wait to be educated.
      Awate U Rocks!

      Ehhhmmm Asso Ehhhmmm Ass’o … bad air you don’t sayyyy…

      Blessed Sunday to all,

      ኣንጉዕ-ጻጸ

      • Paulos

        Tsatse Arkey,

        You should see me laughing. As we say it in back home: ማይ ስተየሉ better yet ስዋ ጽራይ.

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Selam Dr Psulos,

      It is s very interesting to learn “ከኒና” is derived from “Quinine” the first generation of anti-malaria drugs. Can you give us more history to it? I know it is not the first drug that was introduced to the Eritrean people.

      Second, I will give my guess on “ዓሶ”. ዓሶ ካብ “ምዕሳው” ዝመጸ ቃል እዩ:: ዓሶ (malaria) ኣብ ግዜ ክረምቲ ኣብ ዓሳዊ ቦታታት (ponds, swamps) ከም Anopheles mosquitoes the primary vector or carrier ዝባዝሕሉ ዝመጸ ኣጻዋውዓ ኮይኑ ይስመዓኒ:: It is a kind of logical name attributed to the source of the disease. Me think, until I hear the history of the name.

      Regards

      • Paulos

        Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

        As you have said it, Quinine is the parent drug where other generation drugs followed afterwards when the protozoan parasites that cause Malaria turned out to be multiple in genera. For instance, we have Plasmodium falciparum [the nastiest one], Plasmodium vivax to mention but a few and the drug had to be modified and designed to attack on the specific stage of the parasites’ life cycle.

        In a more philosophical underpinning, the Gaia hypothesis claims that planet Earth is an organic entity where it continually sustains itself where for every downside in life [a disease in this case] it provides a solution or an upside for it. The fact that Quinine is extracted from a plant, it is Earth’s way of mending the scrooges of diseases. We get Digoxine, the anti-arrhythemia medication from the plant Foxgloves including Atropine the medication for tachycardia [fast heartbeat], we get it from the plant Atropa belladona for instance. And of course many more antibiotics as well.

        Here is something rather interesting about Malaria. A branch of Medicine that has been gaining momentum at least from a theoretical point of view is “Darwinian Medicine”, where its central tenet illustrates that, if diseases didn’t have some sort of intrinsic or inherent benefit for our collective survival, they would have been weeded out through the forces of Natural Selection, hence the term “Darwinian Medicine.” In short, every disease has a benefit for our survival.

        As it happened, Malaria is mostly prévalent in tropical regions where mostly black people live as in in Africa. And Sickle Cell anemia is mostly seen in the black population. Here is the cool thing though, most of the people with Sickle Cell anemia do not get Malaria even if they get bitten by the vector mosquito. The thing is, the fact that the parasite that causes Malaria attacks and survives with in the red blood cells, they can not survive with in the sickled red blood cells for the structure of the blood cells is deformed ማዕጺድ ይመስሉ hence the name Sickle. And the rationale behind Darwinian Medicine is that, the reason the people have the Sickle Cell disease is to protect them from Malaria.

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Hi Dr Paulos,

          I am reserved from going in to an abstract “medicinal chemistry” in this forum, for It limits the participation of the forumers. And at the same time it divert us from the subject you and Haile wanted us to discuss: that is, finding equivalent names in tigrigna for common prevalent diseases.

          Regards

          • Paulos

            Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

            I agree. And I thought the thing you said about ዓሶ was ingenious. It makes perfect sense. Thank you Sir!

  • Kebessa

    Haile, Paulos, Amanuel and any one else interested,
    While on the subject, let’s test your Tigrigna:
    Among the many, name five “domestic”and five “wild” trees found in Eritrea. Bonus points if you list more.

    • Paulos

      Selam Kebessa,

      That’s a tough one.

      Sh’bakha
      QelamiTos
      Mommona
      Ts’Hdi
      QeyiH-Omm as in RedWood.

      I am stuck and run out. Damn.

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Kebessa,

        Let me start with wild trees;

        አውሊዕ ስራው ታህሳስ ክሊዓው ዋይባ ጊንዳዕ ቆንጠፍጠፈ ሒሖት ንሕባ ዓየ ሳግላ ሐንሰ ወዘተ ንግዚኡ::

        Domestic trees;
        ቀሌምጦስ ሽባኻ አውሐ ዳዕሮ በለስ …ንግዚኡ

    • Peace!

      Hi Kebesa,

      1 ቀላሚንጦስ
      2 ቅንጭቢት
      3 ሒሖት
      4 ስየ
      5 ቀቀብ (maple)

      Wild
      ?
      ?

      Peace!

    • Haile S.

      Selam kebessa,
      ድማ – boabab
      ቈልቋል – Euphorbia
      ጋባ -?
      ዖበል – tamarin
      ሞሞና
      ስኖባር
      ጭዓ

    • Kebessa

      Haile, Peace, Paulos, Amanuel,
      Thanks for playing. I have a little more to add to what you all listed.
      (I know Kokhob Selam is working on a longer list:)

      ገለ ካብ ኣእዋም ዘቤት
      ጋባ፣ ዓላ፣ ኣውሒ፣ ቀላሚጦስ፣ ሽባኻ፣ ጽሕዲ፣ ተምሪ፣ ቆልቋል፣ ቅንጭቢ፣ ካዝሜር፣ ሞሞና

      ገለ ካብ ኣእዋም ዘገዳም
      ጎኖቕ፣ ዓንዴል፣ ወይባ፣ ሳግላ፣ ዳዕሮ፣ ታህሶስ፣ ሰራው፣ ዓንቋ፣ ዓርኮብኮባይ፣ መቒዕ፣ ጨዓ

      ቁጥቋጥ (ቆጣቑጢ)
      ዳንዴር፤ ዓጥዓጥ፤ ሰምበሃምቦ፤ ቆንጠፍጠፈ፤ ሓረግ፤ ሒሖት፤ ኣውሊዕ፤ ክሊዓው፣ ኣጉለ፤ ዕረ፤ ኣምዐ፤ ሮማዲ፤ ቃንጥሻ፤

      ገለ ካብ ፍረታት
      ጋባ፣ ኣውሒ፣ ወይኒ፣ ዓበርካኻ፣ ኩመል፣ ቱፋሕ፤ ምልዖ፤ በለስ፤ ኣሽንጦ፤ ኩዕንቲ፣ ዓየ

      ናይ ሃይለ ድማ፣ ዖበልን ስኖባርን ከምኡ’ውን ናይ ፒስ ቀቀብን ነእዛነይ ሓደስቲ’የን – thanks for that.

      • Paulos

        Selam Kbur Memhir Kebessa,

        What a treat! Thank you so much Sir! God bless!

  • Haile S.

    Selam Awate nation,
    First my apologies for staying narrowly on Tigrigna language and cultural issues. It is due to absence or limited knowledge of the other sister and brother languages and cultures. Hopefully they will be raised in one form or another and we will be able to enrich ourselves. Now we seem to be sleepy untill the next article wakes as up. To end my questioning on tigrigna words, here is my last question:
    What are the tigrigna words for paralysis and for cancer.

    • Paulos

      Hailat,

      I think it is Lmsset and Menshro.

      • Haile S.

        Hey Paul,
        ልምሰት – ካብ ኣምሓርኛ ጉትት ኣቢልካ ዘምጻእካያ እይ ትመስል። ካልእ ኣምጽእ።
        መንሽሮ – yes, but is there any other word?

        • Paulos

          Hailat,

          ደርሆ ከኣቅሜ በላይ ነው ኢላ ይባሃል. Will have to call for a back up. Abrehet haftey ኣለኺ’ዶ?

          • Kbrom

            Dear Dr Paulos

            መሸም ደርሆ ዓቕላ ከተጽብብ መዓትያ፡ ከምትፈልጣ ማይ ኣይትኽእልን እንድያ ሓደ እዋን ንእንቁሮዖብ ክትበጽሓ ከይዳስ፡ ኣብቲ ዕቛር ማይ ንእለቱ ዒቕ ዒቕ በለት፡ ሽዑ እንቅሮዖብ ከምዚ በለታ። ኣሻበኽን ኣብሻይ ደርሆ ሓደ ጣሳ እኳ ዘይሰተኽን። As per frog’s standard a cup of water is insignificant.

            I really like when animals use proverbs: my favourite one is this:
            ሰብ ኣይርአ በለ ዝብኢ ምስተዓንቀፈ

          • Paulos

            Selam Kbromay,

            Glad you’re in this forum. That’s so funny. Thank you.

            ናይ ኣቦታትና genius was a remarkable ability to express their sense of reality with the things familiar to them where in this case is using either ዘቤታዊ or ዘዳግም እንስሳታት and their characters by putting in a context.

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Selam Paulos, Kbrom and Haile
            In general we should refrain from equating the Tigrigna names for diseases to exact scientific diseases as we know them in modern day.
            Aya Haile, the older dictionaries are very useful in that you do find some forgotten words. I imagine a foreign anthropologist pointing at something and asking a native “what do you call that?” will then jot down the answer. Each of them, the one asking and the one answering keep their assumptions. It reminds me of the story that “Kangaroo” means “what did you say?”. The foreigner asked the Australian native “what do you call that” and the native responded “what did you say/Kangaroo?”.
            Kbrom,
            The proverb about the hyena is deep. Since we say hyena limps, when a hyena says “seb ayr’e” I imagine it means “Now they will have confirmation of their assumption.” I will continue to ponder that.

          • Paulos

            Selam Abrehet,

            I hear you. The attempt is not to find equivalence but to come up with our own words instead of using foreign words. For instance, we say ዓባይ ሳዓል for T.B. and ክሳድነቀጽ for Meningitis for one of the symptoms is stiff neck. Imagine, we came up with these equivalents precisely because the prevalence of the diseases was high. And as the average life span is increasing and people are living into an old age, the incidence of the diseases of old age increases and the need to come up for an old age disease say for Parkinson’s* becomes imperative. How about ነብሲነቀጽ for Parkinson’s for one of its main symptoms is stiff body.

            *Parkinson’s can happen in an early age as well where the brave Michael J. Fox unfortunately had the deaseas in such a young age.

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Selam Paulos,
            It would be useful to link up with the good doctor’s back home. I am sure they have come up with a good terminology specially for the medics and nurses who are working directly with the general population. I talked to a friend who told me they have an app they developed that a list of name of the diseases and symptoms associated with it. I will try to get in touch and share if I get any feedback.

          • Kbrom

            Dear Paulos,

            (Please read this post noting that it is written by some one who is absolutely ignorant in the academic discipline of of Medicine and Health Sciences.

            I can see well where you are coming from. Do you think ነብሲነቀጽ would not describe the broad sense of the disease which includes the ዘይነብሲ part of the disease which includes thinking and behavioural degeneration, emotional problems, sensory problems etc. What about ምድዕሳስ ነብሰ ኣእምሮ if we agree on ምድዕሳስ as degeneration we have another option which is oምድዕሳስ ስርዓተ ምቁጽጻር ነርቭ as the disease is mainly related to the central nervous system.

          • Paulos

            Selam Kbromay,

            That is a good point. I agree. On a lighter note, I wonder if Isaias gives the final approval including to newly coined medical terms. የድሕነና እዩ ዘብል.

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Hailat,

          “ልምሰት” “ለሚሱ” “ለሚሳ” ጽሩይ ትግርኛ እዩ:: ነቲ “ቃል” ክልተ ብቋንቋ ዝፋላለዩ ሕብረተ-ሰብ ስለዝጥቀምሉ: ንሕና ዋናታቱ አየስምዕን እዩ:: ንምኻኑ ክልቲኡ ቋንቋኮ ግእዝ’ዩ መበቆሉ:: ስለዚ ንዘይአራኻኽበና ቃላት ምስ ካልኦት ሕብረት-ሰብ ሃሰስ ንምባል ጠቃሚ ኣይኮነን በሃሊ እየ::

          Regards

          • Haile S.

            Selam Emma,
            First, I am not the dictionary of tigrigna; therefore I can be biased by what I know and/or don’t know. I am not searching for purified tigrigna, but for enriching our knowledge of tigrigna. As you and others has reiterated the danger of adopting easily words from other languages, I tend to question origin resemblance of words and in the process a blunder is not excluded. However, we should be careful from politicising everything. Look forwards to your proposition of other word for paralysis.
            Best

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Hailat,

            ንዓባ ሃይላት: ጉዳይ ቋንቋ ናብ ቁርቁስ ፖለቲካ ዘእቱ ኣይኮነን:: ምኽንያቱ ቋንቋ ንመላእ ሕብረተ-ሰብ ይምልከት: ፓለቲካ ግን ንተወሰነ ጉጅለ ሕብረተ-ሰብ ብዓለመ-ርእይትኦም ዝተአሳሰሩ ኮይኖም ንስልጣን ዝጥቀምሉ መናውራት እዩ:: ስለዚ ኣብዚ ተላዒሉ ዘሎ ዛዕባ እንታይ አምጸኦ ናይ ፖለቲካ ስክፍታ:: ግን ከአ ንሕና ኤርትራውያን አብ ንካተዓሎም አርእስታት ኣብዘይ ንሰማመዓሉ ግዜ ፖለቲካዊ ምኽንያታት ከም ነሕዝሎም ርዱእ’ዩ:: ስለዚ ከምኡ ዓይነት ከተተንብህ ከለኻ አይገርመንን እዩ:: ዝኾነ ኾይኑ ብወገነይ ናብ ፓለቲካዊ ስሕበት ዝህብን ዘይህብን አጸጸየ ዝፈልጦ ስለዝኾንኩ ብዙሕ ስክፍታ አይተሕድር ዝሓወይ:: So no politics in the conversation of language usages.

            ካልኣይ “ንልሞሰት” for paralysis ስለዘይተቀበልካዮ ካልእ ደ። እንተለካ ዘስምዕ ኣታሓሕታ ጌይርካ እንደገና ሓቲትካኒ:: ንዕኡ ዝምልከት መልሲ’ሞ በቲ ዘዕበየኒ ቋንቋ ገይረ’ኮ ሂበካ እየ:: ሕጂ’ሞ ካብቶም መማህራን ትግሪኛን ካብቶም ካልእደአ አምጽእ ዝብሉኒ ዘለው ጥራይ እየ ዝጽበ::

            Regards

          • Haile S.

            Emma,
            “ስለዚ ንዘይአራኻኽበና ቃላት ምስ ካልኦት ሕብረት-ሰብ ሃሰስ ንምባል ጠቃሚ ኣይኮነን በሃሊ እየ” ዝበልካዮ ተተርጓሚ ክኸውን ስለዝኽእል እየ።
            Here are the words that I had for the 2 words:
            Paralysis – መጻጉዕ
            Cancer – ግዝዋ። ግዝዋ is also a moth (kind of night butterfly). These are words that I got from old dictionaries I mentioned yesterday. From what I heard being used ግዝዋ is likely skin cancer like papillloma or fibropapillomas.
            Any feedback is welcome.

          • Paulos

            Selam Hailat,

            I disagree. The disfigurement of the nose which we wrongly tend to attribute it to Gizwa or Moth is actually called Rhinophima. You can see the word Rhino is added to it for the nose looks more like the animal Rhino. And it definitely is not cancer but a hypertrophic reaction of the glands with in the skin of the nose.

          • Haile S.

            Hi Paulos,
            Point well taken. The interpretation and linking is mine, thus my mistake. The dictionary I referred to defines cancer as ግዝዋ. At any rate that is how we get to the closest or plausible significance of things. Thanks a lot.

          • Paulos

            Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

            As you know, Poliomyelitis is extremely common in Eritrea particularly in infants or toddlers, as such, it is natural for the society to conjure up so to speak a word for its main manifestations in this case which is paralysis—Limset. If we think about it, the frequency of a word reflects its usage with in a given society. For instance, we don’t have a word for say Parkinson’s or Alotropic Lateral Sclorosis [ALS] which Stephen Hawking had where its prevalence and incidence are very small. The flip side of the argument is that, if the incidence or prevalence was high, we would have had a name or word for it. Hope you got the point I am trying to make.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Dr Paulos,

            Yes I did. It is understood, that for some rare diseases in our country, it is not easy to find exact translated names. Even to many scientific terms and languages. My problem is with those who go for research and come with their own vocabularies in lieu to our existing words. Limset is a perfect tigrigna word we grew up with before even we know Amharic, and here now we are being told, it is Amharic. Our fathers and grandfathers who do not know Amharic know limset as their own common word in their communication.

    • blink

      Dear Haile
      Your apologies accepted sir but now read how we can change this to politics of the Eritreans opposition game. Read me ,You guys are changing the game of languages in this forum , you the highlanders are over represented in this forum ( saay, 2Amanuel , 2 haile, Aman, tsighereda, 2 Sara, 2semere, Gezae,kibrom, Thomas, i suspected also peace , and you still are pushing the dominant language to dominate more 😂 😂 😂.

      • Haile S.

        Selam Blink,
        You forgot many including MS. Mahmoud, with his exquisite knowledge of tigrigna and his unique way he composes his tigrigna poems, he is higher than us the highlanders.
        BTW if tigrayt is your mother language, please put some line of poem or a story. Even if I don’t understand, I will try to using available tigrait dictionaries.

  • said

    Greetings,
    Leadership matters and EPLF movement is defined by its Leader IA
    Eritrean regime can do anything with impunity what so ever, does it matter to the Leadership. The struggle of Eritrean people is connected to struggles of unite of Eritrean people first and utmost and should have being. and each struggle is unique according to our own internal predicaments. IA Leadership imposed his fascist framework onto our people and route of it started with IA Leadership of EPLF.
    Just like Ethiopian feudal imperial army attacks against Eritrean civilian. They completely Destroyed town and villages. Dismembered bodies and dislocated people are carefully hidden from the view of proper Ethiopia, unless the shock of inhumanity is needed to mobilize Ethiopian domestic nationalistic fever and awareness and create momentum of “united Ethiopian” to justify colonial atrocities against Eritrean. In the interior of Eritrea where war and the struggle for freedom was taking place, Eritrean civilian took its heaviest tool and burnt. Eritrean mass forced refuge to leave and with their crying babies, dying elderlies, the normalcy of deaths, sufferings and pains was daily affair, that created new and urgent signals rushing through Eritrean nerves which have guided us in building intimate families, true friendships and strong communities and were are harvested to drive the war machine against Ethiopian feudal imperial army.
    But with Leadership of IA, was not the case, the student of Chairman MAO, was not the case. We know that for IA, everything is all about IA, all the time. That IA’s guiding principle is whatever’s best for IA right now and then. IA is psychopath and sick mind. That IA is never to blame, and he was good scapegoating the others and never nor to be held responsible, for anything went wrong or bad. IA has used his dictatorial powers, to leads EPLF to his wimp and free to commit all kind of crimes against any Eritrea, EPLF cadre extermination, and his inhumane acts is fact. some of the IA crime and atrocities could have being prevented long time ago. Eritreans collectively, does not need to meekly allow IA to slaughter our populations like standing goat and sheep to be slaughtered and just stand by watching or amuse ourselves with useless staff. We have more than enough of IA long list of crime, it high time to stop him, before he is able and he can fully carry out his final grand crimes that will make these past killings much more less ,it is unavoidable. IA hardcore policies are very cruel, inhumane and his criminal attack on large populations of our people throughout Eritrea is well is on going.
    Fast truck EPLF introduction of communist ideology harvested Eritrean youth, their beliefs, values, religions, hearts, minds, brains, and norms have been colonized by the force of propaganda that has built enormous power and became a formidable FORCRES of violence. The blunt psychic trauma paralyzed EPLF cadre ,their will and courage as well those elite and educated class who sold their principles to the blind leadership of IA. Real fear and projection of the hard core of EPLF criminal souls flood the atmosphere with lies and deceptions firmly harnessing Eritrean emotions onto schemes of self-inflicted pain, secretly ,subliminally and intentionally created sectarian division and disputes and EPLF cadre to obey unconditional obedience to IA ,the merciless, ruthless master of death and suffering. And to herd the EPLF cadre into the framework of submission and some received heavy and sever corporal punishments and make example of them. by imposing obedience or self-destruction to any one out of line and want to follow different human and true path and not criminal ideology. That is what they have done to enforce discipline among EPLF cadre, and to keep the whole thing in line. which really is an invisible IA caste hierarchy order known only to few. This explains the odd subservience of EPLF rank and file cadre marching blindly so on and so forth.
    When I see my fellow Eritrean people, bending and kneeling so far backward to kiss a nefarious backside of the IA /PFDJ regime establishment, and their urgent need to be accepted and being part in the power of the highly structured hierarchy of IA and his violence.one wonders to what end ? Anyone in EPLF /PFDJ and their criminal power hierarchy can become “other”. Eritrean in our long history, experienced as the other, as we have and had “many kind of political others, religious other ,ethnic other and so on might perhaps inform us the true nature of the EPLF /PFDJ for those who have a hard time seeing it. Guarding Dog, they will become the other eventually.
    After all we are but one people as Eritrean and more importantly as god created human species struggling to save ourselves from our collective predicament of IA /PFDJ regime oppression and subjugation and the real threat to nation of Eritrea extinction.
    Even today Eritrean in diaspora are deeply puzzled in whitewash of IA crime, how he is welcomed when comes to visit and shamelessly they glorify him. IA long kill list and oppressive violent crime and so on didn’t register as criminal to many Eritrean in diaspora. Therefore, some of Eritrean end up wondering why Eritrean people in Eritrea or diaspora faithfully go along with IA and his criminal policies even if that might be contrary to their own and national interests. The very EPLF and Eritrean population that have allowed the monster IA to grow and so much to endure, today they face mass incarceration, violence, massive poverty, worst health crisis, worst education crisis and dead economy and so on. But the EPLF/PFDJ trajectory mind trick somehow renders their powerlessness less visible than the powerlessness of Eritrean people. Within the EPLF/PFDJ power hierarchy, Eritrean common men and women are powerless and disposable regardless of their position and ethnicity and faith.
    EPLF/PFDJ, must pretend and look to be detached from material reality and remain as an invisible caste order for the system to perpetuate itself by inflicting suffering and structural violence against innocent Eritreans and turns some of our population into accomplices of the unimaginable atrocities with regime criminal policy. IA cohort hierarchy in continuing to accumulate power and material resources for themselves. For those few Eritrean who see through the path of our humanity must ask the obvious question; why don’t all Eritrean stand united on the same ground, first and utmost in protecting the peoples of Eritrean? EPLF blind order of hierarchy forced upon its cadre was unethical, inhumane and against Eritrean values and belief and laws. EPLF/PFDJ trajectory of its past must have been easy considering the horrendous things they continue to do to Eritrean people
    If we get together united and use the creative insight intelligence and bravery that’s could been used to stop IA crime in leading EPLF and Eritrea , this fact, uncourtly and unfortunately, EPLF leadership had resources necessary to hide its criminal fact, EPLF spy networks well planted to hide this fact, the mental concocting propaganda of EPLF to hide the fact, the series of crewel method to hide this fact, EPLF/PFDJ , Anyone who attempts to point out the plight of oppressed Eritrean will be eliminated in broad daylight.
    the end result of IA Leadership, certainly brought no democracy, freedom and justice and Leadership of IA could not manage to create new modern Eritrea beyond his dictatorship.

  • blink

    Dear readers
    AS usuall IGAD said Ethiopia has no problem and it doesn’t need any help.
    1. TPLF got 1/2 billion dollar help and loan from world bank
    2.ኢጋድ ኣብ ፖለቲካዊ ኩነታት ኢትዮጵያ ጣልቃ ምእታው ኣየድልዮን ይብሉ ዋና ጸሓፊ’ቲ ትካል
    3. Tens of thousands from Moyale are in Kenya and TPLF thugs gave warnings to NGO
    4. The killings continue while the blocked of tlf and internet is on place in Amhara and Oromo region ( Debretsion said You need only to be government to shutdown the two)

    The coverage about weyane in the western media still dormant. Can we imagine if this was in Iran ? The hypocrisy of TEWEKEL very elusive guy who hide behind Sibhat Nega and see the killing of thousands of Ethiopians . The guy a loser and a sale out of his masters. He is a failure of journalism , he should be ashamed to stay there . What an embarrassing figure he is .

  • Paulos

    Selamat Awatistas,

    Today was pretty intense crash course on diseases and their equivalent meanings in Tigrigna. I would say the people who read the comments of a great substance run in thousands but the actively engaged in the forum are few and far between. That said, I am grateful to Hailat, Abrehet, Professor A. Hidrat, Ato Kbrom, Kokhobay, Dr. Tzigereda, Semerile, Nitrikay, Sal, Semere T. and of course Muhamuday [for starting the thread] for their invaluable contribution today. The motto is never stop learning!

  • blink

    Dear readers
    Sometimes it is ok to go back even though it is hard.
    Enjoy your weekend with the man who told you many things . Yonus Ibrahim

    https://youtu.be/-3zb6PsGJpE

    • Kokhob Selam

      Yes blink,

      Sometimes it is ok…as far you post in Jebena page !!!

      KS,,

      • blink

        Dear KS
        My apologies sir .

  • Berhe Y

    Dear Hope,

    Ok let’s leave the complex Eritrean revolution aside. The only reason I focus on it is, because I don’t think we have learned from it. What is happening in Eritrea today is, directly a continuation of what IA was doing during Ghedli (that most Tegadeli had no part off) and it will continue to happen as long as this man is in power or long after he is gone.

    I do not have obsession with IA…but I believe he is responsible for all the misery our country is going through. My focus on him is, to remind people like you who want to just gloss over his actions and are willing to look the other way.

    As Churchill said ““Those who fail to learn from history are doomed to repeat it.”

    But I understand, it’s getting a little be sensitive and not a lot of people are interested in discussing it, and those who do are taking it in a very wrong way, as if it meant the discussion is to undermine the front or hurt the “Eritrean revolution”.

    So let me focus on the last part, you said:

    “Why do u think you and your Opposition have failed miserably ?”

    You see Hope, the problem in Eritrea is not only the problem of the opposition but the problem for the whole country. Until everyone can see it that way, our problems will continue, even after the man long gone.

    Berhe

  • said

    Greetings,
    Leaders Matter for better or worst.
    A movement is defined by its heroes. Nelson Mandela, Mahatma Gandy, Ho Chi Minh. The evil leader Adolf Hitler. Joseph Stalin, Mao Zedong.
    The people of Eritrea are offered nothing, other than a kind of nationalistic fever . Not withstanding its enormous potential .No rule of law and free the economy from stifling and government control and corruption. Leaders Matter for better or worst .There are few sure things in politics anywhere; movement it is known by its leaders respected domestically and internationally like Nelson Mandela, Mahatma Gandy , that would give their population the economic success, political stability and personal freedom and dignity that they deserve, or repressive domestically and dangerous internationally Like IA and Mengistu Haile Mariam .
    A movement is defined by its heroes. The Resistance can find better heroes than the ones some of its members have chosen – and it should. A movement without memory is adrift. And a movement that picks the wrong heroes is lost.
    Two milestones should serve as reminders to self-styled members of the Resistance. One marks a turning point in the life of an ill-chosen hero. The other is a reminder that true heroism calls for self-awareness, self-confidence, and self-sacrifice

    As reported by Historian Frank Dikötter, author of the important book Mao’s Great Famine recently published an article in History Today, summarizing what happened: Mao thought that he could catapult his country past its competitors by herding villagers across the country into giant people’s communes. In pursuit of a utopian paradise, everything was collectivised. People had their work, homes, land, belongings and livelihoods taken from them A catastrophe of gargantuan proportions ensued. Extrapolating from published population statistics, historians have speculated that tens of millions of people died of starvation. But the true dimensions of what happened are only now coming to light thanks to the meticulous reports the party itself compiled during the famine…. What comes out of this massive and detailed dossier is a tale of horror in which Mao emerges as one of the greatest mass murderers in history, responsible for the deaths of at least 45 million people between 1958 and 1962. It is not merely the extent of the catastrophe that dwarfs earlier estimates, but also the manner in which many people died: between two and three million victims were tortured to death or summarily killed, often for the slightest infraction. While the horrors of the Great Leap Forward are well known to experts on communism and Chinese history, they are rarely remembered by ordinary people outside China, and have had only a modest cultural impact. When Westerners think of the great evils of world history, they rarely think of this one.
    The basic facts of the Great Leap Forward have long been known to scholars
    Who was the biggest mass murderer in the history of the world? Most people probably assume that the answer is Adolf Hitler, architect of the Holocaust. Others might guess Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, who may indeed have managed to kill even more innocent people than Hitler did.
    But both Hitler and Stalin were outdone by Mao Zedong. From 1958 to 1962, his Great Leap Forward policy led to the deaths of up to 45 million people – easily making it the biggest episode of mass murder ever recorded.
    Mao followed Stalin Millions killed by joseph Stalin and ten of millions killed Mao during cultural revolution
    Communism, denies the existence of a soul, the Communist Manifesto, the denial of god. In carrying out this ideology, 20th century political regimes headed by dictators such as Mao Zedong and Joseph Stalin were responsible for a swift destruction of human life never seen before in history. Historians generally take for granted that godless monster the Great Terror, Stalin killed more people than Hitler, until World War II, Most of the Soviet killing took place in times of peace, and was related more or less distantly to communists ideologically Stalin’s regime was by far the more murderous of the two the 3.3 million or so inhabitants of Soviet Ukraine who died in 1932 and 1933 were victims of a deliberate killing policy related to nationality. In early 1930, Stalin had announced his intention to “liquidate” prosperous peasants (“kulaks”) The first victims of starvation were the nomads of Soviet Kazakhstan, where about 1.3 million people died. The highest Soviet authorities ordered 386,798 people shot in the “Kulak Operation” of 1937–1938. The other major “enemies” during these years were people belonging to national minorities who could be associated with states bordering the Soviet Union: some 247,157 Soviet citizens were killed by the NKVD in ethnic shooting actions. the motives of these killing actions were sometimes far more often national, or even ethnic, the Germans deliberately killed about 11 million noncombatants, Russian dictator Joseph Stalin’s death total at 20 million. One of the most common ways communists kill and forever break the will of the citizens in their “people’s republics” has been starvation. Mao’s Great Leap Forward was pitched as a way to modernize China’s economy. It took communities of laborers from the farms and forced them to smelt metals such as iron and steel in backyard furnaces. This removal of labor from food production eventually resulted in China’s great famine, which experts estimate took 30-40 million lives.
    The million or more Chinese starved during the Great Leap Forward, as Mao followed Stalin’s model of collectivization. China’s Mao Zedong according to most estimates. Mao’s ,some estimated death toll ranges 60 million , which surpasses the lives claimed by World War I (37 million) and possibly World War II (66 million). The makeup of these 60 million plus deaths includes—but is not limited to—civil wars, landlords that were slaughtered under the communist land reform policy, and red guards during the Cultural Revolution that tortured and killed supposed “class enemies.” The fact that Mao’s atrocities resulted in many more deaths than those of Hitler does not necessarily mean he was the more evil of the two. The greater death toll is partly the result of the fact that Mao ruled over a much larger population for a much longer time.

    • blink

      Dear said
      Just for curiosity , do you think the chines history has come at a definitive number of deaths by Mao ? I mean the western world as we know are guilty for exaggerating and even falsely claims about all chines , Russian and many African history. I was in one European university for one course about economics and social justice theory, what I observed was that most are ignorant about the third world . There are very few students who can locate 3 African countries in Africa but still have the negative attitudes about them with out knowing. Do Africans and chines people need to invest more on promoting their on view on their culture and leaders ?

  • MS

    Selam Sarah Ogbay
    I say the following with utmost respect, and forgive me for any misstated part.
    1. The personal queries don’t belong to me; I don’t condone such behaviors. You can address them directly. I respect your personal achievement and my expectation is that folks like you will rise above assumptions to give us meaningful guidance. That’s why embnarked on writing that long Hateta.
    2. You said you did not say you were wronged. You said: “it turned into personal attack.” I leave the language part to you, but as a layperson, I still understand it as having said you were wronged because you are saying an unduly action/attack was directed to you; hence, you were the receiver, which implies you were wronged. All I’m saying is the character assassination part of it was wrong, and indeed, you may feel you were wronged. But you have to understand how it all started. The rest is up to you.
    3. I don’t support any idea that purports the notion that non-tegadelti should be required to establish their credentials to speak out. That’s not me. Actually, I always think of EPLF as tegadalai and civil, and I’m on record for saying I was ashamed to see Eritrea still led by ex-tegadelti.
    4. The people who displaced civilians from homes that they had rented from the previous government were the ones who are wrecking the nation. They are the ones who had the privilege of doing so. I was in Asmara during those days and you won’t believe the protests Tegadelti were doing in regard to those arbitrary allocations. Some in the municipality of Asmara made tons of money through bribery. Some of them were caught but others bolted out of the country. The chance that any tegadalai will get a house is dependent on strict loyalty. The rest, tens of thousands of them are just as victims. What percentage of the overall tegadalai did those few constitute?
    5. As far as the new generation is concerned, please be assured that the majority know the difference between IA and EPLF; between EPLF and PFDJ. They know why we are in this predicament. The few flag stomping gangs and the ghedli basher don’t represent our young generation. They oppose PFDJ, but they want to do it the right way. We hear the outrageous voices, but we fail to hear the majority who are disgruntled from both sides, the opposition and the government. They are minding their business. The bitter truth is that such general statements turned them away from efforts made to change the situation. Why would they assist forces who are bent to burn the legacy of their parents and their peers? Make no mistake, they paid a heavy price in defending their country, after independence. They are in my neighborhoods and yours. Some of them are here in this forum who are treated badly. Some of them turned to the regime for helping their families. That’s just the sad story of the diaspora opposition.
    As you said, there is no alternative than open discussion. I think the blame-game has not resulted in any tangible gains. And until we come out of the slumber of blame-shifting, we won’t get the right answers. We will keep assuming.
    6. I would like to know if you believe that assuming EPLF=IA will actually lead us to the right solution.
    Respectfully,
    MS.

  • Kbrom

    Hi all,

    Whilst we continue with our discussion on the more serious point re: Dr Tzigereda’s point on how even the justice-seeker camp is reflexively paternalistic, on the side lets talk also about some light issues such as coining words.

    Do we need to keep as is the English or Arabic words for some newly emerging words or do we translate them?

    See for example, ገጽ መጽሓፍ (does not it sound a terrible *swear) or breaking news, ሰበር ዜና። To our surprise the meaning of breaking news as in separate into pieces as a result of a blow, shock, or strain (ሰብረ ሰበር) is absolutely different from the real meaning of the media breaking which is related more to (interrupting the regular scheduled program that is derived from studio engineer jargon which has nothing to do with both breaking).

    The other example is calculator what do we call it.

    Hint: in mid 80s we have been working in Paris to finding new words for some technical jargons and equipment, through Research and Information Centre of EPLF (RICE)

    We came up with the following new nouns for the following gear. (Give me your idea)

    Switch = መጥልዕ that is coined 50% from መጥፍኢ and 50% from መወልዒ
    Shock absorber = ወሓጥ ጎጽ

    P.S
    Can some one tell me how on the earth the word Swear explains these two symmetrically opposing definitions.
    Swear make a solemn statement or promise
    Swear use offensive language, especially as an expression of anger.

    That is why one Tegadalay said ካት ሙቕራጽ ክትብሉና ጸኒሕኩም ካት ድሙ ትብሉና፡ ሃት ቆቢዕ ክትብሉና ጸኒሕኩም ሃት ኣጉዶ ትብሉና፡ ሚት ኣኼባ ክትብሉና ጸኒሕኩም ሚት ስጋ ትብሉና፡ ስጋን ኣኼባን፡ ድሙን ሙቕራጽን፡ ቆቢዕን ኣጉዶን እንታይ ኣራኸቦም፡ እንግሊዝ መትሓዚ የብሉን ገዲፈዮ ኣለኹ።

    • MS

      Ahalan kbromay
      That’s funny. BTW: the Tigrigna technical words were used in the field immediately. I remember friends who attended technical course related to an auto mechanic in 1979, (bless, shaebiya, it held courses while getting pummeled by a closing-in enemy); anyway, at that time they had complete Tigrigna names for all automobile parts. the problem was that the instructors knew the technical terms and names in Italian, and the manual was in Tigrigna. So, the students would sometimes help the instructors.

      • saay7

        Haha MS:

        I still don’t know how to hear the Tigrinya word for vehicles without laughing.

        And Kbrom was wondering how one word in English (swear) could mean a solemn and a taboo word. How about word that means two exactly opposite things? That would be “sanction.”

        saay

        • Paulos

          Selam Sal,

          Speaking of dual and opposite meaning. I met this Eritrean doctor guy a while back and as it happened, I asked him which area of medicine he specialized in and he said, ሐኪም ናይ ካብ ክሳድ ንላዕሊ እየ.
          I knew what he meant by that but I almost chuckled for ካብ ክሳድ ንላዕሊ could also mean ናይ ቀልዓለም.

        • iSem

          Sal:
          Well in English is full of that:
          to sanction. USA sanctioned Eri, HA sanctions YG’s ideas:-)
          Wicked sense of humor, wicked .
          This is because English borrowed heavily from Germany and other languages
          valuable is the same as invaluable, flammable is the same as imflamable

      • Paulos

        Selam Muhamuday,

        I just remembered. One area I give full credit to Isaias is his effort to enrich the Tigrigna language where he comes up in a rather innovative way with Tigrigna words for things that are otherwise hard to translate into.

        P.S. How do you say Frieno or Marsha or Motore or Fanale or Tubo-Scapamento for that matter in Tigrigna? Speaking of spare-parts that is.

        • MS

          Ahlan Paulos
          I was not in those courses, but I can tell you, they were giving all technical courses in Tigrigna, including paramedics and nursing courses, military, and so on. Some of the stories I heard, they would adopt simple common Tigrigna, say as mogdi’e and (I forgot the name of the cylindrical stone used for grinding coffee) to pistons, etc. Of course, the technical terms were getting updated as time goes by. Break=lguam; the rest HaileS will take it.

          • Paulos

            Thank you Muhamuday. One of the programs I watch with interest on Eri-TV is when medical doctors are in the studio and answering questions from the public pertaining to different disease related issues. And what amazes me the most is that the doctors who are mostly young as in who were born after independence–explain or respond to the questions by using Tigrigna words for the medical terms including the diseases as well. I thought that was remarkable.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Paul,
            ኣንታ ንስኻስ ከመይ ጌርካ ኢኻ ብቐሊሉ ካብ ሓደ ኣርእስቲ ናብ ካልእ ኣርእስቲ ትዘልል። ከም ጎሚዳ ‘ኣስመራ ውዒሉ፡ ኣብ ባርካ ምሕዳሩ’። እምበኣር ናይ ሕማም ካብ ኣምጻእካስ፡ መጉሊ-ኣንጭዋ ብቋንቋ እንግሊዝ እንታይ ይብሃን? ስለ ዘይፈልጦ፡ ወይ ስለዝተጠራጠርኩ እየ።

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Haile S

            “መጉሊ-ኣንጭዋ ብቋንቋ እንግሊዝ እንታይ ይብሃል?”

            I think it is called abscess.

          • Paulos

            Selam Hailat,

            That’s funny. I think Semere T. is right. It could also mean a pus. Here is a question for you though: Why do they call it ሙግሊ’ንጭዋ why not only just ሙግሊ?

          • Nitricc

            Hey; you seem to know your TIG and English very well and I have a question for you and the rest. We say this in Tigrigna or Amharic
            ሀገረይ or ኣገሬ in one word, can you please tell me how I can say this in English, in one word? good luck lol.

          • saay7

            Nitricc:

            Replace country with cookie, dog, shoes, friend…and you have the same thing. If you hadn’t put “lol” we were going to send you to assign a tutor for the complicity of the question. Dude, ask college-level questions 🙂

            saay

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Selam Nitricc
            Possessive pronouns in English are stand alone words. Possessive pronouns in Amharic and Tigrigna are word modifiers that link with the possessed object. Different grammatical rules apply.

          • Nitricc

            Hey Abrehet; actually there more to it other than the difference of grammatically rules. Time permitting. I will share it. I was told a story by this wise old Ethiopian man I was intrigued. Anyway, since you are in a mood for challenges, at the courtesy of PIA, what do you call Calculator in Tigrigna?

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Hi Dr. Paulos,

            Pus = ሙግሊ
            Abscess = ሙግሊ’ጭዋ

            Therefore, Semere is correct, me think.

          • Haile S.

            Selam all,
            May be I didn’t put my question clearly. Yes ሙግሊ is pus/abcess, but is ሙግሊ’ጭዋ a specific bacterial(s) or viral disease or not? If yes, which one? It doesn’t appear to be a simple puncture abcess. Before giving you my possible candidate name, if one of you could describe it well, would be great. What I know is as a small bean size or shape swelling on the skin. I am not sure if it has an overt pus coming out or only micro-drops mixed with blood.
            Thanks

          • Paulos

            Selam Haile,

            In principle a pus or an abscess is accumulation of dead white blood cells and bacteria as such pus is caused by bacteria not a virus. More over, if we are to go into specifics, it is Staphylococcus aureus that is the main cause for it is predominately found on the skin. But of caurse pus can be found in any part of the body and that is all different ball game so to speak.

          • Haile S.

            Paul,
            Good, we are advancing and arriving at name(s). Without making you wait, it will the make sense to call ሙግሊ’ጭዋ = Furuncule or Boils. But othet possibility can come based other feedback.
            Viral in the sense of superinfected by bacteria. Let me add another terminology. How about ዕንፍሩር?

          • Tzigereda

            Haile S. and all,
            ንእግረ መንገድኹም… how do you say “stroke” in tigrinya?

          • Paulos

            Selam Tzigereda,

            I was going to write that down and other diseases in Tigrigna including stroke which is ወቕዒ.

          • Tzigereda

            Selam iSem and Paulos,

            ወቕዒ sounds reasonable.

            iSem,
            I never heard that word:)

            But look how ማሕበር ሓካይም ኤርትራውያን ጨንፈር ቤይ ኤርያ-ካሊፎርንያ ( in 1990) translated “ stroke”:
            ምትርባዕ መትንታት ሐንጎል

            ኣየ ሰብ ካሊ:)

          • iSem

            Hi Tzigereda:
            wow. But that is better han the Tigrayit translation of ambassador:
            His country’s messenger in foreign country. Sal how do you say that:-)

          • Saleh Johar

            ISem,
            It was “l’ouk Addu din Add Tserru” here at awate we had so much fun with it at the time. It was all to avoid saying seffir.

          • Paulos

            Tzigereda,

            The funniest one is Alzheimer’s which is ሕማም መረስዕ.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Doctore,

            Perfect translation attributed to its symptoms.

          • Kbrom

            Paulo

            The other one is መዝሕ for STD. i will leave it for you to elaborate it.

          • Paulos

            Kbromay,

            That I didn’t know. Thank you. I knew it was ጅግል for Gonorrhea and probably for Syphilis too.

          • Kbrom

            Paulosay abi seb

            መዝሕ is ብመውስቦ ዝመሓላለፉ ሕማማት for STD

          • Paulos

            Kbromay,

            Yea I got that but as you know STD is generic so to speak for it stands for Sexually Transmitted Diseases and I thought MezH was a generic as STD. But for specifics as in Gonorrhea it is ጅግል. That was what I meant.

          • saay7

            Awatistas:

            You guys need to have mercy on us in the West Coast of the US:

            Our day began with Haile telling us about መግሊ…it proceeded to its various translations and now it is ending with STD and ጅግል. What did we ever do to you guys? 🙂

            But seriously this was a good “health and language” discussion. Whatever happened to the alternative diet Nitricc was going to tell us all about in a column? I know it will be unconventional. Can u imagine Nitricc as a nutritionist? Not encouragement or soft words for him, it will all be insults like a drill seargent at a boot camp like the dude from Full Metal Jacket.

            saay

            saay

          • Paulos

            Sal,

            Do you know how many times I wanted to post the clip of the drill Seargent for it is wicked funny but I never got around cuz Awatistas may find the gross profanity offending.

          • MS

            Marhaba SAAY
            I have just finished going over the thread and it is entertaining. But…But…But…(since ST is in house), you told me yesterday I was veering off course with my sawrawi Hateta, from the article reflection on Eritrean March 8. Indeed, it stayed on course?!!! Weridwen Eretrawyan deqi-anstyo!

          • saay7

            Hala MS:

            But…but…but I also said I am as guilty as everyone else. 🙂

            Deqinstyo said “stop pigeonholing us only into women issues” kinda like they do here with Hispanics where they always assume all they want to talk about is immigration.

            saay

          • Paulos

            Sal,

            Do you know how many times I wanted to post the clip of the drill-Seargent. It is wicked funny but never got around it cuz Awstistas may find the gross profanity in it offending.

          • Eyob Medhane

            Sal,
            Alright. I have to cut in here on a different cultural matter. Please, please hands off claiming one the greatest bands ever in Ethiopia Roha band as Eritrean and was conceived and born ln Asmara, because Selam Seyoum and Tekle Tesfazghi were so mesmerized and inspired by Asmara culture and architecture. No one believes that…Wait..Selam Seyoum himself said that. Scratch that. He doesn’t know what he’s talkin’ about. He’s getting old…

            But, the bottom line is Roha Band is Ethiopian through and through. You can’t have it. Keep your wedi somebodies and leave Roha band to us. This is a warning. https://www.bbc.com/amharic/43426294?ocid=socialflow_facebook

            More fire to come… 🙁 🙁

          • saay7

            Eyob:

            Hmmm, I think I just remembered we have been have been this discussion since 2013. That’s five years of me telling you surviving members have to first produce something that is of the following Tekle Tesfazghi qualities:

            MsTirawit Debdabe
            Fqrey telemeni
            Handebet megesha
            Ghena yu Edley
            Kem dlayey
            Yekenyley Fqrey
            ArbaEte-fidela
            Ufey Breri

            And you telling me something that makes no sense. So, here’s my final offer: dual citizenship! Since Eritrea gives dual citizenship and Ethiopia doesn’t, we will work out the details.

            saay

          • Eyob Medhane

            Sal,

            Simple. Was there a country called Eritrea in the 60s and 70s when Roha band started? NO..Were Tekle Tesfazghi, Selam Seyoum, Jovani Rico known as Ethiopian or Eritrean? Ethiopian. Were the songs you listed are done by Roha band in Asmara or Addis Ababa? I think you know the answer to that..Finally, I live you with this confirming both Tekle and Roha are Ethiopians

            https://youtu.be/3sc6LehxQjQ

            Take that~

          • saay7

            Eyob:

            That’s it? That’s your closing argument? Using that logic, this guy singing the praise of an important Ethiopian institution (captured by the same Ethiopian TV and its grainy image) is also Ethiopian?

            Tsk tsk tsk.

            https://youtu.be/jRYMi_zxNzY

            saay

          • Eyob Medhane

            Sal,

            Oh believe me..I am going to rant about this to infinity. You have no idea how Roha is important to us. It’s Roha, man. It’s named after Lalibela. 🙂 Yeah Netsanet is great. (Which ferenj messed up her name) But Roha had all the modern Ethiopian music foot prints. You can’t have it. Give it back. I love Selam Seyoum. But, he is wrong in claiming being inspired to create Roha Band by architecture of Asmara. It’s an abomination… 🙂

          • saay7

            Eyob:

            Usually when you rant, I at least understand what you rant about. I don’t, so hush. Speaking of Netsanet, listen to this, in the name of Kokhob Selam, the only Eritrean you like. It’s Netsanet Melese: she is asking you to chill and have an orange juice:

            https://youtu.be/u0WHmI4_Xes

            saay

          • Kbrom

            Hello Eyobachin and saayachin

            Eyobachen Was there a country called Eritrea in the 60s and 70s when Roha band started? ነው ያሉት እረ በፈጠራችሁ ኣምላክ። Selam in his interview said when I moved from Kazanchis to Asmara in 1965 I felt that I travelled to Europe.

            Haven’t you heard the story which goes like this: in the 40s the italians had a check point on the boarder between Eritrea and Ethiopia. The check point was in the Serha/Zalambessa main road that connects Addis Abeba and Asmera. Since at that time there was ID card, the Italians where checking the people’s ID (Ethiopian or Eritrean) using a bicycle.

            This is how they did it. ( Eyobachn take a tablet if you need one before reading the following para)

            When the bus from Addis arrives the Italian officers will ask all the men to ride the bicycle on the check point, if he can he is an Eritrean if can not ride he is an Ethiopian.

            We have produced another internationally renown Guitarist; his name is Yemane Kidane, please listen to his great music he co composed with Kenny Nightingale

            https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6831LBiTQ94

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Selam Kbrom,
            This is a big development in naming. Traditionally it was known as himam deqenestyo.

          • Paulos

            Selam Abrehet,

            That is male-chauvinism of its kind. What if it was the other way around? Hope the stigma is changed.

          • Kbrom

            Hi Abrehet

            ዶ ከምኡ ውን ነይሩዩ! ተውሳኺተን ደቀንስትዮ መሸም ዓደይቲ ተረካብ ኩሉ መርገማት ኢና ገይርናየን ኤህ ደኣ ሰብኡትሲ? BTW what does ተውሳኺተይ mean?

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Hi Kbrom,
            Isn’t it a neat expression. tewsakiten. I would first go to the root verb – weseke (add active voice) then teweseke (add passive voice). Tewsakiten would then mean “to be added to ones responsibility/accountability). As it is used in the negative voice, it gives the sense that the person has no say or no responsibility on the topic. I hope I am making sense. The words morph to indicate subject/owner of action and object. Then you have to take the prevalent usage. It takes time to unpack it even if you know what it means.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Abrehet,

            While your explanation is correct, could you try to find one word in English for it.

          • Abrehet Yosief

            ኣንቱም ጎይታይ ኣማን,
            ብእንግልዘይና ደኣ ኣበይ ኢለዮ፤ እቲ ትግርይና እኳ ንጋዶ።
            But to be your obedient servant, may I use the word “saddle”? e.g. Don’t saddle me with this task, it is beyond me.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Merhaba Abrehet,

            Good enough for me. Recognize yourself that you are good at it.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Hi Kbrom,

            How about ” I am not part of…”

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            ዎ’ክብሮም,

            ከምዚ ዝርእየካ ዘለኹ ብመደብ ንነዊሕ ግዜ ንቋንቋ ትግርኛ ንኸተማዕብል ዝተበገስካ ሓው ኢኻ ትመስል:: እተምጽኦም ዘለኻ ሓደስቲ ቃላት ብዙሕ ግዜ መጽናዕቲ ወሲድካ ዝአከብካዮም ኢኻ ትመስል:: ግምተይ ሓቂ እንተደአ ኾይኑ ቀጽሎ ጥራይ እየ ክብለካ ዝደሊ::

            ሰናይ ምሽት ንኹሉ

          • Haile S.

            Selam Tzigereda,
            Agree with ወቕዒ.

          • Paulos

            Hailat,

            What was ማሕጎማ? I forgot.

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Selam Paulos,
            Until Haile comes and corrects me, it is blood letting. The syringe is made from a small horn, and the mechanism to suck the blood out usually is a small “suma” inserted in the horn and pulled slowly to create a vacuum effect.

          • Paulos

            Selam Abrehet,

            That makes perfect sense. Thank you haftey. You’re the best!

            I remember in mid-80s there was not sure if it was an epidemic but certainly a break-out of what it seems to me now bacterial meningitis and people were dropping like flies and Mahgona was a common practice to contain it before of course the Catholic run clinics started offering antibiotics.

          • Tzigereda

            Selam Abrehet and Paulos,

            If I am not wrong it was called “ሕማም ሑመራ”, am also eager to know what the disease was.

          • Paulos

            Selam Tzigereda,

            That was precisely I was referring to. It was bacterial meningitis that broke out massively in Asmara in mid-80s.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Tzigereda,

            Why “ሕማም ሑመራ” for meningitis? Any history to it?

          • Paulos

            Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

            I suspect the epicenter may had been Humera and spread out all over.

          • Tzigereda

            Selam Emma,
            I have no idea, maybe the center of the epidemic was in Humera?

          • Kbrom

            Merhaba Emma

            The young generation doctors are calling it ሕማም ኣንቅጺ or ኣንቅጺ ክሳድ

          • Paulos

            Selam Ato Kbrom,

            True for one of the symptoms is stiff neck.

          • Paulos

            Tzigereda,

            Here is the thing though, it could may have been Encephalitis too for the people had mental alteration as well where you don’t usually see it in the symptoms of meningitis which is the striking differences between the two even though Encephalitis is usually viral.

          • Tzigereda

            Selam Paulos,
            Maybe…
            I hope some readers can enlighten us. You might remember that at that time ማሕጎማ became the “new therapy” for whatever people complained.
            If it was meningitis or encephalitis why was ማሕጎማ chosen as the state of the art?

          • Paulos

            Tzgereda,

            That is a good question. If I remember correctly, when they did the incision mostly on the back of the calf, the blood appeared to be black as opposed to a brigt red and they assumed that the “disease” came out with it.

          • Tzigereda

            Selam Paulos,
            Wait, wait, ሃጺጽና ኣለና ይመስለኒ. ማሕጎማ is suction as Emma has rightly put it. And it was bloodletting what was used for ሕማም ሕሞራ.
            So, what is bloodletting in tigrinya? ምቕንዣሕ?

          • Paulos

            Tzigereda,

            Yea ሃጺጽና ተበሉኺኸ ሸታሕታሕ እምበር. I was thinking along the same lines as well. I am a bit confused about the difference between the two.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Hey Tzigereda,

            Incise = ምቕንዣሕ

          • Haile S.

            Selamat Abrehet,
            ማሕጎማ is cupping, from cup መሕጎሚ.

          • Paulos

            Thank you Hailat. You and Abrehet form super-symmetry and when you two are in the forum, it lightens up and glows. Thank you both.

          • Haile S.

            Hey Paulos,
            What a great compliment. Thank you. ጥዋፍ፡ ንባዕሉ ነዲዱ ንኻልእ ዘብርህ 🙂 🙂 ። The definition of a perfect person. Abrehet yes. I cannot say of myself.

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Selam Haile,
            I have heard it referred to both. Cupping was using the coffee finjal and heating it, at least that is what I remember. Metkosa was hot iron (eeew). Do you remember a specific name for blood letting? it is not the one (miqnijaH or migrnab when it takes place around the eye area).

          • Paulos

            Selam Abrehet,

            The therapy for H’mam Humera must had been mgirnab then even though on the different part of the body in this case on the back of the lower leg or on the forearm because the therapy was making multiple small incisions to let the supposed “dirty” blood out.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Abrehet,
            You are right, I think there is cupping with and without bloodletting. With a cup is without bloodletting. With a horn is with blood letting. Bloodletting, I think is ምጥባሕ and/or ምቅላሕ?? Not sure about the second word. Will check later in dictionaries i have at home. ምግርናብ is on the temple only, I think

          • Paulos

            Hailat,

            They used to do M’girnab on the flank [ምሕኹልቲ] area as well not sure the reason though. Any idea?

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Doctore,

            “ምግርናብ” ከም ኣብ ከበሳ እንጥቀመሉ it is only on the “eyelid” and on the “temple” part of our body.

          • Paulos

            Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

            You’re right. It makes sense for eyelid in Tigrigna is ግርናብ. No?

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Abrehet & Hailat’

            “መጥባሕትን” “ምቅንዣሕን” ዳርጋ ሓደ እዮም:: እቲ ፍልልያቶም “መጥባሕቲ” for major operations ክንጥቀመሉ ኸለና “ምቅንዣሕ” ግን ንነኣሽቱ ምኽፋት ከም ንምጉሊ’ጭዋ ንጥቀመሉ ኣዛራርባ እዩ::

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Hailat,
            Do not depend on the current dictionaries. Not only are not complete, but do also carry many wrong translations. Sometimes when they could have one to one translations, they give them in phrases.

          • Haile S.

            Hi Emma,
            In general you are right, but there are some tigrigna-italian, tigrigna-italian-french or tigrigna-french dictionaries written during the italian colonization that surprisingly contain words that you might not find or with difficulties in modern dictionaries.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Doctore,

            ማሕጎማ = Suction

          • Tzigereda

            Selam Emma,
            You are right.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Sem,

            ኣብ ገጠር ዓቢኻስ “ወቅዒ” ዘይትፈልጥ? ንዓባ:: ንምኻኑ it is good translation for stoke.

          • Kbrom

            Hi Tzigereda

            ኣየ ሰብ ካሊ ጥራይ ኢልኪ ምትርባዕሲ እንታይ ኣምጸኦ ጸላኢና ይተርባዕ።ስለምንታይ ከ ሓንጎል ጥራይ heart attack ወቕዒ ልቢ ኢዩ ዝቐረበ ይመስለኒ ልቢ ምስተወቕዐ እንዲዩ ወዮ ሓንጎል ደው ዝብል ዘሎ፡ ኣብ ዘይንፈልጦ ነገር ደኣ ንዛረብ ኣሎና ፡ ንስኹም ዝያዳ ትፈልጥዎ እምበር።

            ጽብቕቲ ኣርእስቲ ካብ ሃብክዮም ማሰ ዶ ክንብለሎም። ኣየ ሰብ ካሊ ኣንቱም ሰባ ካሊ

          • Tzigereda

            Selam Kbrom,
            Haha…
            ልቢ ደሓን ኣለኹ እንዳበለ ናይ ሓንጎል ወቕዒ ኣሎ:: ልቢ ምስተወቕዐ ሐንጎል ደው እንተኢሉሞ ናብ ዘይምህላው እዩ ዝዛዙ:: ሓድሓደ ግዜ : ልቢ ምኽንያት ናይ ወቕዒ ሓንጎል ክኸውን ይኽእል :: ከቢድ ወቕዒ ሓንጎል ድማ ንልቢ ደው ከብላ ይኽእል::
            ሕልኽልኻትሲ ኣሎ::

            ልበይ ቀልበይ ልበይ ከይዳ ነቂላ… እንዶ ኣይበለን ደራፋይ

          • Paulos

            Tzigereda,

            That’s a good one. Heard Berekhet [Or is it changed to Filmon?] Mengisteab used to moonlight as a doctor long ago and that where he compsed the lyrics lol.

          • Kbrom

            Heya Tsigereda and Paulo

            You two always bring interesting topics.

            Ya Haile Gebru also said
            ብዙሕ በዲልካኒ ኣንታ ዘዋር ዓይነይ
            ንስኻ ተዘይትርኢ ኣይመፍቀረን ልበይ
            see, how our lyrics lack philosophy, he did not know we see with our hearts not eyes.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Tzigereda, Kbrom and all,
            መምጽኢት ነገር stroke (apoplexy) ጽገተዳ ስለዝኾነት፡ ኣብ ናታ ሕቶ ክምልስ ወሲነ። መዝገበ ቓላት ትግርኛ-ጣልያን-ፈረንሳ ብ ኣባ ኣንጀሎ ዳ ሮንሲግሊዮነ ብ 1912 ዝተሓትመ ከምዝብሎ፡ stroke- apoplexy ንትግርኛ ወቕዒ-ደም ይብሃል። ክብሮም ከምዝበሎ ከኣ፡ heart attack ወቕዒ-ልቢ እንተተባህለ ጽቡቕ ይመስለኒ። ኣብዛ ዝጠቐስኩዋ heart attack የለን፡ ሰብ ብንጽሁ ስለዝተጻሕፈት እያ ይመስለኒ።
            ኣማኑኤል ሎሚ ክብሮም ብቐዳማይ ከምዝበልዎን፡ ኣብዚ ሓደሽቲ መዝገበ ቕላት ብዙሕ እምነት ከምዘይብሎም ዝጠቐስዎ መሰረት፡ ናይ ተክአ dictionary ንወቕዒ፡ ብሕማቕ ሽታን ብርቱዕ ጸሓይን ዝመጽእ ሃንደበታዊ ጎንፊ ኢሉ ጥራይ እዩ ዝትርጉሞ።
            ሕጂ ክሓተኩም። Fainting ብትግርኛ እንታይ ይብሃል?

          • Paulos

            Hailat,

            That is really interesting the fact that there was no word for hear-attack and as you put it, the metabolic illnesses and risk factors for them were not ptobably known back then even though Diabetes was known since the Romans.

            I think fainting is ምጥፋእ ሃለዋት.

          • Haile S.

            Paul,
            Not wrong, try something different and one word.

          • Paulos

            One word? That’s a tough one. Abrehet, are you there?

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Selam Paulos and Haile
            It is Awila or Awilu. ዓወለ (ዓዊላ or ዓዊሉ).

          • Haile S.

            Abrehet,
            You got it, ኩሉ ዝክኣላ. You are the champion. ጳውሎስ ዓዊሉ ኣይፈልጥን’ዩ ይመስለኒ። Thumbs up sis!

          • Kbrom

            Professor Haile,

            ዕቃበታተይ (reservation) ይመዝገበለይ, ዓዊሉ ብጌጋ ካብ ዕውንውን ኢልዎ ዓዊኑ ዝተመዝሓቀ ቃል ኢዩ ብል ዘይኮነስ ብን ኢዩ ዝውድእ፥ ጌጋ ይክለኣለይ።

          • Haile S.

            ክቡር Kbrom,
            ኣብረሀት ዘረጋገጸቶ፡ ዕቃበ ይኾን ይግባይ የብሉን። Desole mon tres cher frere!

          • Kbrom

            ሰላም ሃይላት ማዓር ኣፉ

            ኣማን ብኣማን ኣብረሀተይ ተይላቶስ ኣኸለ።

            ሓድሽ ምስላ ዶ ንምሃዝ፡ ኣብረሀት ዝበለቶን ኣድቂቕኻ ዝመተርካዮን፡ እትን ኣይንቕነቕ፡ እትን ኣይሓንቕ።

          • Abrehet Yosief

            ኣይፋልካን ክብሮም ሓወይ
            ዓወነ is different. It is possible to say that ዓወለ as used to mean “faint” is not currently used (archaic). But some form of it are still used as in ዕውልውል ኢሉኒ።

          • Paulos

            Selam Hailat,

            Never new mEwal had other meaning as well. Never stop learning is my motto in life and I am grateful to you both for teaching us something of a substance every day. Abrehet is the champ and one of the Awatistas I would love to meet in person in a heartbeat.

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Aya Haile
            ምስ ኣቦይ እዝጊ ከይተባእሰኒ። I read the word “Awila” used to say “she fainted” in a book that was printed in the 50s I think. It had a paragraph where the mother was seeing her son join the Italian army (or heard the news of his departure) and she fainted. I don’t remember the name of the book unfortunately.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Abrehet,

            ምዕዋልሲ ቁሩብ ሓርፊፋትኒ:: እስከ እንደገና ኣስተማቅርዮሞ “ዓዊሉ” “ዓዊላ” “ዓዊሎም” እኮ ንኻልእ ነገር ንጥቀመሎም ኢና::

          • Sarah Ogbay

            Hi Amanuel.
            Initially you are right it feel like an insult. I had an experience where i went tothe cinema to watch a tigrigna film just to know what exactly its title ዕውለት meant.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Good morning Dr Sarah,

            Other than insult, I thought if ዕውለት is related to ምዕውልዋል: but then I said, don’t we use ምዕዋል for “dizziness”? I think the narrowness of our language gravitates us to represent one ትግርኛ ቃል to many English words. In any case until we standardize the language, we will have different way of sensitizing concepts of words of ትግርኛ::

            Regards

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Selam Amanuel,
            It feels strange because it is no longer used to mean faint in current language. But it is correct. You can even extrapolate and see that they have they same meaning. Awila -> faint -> lose ones sense -> lose ones way -> Awila -> to be out of control -> behave out of the norm.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Abrehet,

            There is no “strange” in the existence or nonexistent of words. In fact the word we are addressing is a popular word where I grew up. It might be strange for you, but it is applicable for different purposes. The essence of our debate is to familiarize certain vocabularies that have different application from place to place. And surely you will hear many strange words to your ears.

            Words are symbols of representation for objects and distinct ideas and are culturalized and institutionalized for purposes of common understanding each other. So until our nation or our people get together, and standardize through rigorous study, you will have the feeling of strangeness when you encounter an odd words to your ears.

          • Kbrom

            Selam Haile

            Fainting ምጥፋእ ሃለዋት ወይ ምጥፋእ ውነ ምበልክዎ። እስከ ነቶም ዝያዳ ዝፈልጡ ድማ ንስማዕ።

          • iSem

            Hi Tegadlit Tsigereda:
            tahwats:-)

          • Paulos

            Hailat,

            Probably vesicles or papules or maybe hives even though the latter is mostly an allergic reaction. Furnucle is actually a single one which is mostly seen on hair-roots where curbincle is the same but a collection of furnucle.

          • Semere Tesfai

            ሰላም ሃይለ ሰ

            ከም ዝመስለኒ፡ ሙግሊ ‘ንጭዋ (ኣብ ኩሉ ኣካልና)፡ ጥዕምቶ (ኣብ ኣጻብዕትና)፡ ዕንፍሩር (ኣብ ኩሉ ኣካልና)፡ ሕማም ዓረብ (ኣብ መንጎ ሰለፍና)፡ መንሽሮ (ትሕቲ ምንጋጋና)፡ ሕበጥ (ኣብ ኩሉ ኣካላትና) ብፍላይ ድሕሪ መፍጋእቲ ርእሲ……. ዝኽሰቱ ኮይኖም – ፍልልዮም ብጀካ ዕብየቶምን፡ ዝኽሰቱሉ ቦታን ተዘይኮይኑ፡ ኩሎም ሓደ ዓይነት ረኽሲ እዮም።

            ጠንቂ ረኽሲ፡
            ብጽፍርና ንቖርበትና ስጋብ ዝቕለጥ ምስ ንሓኮ፡ ብ ብኩል ዕንጨይቲ ተተወጊእና፡ ብ ብኩል ሓጺን ተተወጊእና፡ ብጥይት ተተወጊእና፡ ብ ብኩል እምኒ ርእስና ምስ ንፍጋእ……

            ደሓር፡ እቲ ዝተሃስየ ቆርበትን ስጋን ናይ ኣካልና፡ ብምኽንያት ረሃጽን ርስሓትን፡ ብደገ ሓውዩ ተኸዲኑ ክነሱ፡ ብውሽጢ ግን ሕማቕ ረኽሲ ረይፈጥር ‘ሞ፡ እዞም ዝሰመናዮም ባክተርያዊ ረኽስታት (bacterial infections) የኸትል። እቶም ረኽሲ ዝፈጥሩልና ድቀ-ፍጥረት (Bacteria) ድማ streptococci ይባሃሉ – መስለኒ።

            ባህላዊ መድሃኒት፡
            ነቲ ሕቱም ቁስሊ ትብርብሮ፡ ነቲ ሙግሊ ብሓይሊ ተውጽኦ፡ ነቲ ሕቱም ቁስሊ ንብርሃን ተቃልዖ፡ ደሓር ቀስ ኢሉ ስጋብ ዝሓዊ ብጽሬት ትከናኸኖ።

            ሰመረ ተስፋይ

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Hi Semere T.

            The explanation in your first paragraph is right on target.

          • Paulos

            Selam Semere T.

            That is awesome. Thank you Sir!

          • Haile S.

            Selam Semere T.,
            Thank you for the detailed explanation. You may be right. But what I know from my childhood is መግሊ’ንጭዋ as small lump of bean or pea size that contains pus inside. on the skin anywhere in the body. ጥዕምቶ is a diffusr purulent inflammation (ዝተዘርግሕር መግሊ) of the thumb. It is very dangerous. Therefore, the objective of the therapy is to turn it to an abscess (a circumscribed pus) so that it can be oppened and properly cleansed. That is the reason people use a whole lemon or posdibly other strong fruit or material to gorce the formation and colkection of pus or formation of abscess.
            Now you and Emma confused me further by calling it ማግሊ’ጭዎ. I thought it was መግሊ’ንጭዋ. Does the first mean መግሉ of ጨዋ? I thought the ባርያ but not the ጭዋ suffer of such nasty infections. Let me tell you a story. Sometime when we meet between eritreans, we talk of for example ግራዝማች xy had a ዉሽማ etc. The immediate reaction of people is to say ዋእ ንሶም ድ’ኣ ጭዋ እንዲዮም ከምኡ ዘይገብሩ! And I respond by saying ጭዋ ስለዘለዎ እንድኡ ዝውሸም ሽምበር፡ ባርያ ድኣ ካበይ ዓቕሙ ክውሸም።

          • saay7

            Emma, Semere, Hailat:

            Wait, wait a minute.

            Where did I get the ኣንጭዋ then all these years.

            Now construct a story for this:

            Patient: 10 yr old boy
            Suffering from: መግሊ ኣንጭዋ (That’s what it was called:)
            Location of said cause of pain: least strategic part of anatomy
            Doctor: neighboring woman, friend of his mother
            Tools: መርፍእ, መስፈ
            Dialogue:
            Boy: ኡይ! ኡይ!
            Doctor (sticking and squeezing): እዋይ! ዘይተንከፍኩኻ!!

            Names withheld to protect the traumatized.

            saay

          • Paulos

            Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

            That is a good point. Thank you.

        • iSem

          Hi Dr. Paulos:
          IA improved Tig. NO, NO NO NO. My first to disagree with you.
          Saleh AA Younis Aysmae. He is not arround any more but he would have answered you already. By not around I mean, he is nor writing:-)
          The guy who literally translated white elephanet, the guy who translated literally translates udernerage, the guy who translated No problem, any time, the list is endless. It is IA
          I have no problem if you borrow technical things instead of reinventing the wheel, but literalism is shallow, Tig is rich in certain ways, it has rich allussion, it lacks the techical and scientific terms for obvious reasons. So as Sal and Emma used to say hisebelu Apologize to Tig fans like Semere Andom. Apology accepted in advance because your are Paul
          There is a story that Sal knows, that Gheteb knows:, a former teacher, a history major dropped into one of the classes and asked them if we can learn chemistry in Tig, and snotty students reportedly said yes and the late teacher with his nasal voice asked, “ok, come and show me how you write CO2”. The student walked to the blackboard and wrote ካ2
          Enriching language is not just adding new words randomly, but it worked in the Eri society as they mistook that IA is saint that God whispers to.
          Leave the languages alone, it will enrich itself, if is not needed it will die off, but language is a carrier of culture and thinking not just to say hi Paul give me my language back dude.
          Society coins words, but by enlarge languages naturally evolves and when it does that some of the expressions do not make sense in modern times and that show its richness. English has vestiges of this it evolved without the intervension of PM or king.
          I careless, neck of land , how do you do ( how I do I do what? ;-)) all makes no sense
          Ok your money (Genzebka) Paul

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Samray,

            O’man! CO2 is ካ2. Thank you for giving me a laugh for the day. ሰመረ ዘይተምጽኦ የብልካን::

          • saay7

            iSem:

            I think what Paulos is appreciating (as it relates to IA or call-in-shows in EriTV) is that they are able to do what we exiled Eritreans can’t: speak our own language in complete sentences and paragraphs without unconsciously drifting to the language of our host countries. Whenever I tried doing that (when speaking to elderly Eritreans who don’t speak English, for example) I am made aware how much I have drifted off and how hard it is to do it.

            When you talk to our exiled National Service youth, have you noticed that the only English word they use is “normal” and it is to describe the most abnormal things?

            saay

          • Paulos

            Sal,

            You should see me laughing. Normal to describe abnormal things. That’s retarded.

          • saay7

            Paulos:

            I didn’t tell the story right. If I did you would cry not laugh. Here’s how they apply “normal” in a sentence:

            They would tell a horrendous story of a punishment that was inflicted on them or a comrade but then they intersperse the word “normal” to emphasize that there is nothing special about what they are narrating: it happens all the time. Normal.

            saay

          • iSem

            Hi sal:
            They mean common, it is like the Asmarino’s of your day with “allora” to say hello

          • saay7

            Selamat iSem:

            I am from that generation that was always in transition from “alora?” and “ታድያስ?” buy way before “kief?” or “ከመይ?” I was too self-conscious to ever say them because I didn’t understand the logic of greeting someone by asking “then?” or “how?” i have always been biased towards “selamat” which Amde accused me of trying to one-up him instead of “selam.”

            saay

          • Paulos

            Oh k. Got you. That’s sad.

          • iSem

            Hi Sal:
            I have noticed that on myself too, 10 years ago when I went to Germany and met an older relative. I discovered that about myself. Bu the key is unconsciously. If you have lived here for decades then? but back home they do it consciously at least when we were growing up. Some one who did not go to Italian school or never lived in Italy or Middle east etc
            I noticed that too, but then I followed up with my cousin 5 years latter and he is getting there, using normal for normal things an unconsciously using more english in his daily conversation even when talking to his mother back home

          • Nitricc

            Semere; let me tell this. I don’t know when but at one point SAAY was mocking PIA for PIA saying Tsegem-Yelen! which in direct translation of No-Problem. Now, Every Eritrean I have spoken to, will use the same translated word. Tsegem-Yelen, You see, don’t undermined the influence of PIA when it comes developing Tigrigna. I bet you even SAAY is saying Tsegem-Yelen!

          • iSem

            Nitricc:
            No, it ws not tsegem-yelen, it was shigir-yelen, it was in an article
            of of course IA is influencin, but is bad, what I am saying
            You remm your fav song, tsegem yelen habtey:-)

          • saay7

            iSem:

            Your photographic memory is fading. It was actually in an interview conducted by sports correspondent Mike Seium. At the end of the interview, mike thanked him and Isaias replied “ሽግር የለን ኣብ ዝኾነ ግዜ (no problem; any time.) he should have added ሰብኣየ so it would be complete: no problem, any time ma man!” 😀

            saay

          • Paulos

            Really funny 😂😂. Yea I remember that dude back in the days.

          • iSem

            Sal:
            yes, I remember it, also your friend Elaja Asmerom was present.
            I translate/call Mile S as the journalist who saw many teenagers and rooms with black boards and assume it was college” : haha
            Did you ever listen to who said it and what was the occassion,BBC Arabic back in the days;-)

          • saay7

            Nitricc:

            You have a point. One of the most bittersweet videos I have ever heard is by temesgen yared recorded live at Sawa. The song is called “xegem yelen.” It’s sweet because it shows you very young people expressing pure joy that can only come from music. Bitter because they are soooo young they have no business being in Sawa.

            https://youtu.be/3UBfJl0mhDE

            saay

          • Paulos

            Semerile,

            I think Sal has put it nicely what I meant about Kbur MeraHina Isaias Afwerki. The Si O 2 thing is really funny. How about ካርቦን ምስ ክልተ ኦክስጅን instead.

          • MS

            Ahlan iSem, Kbrom, SAAY and Paulos
            Give IA his dues. I agree with iSem to some degree. SAAY does not like the word “normal” but I have to use it here. When societies create and own a technology, or merge with it slowly, along a normal learning curve, they have enough time and experience with that technology that it will finally assign to it one indigenous name to it (out of many names, through interactions, market, or the inventor decides the name).
            The case of Tigrigna is different folks. Except a brief period in the fifties where, even then, it did not get time to shoot off from Italian suppression. When IA joined ELF, it was all Arabic. So, the man and his colleagues had to jump-start , LITERALLY, from scratch. Imagine you want to spell out huge ideas and programs, you will need a language that express them. I remember when I joined the organization, there was a pocket “dictionary” that contained mundane terms such as teshkil, dfaE, imperialism, adHarHari, gesgasi, Alama, etc.
            The point: In 1970, tigrigna found itself to express modern terminologies, and then technical stuff. So, it is overwhelming for any language to suddenly find itself applying on translating much developed languages. Another point is that of not getting references. They did not have the opportunity to find documents of “mengisti Ertra and copies of the 40s, 50s and early sixties papers, or any available dictionaries of that era. So, they had to do what they could. I was involved in developing the Tigrayet textxs (Ehhhm) and I can tell you how difficult it was. By 1983, we were able to finalize text books up to 5th grade. According to my “sources” very little has been done in changing those scientific and technical terms because today’s Tigre teachers and school administrators in the affected regions had passed through those texts.
            So, the key point one has to remember is that Tigrigna was subjected to a challenge. In a brief period, it had to express modern and technical languages. Please reflect on Kbrom’s entries in this regard. So, what iSem is saying could be discussed within a NORMAL situation where modern ideas and technology progress with the progress of a society, where language is invented on a daily basis through interactions and transaction.
            Second: Language is all about use and feeling comfortable about it.You don’t use it and it dies off.
            Third: Borrowing and inventing is fine as long as it obeys the rules of language, phonology, morphology, syntax, grammar, etc. Languages closer to Tigrigna are Tigrayet, Amharic and Arabic. And it benefited from them. There many words taken from Tigrayet that have become Tigrigna.
            Foruth: As a multilingual person, IA had introduced many Arabic terminologies and expressions into Tigrigna. Sometimes I meet Tigrigna puritans who pontificate on the purity of the language but don’t realize that some of the terms they use had been borrowed from arabic, thanks to IA. They don’t realize that since subconsciously they believe everything IA said must be original; or may be those terms just cropped slowly their language reservoir and have become part of their language identity.

          • Kbrom

            Kebdka tbred MS

            One thing that I noticed is, as much as we exaggerate PIA’s role, unknowingly we show contempt to our people. Look at the discussion about ሽግር የለን why is that attributed to PIA and as literal translation of no problem. እዝጊ ዝሃገርኩም ህዝቢ ኤርትራስ ሽግር የለን ዝብል ቃል ኣይነበሮን ቅድሚ 90ታት ዲዩ ዝበሃል ዘሎ። ንሶም ጥራይ ዘይኮኑስ ገለ የለን፡ ሽግር ኣልቦ፡ ኩሉ ራሓ፡ ጸገም የሎን ዝብሉ ኣማኢት ዓመታት ዝገበሩ ተመሳሰልቲ ቃላት ጸኒሖምና ኣለዉ BTW ጸኒሖምና ኣለዉ is Tigrigna’s past participle.

          • iSem

            Hi MS:
            I agree with most of this semi hateta. Iknow u will say this is not hateta, but wait, I will tell u why I used hateta:-)
            My problem is when there is perfect word for it, IA translates it a good eg is the observation of one of Sal’s friends, underage, ttHti edme. And teh second is its literalism, and third is out write stupid. When the English say white elephat, it has historical meaning, to call it tsaeda harmaz is not just literal, it is stupid. The english idios are rooted in hsitory, of and on the wagon et, they are not random.
            Also remember the ELF and EPLF also politicized the language, unless is is a mundane word like water they will never use any politicl or tech word used by the other orga. Eg, national democratic program in ELF is hagerawi demo medb eyo, EPLF hagerwai demo program.
            ELF will never say hateta, they say tintane, EPLF will never say dagmay srriE, they say dagmay wudabe etc
            Now tell me why do u need tabba when u have kujjot, kurba.
            the Gov must leave the language alone, I mean government, they can fund it from the demand side, but they should just build highways and print money.
            But I agree IA is at his best and knows what he is saying when he says tebenjja instead of brett or timm mbal meritsna isntead of :-)siqq.It iis a dog whisle. My theory

          • MS

            Ahlan iSem
            On a side note, the same discussion was going on even during those days and still continues as we speak within circles that care about developing the language. An example is the grammar part of it that even Alemseghed Tesfai complained of in his latest book. That triggered memhr Tesfai Baryagabr, someone I know has devoted more than 40 years for developing the language, has penned a series of articles on issues concerning the standardization of Tigrigna. If you missed it, check it out on Hadas Ertra (I have not followed the latest installments).
            Generally, I’m speaking of Tigrigna in the field, prior to independence. As far as I know, the EPLF had worked hard for its development. ELF also did a remarkable job, and it is sad that both organizations did not exchange their experience (Alas, they were not in that mood). Ironically, after independence, there were attempts of collaborations between Tigray and Eritrean educational departments at trying to standardize the language. I remember some workshops were conducted.
            The rest regarding the differences in assigning terminologies speak of the distance that existed between the organizations. Remember, variations in dialects and words are indicators of isolation. They are factors that tell you how far communities speaking the same language are separated from each other, they tell you the strength of their interactions, economic, social, political, etc. Since ELf and EPLF were not on a speaking terms, they developed their own lexicons.

      • Kbrom

        Hala Hala

        Mahmuday krnka snetu sema’ena we qelemka e’lmu re’ena

        Ya, I think for car Cylinder it was Megu’e መጉእ and for Piston it was ጓል መጉእ።

        What about drive wheel, it was መሪሕ and for the exhaustion pipe it was ነጻግ ትኪ። Now let saay7 keep laughing.

    • saay7

      Kbrom:

      ሰበር ዜና is silly and I blame Ethiopians for it. There was a professor who was part of Eritrea-based Ethio opposition and when he got disenchanted he came back to the US. He used to have a terribly-produced webcast where he weaved his conspiracies about secret TPLF-EPLF talks. He was the first to use the phrase, I think.

      The reason the literal translation makes no sense is because there is a history why breaking news is called “breaking” which is peculiar to how news was reported in medieval Europe. Nothing to do with Eritrean or Ethiopian history.

      saay

      • Ismail AA

        Ahlan Ustaz saay7,
        While in we are in the mood of discussion technical matters, I would love if you or any savvy fellow can tell me how to hide this annoying pop-up of the social media bar which is meant (I think) for quick share of information. I do not know whether it’s with me alone or common to all of us in this forum. I tried to collapse it but still chases me through the text up to end of the thread. This is happening since the new layout was launched. With many thanks.

        • Selam Ismail AA,

          By chance i could get rid of it by increasing the font size. I have no idea why it worked for me.

          • Ismail AA

            Dear Horizon,
            Thank you so much for the tip. I tried to do what had worked for you both ways (increase/reduce the fonts) but it did not help. May be some one would come up with solution. Or perhaps the moderator would mute it and make stay at one location on the screen, instead of being live and annoy the reader.

      • Kbrom

        Professor saay7

        ሰበር ዜና is not only silly but misleading and outlandish. i will come back to it later and try to suggest some substitutes.

    • Ismail AA

      Selam Kbrom and all,

      To tell you the truth first, I have never stopped being curious since my days in mid-70s in the field when we used to remain bogged in fruitless debate on translating terms to Tigrigna. Some of my comrades used to insist on adapting words used by Hizbawi Haylitat at the time – they just considered it as reference what ever some words sounded outlandish as the example you have cited. For example they prefered “quwam” to “Hige-mengisti”. The latter was used by Eritreans and Ethiopians because it is rooted in “Geez”, while the former connoted policy or stating position or stance on something.

      I am not an expert on any language but as far as Tigrigna is concerned I had acquired it simultaneously with my mother tongue. In fact never knew when I learned it. Thus, what is wrong with simply retaining the original way words were used in Tigrigna instead of unrecognizably disfiguring the meaning and essence in attempts to adapt terms the English speaking or Arabic speaking worlds us. The Dutch have a good way: they just change a new noun to an infinitive and they are okay. For example: tennis is changed to “tennisen” ; an app (social media) to appen; mail to “mailen” etc. My point now is what is wrong with using “ሓዲሽ ዜና (ወረ), “ህጹጽ ወረ” or “ኸበር ዓጅል” as the Arabic media uses?

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Ismailo,

        You mentioned things that irritate to my taste. I remember to argue with Zemhret in early 90s when he came to give civic education about the constitution in NY. It was at that time I was introduced “Quam” for a constitution. I insist for him that it was wrong to call it that way, because quam is more or less close to “positions” than to constitution. I asked him what is wrong with “Hige-Mengisti” a word derived from geeze and have been used for decades in not for centuries. He said we preferred quam. To my surprise he had no justification for it.

      • Kbrom

        Dear Ismail,

        Your writing style is as clear as ማይ ሓቒቕ which pursue clear ideas. Just gives you a piece of mid and a relaxed mood when you read it.

        Now to the important points you raised.

        Debate on language is so important. I strongly do believe that languages should be given the highest regard in the nation building because not only they express identities but also constructs/destruct them.

        Thus, I am more into maintaining the languages free from any external languages as much as possible – this should be done by nuancing the arts of balancing the importance of avoiding the dogma of ‘my language my identity only’ to language Nihilism i.e. giving up your languages freedom and pride easily.

        Say for example Holly wood, the American film industry, which is coined by H. J. Whitley and have strong context in relation to California’s hills, shrubs and laws that is related to picking the plant without the landowner’s. Why on the earth should the Nigerians call their film industry Nollywood, or Indians Bollywood, it is a bankruptcy of identity and creativity. The same goes with Arab Got Talented, its replica on setting and its disgusting attempt of the judges to sound, act and be like Simon.

        Now to Eritrean languages, dear Ismail hawey, I think enriching your language is much better than adapting to foreign languages; because if we continue doing so, in two decades so our language will be diluted.

        Let’s ask why sometimes we laugh at the words that we coin? It is more related to identity, imagination and pride. saay7 was telling us that he can not stop laughing to hear the technical/mechanical words, you know what partially it is, because after all those years of ፈረንጂ ጥራይ ኢዮም ክኢላታት ዝብል ኣብ ኣእምሮና ዝተወቐረ እምነት, we can not imagine a Tigrigna or Bilen mechanic doing maintenance of a plane or car thus we associate the words with the imagination of the speakers.

        I do prefer to borrow our languages from each other than adapting from English. Look for example ዮሃና taken from تهنئة is a good example. ኣሊያ is another example for mechanism the Amharas use the word ዘዴ which is a mistaken word ዘዴ should be method not mechanism. There are many words that we can not find in Tigrigna, say for example convince. It would be useful to borrow from Tigre the word ኣርድዩ then change it to the root word ርድየት።

        Language should also maintain its own before using foreign words. ንመዘናግዒ ኪኾነናስ let me tell a story some one shared it with me that happened in Nakfa. In one of the Tegadelt’s academy classes a Tegadalit who has a country side background asked the teacher ‘መምህር ብእንግሊዚኛ ኣንደርግራውንድ እንታይ ይበሃል’ This is because the word underground was introduced and used to the extent that people thought it was a Tigrigna word.

        For Constitution, I would prefer ዓንዲ ሕግታት as in the pillar of all laws and principles not ቅዋም or ሕገ መንግስቲ because constitution comes from the context of ‘fundamental, organic law or principles of government and usages of the country or society.

        ቅዋም is not even close to constitution, for ሕገ መንግስቲ is not the perfect name because it would imply that the laws are applicable only to/for the government but ዓንዲ ሕግታት would constitute (constitution itself comes from that word establish, appoint’) all ‘fundamental rules and principles for the conduct of affairs’.

        • saay7

          Selamat Kbrom:

          One of my favorite things when reading awate forum is to learn what I said which sometimes has a passing resembelance to what I said. Example:

          saay7 was telling us that he can not stop laughing to hear the technical/mechanical words, you know what partially it is, because after all those years of ፈረንጂ ጥራይ ኢዮም ክኢላታት ዝብል ኣብ ኣእምሮና ዝተወቐረ እምነት, we can not imagine a Tigrigna or Bilen mechanic doing maintenance of a plane or car thus we associate the words with the imagination of the speakers.

          That is a lot of psychoanalysis on the basis of….nothing. What I actually said is that I find one word, the Tigrinya word for vehicles (i.e.ተሽከርከርቲ) funny. Just like I find some words in English (malarkey, for example) funny or odd. That’s it. This reminds me of a story from the 70s (yeah, same place iSem): a Tigrinya-speaker asks a Tigre-speaker what is the word for “ant” in Tigrayit. When he told him, he replied, “such a big word for such a small thing?” 🙂

          I don’t disagree with the rest of your posts, particularly your compliments towards cool-as-cucumber Ismael.

          By the way the word ቅዋም was murdered by Isaias Afwerki on January 22, 2016. In an interview with Eri-TV, when asked about ቅዋም he said “ስርዓተ መንግስቲ: ስርዓተ ምምሕዳር:እየ ዝብሎ ኣነ” so that was that for ቅዋም. RIP.

          saay

          • Kbrom

            saay7

            Hahaha ‘such a big word for such a small thing?

            you reminded me similar story, a student asked his father abo what does fish means. The father so egoist to reply to his son ‘I do not know’ said ፊሽ ደኣ እታ ፈሽፋሽ ውኻርያ እንዲያ።

          • Paulos

            Kbromay,

            That’s funny. Here is another joke. Son to his dad: Abo fish entay malet euu? Abo said ዓሳ. Son goes, how about selfish? Abo goes ሽያጢዓሳ.

          • iSem

            Kbrom and Sa
            kbrom your translation for const. is literal, ቅዋም is perfect, because it is drives from the word ኣቁምና, the villagers say in our village we ኣቁምና, it drives from አቅዋም ቁም, ግእዝ , ዓንዲ ሕግታት is like the ambassador in Tigryait translation. ቁም is not Amharic, it is Gize. When Satan fell and angle Michael fought him he commanded to the angles “ንቁም በብህላወነ እስክ ንአምር ፈጣሪነ. The late Seyoum O quoted Angel Michael during a unity criisis between EPLF and ELF:-)
            borrowing from each other is also wrong and shallowing: We know what to graduate mean in Tig and the IA gang translated that to Tigrayit from Tigrina, They called it መድሓር
            ኣቁምና አቅዋም ቁም ግእዝ
            ዳሕረኒ ዎ ይባ
            Sal two queston: yeah, same place iSem? and what is Ant in tigryait, I am serious

          • Kbrom

            Hi iSem

            I really need you help, how is ዓንዲ ሕጊ literal translation. You did not tell us also why you think ቅዋም is ‘perfect’. Your analysis on ቁም is very difficult to accept it as is, because it does not have any supporting points or convincing analysis and logic.

            Why is borrowing from each other ‘wrong and shallowing’.

            መድሓር came from the word ምምራቕ, it would have been better to propose if you have one or elaborate why you do not like it instead of just belittling it.

            What is the relevance of the story of ‘the late Seyoum O quoted Angel Michael during a unity criisis between EPLF and ELF:-)

          • iSem

            Hi Kbrom:
            ዓንዲ ሕጊ: why use two words one one will do, it i laborious. You described the function like they did with sefir translation. I do not like sefir too, it is Arabic Tigryait is been pulled by two and it is losing its personality, Tigrigna and Arabic.
            ቅዋም is perfect because it is what its speakers say when they talked about the laws of their villages,
            Borrowing from each other can be wrong and shallowing because it i not different that borrowing from foreign, jsut because is the same country does not make it right unless of course because their share same origin like the two sisters Tigrayit and Tig, in certain words
            The Seyoum line is very relevant: first he was good in Tig as u may know way better than I do, it was to say it is not Amharic, second it is sort of an inside joke with Sal. there is no religious connotation.
            መድሓር, I know it came from ምምራቕ and that is the point why translate literally in this case ምምራቕ is not common to the origin of both sister languages. I belittle it because the translators did not look for in Tigrayit, it is lazy.

          • Sarah Ogbay

            Hi all.
            Languages grow and survive through coining, deriving, inflating, borrowing. Social, economic and plolitical dymanics dictate it.English is a good example. But unecessary borrowing can have some negative effects as the already existing word in the language is rendered useless. E. g. ዐደስ for ብርስን. Even translation (literal one) can sometimes be unsettling or not the right thing to do eg ገጽ መጽሐፍ/facebook. It feels like ጸርፊ. Do we really have to translate it?
            By the way, this new generation of ናይ ሕማመይ are changing changing tigrigna as we know it.ኸልየና, ሐብዩዋ, ገንዘብ ወሪዱለይ etc. ሽግር የለን now is being used to mean ሕራይ like in;
            A: will you come tomorrow?
            ናይ ሕማመይ: ሽግር የለን
            A: Then you will sign the tenant agreement.
            ናይ ሕማመይ: ሽግር የለን
            Creating uneasiness for the interpreter.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Sara,
            Very interesting comment. ኣንቲ ሳራ፡ እውይ ከይተሕምኒ! I am trying to use this very odd expression that I sometime hear and similar to what you mentioned above. It sounds like saying ‘በጃኺ ይኣኽለኒ’ ወይ ናቱ ነገር’ሲ ግደፍዮ ድኣ’. Already like you I cannot get used to ዓደስ, I have hard time understanding these expression, ሳራ ከይተሕምኒ.
            Let me give you a funny example of the danger of directly translating a word. After having been speaking amharic continously for some time, one day I call an old Tigrigna speaker friend because I missed him and I said as follows:
            ኣነ – ኣንታ ወልደ ናፊቕካኒ እንዲኻ።
            ወልደ – ከመይ ጌርካ ፈሊጥካ?
            ኣነ – እንታይ ማለትካ እዩ? ናፊቕካኒ እንድየ ዝድውለልካ ዘለኹ
            ወልደ – ኣነ ከምዝናፈቕኩኻ ከመይ ጌርካ ፈሊጥካ
            ኣነ – እምቧእ፡ ኣይናፈቕካንን ማለትካ ድዩ
            ወልደ – ኣይበልኩን!!
            It took me some time to realize that I literaly translated the amharic ናፈቅከኝ to ናፊቕካኒ.
            BTW what do the words that you mentioned mean: ኸልየና, ሐብዩዋ, ገንዘብ-ወሪዱለይ.
            Best regards

          • Kbrom

            ሃይላት ዘይተምጸኦ ዘይብልካ

            ናትካ ይሓይሽ ካብ ናይ ሓደ ካልእ ኣምቸ፡ ነገሩ ከምዚ ኢዩ። ኣምቸ ሓንቲ ኣብ ገለ ዝፈልጣ ሰብ ርእዩ ሰላም በላ እሞ

            ኣምቸ፡ ሰላም እዛ ሃፍተይ
            ጓል፡ ግትር ኢላ ሰላም ናይ ደሓን?
            ኣምቸ፡ ቃህ ቃህ ኢልክኒ
            ጓል ጭውውው!

            መስኪናይ ኣምቸ ኣብ ገለ ወቓሕ ወቃሕ ኢልክኒ ክብል ዝሓሰቦ ኢዩ

          • Sarah Ogbay

            Hi Haile,
            Really funny! You don’t know the meaning of these words? በል ከይተሕመኒ?
            ኸልየን= ግደፈና
            ሓብዩዋ= ፈትዩዋ
            ገንዘብ ወኢዱለይ= ገንዘብ ተሰዲዱ (what is funny about this expression is when it is used to refer to benefit from Gvts. It feels like ላም ጸባ ክትሕለብ ከላ። ምስ መንግስቲ ላም ዘቐመጡ አይመስሉን? But it is mostly used but eritreans in Sudan or Lybia calling friend and family in the diaspora to send them money. ‘$2000 እባ አውርደልና ሰምሳሪ ሒዙና ኾይኑ’።

          • Haile S.

            Thank you Sarah,
            ነዚ ሓዲሽ ቋንቋ ጽቡቕ ጌርኪ ዝመለኽክዮ ኢኺ ትመስሊ። ሰምሳሪ? ቦኽሪ እዝነይ። ናይቲ ቋንቋ ቃላት እንድሕሪ ተጠቒምኪ፡ ትርጁማን ወይ ተርጓሚ ከድልየኒ እዩ።

          • Paulos

            Selam Dr. Sarah,

            Glad you joined in for your-expert opinion graces the forum as the rest of us are eager to learn from one another.

            Certainly, language or the ability to define and express abstract ideas including the world around us has given the human-animal tremendous power with in the pyramid of the food chain where the rest are disadvantaged. What is so striking is however, when humans across the board are one and the same in a genetic-speak that is, humans developed plethora of languages where acquiring certain languages gave some more leverage than others. For instance, Latin was one of the most powerful languages in its heyday where it was the language of the elites and later on French became the language of the elites when France was the most wealthy nation for over three centuries. And of course, when the sun refused to set on the British empire, the English language became the undisputed ruler perhaps to this day as well.

            What seems to be a bit of an odd with in the said three epochal languages is that, they are extremely conserved and rigid in the sense that when they ruled over culturally different societies particularly English, it refused to internalize the language of the locals for lack of a better word. But on the other hand, the colonized seemed to have weaved the words of the powerful into its tapestry where Tigrigna is a case in point.

            We have adopted and taken up Italian words where they had become the norm with in daily lives and equally, the Ghedli experience and its aftermath has added new words into the mix where any given sentence more often than not could sound extremely informal and sometimes not intelligible as well. If I may digress, if certain nations [Nyerere’s Tanzania for instance] drew a sense of national identity through the cohesion of a language, we are at a disadvantage for ours is less conserved and more adultrated including the manner in which the language being spoken by the power to be.

          • Sarah Ogbay

            Hi Paulos,
            I do agree with you 100%. We need to bring and encourage our linguists and language experts to work on and standardize the Tigrigna language, all Eritrean languages for that matter -both their grammar and diction. This would make the young generation who are facing intense and fast technological development at ease to use their own languages and feel proud of it- bringing smooth communication between young and old as well as educated and semi educated and uneducated.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Dr. Sarah,

            Excellent. You are an acute observer on how sometimes our language Is degenerated to unknown dialects. The example you brought to illustrate your argument ዐደስ for ብርስን will help our conscience to consider your warning and to stay with our roots. Look also ኸልየና is for ግደፈና, and so many others. So thank you for the red flag.

            Regards

          • Paulos

            Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

            I was at this wedding and I overheard a couple of guys saying እዚ ጸብሒ ጆያ [the Italian word for granite stones] የብሉን and they were referring to chopped meat. If I could paraphrase the famed lyric ከምዚኣ እንዳበለትየ ትግርኛ ኸደትየ.

          • saay7

            Hey Emma, Dr. Sarah, all:

            Chill, my people. All languages have their own vernacular (ቍንቍኛ) and the one you are talking about (Tigrinya hybdridized with Arabic and Italian) is unique to ደቂ ሹቕ Asmara (or those who pretend to be.) Actually, Eri-TV did a documentary of this vernacular…if I find the link, I will share. It is harmless and often funny stuff. Now,ኣክላ ክንህባ ንኸይድ ኣለና (I am heading out to eat:)

            saay

          • Paulos

            Sal,

            Do you know what is funny too? The word ገለመለ is becoming very common in Amharic as well. For instance, they would say, ‘ባክህ ዝም’በል ገለመለ ኣታብዛ. In fact I heard people saying that in a couple of occasions when I was in Addis recently.

          • Kbrom

            Dear Professor saay7

            Yesterday you were talking about how the Millennials use the word normal. I have noticed this recently: if you ask them how did they get out from Eritrea and how they came to Europe they will tell you:

            ኖኖእ ኣብ ምውጻእሲ ዝኾነ ሽግር ኣይነበረን ኖርማል ኢዩ ነይሩ፡ ክልተ ግዜ ኣብ ተሃድሶ እንዳ ኣቦይ ርጉም ተኣሲረ፡ ደሓር ስግረ ዶብ ወጺአ ደሓር ከምቲ ኩሉ ሰብ ዝገብሮ ብሊብያ ጌረ መጺአ ኣብኡስ ሳክት ኩሉ ኖርማል ኢዩ ነይሩ። ሓንቲ ሽግር ዘጋጠመትኒስ ኣብዚ ኣብ ዓዲ ጥልያን ዓሸራ ምስበሉና ኢያ፡ እዛ ካምፕ ድማ ቁሩብ ነዊሓ ኮንግራ ደንጉያትና።

            For them The only abnormal thing is the finger print (the legal requirement) the rest is ከምቲ ኩሉ ሰብ ዝገብሮ!

          • Sarah Ogbay

            Hi Kubrom,
            It is sad though. how the regime has changed their outlook on life. ዘይንቡር ንቡር ዝገበረ ስርዓት። ምእሳር፣ ምህዳም፣ ምውቃዕ፤ ምግሳስ፣ are all ‘normal’ to them but finger printing is not. They live with the trauma.

          • Paulos

            Selam Kbromay,

            I think we should see the word “normal” with in a context where it may seem to mean to them not something that should be accepted with in moral-equivalence where good and bad are accepted but the hardship they are going through is something they can tolerate. To be more precise, again, what they mean “normal” is something they can cope with perseverance and patience. It behooves us to see them as the rest of us where we are fortunate enough to have the luxury to see their predicament from a distance.

          • saay7

            Kbrur ato kbrom:

            Bingo! That’s exactly the conversation: where the abnormal is defined as normal, common place.

            If the youth saying “normal” to define the most astonishing things is jareing, its contrast has to be the real or fake outrage of GoE officials and the overuse of the phrase “እቲ ካብ ኩሉ ዝገርም” (what’s most amazing is…) for things that are not amazing at all. You antagonize the UN, you get sanctioned. Yet they will say እቲ ካብ ኩሉ ዝገርም…to that. The SEMG report, the CoI report, the reports of human rights organization which merely catalog its insane behavior are all treated with እቲ ካብ ኩሉ ዝገርም… no, nothing amazing there: just cause and effect.

            saay

          • Kbrom

            Ustaz saay7, that is very true, እቲ ካብ ኩሉ ዝገርም is that their favourite tag line is the rule of law -rule of law in a country where there is neither law nor rule?

            The other overused phrase in the category of numbers is 90%. When officials talk or all the government report would say 90% of XYZ, you do not see 43% 22% 4% 91% etc, it is always 90%.

          • Tzigereda

            Selam Kbrom & Saay,

            ኣብዚኣስ ቁሩብ ዶ ናይ ታህዋኽ ድምድም ድምድም ኣየበልኩዋምን?

            From my experience of interacting with those who fled Eritrea in the last years ( though I dont want to generalise) I have a different impression:
            When you ask any question related to their life in Eritrea, or the challenges they were confronted with, after they left Eritrea, many give a short answer “ደሓን’ዩ… or ከምቲ ናይ ኩሉሰብ”, they need more time to warm up, you can feel and see the mistrust in their eyes, after they make sure there will be no harm, they start narrating ( and it is always horrible) and even then it is you who is supposed to ask more questions for details, so you get the full picture. I assume that this has to do that we, as a society we don’t have the culture of listening to a younger person ( and generally one dont talk about him/herself as an individual, it is mostly “we“) and partially due to the culture of PFDJ:“ we talk, you listen“. And on the other side many people don’t want to talk about their traumata, and have different way of how they handle with „ነዚ ድኣ እንታይ ክነግረሉ, እንቓዕ ሓለፈ ጥራይ”.

            Yes, they find the „ ጉዳይ ዓሸራ ” as the most difficult because this means the disaster has still no end, it means you are doomed to live in the streets of Italy with no chance of a dignified life, so the whole terrible journey is in vain “እዚ ኹሉ የሕሊፍካስ ነዚ”.

            Everything what happened to them till then is then explained as “ኖርማል”: ሳዋ, ግዱድ ዕስክርና torture (ቤት ማእስርታት 6ይ ብሪገድ :እንዳ ሰፍኣ; እንዳ ዳጉና ኩርምናዕ, ማይ ስርዋ …in Eritrea, the physical and mental torture in Sudan, Libya etc.).

            So when they say „…ኖርማል” ኖርማል ኢዩ ኔይሩ”, my interpretation is that they mean „you know how life is in Eritrea, you know what the journey looks like“.
            As for personal stories by „ኖርማል ኢዩ” they also mean „ካብኡ ዝኸፍእ እውን ኣሎ.
            It is never what the word „normal“ means, it is eritreanized „normal“.

            ከይህውትት ድኣምበር how articulate are we eritreans? Is there a difference in the different social groups of Eritrea?

          • Paulos

            Grazie mille Dottoressa. That was exactly my point in my earlier comment.

          • Tzigereda

            Selam Paulos,

            ክብረት ይሃበለይ.

            Sorry, I missed most of the comments of the last 24h, yours too.

          • Sarah Ogbay

            Hi Tzigereda, Saay, Kbrom and Paulos,
            Greetings.
            I think we are all looking at the same thing but from slightly different points of view. Tzigereda, when you ask how articulate we are, I think Kbrom has landscaped it. But you and me (don’t know if Kbrom and Paulos live in Europe) have the first hand impression ‘normal’ as almost all the young Eritreans arriving in Europe have same experience in their journey from Eritrea. Sadly they consider the abuse and suffering they experience ‘normal’ mostly because they have heard about it at the onset of their journey, at the refugee centers or in Eritrea. So when they start they know what to expect. Unfortunately this becomes their reality as they don’t know what is ‘normal’ to you and me. When you chat about their journey with many of them, the stories they tell you smilingly are depressing. Sometimes you can’t sleep for a while after you listen to them . I wonder how it is possible that someone would go through such horrendous experience and still looks ‘normal’? But are they? I don’t think so. They have blocked the pain somewhere in their minds. Unfortunately they also don’t access the support provided by host countries. But the drinking, gambling promiscuity, verbal and physical violence are mostly signs of underlying trauma. It is worrisome to think that these are the future of Eritrea. Although all of us Eritreans need some kind of Psychiatric help, we should encourage these young people and even campaign that seeking psychologist’s support is advantageous and does not mean you have lost your marbles. ጽሉል ኢኻ ማለት ከምዘይኮነ ከነረድእ ክንጽዕር አሎና።

          • Paulos

            Selam Dr. Sarah,

            What exactly do they mean when they say, it is normal, when they talk about something that is tragic? It is not something where moral relativism is at play where one equivocates moral standing. Instead, the word normal is used for lack of a better word on their part, that is, to describe something that can be handled and copped with እዝዉን ክሓልፍ’ዩ attitude. It is not psychopathy going berserk unable to distinguish between good and evil.

          • Saleh Johar

            Selam Paulos and all,
            Once I had a heated discussion with a newly arrived youngster who had been conscripted for so many years. I criticized the way the youngsters seem to be assertive in foreign lands when they could have shown some courage in Eritrea–carrying guns, among their peers, in big numbers, and in their own country. I asked him, “why didn’t you command that courage back then? Why didn’t assertively demand your rights to be respected”. He was surprised at my question: “we didn’t even know the term RIGHT until we left Eritrea and discovered its existence!”

            That explanation froze me there. I didn’t know what to say, but only to sympathize with him and his generation who have been denied the basic knowledge of rights and instead, were fed on propaganda and destructive indoctrination.

          • iSem

            Hi Saleh:
            they may not know Right (messel) but the idea of being humiliated and the idea to stand up and fight is human instinct , actually it animal instinct, So this is denial of their docility, not taking responsibility. They were free ppl not slaves until they left to Sawa, so they cannot claim the slavery problem tha

          • Paulos

            Selam Semerile,

            That is a good point. The human instinct is of course universal but the way they conceptualize what standing up for one’s rights means or standing up against injustice is fleeing and look for a bettet future somewhere else. For the previous generation, that is a textbook cowardice but for this generation it is thinking smart as in መን ኣሎ ዓሻ or ኣብ ግዜ ዉራውራ ነብስkha ኣይተዕብራ sort of thing.

          • Sarah Ogbay

            Hi Saleh hawey,
            Thay is exaclty what i am saying. We can not assume they know if we have not taught them or if they haven’t seen us or someone else do. That is why i always say Sawa is a place we where the regime seals fear, submissiveness; a place whete whatever confidence you have is destroyed once and for all. At least that is its underlyjng goal.

          • Sarah Ogbay

            This is to Semere and Alex whose comments I read on my mobile but somehow could not find when I tried to respond on my laptop.

            Hi both of you,
            I am not saying they are like Zombies. In fact that is the very reason they leave the country.
            About going to the party etc. Yes, they party; in fact they all seen to dress up as if they all come from middle class families when they go to parties. They are young and there is one thing the regime would have controlled if it could – hormones. As a mother who lived in Eritrea with teenagers I can definitely tell you that it is all pretense. Why are they not excelling in their education then? By the way, is partying an indication of normalcy? PFDJites say everyone is happy and good back home. Should everyone cry all the time to demonstrate lack of normalcy. ሓቦ ገርካ፣ ገጽካ ዓቲብካ ምኻድ ጸገም የለን አየመልክትን እዩ። ኤሪትራዊ ተቐባል ጋሻ’ዩ ካብ ዘምጽአ አምጺኡ ደርሆ ሓሪዱ ገዝኡ አጽርዩ እንተዓደሞም ኩሉ ነገር ጽቡቕ ከምዘሎ ይርድኦም። In the west if you don’t have you don’t give. In Eritrean you borrow to give (ጋሻኽ ክትዕድም) Alex honest to God I am not talking about you.
            I wish my daughter joined this discussion. she went to Italian school where they are a brave enough to say things as they see them. We discuss why the youth are not fighting back instead for leaving the country. She would say ‘why would they? why wouldn’t you the adults and the ones who allow everything to happen to them fight back instead? Every May 24 you (adults) are the ones invited to sit one onside of the stadium alongside your leader and we are made to entertain you with our military parade, dance. Why would you expect us to fight back when you behave as if everything is OK’. I say she is right we flee and they follow us. We pretend and they pretend. So our reality is different from theirs and so is our NORMAL.

          • Sarah Ogbay

            Good morning Dr Paulos.
            The meaning of ‘normal’ for these young people is ‘it is not bad or not something unusual’. Mind you, these people were born and raised witnessing fear, mistrust, unhappiness, scarcity of almost everything. One would know light only if they know darkness. Back home everyone complains but nobody is bold enough to come forward and ask why. Nobody can dare say ‘No’ when told to go yo Sawa etc. ሐሞቶም ፈሲሱ. This is their reality, their ‘normal’. For us who know better life it is not normal. Reality is different for different people based on experience.
            So when it starts to sink in that it is not normal , they start behaving differently, like blocking the pain or sadness and start pretending like nothing happened. Their own way of dealy with it.
            If i have understood what you mean by moral relativism, we can ask who gave them moral education. Early on their age they are preped for Sawa or how to avoid it. During and after Sawa they are treated like slaves, dependents, as if they are in dept to the country just for being Eritreans. We can understand that their confidence is eroded in such situation and they have no vision. Under this reality ‘normal’ has a different or the opposite meaning. I will do some research on it but i don’t think they mean ‘እዚውን ክሐልፍ እዩ’።
            I hope. I have clarified it a little bit.

          • Paulos

            Good morning Dr. Sarah,

            It is still Sunday in my part of the world bounded by Eastern Time zone that is.

            I rerspect your take on the issue at hand but it sounds to me a bit of an extreme position where one gets the impression as if they live in a leper-colony secluded from the “normal” world.

            Sure enough, they are denied the rights to speak their minds and to worship as well but they also do what normal teenagers do as in they go out, they party and go on a date and get wasted as well. It is not that they are turned into a complete zombies devoid of any kind of happiness life has to offer. It is just that their future is extremely regulated and limited where they risk to find one somewhere else instead.

            The mental anguish starts to take hold when they leave Eritrea and when what they expected and the harsh reality they encountered remains in contradiction, it creates a nervous breakdown. Those who survived it live in a comparative or relativistic world when they see what they face here is “normal” in comparison to what they had gone through say in the deserts or the cruel high seas.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Dear Dr Sarah,

            The following statement is epic expression for the sad realities of Eritrean youth: “These people were born and raised to witnessing fear, mistrust, unhappiness, scarcity of almost everything.” I wish doctore, taking this statement as “theme” of your essay and an “embryo” of your idea, to expound it in to an article, that could contribute to our understanding, the future of Eritrea in the light of the current youth. Could you think about it?

            Regards

          • saay7

            Hey dotoressa Tzigereda:

            Are we? I think the points you made expound on, but do not contradict, what Kbrom and I said. Yes, I agree with you that they youth don’t volunteer the info until trust is established; the point is that when trust is established and they are narrating their story, the only English word I hear is the word “normal” and it is as short hand for something that has become very normal in Eritrea but is abnormal anywhere else.

            By the way, do you find that they use the word when they are in European countries where English is not the language?

            saay

          • Kbrom

            Hi Tzigeta

            This is a great lesson Tsigeta, I did not see it from that perspective, thank you for the heads up. I stand corrected.

            In regard to your question ‘how articulate are we eritreans? Is there a difference in the different social groups of Eritrea?’ I think it is difficult to generalize buy yes there is there a difference in the different social groups.

            The Tigre speakers are more articulated, confident and honest when they speak, this has to do with the way they are raised. In Metahit there is more democracy, say for example if an old man meets in the Wadi (ruba) a young boy (6 years old), he will greet him like an adult, ask him (discuss) about the graze, the cattle, the rain etc. for a lengthy of time. Unlike what we do in Kebessa during the meal time, in the Metaht the children eat with their parents, discuss the topic of the day – compare this with how we grew up ኣቦኻ ክሳብ ዝበልዑ ውጻእ፥ ጋሻ ተመጺኦም ሰላሕ ኢልኩም ደገ ውጹ ሙሽ ተባሂልኩም።

            In Kebesa you hardly see your father, whilst in the Metehat he is your friend and your mentor. I remember an incident that happened in one household during ዕግርግር ኣስመራ። Due to the state of emergency the father started to come early evening to his house, so the first day he came early his son went out of the room and his mother asked him ናበይ ደኣልካ ትወጽእ እገለ ወደይ and the son replied ሙሽ ጋሻ ተመጺኡ ውጹ ኢልክና።

            The is also more transparency and honesty in the Metaht compared to Kebessa. This has to do with the landscape. Especially during the ወራራት መሳፍንቲ ትግራይ in kebessa people tended to develop the culture of cautiousness, ኪድሞ ደድሕሪኡ ስዒብካ ኣበይ ከምዝኣቱ እንታይ ከምዝገብር ረኣዮ፥ ሕቶታት ተሓቲቱካ ልብኻ ኣይትሃቦ፡ ኣቦኻ ገዛ ኣሎዶ ተይሉካ ባሕሪ ወፊሩ በሎ እንታይ ከምዝገብር መታን ክንርእዮ።

            Unlike Kebessa the landscape in Metahit is plain field where they can see any one including their enemies from afar hence they are relaxed, they do not need to mislead and misinform eachother. There was not much werarat either. The landscape in Kebessa which is so mountainous, had the history of some one coming from behind and back stabbing (not literally meaning), hiding until the time of the attack, waiting the right time to revenge, hence the culture of honesty became like the landscape with much hiding places and opportunities for intrigues.

          • iSem

            hi Sarah:
            This should conclude the debate ሙሽ ሓቀይ?:-)
            I agree the new generation, the product of you know what are corrupting the language, but to be fair, I think this started long time ago when the urbanite wanted to differentiate themselves themselves from the rest and needlessly introduced or literally translated

          • Paulos

            Semerile,

            ሕማማት እንዳተርጎምና የሕቢጥናካ’ዶ? I guess it was great for a change where I have a feeling that when a new PM is elected in Ethiopia possibly early next week, the topic will be changed or if a new article is posted this weekend.

          • iSem

            Paulo:
            tsegem yelen arkey
            sesenayu 🙂

          • Sarah Ogbay

            Selam Semere hawey,
            I wouldn’t say ‘corrupt’ but as we in general lack solid education of our formal language, we may end up to be ጉራማይለ. Although, as Saay indicated, languages can have vernacular, dialect, slang… it is important there is a formal version. Especially developing countries should protect and work on local or native languages so that they keep up with the fast changing world (migration and all) otherwise western languages and cultures can sniff their lives out of them.

          • saay7

            iSem:

            The tigrayit word for ants is እቅሕማ. I once asked what is the singular for it (ant) and I was told, “I don’t know; have you ever seen a single ant?” So there you go:)

            Speaking of which, the singular and plural word for ant/ants in Tigrinya is ጻጸ. No?

            saay

          • Paulos

            Sal,

            ጻጸታት?
            በጊዕ==ኣባጊዕ
            ጤል==ኣጣል. Could it be ጤላት too?

          • ደንማርኪኖ ፕሮፈሶር ጳውሎስ ዓርከይ፡

            Since on/am the subject, what is the Tigrigna word for “giant”? Tell Kbrom the word ጻጸ was too small for such a giant thing.
            So how about adapting the word ጃይጻጸ into the Tigrigna language for the meaning of Giant, unless there is a word already.
            Besides why does not Tigrigna grow like English does annually.

            Any who, I will have more to say once I am done with layaway payment plan.

            ጃይጻጸ

          • Abrehet Yosief

            GitSAtSE,
            Giant in Tigrigna is ንጉዕ. I refer to the bible for that, on the fight between the David and the giant. However, the big ant is known ዕንጉራይ ጻጸ.
            By the way you have to come up with a formula what ratio to sue for dry mint. ናዕናዕ ሒዘ ተጸብየካስ ነቒጹ:: If three leaves of na’e na’e go to a small berad, how many teaspoons of dry na’e na’e should I use?

          • ደንማርኪኖ፥

            I have not had ናዕናዕ since the Akhria ሻሂ circa 1976. I am not quite sure I understand the question, but how many ኩባያs are in a small በራድ would determine the three leaves coefficient/multiplier.
            Am I supposed to visualize fractions of ናዕናዕ teaspoons? Safe bet would be ሰለስተ ጻጸ sized ናዕናዕ for your cup. Average or normal ጻጸ ኣንድ not ዕንጉራይ of couse.
            Your response with context is appreciated as the ንጉዕ። You are now THE ንጉስ ንጉዕ ኦፍ ፊዚክስ።
            My condolences for ስቲቨን ሆኪንስ።

            ንጉዕ-ጻጸ

          • ሰላማት ኣብረሀት

            sorry Abrehet Haftey/ንጉዕቲ ንግስቲ ፊዝክስ!

            ንጉዕ ጻጸ

          • Paulos

            Tsatse Arkey,

            Of late, the Scientific Community has been abuzz with a new discovery about the unique characters of ants. Of course, way before Adam Smith or Karl Marx pointed out division of labor with in mass-production, ants have been synonymous with it for it is part of their genetic make up.

            The novelty of the new discovery is pretty cool however. Ants form a raft by sticking to each other where they are able to float for weeks in a massive flood. The buoyant structure they create has peaked a sense of curiosity not only with in Biologists but with in Structural Engineers and Architects as well.

          • ደንማርኪኖ ዕርከይ ፕሮፈሶር ጳውሎስ፡

            I took a glimpse of structural engineering of homes and communities designed and constructed entirely out of floatation materials for the inevitable colonization of the earths vast seas. From single individual homes, to towns and very small cities on either the pacific or atlantic ect.. to be relatively self sustaining and relatively independent of the land communities. They would grow and produce their foods and other essentials including security, for example from significant climate turbulences, possibly autonomous self governments severed from the existing civilization models.
            It is an ingenious span of ideas to inhabit the greater of earth’s surface area, which is water, with the added bonus of serving to be the dress rehearsal for celestial future(/near) colonization, as near earth like planets with the entirety of their surface area submerged in one pangaea sea. Not to mention the immediate solution of dense population explosion nonsensical fear and panic…
            There are numerous prototypes and modules by scientist, which I am sure you have come across already. Not a tantalising fairy land at all. So, I see how the ants, greater architects than man and other terrestrials, are subjected to telescopes (not micrscopes–is not relative? 🙂 ) of the human scientists.
            Telescope as large as the ኣንጉዕ hubble for the giAnts, not a microscope, of course. For

            ኣንጉዕ-ጻጸ

          • Paulos

            Tsatse Arkey,

            Great points. I agree. Thank you.

          • Saleh Johar

            Ahlan TsaTse,

            I didn’t know you have an interest in architecture. One of my main hobbies is reading about it.

            I will share with you the story of an Egyptian-American architect, Hassan Fathy [Fat-Hy or Fitai-Hy] who specialized in the native American adobe architecture. In his Egypt he built an adobe village for the poor and it was an affordable way to solve third-world housing crisis–but the governments and developers are infatuated with cement and glass buildings:-)

            Fathy became very famous but he died before he could spread his techniques wide enough. Most of his remarkable works are in New Mexico, all over the state, There is one mosque that he built there from adobe and it is breathtaking. Google him out.

        • Ismail AA

          Dear Kbrom,

          Reserving time to respond to my comments is highly appreciated. I understand the strain constraint of time brings with it is enormous.

          I thoroughly concur with your view about the interest languages should be accorded, and the necessity of efforts to develop them for multifaceted values. A developed language is key determinant in the pursuit of nation/state building. So, the point I tried to state yesterday was to just stress that ill-considered adaptation of foreign terms on the basis of literal meanings add less or no value to enrichment of a language.

          Moreover, my limited knowledge of language through usage tell me that a language with poor literary culture and history is disadvantaged in coping up with the fast expansion of scientific and aesthetic knowledge unless facilitative options would be introduced. I can mention that some nations such as the Iranians and the Dutch have made their language receptive to scientific and electronic (internet) terms. They avoided language jingoism based constrictions that make adaption of terms cumbersome.

          For the Dutch for instance, a new term for the Dutch could simply enter the language, and used straight forward as long as an infinitive verb can be created: mail becomes mailen and the basic verb would fulfil all parts of speech.

          Anyway, it’s fine that the issue of languages, in this case Tigrigna, has attracted considerable exchange of views. Much of the in puts are interesting and are full of sense. Striving to be creative (Itihad as in Arabic) is the mother of innovation and improvement. The peoples who live in multi-ethnic national polities have the advantage of exchanging words and terms especially those related to tools of production and utilities. Eritrea is no exception in this.

          My community has taken a lot of terms from neighbors. For example the Tigrigna noun መንፊት is ማንፊዮ; and ዓተ is ዓቲር in the Saho language. I am sure other communities in other localities have done the same. For me, Saho and Tigrigna were household and village neighborhood languages. Where I was born and grew my Tigrigna speaking peers and I were bi-lingual without being conscious about it; it was just normal. Abrehet spoke with my mother when she was sent to fetch something in Saho and I spoke to her mother in Tigrigna.

          To close these amateurish lines, let me jot a few word about your take on what a constitution should be in the Tigrigna language, besides whether “ቅዋም” qualifies to encompass meaning and function of a constitution. You suggested ዓንዲ ሕግታት instead. I think this is better than ቅዋም because it connotes basic laws or foundation laws. But, I would suggest it would project better meaning if ዓንደ-ሕግታት were to be used because the letter ዲ is singular, and the letter ደ renders the meaning more general. My preference is መሰረተ-ሕግታት.

          So, I will leave you with a question: what is wrong to adapt a term that other peoples and nations have used? For instance, if we accept ዳውላ (ደውላ) for state from Arabic why could not we accept ዳስቱር (ደስቱር) for constitution. This term in Arabic denotes basic laws. It is a matter of choice and usage. The Iranians picked from Arabic ቃኑን ኣሳሲ (basic laws) for their constitution.

          • Kbrom

            Ismail, Hayaku allah ya shamsel almaniya

            My limited knowledge of language? Common Ismail your humbleness is becoming too heavy to carry; you are an expert, if not an authority, in the language discussion.

            ዳስቱር (ደስቱር) for constitution is the best option. I also concur with ዓንደ-ሕግታት or maybe ርእሰ – ሕግታት።

            As you have rightly and eloquently put it a language with poor literary culture and history is disadvantaged. In mid 80’s Mogadishu was known for its literally translated businesses and shops;
            e.g قطع الرأس محل

            I also read this one somewhere. ‘In China, there is a restaurant called “Translate server error”. The owner attempted to translate the Chinese word for restaurant into English but the machine translation produced an error. Not knowing the difference, the restaurant printed the error out in English and used it for their sign.

            Our great professor saay7 has elucidated the outlandishness of the repugnant coining and usage of ሰበር ዜና for breaking news.

            I agree ሰበር ዜና is something that should be replaced by for a meaningful meaning – a word that represented our cultural and emotional feeling, experiential and existential sensibility.

            As you know Ismail, psycholinguistic researchers believe that if words and phrases are not translated at the cognitive level, where we try to find the deepest meaning of the word, it is highly likely to end up with word translations such as ሰበር ዜና and a shop ‘for cutting head’. I think the problem of such kind of translations emanate from the lack of analysing the meaning and the characteristics of the word before embarking into translation. Let’s see breaking news it was better to analyse the word breaking news which include the questions such as when is a news called a breaking news? What are the unique features that warrants it to be the cause of the interruption of scheduled programming?

            One of main features of breaking news is that most of the time it affects the interest of wider viewers, BUT most importantly it is an event that is currently occurring and most likely is a developing story that is broadcasted as it happens or just finished before the broadcasting thus the viewers are left with partial story which they might wait for updates.

            So, how can you find a word or a pair of words that embrace the characteristics should be the starting point for translation. This includes framing it with in the context of our culture and values, and transcend the literal wording of the linguistic domain to give a great weight to the connotative meaning of the word -including the feeling, the spirit, the flavour and the idea that we want the people to associate with our word.

            Now Ismail hawey, let’s see your suggestion ኸበር ዓጅል ሓዲሽ ዜና (ወረ): and why I think they need more effort.

            When one see it from the perspectives that we tried to explain (not exhaustively) even the Arabic one “ኸበር ዓጅል is not a great choice – though better than the terrible ሰበር ዜና።

            Breaking news are not usually ‘urgent’ but significant. Their definition varies depending on the media segments and their editorial policy. For some, breaking news is judged by its effects on the viewer and the scenarios for market and stock exchange reaction, for others it is less about impact more about sensationalism. Just a week ago CNN has a breaking news that goes as follows: United flight diverted after dog placed on wrong plane. So all “ኸበር ዓጅል do not necessarily have urgency as in Halet Thewar’e or something that is strongly connected to time and space.

            Ok, your second suggestion which is ሓዲሽ ዜና (ወረ) would be redundant lexical definition. By virtue of their nature ዜና (ወረ) are already ሓዲሽ. If it was not new it would not have been news. The new + special event = the abstract concept of News. Such kind of mistakes are common in Tigrigna, look at all the Eritrean movies, they advertise ዘሐጉስ ብስራት. This comes from the lack of understanding that the word ብስራት is formed by announce + good thing + happened/to happen. ሕማቕ ብስራት የሎን።

            The other important point you raised on both your posts was the Dutch experience. I think the Dutch’ good experience of changing to an infinitive noun is something that should not ruled out however I am not sure whether it is practical or not, say for example we try mail and change it into an infinitive Tigrigna which is መመየሊ ምምያል do you think it can work, I do not.

            I know criticising all but suggesting none would sound an act of patronising, hence though not in a position to say this works this does not (መን ኮይነ ኢየ), let me try በታ ንኡሽተ ዓቕመይ to suggest some hints. I am confident that the many ሊቃውንቲ in Awate Uni would come up with several great suggestions as they always do.

            Here are my ዘይረብሓ ሓሳባት

            ኣርሓ ዜና
            ቅጽበታዊ ዜና
            ኣቕላቢ ዜና (ዝያዳ ኣቓልቦ ዝሓትት ንምባል)

            (Let me stop before saay7 jumps and ask me to shut my mouse on behalf of Mengsti ዝባን መንግስቲ ኢለካ! Professor saay7 ወላ ተግሳጹ ኢዩ ምቁር።

          • Ismail AA

            Dear Kbrom,

            I could figure out how I should thank you. Gracing an inquisitive reader with such amount of information and investment of time is amazing.

            As I note in my response to Haile S. what I offer are not so much expertise based things. They do not pass the threshold of common know-how. Anyway, I appreciate your compliment.

            On hazardousness of literary translation of terms, I think we are on the same page, and on this score I agree with you view about the rigor and depth of research required before adapting foreign words or terms of whatever kind. If the final product does not fit in the spirit and soul of social and cultural values, norms and taste of owners of receiving language, the damage could exceed the benefit – the risk is then corrupting the language by allowing seamless hybridization.

            In regard to the examples I cited, I thank you for alerting me on the follies deeper analysis could unveil. My allusion to them was as general examples. For instance, the way the Dutch used the term “mail” as an infinitive base for parts of speech does not make sense if we were to transpose it to Tigrigna. The point was an attempt to suggest flexibility and ease handling expansion of language by way of borrowing from other languages.

          • halafi me(n)gedi

            Kbrom,

            I would still put ‘hixux zena’ as option because (1) breaking news is something that need attention in the moment and hence is urgent. i would think, absent the historical origin of ‘breaking’ as saay described, English speakers would probably be using ‘urgent news’. (2) in fact, i think the French use ‘urgent’ to describe breaking news. (3) ‘aklabi zena’ is actually more like ‘hixux zena’ (as i said, urgent things require attention), but ‘hixux zena’ sounds better and better conveys the nature of ‘breaking news’ than ‘aklabi zena’. and finally (4) ‘qixbetawi zena’ is in a way is a sub-component of ‘hixux zena’. So ‘hixux zena’ actually is incorporating two of the options you brought up.

            Additionally, ‘hiji zibexhana zena’ is also used to refer to breaking news, but it is more equivalent to ‘happening now’ which refers to follow up reports after news is broke.

            In topic of words and their origin, was wondering if you or others in the forum could help me here,

            Some time ago, a friend told me the origin of the name ‘sebeyti’ (i.e., wife) is ‘seb – beit’. ‘sebeytey’ then == ‘seb – beytey’. First, is that true? Second, if true, what is the origin of ‘sebay’ then…if their origins are related at all?

            Thank you,

            hm

          • Selamat ክብሮም፡

            ቀጣዕ ራአስ መሓል قطع الرأس محل

            Pardon me ሓው ክብሮም, it could very well be just me reading subtle nuances in your choice of Somalia’s example. Would you please elaborate more the محل.
            Or is there necessity for “need to know” embedded filters communications?
            The wonderful takeaway for me is that negotiations on rule of law, constitutional rule to this level language dissection is afoot amongst Eritreans and friends. Though this one is indicative of rigidity of the kind hindrances adding to slug pace progress if any.

            Also, an Arabic English Dictionary, to complement መዝገብ ቃላተይ, should you have a suggestion is greatly appreciated.

            الاسم صغير لشيء عملاق

            النمل العملاق
            ንጉዕ ጻጸ

          • Paulos

            Selam Kbur Haw Ismail AA,

            That is really fascinating. Thank you so much. We missed you yesterday as the class was in a steroid debating about words and their translated meanings in Tigrigna.

          • Ismail AA

            Dear Paulos,
            I have enjoyed the many things this discussion produced. I know very well what versatile compatriots have in store; and have seen it live in the past two or three days. I was thrilled when I saw sisters like Sarah were sufficiently provoked to engage and share what they know. Thanks everybody who gave us something free from own reservoir. Minutest information in knowledge amount to mountains of priceless jewels.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Ismailen and Kbromen,
            Talking about መግሊ ወዲ መግሊ, I missed the gem of discussions you had. Thank you and please continue.

          • Ismail AA

            Dear Haile S.
            ዘይ ናይ በዓል ኣነ ናይ ቆልዑት ቀንጠብጥብ እዩ። በዓል ሀይልይትን ጳውሎሳትን
            ኮኾባትን ሳልሓትን ከለዉ ብዕሎም። The deal fellows like me play role of provocateurs, and the verdict on the words awaits the gaints. Thanks anyway, Sir. Keep us in the class to learn as far as the Tigrigna language goes.

          • Paulos

            ኣታ እስማዒል ሓወይ ናትካ ትሕትና ዘረባ የብሉን. And yet your moral clarity including intellectual prowess is second to none! I wish everyone including myself was like you where we are afflicted with “me here me here” attitude.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Ismail,
            ናትካን ናይ ከማኻን ናይ ቆልዑት እንድሕሪ ተባሂሉ፡ ናተይ ናይ ኣብ ድቂ ዘሎ ፍጡር ምዃኑ እዩ። It is thanks to you that I discover every morning (my time) serious comments that I missed the previous day.

  • Berhe Y

    Hi Hope,

    I am glad to know that you like your new title…it was a joke,…

    I am not asking you or anyone else to reveal their identity. Thank you very much I am not in the intelligence business. That was funny though….

    Sometimes people say one thing and they repeat it and before you know they believe what they were saying as a fact. For example, you said…..

    “EPLF 06/Enda 70 or 72 or something(check with Mahmuday for details)claimed to be #5 or 6 in the world(The Intelligentsia of the EPLF).”

    I find it very, very hard to believe but yukunelka…

    Does this organization include people like you who were feeding the information to EPLF from inside the beast…at risking everything they had…

    You see USA is not equal to Donald Trump…and USA is not equal to the Republican party….because there is the higher institution above the president or the party that makes decision that can over ride that of the president. That is the US congress..the FBI…the supreme court, the media etc..in other words..the Constitution.

    Eritrea has NONE..the supreme court, the head of intelligence. the head of the media, the head of the front, the head of the bank, the head of security, military, police, even now the head of the church (he demotes and appoints the patriarch as he wishes)…in other words..IA is the king of kings…..he can do what ever he wants..and what ever he wishes…

    If you need example like that you should look like North Korea..or Iraq when Saddam was in power, or Lybia when Gaddafi was in power…..or Ethiopia when Mengistu was in power…

    Can you say DERG = Mengistu…I think he was…because no body was able to live to see another day who went against him…and that’s the fact with EPLF or PFDJ…

    A very, very good example based on evidence is..what happened between him and General Uqbe Abraha…what other evidence do you need to see how this man operates and was operating…

    Sure Derg had build university, it had build hospitals, it has build Abyot adebaby ..who is going to deny that…but the fact is, Mengistu controlled all aspects of the party and how it operated…

    I would say, IA had more control of EPLF and PFDJ than say Mengistu was during DERG.

    These by no means, I am trying to undermine the sacrifice the people made for EPLF…but the fact is..decision was controlled by IA.

    Berhe

  • Berhe Y

    Dear Hope,

    Without sounding too harsh, can I call you, you are the “confusing in chief”.

    You know that exposing the regime that’s doing harm to our people is the first step in order to educate, inform and organize people to action.

    But you, I think you do it unintentionally, you come out swinging all the time when the regime is exposed, defending it :).

    First you need to get over your the idea that the regime = IA = Eritrea. So you need to get over that before you get to the action part. I say you but all of us.

    Berhe

  • Kbrom

    selam all,

    ርእይቶይ ኣብዚ ንዶክተር ሳራ፡ ተጋዳላይ ኡስታዝ ማሕሙድ ሳልሕ፡ ተጋዳላይ ኣቶ ሰመረ፡ ተጋዳላይ ኣቶ ኣማኑኤል፡ ተጋዳላይ ሃይለ፡ ሓው ኮኾብ፡ ሓው ብሊንክን ካልኦት ክቡራት ኣሕዋትን ኣሓትን ዝሓወሰ፡ ዝቐነየ ሃናጺ ክትዕ ገድሊን ገምጋማቱን።

    ከምዚ ዝኣመሰለ ዘተ ከም ኩሎም ውጽኢት ምልውዋጥ ሓሳባትን ምኽዕባት ተመኩሮን ዝኾኑ ዘተታት ጠቓሚኳ እንተኾነ፡ ኣተሓሕዝኡ ከምዚ ዝሓለፈ እዋን ዝነበረ፡ ካብ ናብ ሓሳባት ናብ ሰባት ዘድሃበ፡ ሕድሕዳዊ ምክብባር ዘይብሉ፡ ዘሐፍሽ (generalization)፡ ንኹሉ ነገር ብማይ ክዖ ናይ ወይ ኩሉ ነገር ጽቡቕ ነይሩ ወይ ኩሉ ነገር ግናይ ነይሩ ኢሉ ዝርኢ፡ ዘይሚዛናዊ፡ ስምዒታዊ: ምጥቅቓዕ ዘለዎ ኮይኑ እንተተኻይዱ ዘጽዕዮ ውጽኢት ስለዘይህሉ ሃናጺ ክትዕ ዘይኮነስ ፍረ ኣልቦ ኪኸውን ልዑል ተኽእሎ ኣለዎ።ሕማቕ ኣጋጣሚ ኮይኑ ድማ ኣብቲ ክትዓት ብዙሕ ባህ ዘየብል ክፋል ነይርዎ፡ የግዳስ እቲ ጽቡቕ ነገሩ ኣብ መንጎ ኣሕዋትን ስለ ሓልዮት ሃገሮምን ብሙኻኑ ዝኽምበል እምበር ዝከዖ ነገር የብሉን።

    ብወገነይ ዘይቅየራ ሓቅታት ኢለ ዝኣምነለን!

    ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ገድላዊ ቃልሲ ኣካይዱ ናጽነት ሉዓላዊ መሬቱን ባሕሩን ሰማያቱን ካብ መግዛእቲ ረኺቡ። ድሕሪ ናጽነት ግን እቲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ንገድሊ ኪነቅል ከሎ ዝሓለኖ፡ምስ ናጽነት ኪረጋገጽ ዝነበሮ ወይ ብዉሑዱ ብቕጽበት ስዒቡ ኪመጽእ ዝነበሮ ሰብኣዊ ሓርነትን ክብረትን ኣይተረኸበን።

    ስዉኣት ገድሊ ናይ ኩለን ውድባት (ተጋደልቲ ጥራይ ዘይኮነስ እንተላይ እቶም ኣብ ኣብያተ ማእሰርቲ መግዛእቲ ዝሓለፉ በርጌስ ህዝቢ)፡ ብጹኣንን ዝለዓሉን ሰባት ኢዮም፡ ክብሮምን መስዋእቶምን ክትንከፍ ዘይግበኦ ብጹእ ተግባር ኢዩ።

    ኣብ እዋን ገድላዊ ጉዕዞ ከም ኩሎም ኣብ ትሕቲ ዘይንቡር ኩነት ኮይኖም ዝሰርሑ ሓርነታውያን ምንቅስቓሳት፡ ሰውራ ኤርትራ ማእለውያ ዘይብሎም ጌጋታት ፈጺሙ ኢዩ። ጌጋታት ስለዝነበረ መንቀሊን ማዕልቦን ናይቲ ሰውራን ኩሎም ኣብኡ ዝተሳተፉን ቅኑዕ ኣይነበረን ዝብል መደምደምታ ምሃብ ግን ዘይመጎታዊ ኢዩ፡ ምኽንያቱ ባህጊ ናጽነት ናይ መላእ ህዝቢ ሱታፌ ገድሊን መስዋእትን ኤርትራ ድማ ናይ መላእ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ጻዕሪ ስለዝነበረ።

    ዘይምግዳል ዘየሕንኽ እኳ እንተኾነ፡ ሓደ ዘይተጋደለ ይኹን ዝተጋደለ ሰብ ንሓደ ናይ ትምህርቲ፡ ናይ ጸጋኡን ናይ ህይወቱን ዓቕምን ግዜን ሰዊኡ እተጋደለ፡ ልዕሊ ኩሉ ድማ ኣብ መስርሕ ናጽነት ህይወቱ ከፊሉ ተቐቢሩ ዝተረፈ ሰብ ብምግዳሉ ኪሓንኽ ኣለዎ ክብል ዝግባእ ኣይኮነን።ምኽንያቱ ከምኡ ምባል ብናጽነት ኤርትራ ክንሓንኽ ኣሎና፡ ናጽነትና ብምውሳድና ይቕረታ ክንብል ኣሎና ከም ምባል ስለዝቑጸር።

    ኪኸውን ዝነበሮ

    ሻቡ ደድሕሪ ናጽነት ኤርትራ፡ ሓደ ካብ ኩሉ ኣካላት ገድሊ፡ ምሁራት፡ ክኢላታት፡ ዓበይቲ ዓዲ፡ ምናልባት እውን ናይ ደቡብ ኣፍሪቃ ተመኩሮ ዝነበሮም ሰባት ዝተሳተፍዎ ሓደ ሓቅታት ዘረጋግጽን፡ ዕርቀ ሰላም ዘስፍንን (truth and reconciliation commission) ክቐውም፡ ድሕሪ ምርምርን መጽናዕትን ድማ ሓቅታት ክስንድን ውጽኢቱ ንህዝቢ ክነግርን ምተገበአ። ሽዑ ጥራይ ኢዩ እቲ ሓቐናን ሕጋውን ሰነድ ናይ ገድልን ታሪኹን ክህልወና ዝግባእ።

    እዚ ሕጂ ንገብሮ ዘለና ገምጋም ምሉእ ወይ ሕጋዊ ኪኸውን ኣይክእልን፡ ምኽንያቱ በቲ ሓደ ወገን በቲ ዝተዓወተ ወገን ዝተጻሕፈ ታሪኽ ጥራይ ኢዩ ታሪኽ ምባል (the winner writes history the loser is obliterated) በቲ ካልእ ወገን ድማ ነናይ ባዕልና ሕሳባት (ሕነታት) ንምስሳይ፡ ብናይ ውልቅና ገምጋምን ስምዒትን ተሞርኪስና ባዕላዊ ማለት ዘይውድዓዊ ገምጋም ንህብ ስለዘሎና ኢዩ። ስለዚ ድማ ንናይ ውልቅና ገምጋም ይኹን ነቲ ዝተዓወተዩ ታሪኽ ዝውንን ዝብል ሸነኽ ከም ሃገራዊን ሕጋውነት ዝለበሰን ገምጋም ጌርና ክንርእዮ ኣይግባእን።

    ዋዕላ ምርግጋጽን ሓቅን ዕርቐ ሰላምን ይገበር ኣይገበር ብዘየገድስ፡ ድሕሪ ናጽነት ቅዋማዊ መንግስቲ፡ ልዕልና ሕጊ ዘረጋግጽ ስርዓት፡ ሰብኣዊ ክብረት ዝዓሰሎ ሕብረተሰብ፡ ማሕበራዊ ፍትሕን ማዕርነትን ዝሰፈኖ ህዝቢ፡ ሰላምን ቅሳነትን ዝነገሶ ሃዋህው ኪረጋገጽ ምተገበአ፡ እዞም መሰላት ገድሊ ዝነበሮ መልክዕ ብዘየገድስ ኪረጋገጹ ዝነበሮምን ማንም ዘየነፍጎም ናይ ነብሲወከፍ ዜጋ መሰልን ኪኾኑ ዝግበኦምን ኢዮም።

    ኪኸውን ዘይብሉ

    ኣብዚ እዋን እዚ ገዛና ብብርቱዕ ሓዊ ይነድድ ኣሎ። ጸዓትና ዓቕምና ነዚ ሓዊ እዚ በብወገንና ብኸመይ ነጥፈኣዮ ኢዩ ኪኸውን ዝግባእ። ጻዕርና ነቲ ኣብ ውሽጢ እታ ቤት ዝነድድ ዘሎ መዋጽኦ ዝሰኣነ ህዝቢ ካብቲ ሓዊ ብከመይ ነድሕኖ ኢዩ ኪኸውን ዝግባእ። ኣብዚ ዘተ እዚ ናይ ዝሓለፈ ተመኩሮና ንትምህርቲ ምልዓሉ ኣገዳሲ ተኾይኑ ድማ ንጥቀመሉ፡ የግዳስ ናይ ታሪኽ ጂሆ ኮንካ ኣእዳውካን ኣእጋርካን ብማሕለኻ ሕሉፍ ስምዒታት ካብ ምቕያድ ምጥንቃቕ ይሓትት።

    ሕጂ ዝግበር ዘሎ ግን ኣብ ክንዲ ብዛእባ ምጥፋእ ናይቲ ሓዊ ምዝታይ፡ እቲ ሓዊ ብላይተር ዲዩ ጀሚሩ ብክርቢት፡ ብክሽነ ዲዩ ጀሚሩ ብሳሎን ምክታዕ ኢዩ ኮይኑ ዘሎ። ከምዚ ምግባር ኣካል ናይቶም ነቲ ሓዊ ንምጥፋእ ዝቃለሱ ዘለዉ ኣይገብረካን ጥራይ ዘይኮነ፡ ብዘይፍላጥ ኣካል ናይቶም ነቲ ሓዊ ዝናኽሱ ዘለዉ ኪገብረካ ይከኣል ኢዩ።

    ልዋም ለይቲ

    • Kokhob Selam

      Yes Kbromay,

      Thank you..I appreciate for your above post and I fully agree..

      “የግዳስ ናይ ታሪኽ ጂሆ ኮንካ ኣእዳውካን ኣእጋርካን ብማሕለኻ ሕሉፍ ስምዒታት ካብ ምቕያድ ምጥንቃቕ ይሓትት።”

      KS,,

    • Sarah Ogbay

      Dear Kubrom,
      Thank you for the words of wisdom. I agree with your suggestions and opinions.
      I actually refrained from continuing writing because it turned into personal attack and the ‘discussion’ was not moving anywhere. ከማኻትኩም ለባማት ይብዝሑልና!

      • Haile S.

        ሰላም ክብሮም፡

        ቁምነገር ዝሓዘለ ምኽርኻ ምስቲ ኣነ ብውሽጠይ ዝሓስቦን ክብሎ ዝደሊን ስለዝሰማማዕ፡ ሓቕኻ ኣያይ እብል፡ ኣብ ልብና ይሕደር እብል።

        ስማዕ’ባ፡ ናይ ሓቂ ተጋዳላይ ሃይለ ካይህሉ ተሰኪፈ “እንካ ዘይበልዎ…” ዘኪረ፡ ድኣ እምበር፡ ንዓይ ንደርሆ ኣብ ሕቆይ ዝደርበኻዮ ምራን-ገድሊ ኸቢዱኒ ድቓስ ስኢነ ሓዲረ። ቀደምሲ ካበይ ኣምጺእዋ፡ መን ሸይምዎ ዘይተብል ሽመት ባሻይ እያ ነራ፡ እንተገደደ ኸኣ ሸቃ። ምስ ሓዲኤን’ሲ ደቂስ ምሓደርኩ ኔረ። ሕጂ ቀሊሉኒ ጽቡቕ ንኽውዕል ነዛ ምራን-ገድሊ ገዲፈ ምራን-ሓፋሽ ተኸዲነ ክወጽእ እየ።
        ሰናይ መዓልቲ

      • MS

        Selam Sara
        (caution: this is a long Hateta, once you start reading it, you won’t stop. Start reading at your own peril)
        ቐደምሲ ሓደ ሳልሕ ዮኑስ ዝበሃል ላባም ሰብኣይ ይነብር ነይሩ ይበሃል። ደቂ-ዓዲ ክናቖቱ ምስ ዝርኢ፣ ደው ኢሉ “ንዑ’ሞ’ዞም ደቀይ ሕርቃንኩም ዘፍ ከይበለልኩም ኣይትማጎቱ። ዝሕል ምስ በለልኩም ደኣ ናብ እህን-ምህን እተዉ” ይመክር ነበረ ይበሃል። ደቂ-ዓዲ ንምዕዶ ናይቶም ዓቢ ሰብኣይ ሰሚዖምስ ጉዳያቶም ብሰላምን ልቦና ብዝመልኦ ኣገባብ የካይዲ ነኡይሮም ይበሃል። ከምቲ ዝበሃል ከኣ፣ ዛዕባታቶም ብቕጥዕን ኣገባብን የካይዱ ስለዝነበሩ ባይቶኦም ውጽኢታዊ ይኸውን ነይሩ’ሞ ንሓንቲ ዝዓጸውዋ ነገር ተመሊሶማ ኣይፈልጡን።
        ካብዚ ኣብነታዊ ማዕዳ ተማሂረ ኣብ ግዚኡ ክምልስ ኣይከኣልኩን። ርኢቶ ምሃብ ጥራይ ዘይኮነስ መሪሕ ተራ ክህልወኪ እዩ ትጽቢተይ። ርኢቶ ምውርዋር ደኣ ዝኾነ ከምዚ ከማይ ዓዛፍ ሰብ ዝኽእሎ እንድዩ።
        ስለ’ዚ፣ ደረት ኣንተጥሒሰ እቕረታ እሓትት፣ ግን እዘን ዝስዕባ ነጥብታት ክትርድእለይ እደሊ።
        1. What is needed?
        Are we looking for solutions or we are historicizing, not that both are exclusive of each other?
        If you believe EPLF=IA, do it in a persuasive way. I have always reminded folks that throwing such oversimplified statements don’t do justice to the many people who toiled and sacrificed for no personal gains but for the liberation of their people. The reason for the current predicament of our nation is so complex that an emotional outburst is not going to solve it.
        I did not reply on time because I thought doing so would not make any difference, and I had said enough within that limited topic. What made me write this long commentary is your latest reply to Kbrom which put yourself as the wronged party. While I don’t condone personal attacks, I would like to remind you that EPLF was not an inanimate matter. There are millions who have feelings just like you and who spent a considerable part of their time in making it what it was. Therefore, it is not an open season. Come up with a reasonable criticism and you will rewarded for it; come up with a lousy explanation and you will be questioned for it. The reason why I go at length in this type of situations is because I know they are sensitive and I feel obliged to explain my rationale and backup my claims for the benefit of the reader. With that out of the way:
        You wrote, “saying EPLF=IA is not wrong assumption as an organization smells of and behaves like the leader/leadership,” and then jumped to the current situation. The topic I discussed using “EPLF is not equal to IA” was limited to EPLF and within limited application, during the armed struggle only. One can make a statement that the current PFDJ is EPLF, and a counterargument can be had. But when we raise a topic it should not shift time and place. We should stay within that limited scope.
        2. Be factual: I tried to backup my claims within that limited scope of the topic, i.e., how intellectuals played their roles in the EPLF, the colluding course of intellectualization and power as applied to IA, where I made it clear that IA did not care if you were a PhD holder or a peasant, that is, if you questioned his authority, you were out. I also explained ideological and cultural constraints, or as Emma put it, the politico-military nature of that era. [ I don’t want to drag the family to this discussion but you can listen to Dr.Asseefaw’s interview in SBS about Dr.Nerayo contributions. The organization was full of such heroes, in military, diplomacy and other national and organizational feats.]
        It is depressing that a person of your caliber would make such a bold statement without bothering to elaborate farther. Statements such as ” an organization smells of and behaves like the leader/leadership” are not good enough to backup your thesis which is: EPLF=IA. Of course, organizations smell and behave like their leaders. If not so, the leaders are merely symbolic figures. Leaders create, plan, manage and control organizations and their functions. Microsoft is associated with Bill Gates, Apple Corp. is associated with Steve Job and the same goes with liberation movements and political parties. If your statement was qualified to mean IA played a pivotal role in building and leading EPLF, that could be understood, although it would still have been out of the limits of the topic, which dealt only on the role of intellectuals during the armed struggle. But to boldly state, and as a matter of fact, EPLF=IA, and to use that to say EPLF is responsible for the current situation is indefensible. Why? Because EPLF members had believed their mandate was until the establishment of a constitutional government. They fought for that to happen and they paid dearly. Remember, there are only three people left on the scene from the historic politburo. Who are the folks languishing in Eila-Ero? Why?
        The Eritrean case was different compared to other liberation movements. In some cases, like in Zimbabwe and the Palestine, the political efforts led and eclipsed the military activities because there was international support for their causes. In Eritrea, that opportunity did not occur. The world closed its doors to Eritrean cause. On the contrary, it supported Ethiopian regimes. Therefore, Eritrean Revolution and particularly the EPLF had to depend more on the military side. The military was the driving force for any political or diplomatic gains. Such a tough position requires the organization to develop more of a militaristic character. Without organizational discipline and cohesion, it would not manage to sustain in face of the heavy onslaughts directed towards it. Therefore:
        (i) I can tell you this: EPLF combatants saw IA as an effective guerilla leader and no one disputes that, even his closer colleagues who are now in the opposition. That is just a fact. However, generally, they never saw him as the indispensable leaders as some allude to. As far as the fighters I know, they cared less about him. And he was not a man who demanded parades and accolades. Would we have another effective person, other than IA? Of course, yes. So would the Palestinians. Arafat was not the only capable person. But he was a symbol by virtue of establishing himself as a charismatic leader. Movements need leaders who could inspire and IA did that very well. Who protected IA when members of EPLF started questioning his management style? It was the civil people. Who made IA the person he is, who invented the mythology of the infallible IA? It was Eritrean people. Few among the tegadelti might have worshipped him, but most of them fought for a cause not for him. The martyrs fell for Eritrea not for him. So when you say EPLF=IA, you mean EPLF would disband if IA died in, say, 1982. EPLF is an idea; it is a cause, and the majority of Eritreans played in making it a success story. RIP. The usual suspects will try to reduce it to IA or to the famous/infamous (depends on who you are) manuscript of Nehnan Elamana which very few saw, or cared to read, a non-issue and irrelevant for most EPLF members.
        (ii) You said the government’s departments are held by Ex-tegadelti. You are right and that is not right. But who takes responsibility for that? Not only EPLF, but even PFDJ is nonexistent at this time. Its council and executive committees have long been dissolved. The only entity remaining intact is IA, its chairman. It has not conducted any organizational conference or review.
        (iii) You have the right to explain your side of the story, but have you thought about the thousands of ex-tegadelti who are marginalized, and those who left their beloved country, some with disabilities? They too would like to care for their careers. They would like to get demobilized and look for opportunities of scholarship and career. They would like to get some educational opportunities before holding those departments. Who were getting most of the scholarships? Knowing the regime closely and working in it, what different would you do? You know that carrying the badge of ” ex-tegadalai” did not help them improve their lives. Most of them are living in Kagnew neighborhood, and housing is strictly according to loyalty. They have not seen any salary increment since the initial assessment in 1995. They are getting old and fatigued. If you are to blame them, certainly, I will blame you because you were more equipped to challenge the system, and you have been working there for quite long time. They, like you, were civilians anyway. The army is different. And unless you were in it you will not understand the codes applied to military. Still, it is under strict control of IA. Except few abusive commanders, the majority of the army is doing what an army ought to do. Political change is primarily the task of political activities lead by political activists. If you want to change the army or its behavior, change the political structure of the government. But such an enormous task demand that we be judicious in our discourse; you need to persuade as many minds as possible. That does not get done by baseless insinuations.
        (iv) My observation is that the folks who run into these types of oversimplified conclusions are of three types, and I’m not saying you are one of them, please bear with me. I will speak directly to you at the end, and I will call A SPADE, SPADE, if you will. The three limping legs holding this fallacious notion, that trashing the EPLF might get the job done, are: (a) the ones who lack intellectual tools to analyze; (b) folks who use the situation to discredit Eritrea’s struggle, the easy way is to attribute the current situation to EPLF, and through it to the Eritrean cause and Struggle as a whole; (c) Very few individuals who are stalled in the politics of the 70s and 80s, who like to foil the history and stature of EPLF through means other than shooting a bullet. I sincerely believe you don’t belong to any of the above, but emotions are taking the better of you.
        All the above like to see ex-EPLF folks marginalized, isolated and let to fizzle out. They keep talking of not trusting them, and so on. They believe they have the right to insult millions who are associated with EPLF, but deny that right for the other side to make coherent defense. You read in this thread people talking about not being defensive and so on. They mean it is OK to criticize ghedli and EPLF. Fair enough. There is a difference between a well-framed and argued criticism and a recklessly thrown generalization.
        Be that as it may, would they consider the fact that others also have the right to defend an over-generalized statement? I hope doing so would not be interpreted as becoming defensive.
        (v) I look up to you and people in your position for seeking guidance and leadership for moderating and modulating debates so that we may all benefit. I don’t believe such generalizations are factually defensible, and they don’t help us reach a consensus on what ought to be done. They simply don’t lead to solutions. On the contrary they become controversial and erode people’s interest on contributing to have a positive change in Eritrea.
        Thanks to whoever cared to read this long Hateta patiently

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Selam Mahmuday,

          Please let us heed the advice of Kbrom. What happened to you buddy? It sounds, don’t touch my organization.

          • MS

            Selam Emma
            Please do your thing and I will do mine. I hope you get the idea.

        • saay7

          ኣይተ ኤም ኤስ:

          ኣያ ክይተባሃልና “ኣቦይ ዓቢ” ተሸሊምና? I didn’t read the rest of the ሓተታ so the question is did MaHmuday listen to the advice from the elderly? 😀

          I know many have said this before but if one takes a mini-break from awate and reads the threads, it’s jarring how much the discussions have very little to do with the topic of the article. (Yeah I know I know I am part of the problem.) I would have loved to read what Eritrean women have to say about the subject raised here but ኢዩ ከምኡ ኢዪ (it is what it is. Like that Kbrom and Haile?) Never mind don’t answer: that will take us even further out from the topic.

          saay

          • MS

            Ahlan aboy Abi
            That correction would be accepted if you made it early on. I have made two entries, sewrawn hagerawn zaEbatat bzaEba deqenstyo, so don’t blame me.

          • saay7

            Good point MaHmuday:

            So to bring it back to Women’s Rights. I was recently made aware (by my feminist daughter who never watches a movie with me) that there is something called “the Bechdel test” feminists use on movies. Here it is:

            Are there two named characters in a movie? Named as in their character is sufficiently developed to be part of the story.

            Do these two women talk to each other about something other than a man? That is: is the scene about two sisters talking about their dad, two women talking about their boyfriends/husbands?

            If so, the movie fails the Bechdel test and feminists would consider that movie just a male worldview. (My daughter would zone out.)

            Now, let’s talk about all the bragging our sewra does about all the progress we have made including at NUEW and any other event and apply the Bechdel test. Would it pass the test, Tzigereda?

            saay

          • MS

            Ahlan SAAY
            You failed here too because I dedicated a long article to that same message and asked our women to tell us their stories in their own words, to have a real March 8 within Eritrean experience. Now back to Qalsna yeqxil yeEwet wn naay gdn….

          • saay7

            Oh man 😂

            Two in a row? (Or as Habesha say “two in a roll?)

            Where is this fine product showcased sir? I didn’t know. NUEW has “Friends of NUEW” male members and, of course, NUEW is a subsidiary of PFDJ, Inc which is at its upper echelon all male and misogynistic men at that. But I digress. I will look for your piece on the other stations including your fine blog.

            saay

          • MS

            Ahlan Saleh
            You know, I love you so much, I will link it up here. But it is long and may be disorganized. I made it in a hurry. Please don’t go to the comment section or hold your nose.
            http://assenna.com/dear-eritrean-woman/

          • Tzigereda

            Selam Saay,

            “Now, let’s talk about all the bragging our sewra does about all the progress we have made including at NUEW and any other event and apply the Bechdel test”.

            እንታይ “በኽደል” ጏል “በኽደል” ምርመራ ኣድለየካ ነዚ ድኣ.

            ኣዴታትና ክምስላ …( Abrehet help, what do they say?)

            Did you hear the new song ( sang after Akriya protest) ? It goes like this:

            “ኣዴታትና መዓድትን መኸርትን
            ኣዴታት ኣለይትን መራሕትን
            ዋና ለዋ’ኳ እዛ ሃገር”

            In the recently published book of Alemseged Tesfay “ኤርትራ ካብ ፈደረሽን ናብ ጉብጣን ሰውራን 1956-1962″ (741 pages ) you will find no single male name at all as an actor of that time.
            But, but, Ghedli was not a movie, so we can not apply the “ Bechdel Test”. If Ghedli ( tegadelti & civil) was to be portrayed as a film, the feminists who invented the “ Bechdel Test” would be surprised or shocked to see that at least 50% of the actors are female, to be seen in each scene with different roles and ranks ( ላዕላይ ጸፍሒ ተባዕታይ ሓይሊ ዝዓብለሎ). I mean the time the term “ Bechdel Test” ዝተማህዘሉ, ሻድሻይ ወራር ካብ ዝሓልፍ ሰለስተ ዓመቱ ጌሩ , ናጽነት ኤርትራ 6 ዓመት ተሪፉዎ ኔይሩ.

            But, if history is not well documented, and it only relies on memory, the bragging gender (ደብዛዝ ዝካሬ ስለዘለዎምን ዓይኖም ቀልቦም ስለዘየለሊን) takes the trophy, the present fails the “ Bechdal-Test” and the song tells:

            “ ኣቦታት መዓድትን መኸርትን
            ኣቦታት ኣለይትን መራሕትን
            ዋና ለዋ’ኳ እዛ ሃገር”

            ተደናጊሩካ ዶ?

          • saay7

            Dotoressa:

            “ተደናጊሩካ ዶ?”

            Yeah 🙂 but I see what you did there when you wrote Alemsegheds book, 700 plus pages, doesn’t have “a single male name”. It’s designed to shock and it achieved its purpose. 🙂

            saay

          • Tzigereda

            Selam Saay,
            ናይ ኣርብዓታት -ሓምሳታትሲ ዝኾነ ምኾነ, the author wrote an an explanation in his introduction „ …ንተራ ኤርትራውያን ደቂኣንስትዮ ኣብ 1940ታት -1960ታት ዝገልጽ ዝኾነ ጥቕሲ ዘይምህላው ኢዩ:: እዚ ሓቂ ኢዩ:: ግን ድልየት ስለዘየለ ወይ እቲ ፈተነ ስለዘይተገብረ ኣይኮነን…”.
            What shockes me more is the song (2018) which reflects the attitude of many ሃገራውያን.

          • saay7

            Dotoressa Tzigereda:

            Refer to the answer I gave Kbrom below (or above, depending on your disqus setting)

            I think in my debate with Bohashem, I tried to make the point that what those who romanticize the 1952 constitution forget is that it did not give women the right to elect or be elected. So when they get all nostalgic for it, although their intent is to show that Eritreans had, in their history, representative democracy (sorta), what they may be doing is giving the PFDJ a sledgehammer to crush them with as people who are against women’s rights. In contrast, when some of us praise the 1997 constitution, ooops…I see our friend Emma clearing his throat. Never mind.

            saay

          • iSem

            Sal:
            really? let me remind you any paper, even the paper that the IA and gang wrote in Akeba Tekle would work in Eri, Why?to borrow a line from one awatista, because we can amend the hell of it.
            At least the 1952 dealt with one of the easiest problems: language issue
            You are right about the Eri nostalgia : ohh derfi qeddamot was better, the jellate in Asama tastes better from the one from Roma, dnish karneshim is the best or we had a nation state before nations states were inveted because abotatna argued under the big tree, they forget Tifanose from Milloni

          • saay7

            iSem:

            ኣንታ ርጉም ምስ ኤማ ከይተባእሰኒ: we have declared a moratorium on discussions of the 1997 or 1952 constitution.

            You should use your considerable brain power to listen to what kbrom said and think only of tomorrow and how to nurture solution-oriented discussions and action plans. Yesterday is gone and “it is what it is.”

            Saay

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Tzigereda,

            You made me lost. What does it mean “በኽደል”?

          • Tzigereda

            Sorry Emma,
            Bechdel ( Bechdel test) written in tigrinya:)

          • Kbrom

            Hi saay7

            ኢዩ ከምኡ ኢዪ? No, would not like it ከምኡ ኢዩ ዘሎ እቲ ወረ would be fine, I think the Eritrean women also would not like it. You see, I did not derail from the subject; I mentioned Eritrean women.

          • saay7

            Kbrom:

            The Tigrinya translation for “it is what it is” is “ኣሕ!”እንታይሞ እንታይሞ”:)

            Back to the issue at hand. Dotoressa Tzigereda, this is from something I am reading (ንግዚኡ ይጽናሓልና ምንጪ: ግዜን: ኩነታትን ሓልዩ ክንገርዩ):

            Women in high courts: 22%
            women in regional courts: 14%
            Female Governors (regional administrators): 16.7%
            Female Ministers: 17.6%
            Female Director Generals: 6.9%
            Female Directors: 10.6%
            Female Unit Heads: 35.4%
            Females in PFDJ top echelon: 0%
            Female ambassadors/heads of mission: More than 0 but less than 2.

            saay

          • Tzigereda

            Selam Saay,
            PFDJ would add all and tell us the representation of eritrean women is above 50%:(

          • Kbrom

            Saa7 ዝብሉኻ ጉዳመይና ኢኻ! ሕጂ ድማ ብኣሃዛትን ኮታን ዶ መጺኻ

            Dear saay7 & Tsigereda

            Now to the numbers and Quota issue.

            I am not really a fun of numbers in positions and Quotas because they are misleading numbers and are not a solution; to the contrary they are a sweet bitter pills that prolong the pain of inequity.
            Following the report issued by the United Nations Development Program that concluded the importance of a 30 per cent quota, many countries have introduced a range of strategies to address what the UN calls the ‘critical minority’, a word that I do not agree with because it disempowers women’s statue.

            Let’s see for example South Sudan. The following facts in the failed state of South Sudan, a country that seats with ‘the top 50 world nation states in the table of global women’s political participation’, shows how quotas could conceal the true color of an abusive country.

            South Sudan is praised by UN for having 24.6 per cent of seats held by women in the national parliament. Check that compliment against the following reality that is on the ground in South Sudan:
            • More than 1,300 rape cases were recorded in one month (UN Human Rights Watch 2016).
            • Only 6.2 per cent of girls complete the full primary school cycle while 13 per cent of the country’s girls enter into marriage before they turned 15 (UNICEF 2013).
            • 90 per cent of women are illiterate. UNICEF: (2013).
            • One man is permitted to marry many wives as long as he has dowries to pay the bride price (Ajok 2016)

            Whilst I agree that quotas could play a positive role (for a very short term and with a very specific aim) to address the slow pace of change in the participation of women and minority group members, I strongly disagree with the notion that quotas are the way to address institutional and cultural biases in the long term. To the contrary, if a system of quotas is not framed by a clearly defined short term timeline, it can undermine the skills, capacity and legitimacy of women because:

            a) diversity is a journey, inclusion is a destination
            b) quota is an unwomanly solution designed by men to subdue their guilty conscience
            c) quota misleads the reality on the ground
            d) quota is simply based on wrong assumption and facts, and
            e) quota undermines the ability and the role of the woman in a society.

            quota is like what our proverbs describe as ጨጓር ከልቢስ ኣሎ እንዳበልካዮ ይመውት፡ ወይ ውሽጡ ሕሩር፥ because the superficial cosmetic figures give a wrong message.

            Dearest saay by the way why do not they address you as a Professor, if there was one by popular demand, I would have collected the petition because you really deserve it.

          • saay7

            Kbur kbrom:

            I am but a humble hairy-legged man, not qualified to be a professor 🙂

            You made a compelling case for why one shouldn’t rely exclusively on numbers….but then isn’t everything else you used to make your counter-argument (literacy rate, primary enrollment rate) also numbers? Can we compromise and say that numbers are important but have to be seen within context.

            Surely, you agree with me, politics is all about numbers. When PFDJ wants to say it has legitimacy to govern, it says it has the support of 99%; when we want to say Eritreans wanted to be independent of Ethiopia we give 99+%; when we want to describe how precious our sovereignty is we cite numbers of martyrs and when we want to show the dissatisfaction rate of Eritreans and level of migration, we cite numbers. So, it stands to reason that vulnerable groups, women, and other minorities would absolutely look at numbers (and symbols: refer to Saidia article about the symbol used for the meeting; Ahmed Rajis article on representation of Eritrean Muslims in the civil service) and that’s very valid, no?

            saay

          • Kbrom

            Zkeberka saay7

            Let me go to my favourite bullet points writing.

            1. My point was/is numbers that float on the top layer does not necessarily reflect/represent to the situation on the ground. Afghanistan Has More Women in National Parliament Seats Than the U.S. Do I need to add the over consumed cliche the rest is history.

            2. In PFDJ’s Eritrea numbers has become members of national security. Population – it is a matter of national security, number of HIV AIDS it is a matter of national security, asking the ratio of religious, ethnic groups, nationalities etc, high treason – hence you can not rely on numbers that come out from that part of the world.

            3. Numbers can easily be concocted. Was it in USA that one university made an advertisement which accuses its rival university that 50% of women who went to to some faculty of that university ended up being raped by their professors. When the ‘defamed’ university took them to the court they pointed out to one faculty which had only two women students and unfortunately one of them was raped – (50%?)

            4. Saidia’s article and her critical view to the symbol – I see it as part of the overall Eritrean lack of understanding of artistic values. Eritreans by nature are so realistic; show them Harry Potter or the Spider Man, they will ask you ሰማይ ዝነፍር ሰብ ኣበይ ተራእዩ ይፈልጥ ቦጎግ. Saidia’s reflection is similar to that. Art needs freedom, some one who is not able to understand art and specially the abstract art would tell you ‘ah my 4 -year old could do that’.

            What people like Saidia don’t realize is that logos and art works should be left to designers and ordinary people like myself should not stress because they do not like it. And remember that you can never ever get a consensus in art works.

            Look at the famous bitten apple logo. Imagine if Steve Jobs intervenes in the freedom of graphic designer Rob Janoff and tells him no! this does not look a computer, what has got a fruit and computer, I want you to change it. For Rob the symbolic but unseen interconnection between the creativity and ‘Isaac Newton sitting under a tree, an apple dangling precipitously’ is hidden in the artistic design. Sometimes you put things in representation not direct meaning. Rob Janoff for instance said that the bite in the apple was made to keep the proportion, imagine if Steve Jobs argued with him and said ‘No’ a bitten apple are a sign of apples contaminated by pesticides and that is a bad sign for our reputation. Any politician, CEO, authority, academics should keep their hands off from graphic arts and designs because politicians are showy and more into propaganda, whilst artists are more into abstract skills, subtle and creativity.

          • saay7

            Haha Kbrom:

            You are a funny guy 🙂

            Its not about symbols; it is about what symbols represent. A few years ago, they were trying to build statues to honor the fire fighters who died putting down the blaze on 9/11 and when 3 fire fighters were commissioned, there was an uproar that there were no fire-fighters of color, which generated a counter-uproar that the statues have to reflect reality, and then a counter-counter-uproar that the reality is that there would have been firefighters of color if there was no discrimination.

            Some of the most heated debates Eritreans have are are about Eritrean flags–in actual fact, an art critic looking at them would say they are mediocre works of art (ጠፋእኩ) but what they stand for is so powerful that that is a non-starter. What Saidia is trying to say (and I don’t know why she is saying it here if she had plenty of opportunity to say it before the meeting was started, as Dr. Tzigereda made very clear), that the symbol that was picked represents the values of a certain segment of Eritrean population and not the other.

            When I am dead and buried, SGJ will tell you what my first reaction was in 1999 when he showed me the logo he had for a website he was trying to launch in 2000. It is his rendering of Awate on a horseback. He said “Allah ysamHek” which is what people say when they want to say, “because I sure never will.” 🙂

            By the way, do you know the story behind the iconic image of the EPLF fighters planting a flag? It bears a striking resemblance to the one of US soldiers planting a flag in Iojima Japan in World War II. Disappointing but true: the Iojima picture was staged because somebody understood, correctly, that a staged picture is sometimes more powerful than an authentic one.

            How did we get here? 🙂

            saay

          • Kbrom

            saay7

            You have better story for each story that comes up, a walking encyclopaedia I should say.

            Yes, you are right understanding art is subjective and there is no right or wrong answer – not only understanding but interpreting is also subjective,

            Have you seen an Eritrean cartoon where a young lady who is believed to be a ‘prostitute’ (no offence) was passing by and the door of the house that she was passing by had a notice board which cautions ካብ ብርቱዓት ኣኻልብ ተጠንቀቑ and the girl murmured to herself, ጎቦ ጎቦ ጌርኩም ካብ ትሽምጡጡና ትኽ ብትኽ ዘይትጻረፉ።

            Hope you will get the joke and as joke!

          • Paulos

            Selam Kbromay,

            I hereby second the motion the forum henceforth address Sal with the well deserved appellation–Professor.

          • saay7

            Paulos:

            One of my favorite comic routines is a conversation between a comedian and his mother:

            Mother: why don’t you go back to college and get your degree?
            Comedian: mom! Why is this such a big deal to you? I am happy where I am in my life, why do you keep insisting?
            Mother: because I would like to tell my friends “my son finally got graduated from college and got his degree!”
            Comedian: what’s stopping you from doing that now?

            Professor saay

          • Paulos

            Selam Sal,

            I remember back in Asmara, a relative of mine, when he graduated from high school, relatives most of them visiting from Adi started addressing him Memhir simply because he was according to them rightly so was a learned person.

            You are certainly one of the well informed Eritreans around in many areas particularly complex social and political issues including pop culture with a knack for rendering complex issues cogently compréhensible. The forum cerainly agrees to address you as such—Professor Sal.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Saay & Kbrom,

            How about this:

            It is what it is = “ከምኡ’ዩ አተሃላልኡ“

          • saay7

            Emma:

            It doesn’t capture the tone. When one says “it is what it is”, one says it with a note of resignation. It is to accept something, unwillingly, with recognition that there is nothing you can do about it.

            So, can you try again. Better yet, let’s ignore this meaningless discussion and go back to something very meaty Dr Saidia Hasanen introduced ( how, just like there is mainstream feminism and black feminism in the US* there is a danger of mainstream Eritrean feminism and minority feminism in Eritrea) and the one Dr Tzigereda has introduced: how even the justice-seeker camp is reflexively paternalistic. I would very much prefer for us men to be silent and read female contributors but that didn’t happen and instead the subject has evolved to something with little to do with the topic. Or should I just say “it is what it is” and move on?

            saay

            * for powerful examples read essays by bell hooks, which, I am embarrassed to admit , I read only because it was required reading in college.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Merhaba Saay,

            You are right it doesn’t capture the tone. How about “ካብኮነ”. At least this one shows unwillingness.

            On the second issue you have raised, there is always majority/ minority issue as in every socio-political and socio-economic class. Dr Sadia’s premises in her article is not far from truth. In our Eritrea, the issue she raised has a correlations to our minorities vs majority social group grievances. It means, women from the majority group vs women from the minority groups. Because of this intrinsic relationships, solving the former will automatically address the later. Saay, you know that the issue of minorities is my primary concern in the Eritrean politics. So here you have my take,

          • Semere Tesfai

            ሰላም እማኑአል ሕድራት

            It is what it is!

            ፈቲና ጸሊእና; ንሳ እያ

            Semere Tesfai

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Hi Semere,

            Better than all, so far we tried. I will agree with you,

          • Kbrom

            Hi Samray and Emma

            If we prefer to ascend up to Semere, Emma, Kokob and Hailat’s Tigrigna we can also say ነጸይዋ ሞተት ሓረድዋ ሞተት ኢዩ ነገሩ!

        • Paulos

          Selam Muhamuday,

          This certainly is the mother of all Hatetas. Can you please give us an example or examples where Isaias was an effective and inspiring leader.

          If I could go on a tangent for a bit: Perhaps, Max Weber the famed Sociologist is known for his extensive research on the word “Charisma” and “Charismatic” leaders where more often than not people tend to confuse the word with good-looks which is completely wrong! Instead a charismatic leader is someone according to Weber that is, who lives by setting examples; a skilled communicator including on a deep emotional level and who inspires people for a specific goal.

          Here is the deal though, I specifically remember a News Week [Oh yea in case anyone is wondering, there used to be a news magazine called News Week] reporter in 1991 wrote a piece on Isaias where he said, when one takes a look at his hands, one gets the impression that he was a piano player as opposed to a guérilla leader. So much for a “Charismatic” leader who lived by setting examples!

          • blink

            Dear Paulos
            Your comments are becoming boring, don’t you get it that you are wasting your time googling to find quotes that has nothing to do in this.

          • Paulos

            Don’t you get it when people are trying to ignore you?

          • blink

            Dear Paulos
            Better than kneeling down to you though . You have nothing to offer , just fish quote by googling, you are just an Addis disco dance happy guy , you told us yourself. Did you forget that little girl .

          • MS

            Ahlan Paulos
            I did not know IA before joining EPLF, and he did not contribute to me making that decision, nor did he influence my long stay in that organization. If you are telling me he was not a charismatic leader, that’s fine with me because my thrust is not IA. It is the organization and the ideals it fought for.
            Of course, charisma is related to cultural taste and one’s worldview, and it’s not limited to physical appearance or raggedness of hands, as you simplified it. A charismatic for some may not be charismatic for all. I would assume his hands are more ragged than the hands of most bureaucrats for he is known to tinker with all sorts of tools. But that’s not the topic. As SAAY said I’m sticking to the topic: EPLF is not reducible to IA.
            Regards.

          • Paulos

            Selam Muhamuday,

            ካብ በልካስ ይኹነልካ! This may come as a surprise to you but you’re one of my fav forumers and I enjoy reading your famed Hatetas even though I don’t agree with some of the points you bring up.

          • MS

            Ahlan Paulosay
            The same is true on my side too. Frankly, I enjoy your inputs as well; the complaint I have is that I expect people like you to lead us to meaningful debates. I really do. We don’t have to agree on everything.

          • Nitricc

            Hey Mahmuday; So, if EPLF=PIA, does it mean Haile DuruE, Eqibe Abraha, Sherifo, Mesfin Hagos, Adhanom, Imrahima Affa, all those great EPLF’s mean to=PIA too? What a madness!!!!
            ” People lose touch with their morality because they lose
            touch with their sense of integrity.”

          • blink

            Dear Nitricc
            My main problem with bashers is , what’s their final goal ? What is the reason that they feel they have to spend endless hours to tarnish every Eritreans iconic men ideals ? I mean if you remember, there were people who started this by insulting awate ( they even fabricated lies about him trying to connect to Italians ) then they started on ELF as Arabs , many lies about them and they come to EPLF as we can see . I think I have followed these who wrote and supported the bashing project and I don’t really find them reasonable people. I mean if they care about Eritrea and Eritreans, we have daily crime committed by PFDJ and we cannot even write all the horrible crimes committed in front of our eyes on daily bases and it can actually help remove our differences about what kind of future we want but these people wanted us to live there in 1960-1970 and 1980.

          • iSem

            Hi MS:
            Of course thee were areas that functioned despite of and even without his blessing. But the things that mattered most, security, vision and attitude of EPF was created in IA’s image. The overriding culture of communication and ideas of solving conflicts, handling the issues that the eri gheli faced was IA’s making and no one had a say. But whatever good things were there, life, the good things that was part of EPLF, the love that the most tegadali showed to towards the people , the agony the tegadali showed agaisnt the civil war wer not his making, and he did not care if they succeeded in that.
            Nitricc makes good point. All the greats he mentions were subservients to IA, knowingly, gullibly
            EPLF is reducible to IA in many aspects, the line of “it is not reducible to IA” is the greatest lie we tell ourselves to feel good about our journey, the denial we all tell

          • MS

            Ahlan iSem
            For some, a seemingly desperate situation leads to desperate conclusions. I’m appealing to those who want to rise above the innuendos.
            Those who hate EPLF will hate it anyway. They don’t need to give reasons.

          • Saleh Johar

            MS,
            The struggle experience is bigger than anyone who tries to discredit it. It’s bigger to the power of infinity. And it concerns all of us who paid for it and still are. Yet, anything is open to scrutiny and study provided it is not intended to tarnish it or degenerate the experience. And provided it’s done with decency and the respect it deserves (I know PFDJ doesn’t deserve an iota of respect, but that is an alien institution).

            Now, honestly, i can only suggest that you be a bit tolerant and do not be easily provoked. Believe me there are people whose sole mission is to provoke and frustarate anyone who feels great snot the struggle. Don’t allow anyone to control your emotions. At the end I bam a firm believer all the attack on our experience is not even the size of the proverbial Adri. Choose your fights and ignore the footsoldiers. And realize there are empty barrels who want to piggyback on your argument and cover their insecurity. They are similar to those who are on a turnishing mission.

          • MS

            Ahlan Saleh
            Very well said, and I should thank you for staying true to your established position that EPLF ended in 1994, your steady handling that separates the chaff from the wheat, and your stand that the past legacy (positive or negative) belongs to all of us. As you happen to be a veteran of the struggle, on the ELF side (I hope SAAY does not feel left out, haha..), you may observe that I don’t venture into commenting about the ELF let alone making general assumptions about it. That’s because I know my limited knowledge about it and I know the information I had been getting might be biased. I listen to Naz radio because there is so much mature discussion about ELF, our side of history which has been ignored by the regime.
            I only come to comment when I see people I uphold making erroneous statements. I hope you appreciate the fact that I don’t jump on anyone who assaults our ghedli. There are some in this forum that I don’t respond to because I know doing so would not make a difference.
            Finally, it is just the images of our fallen heroes and the ideals they held up to the last breath that keeps me burning, other than that, I heed your advice to add more layers to my skin.
            Ironically, I had a drawn debate with Ghehteb on this subject where he lionized IA, tarnishing people like BeraKi G.SElassie. I was making the same argument. I was telling him the real EPLF and its success story belonged to the ones who were making those stories, the unsung heroes, and the organization was full of them.
            Regards.

          • iSem

            MS:
            If there is anyone who is desperate situation it is PFDJ, the brain child of EPLF, for their colossal failure to keep the honor we gave them, they squandered it. You keep bringing up hate when we mention EPLF, now can you honestly say that you do not see IA personality in EPLF and PFDJ. Do not take my word for it, the G-15 told u, ” we were getting money and were spending it without knowing its sources.” EPLF security chief said that I have no hate against EPLF and ELF but I know their screw ups and is dishonest to divorce the crimes of PFDJ from EPLF, the failing of and corruption of the traditional opposition from ELF So do not be sensitive, there i son insecurity here, but to just blame our problems now as somethings that came out of the wood work is just denial. To say EPLF cannot be reduced to IA, is saying that EPLF was an institution, and it was not and that is why in the late 1988 they were talking about institutionalizing the organization. You can argue that it was not its mission to institutionalize but please you fool no one when u say EPLF cannot be reduced to IA at least in some crucial aspect. I talk about EPLF because they are in power wrecking havoc, but if the discussions were about ELF I can also talk about their corruption where people of means dodged were free to go to Sudan
            while the poor died because the jemahir (their kfli h zib) eat that proverbial derho and egg and they were bribed
            It has often been said that history is written by the victor but the truth comes and history is merciless and the truth about ghedli and how it subjected the people to untold suffering in the name freedom specially in its adolescence madness is now crystal clear to the people as the mountain of Sahel and plains of Barka is not protecting ghedli any more.
            I have no insecurity for running away from ghedli, I am glad I run from the gehdli madness that wanted entire families to join and fight and die.
            And PFDJ is repeating the same thing, by taking entire kids from the families, do you think this insane idea is not a vestige of EPLF?
            It is ironic that we discuss this topic today after kbom’s call

          • blink

            Dear iSem
            Why are you bragging about your petrified stamina , Eritrean revolution was not for cowards and useless wanabi people. The people who wholeheartedly oppose Ethiopian heavy hand were people of character not people who enjoy gossiping about it. How on Earth these petrified People who clung to their hiding places can have a say about selfless people who sacrificed everything? People were joining ELF& EPLF from Baqidad , Beirut, all western capitals and here they are being bulldozed by people who were going after westerners new brand clothes. Mai niakeb kibehal kemzi eyu.

          • Alex

            Hi MS,
            I agree with you that some people have hate on EPLF. You can not blame the gallant EPLF who dedicated their lives to the independence of Eritrea for what is wrong in the country. We need to thank you and other selfless tagadelti for your sacrifice to the country rather than equate you to IA unjustifiably.

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      ሰላም ክብሮማይ,

      እንታይ ክዎጾ:: ኣብ ልብና የሕድሮ ጥራይ ኢየ ዝብል::

      ሰሰናዩ ንዓኻ ይኹን

  • Ismail AA

    Good morning dear Hope,

    Your sober and mutual concern – driven engagement is highly appreciated. Before I jot one or two points in context of your entry, let me throw a few things regarding the points you raised under your addendum.

    Stating that “… Ahmed Nassir(RIP) negotiated with the Derghi thru Eric Honicker of E Germany/the Soviets, to surrender to the Derghi behind the scene and opted for an autonomy…as Abdela Idris et al did ….” is extraordinarily bold statement, especially when it is qualified by “(In front of my eyes)”. But since such assertions about controversial national matters demand credible sources, the “in front of my eyes” part of your argument could pass as rhetorical prowess.

    Human decency and integrity of transmitting information requires us to be cautious, especially when what we try to report involve compatriots who bade farewell to us after doing their share in our national endeavor, and resting in their graves.

    Having said that, moveover, as far as I know neither of the two honorable fighters had “surrendered” anything to anybody.The encounters in Moscow and Berlin did not pass the proximity talks parameters. In fact they were bogged in just one issue: the ELF insisted that any discussion should involve unified delegation of the Eritrean national struggle, meaning the ELF, ELF-PLF and later EPLF.

    Futhermore, contacts from the East Germans and Soveits were not limited to ELF only. EPLF delegations, too, had talks in Berlin. Thus, the claim that Isayas had “defied intimidation and bullying” is misplaced statement. Anyway, I know there are many compatriots in this forum who are better than me, and probably you (since I do not know how far you were privey to the agenda discussed and record of the minutes thereof) could help us put such sensitive issues in proper context.

    On the point that Isayas should be given credit for his part as a citizen, no one can deny him. But this cannot justify his ruinous role before as well as after 1991 because justice and fairness require us to give value to the blood he spilt of young and old Eritreans just because they had different views than him or he thought were hindrances to his ambitions. Regarding sharing responsibility for allowing him to mature as monster, I think I had said enough by mentioning a few things from the ELF side. Moreover, stopping the despot from continuing to do more damage, I agree it is not too late on conditions that we put our acts together as a nation.

    • Hope

      Thanks Vet Ismael.
      Your advice and Points are welcome .
      Let me clarify myself again.
      First off,U should not have omitted the ” If” part of my conditional statement about the role and position of the ELF delegation .
      I said ” If Ahmed ….,negotiated…”!
      I was not in the meeting but the Agenda and detailed minutes have been disclosed lately,unless it is part of ” Sactism” and fake and defamatory campaign against the ELF and its Leadership, but it sounded Official Minutes” based on the documents realesed by a certain website,which was banned as it disclosed tons of sensitive and ” classified” info from all over the world.
      Some of us can post the declassified meetiting minutes between the Derghi and ELF Ddlegation and our Blink can do that,

      As far as the role of the Abdella Group along with Mr Hussein Khalid is concerned,well,I regret to disclose to you that I have enough evidence without going into the details.

      Am sure Mussie Bekhit -an alleged X-“Double Agent”, will tell u the details to your face.
      For more official details,refer to the Derghi Era Ethiopian TV Archieves where Mr Khalifa Hussein was boldly and confidently advocating for ” An Autnomous Kollama /Lowland Eritrea”!….,and supporting the Aseb Autonomous Region !!!

      But is it important or worth to bring this past and obsolete issue in the Eritrea of 2018 !?
      Nah,not at all.
      But have to answer your quiestion as U,indirectly ” accused” me for lack of Integrity and Decency!.
      Yep…. I was there,have been there and have seen and witnessed that in my limited capacity.

      • Ismail AA

        Dear Hope,
        Good morning.
        Appreciating your time, let me be brief because I agree with your reservation about being bogged down in yet unsorted out past events where facts are deeply submerged in mountains of quite often murderous propaganda garbage.
        But first, I would like to clarify a thing to which I am extremely sensitive. If you felt that I wittingly or otherwise doubted your integrity and decency, I must honestly regret it. My point was generally referring to how we as human beings must relate ourselves to individuals resting in their graves. Perhaps I should have been clearer in stating the point. I am sure you understand my feeling.
        About the release of information by the website you mentioned, Ethiopian imperial and Dergi era archieve, double agents and other channels, no fact seeker could take them seriously. They are there awaiting competent and professional scholars to fish facts from rubbish and put them in proper context for generations.
        On the ELF ( be it under the late Abdalla Idris or Hussein Khalifa currently) you stated that you “have enough evidence” though you wanted to refrain from disclosing details. This is a confident statement. Thus, there is no option left save staying release of the details from your side.
        On my part, I heard and read much of what you read in the website you mentioned or other outlets. But, we have to be aware that the history of our national liberation struggle era is still awaiting proper study and much of it is propaganda.

  • Sarah Ogbay

    Dear Hope,
    I DID NOT generalise any thing thing about tegadeti. I acknowledged those who are siding with their people against human rights abuse in Eritrean.
    I also said I am not a politician and was not a fighter which I am NEVER ashamed of. I am proud of the decisions I took in my life.So I can not discuss the secret party. But I said an organizations smells of its leader/leadership. If you don’t agree Proof me wrong. But I am not going to accept those who ንህዝቢ ኤሪትራ ዘጽንቱ ዘለዉ as founding father of Eritrea. I also will not accept those who say or imply ዘይተጋደለ ብዛዕባ ገድሊ ወይ ሀገር ክዛረብ መሰል የብሉን. I say a loud NO. It just clarifies more about how Eritrean civilians are being treated.
    Hope, the thousands you are talking about should stand with their people. If the crooked ones are few, why can’t we together defeat them instead of protecting them as Ex-tegadeliti . Rest assured I know too well how the አበይ ነርካ፤ አበይ ነርኪ is used to silence people. I lived with it for almost 20 years.

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selam Hope,

    If you don’t mind, avoid of saying read of this or read of that. Understand that they are debating with them after reading their argument. Just to remind you. Because you agree with them that you are pointing us to them. But also understand that we are debating with them because we don’t agree with their views. That is the norm of debaters and the clashes of their ideas.

    Regard

  • Kbrom

    Dear all,

    Strong call to action and commendation to all contributors of Awate Forum.

    Summer evening, 1987 Bologna. I sat with Aboy Weldean Weldemariam, absolutely honoured to hear extremely interesting stories that I believe has shared them with very few people. Aboy WelWel had thoroughly captivated my attention. His articulation, his authentic stories, his confession, it was simply a once in a life time opportunity. However true to Benjamin Franklin saying, ‘as early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise’, WelWel was a lark, early bird, morning person who likes to go to bed early in the evening. Hence, in a middle of our conversation he excused me to go to his room. When he was about to leave I asked him the following question.

    ….ድፍረት ኣይቱቅጾሩለይ እምበር እዚ ኩሉ ዘርምም መስተንክር ታሪኽ ሒዝኩምሲ ስለምንታይ መጽሓፍ ዘይጸሕፍኩም? Aboy WelWel’s reply, which will be my topic’s title for today, was the following.

    ወደይሺ እቲ እንዳኸኣልናዮ ኣይደለናዮን፡ እቲ ምስደለናዮ ኸኣ ኣይከኣልናዮን።I do not want to translate it, because I know if I try to, I would corrupt its spirit and flavour. Dear Haile S. please help.

    Now to my strong call of action and commendation to all contributors of Awate Forum. Let’s write when we are able to do so.

    Can we please discuss on the following proposal seriously and come up with some plan of action?

    The call is to uplift Awate Forum to Awate Strategic Studies Centre or that sort of structure/result/contribution, so that we can be an international digital portal and source of information for regional and international institutions. We always ask ourselves what can we do to free our country, I say this is the least that we can do.

    Awate forum has great talented writers and influential intellectuals. Your creative writing skills and intense discipline has proved constantly your valuable analysis, essays, thesis and strategic studies.

    However, what we are doing in here is talking to each other and that is becoming a little bit of redundancy. and echolalia! Imagine how we are wasting our time if/when I try to tell MS how PFDJ betrayed the values of EPLF (who was one of the betrayed tegadelti) or MS tries to tell SJ the strength and weakness of Eritrean Opposition (who has dedicated his life to rectify the shortcomings) or if I try to tell saay7 that the Eritrean regime imprisons innocent people without due process (whose close families are in prison) or if Burhan tries to tell Amanuel H. why ውግእ ሓድሕድ was not helpful (a man who dedicated his entire life to his country) or if Beyan tries to tell GoGo National service is slavery ( who was a victim of it) etc. We are talking to ourselves, and that say psychiatrists, could be the beginning of mental illness.

    Why is that the foreigners representing us or talking on our behalf on issues that we own and that we are capable and able to do. Let’s reflect on the following events that took place recently.

    Eritrea and Human trafficking – Belgium Professor Mirjam van Reisen (March 17, 2018). The Changing Nature of Eritrea’s Opposition Politics: Jason Mosley, (2016) Chatham House, London. Eritrea: coming from the cold (2016) Bronwyn Bruton.

    William Shakespeare once said, “It is not in the stars to hold our destiny, but in ourselves.
    Indeed it is difficult to ensure the full control of our choices and that our actions if foreigners (I am not trying to be ungrateful) dominate and be our advocates as if we are not able to do so. We must take over and shape our destiny and tell our story, otherwise the other option is to leave the outsiders lead us and let our fate decided by them.

    The question is not only why they are doing it when we can, it is also about who is doing it and are they doing it correctly. See for example the African Strategic Studies whose vision is: Security for all Africans championed by effective institutions accountable to their citizens. Out of the six executive board only one is African (even that is my assumption just because he is dark skinned)

    I was reading some of their articles in which they mention Eritrea. One of the articles is titled: The Troubled Democratic Transitions of African Liberation Movements. Do you think they can write better than Beyan, Berhe, Ismail, Dr Paulo, MS or Amanuel or Haile in such a topic about Eritrea?

    Another topic was the following: Ethiopia and Eritrea: Rising Tensions Amid New Opportunities for Engagement? Who can write on this topic authentically better than our experts Amde saay Fanti, Eyob, SJ, Aklilu etc.

    There was also an article about Empowering Women to be Agents of Peace, can any one write eloquently better than our beloved sisters such us Abrehet, Sara and Tsigereda who are courageously holding up half of the Eritrean troubled sky?

    Simply put, I am proposing to discuss on how we can upgrade our comments into an out looking strategic studies sort of articles that would be references to Think tanks, policy and research institutes, media outlets, strategic studies, UN, NGO’s Civil Societies, Regional AND Global organisations, etc.

    By strategic studies I do not mean the academic sort of interdisciplinary centred articles of conflict and peace, I mean analysis and presentations on regional – mainly national -politics, geo-strategic, public diplomacy, national economics, and peace and conflict, that shapes the future of our country.

    Motto: እንዳኸኣልናዮ ንገብሮ: ምኽኣል ምስ ሰኣናዮ ምግባር ከይንስእኖ!

    • Kokhob Selam

      Dear wonderful Kbrom,

      Nice, call really if this will be materialized, Kbromay. I will also put my part on this project,

      Motto: እንዳኸኣልናዮ ንገብሮ: ምኽኣል ምስ ሰኣናዮ ምግባር ከይንስእኖ!

      KS,,

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Kokhobay,

        How about this:

        እንዳኸኣልናዮ ንገብሮ: ምስዘይንኽእሎ አይንገብሮን::

        • Kokhob Selam

          Amuni,

          That is also woks,,Ha ha ha..:”Motto: እንዳኸኣልናዮ ንገብሮ: ምኽኣል ምስ ሰኣናዮ ምግባር ከይንስእኖ!” “እንዳኸኣልናዮ ንገብሮ: ምስዘይንኽእሎ አይንገብሮን::”

          KS,,

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Selam Kibrom (Abi Seb)

      ዓቢ ሰብ ብዛዕባ ዓበይቲ ነገሪት ይሓስብን ይዛረብ:: that is why you are trying to veer us to big projects and institutions of education. If I am not mistaken the “team” and the publisher has that kind of projects in the Horizon of their visions. Hopefully to see their projects to be successfully in place and organize our intellectuals to such noble ideas.

      Regards

      • Kbrom

        Hi Amanuel and all,

        My apologies, I did not know this issue was ever discussed ነገር ሓዲሽ ኣባል ከምዚ ኢዩ።

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Kbromay,

          No need of Apology brother. The team and the publisher had in mind to transform the website to an educational institute long time ago. We wish them success to their effort. Fortunately, the discussions in the forum helped to gravitate many “new” bright Eritreans (Yohannes, yourself, Gogo, Mez, and some Ethiopians…et al) who could contribute to that effort.

          Regards

      • Saleh Johar

        Emma,
        I was thinking along the same line,you are right. Big projects need clear minds and by God, we need to take a break every now an then for a short time and then return with a clear, relaxed attitude, ready to discuss big projects.

        Today I do not have much to do and thought we need to relax and take things easy. I am feeling relaxed 🙂

    • Haile S.

      Selam Kbrom,

      This is a serious proposal that goes in line with Awate Team’s call of the end of the year. Absolutely agree!
      On translating aboy ወልደኣብ’s expression, it is beautiful as is. Besides, I don’t have an english word for ወደይሺ. Certainly the Wizards of english Beyan and Paulos can do it. I have a french word for ወደይሺ, fiston. Though a familiar word, it fits. For the motto Beyan would have said. ጥዕምቶ ከይሓዘና ንጽሓፍ! 🙂 🙂

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Hailat,

        ወደይሺ/ወደይሲ = Son

        It is like “look son, when we can, we don’t want it, when we want, we can’t do it.” Me think.

        • Haile S.

          Hi Emma,
          Yes that works well. I was just looking for that tincture of aroma present in ወደይሺ. That is the reason I went to french where I considered ‘fiston’ (ፊስቶን, ን ውሕጥ ኣቢልካ) fits instead of just saying ‘mon fils’ (ሞን ፊስ, literaly my son)

        • Saleh Johar

          Emma,
          Can you explain what “wedyatki khe!” means, as in Fekhera or it has some other meaning?,

          • Kbrom

            Selam Johar

            Let me volunteer until our guru Emma comes with better explanation.

            I think it s a derivation of ወዲ ኣያታት ከ how do you dare to do this to me the son of lords! Just saying. ኣና ወድ ከንቲባይ ኣና!

          • Saleh Johar

            Thank Kibrom,

            Ana wed seboU seif! Sort of 🙂

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Dear Kbrom,

            As to the meaning of of it, you are right. I just explained the historical beginnings of the word. After all who knows tigrigna better than you.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Merhaba Saleh,

            ወድኣይትኸ’ዶ = ካብ “ወዲ አተይ” ዝመጸ ቃል እዩ ከምቲ ዘለኒ ሐበሬታ:: ከምቲ ዝትረቶ ብዙሕ ዘመናት ይገብር “ንአተይ ወዱ” ሓደ መዘንኡ ንባእሲ ምስተኽቶኾ: ወዲ አተይ “ወዲኣይተኽንዶ” ኢሉ ፈኪሩ ብበትሪ ገይሩ ኳሕ አቢሉ የውድቆ:: ካብታ ግዜ’ትአ ጀሚሩ እቶም መንእሰያት እታ ዓዲ ከምልምዲ ክጥቀሙላ ኾይኑ:: ብድሕሪኡ እቲ ልማድ ኣብኩሉ ተዛራባይ ትግርኞ ከበሳ ተዘርጊሓ እታ ቃል::

            ምልክታ= እዚ ሓበሬታ’ዚ ካብ አፈ-ታራኽ ዝመጸ’ዩ::

            Regards

          • Kbrom

            ሓደርካ ኣማን

            ብሓቂ ግሩም ኣፈ ታሪኽ ኢዩ፡ነብሲ ወከፍ ሕንጣጦኻ መሸም ብፍልጠት ኣኽሳቢት ኢያ።

            መልኣኽ ዝዓሰሎ መዓልቲ የውዕለና።

            ምስ ናይ ብዙሕ ምስጋና።

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            ሓደርካ ክብሮማይ,

            ትሕሾደአ ወድዞም ዓበይቲ:: ራዛ ናይ ኣብኡ ሓዛ ከምዝበሃል: እቲ ባይቶኣዊ ኣዘራርባ አቦታትካ ግርም ገይርካ ሒዝካዮ ስለዘለኻ: አዛራርባኻ ሓደሓደ ግዝየስ ኣብቲ ትሕቲ እታ ዓባይ ዳዕሮና ኾይነ ዝሰምዓካ ዘለኹ ኾይኑ እዩ ዝስማዓኒ:: ንበረለይ ደአ ዝሐወይ:: መንደአ እቲ ልኡም ዘረባ ከስመዓኒ: ብሕልፊ ጓሳዊ አዛራርባ ኣብዘድልየሉ እዋን:: ዓድና ዓዲ ዓበይቲ ነበር ኾይና ተሪፋስ: ጓሳ ዝሰአነ ህዝቢ ኾይና ይስመዓኒ አሎ:: ከም ኣብ ሓደ ብቆጥቋጥ ዝተኸበት ዘርኢ ቅልቅል ኢልካ አጆኹም ክትብል ኮለኻ ዝስመዓኒ ባህታን ፈገግታን ከአ እዚ ክብለካ አይክእልን:: ኣብዚ መኣዲ ፍልጠትና ከአ ብዙሓት ትምህርቲ ቀሰም እንዳተሓዎስ ይኽየድ ስለዘሎ: ንወሃዮ
            ተስፋይ የበርክተለይ አሎ:: እሞሕጂ ክብለካ ዝደሊ ሓሓሊፍካ ነቶም ዝቅልቀሉ እምነ-ሓሳባት: ኣቀላጠፊ-ሓሳባት(catalyst ideas) ዝኾኑ ነገራት ሰው ካብምባል ዓዲ ኣይትውዓል:: አብርእሲኡ ድማ እቶም ክትዓትና አጋውልኦም ሓልዮም ክጓዓዙ ናይምግባርውን ንመስኖታት ህይወት ናይ ፍልጠት የቀላጥፎ እዩሞ ነቶም ኣዋሳኣትና(moderators) ብጥብቂ ተኻታቲሎም: ንጣዕሚ መአዲ ፍልጠትና ብዙሓት ከምዝሳተፍዎ ምግባር’ዩ:: ስለዚ በብወገና ኣይንሕቅ::

            ሓውኻ
            ኣማኑኤል ሕ.

          • Haile S.

            ሰላም ኤማ፡
            ዋላኳ ጊዜ እንተሓጸረኒ፡ ጽሑፍ ትግርኛ እንተርእየ፡ ስለ ዘየኽእለንን ጽሑፍካ ኣንቢበዮ። ብጣዕሚ ደስ ዘብል እዩ። ኣብ ዝቕጽል ተበገስ ጽሑፍካ ብትግርኛ ንኽትገብሮ ዘለኒ/ዘለና ድልየት ተረዲእካ ንከተግብሮ ተስፋ እገብር። ንምዝኳኑ ‘አጋውልኦም’ እንታይ ማለት እዩ? ስለዘይፍልጦ እየ።

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Hailat?

            አጋውሎ = direction, as in Amharic አቅጣጫ:: ንአብነት: “ኣጋውሎ ቃልስና ደስ አይበለንን ክብል ከለኹ” it means “I don’t like the direction of our movement.”

            ንኣቀራርባ ድርሰተይ ምፍታውካን ነቶም መተባቢዒ ቃላትካን የመስግን:: ብዝኾነ ኾይኑ ኣብ ሓደ መጻኢ መድረኽ ናብ ትግርኛና ከየስፈልኩ ኣይተርፍን እየ :: አምላኽ እንተተሓዊስዎ:: እንተ ጀሚረዮ ከአ ንዓቅምታት ሃይለን: ክብሮምን ከምኡውን ካልኦት ዝአመሰሉ: መተካእታ ከምዘይኮንኩ ክትግንዘበለይ ይደሊ::

            ሓውኻ
            አማኑኤል ሕ.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Emma,
            የቐንየለይ ዝሓወይ። ግና ከማኻን ከምክብሮምን ካልኦትን ዝተዓቑረ ትግርኛ የብለይን። ንምፍላጥ ግና ዘይጽሕትራ የብለይን። ከም ፍሒራ ክፍሕትርን ጻጸ ወዲ ጻጸ ክለቅም እየ ዝነብር።

          • Kbrom

            ሰላምን ጥዕናን ነዓኩም ይኹን ኣማኑኤልን ሃይለን

            ጌጋይ ደኣ ይኽለኣለይ እምበር፡ ኣጋውላ ካብ ንኣቕጣጫስ ን ኣካውና ወይ ድማ ኩነተ ባህርያት የንጸባርቕ። ብእንግሊዝኛ ካብ ን direction ዝያዳ ናብ deportment (trend in behaviour) ማለት state of behaviour at a particular time ዘንጸባርቕ ኮይኑ ይስመዓኒ ኣማኑኤል ሓወይ።

            እቲ ቆልዓስ ኩለንታዩ ወላ ደስ ኣይበለንን፡ ምንቅስቓሳቱ በተግ በተግ፡ ኣመላልስኡ ድማ ወልደፍደፍ ዝበዝሖን ኢዩ ነይሩ። ኩሉ እቲ ኣጋውልኡ ናይ መልዓል ቅሙጥ ይመስል።

            ሃይላት ካባኻ ብቐጻሊ ዝመሃሮ ዘለኹ ድማ ንዘይንፈልጦ ነገር ምሕታት ኢዩ፡ ከመይ ዝኣመሰለ ግምጃ ባህርያት ሂቡካ ኣሎ እዝጊ።

            ሻቡዶ ምንእኣድ ኣብዚሕና፡ እስከ በሉ ዝጸሓፍኩሞ ቀለም ይኹን ኢልና ንፋኖ!

            ወይለይ ዝረገጽኩሞ ቀለም ከኣባ ረሲዐ።

    • Tzigereda

      Selam Kbrom,
      እቲ ሓፈሻዊ ሓሳብ ዝንኣድ ኢዩ: ወላኳ ሓድሽ እንተዘይኮነ:: ዋናታት ዋኒንና ንኹን : ከለናን ከሎናን ኣይንዘኽትም::
      ግን መንዩ ኤርትራውያን ደቂኣንስትዮ ብዛዕባ ሃገራዊ ዛዕባ ክዛረባ ኣይክእላን ኢየን ዝበለ? ተርኤን ኣብ ምሕያል ደቂኣንስትዮ ጥራይ ምድራቱ ኣይግድን:: ክልቲኡ ንኹልና ብማዕረ ይምልከት::
      እቲ ንኽእሎ ዳህስስዎ

      • Kbrom

        ሰላም ጽገሬዳ

        ንስኺ ዝሓተትኪ መንዩ ኤርትራውያን ደቂኣንስትዮ ብዛዕባ ሃገራዊ ዛዕባ ክዛረባ ኣይክእላን ኢየን ዝበለ?

        ነ ዘልኩሲ ወላሓደ ከምኡ ዝበለ የለን፡ እኳ ደኣስ ኤርትራውያን ደቀንስትዮ ማለትሲ ሃገር ምሉእ ማለትየን። የግዳስ እቲ ዝሓለፈኦ ድርብ ወጽዓን ንዕኡ ንምግኣዝ ዝገበረኦ ትእምርቲ ቃልሲን፡ ኣብ ክንዲ ብዝኾኑ ኣይተበልዎታትን፡ ብዝኾና ወዘሮበልዋተንን ዝምደሩሉስ እተን ወዓልቱን ዋናታቱን ዋዕሮታት ኪዛረባሉ የምሕር ዩ ነይሩ ቲ ንምባሉ ዝሓለንክዎ። ኣብሃህልኡ ተዘይክኢለዮ ድማ ይቕሬታ!

        እምበር ብእምነተይሲ ወዲ ተባዕታይ ምሉእ ተኾይኑ ጓለንስተይቲ ምልእቲን ፈረቓን ኢያ።

        እቲ ካልእ ምጉተይ ሓደ ካብቲ ንቀጽሪ ተቓውሞ ኣዳዂሙ ዘሎ ረቓሒ ሱታፌን ተራን ደቀንስትዮ ብዘይምዕዛዙ ኢዩ። ይኹን ግን ሱታፌን ተራን ዝምጦ ዘይኮነስ ዝጥረ ስለዝኾነ፡ ዝግባእ ተረአን ብዘይምርግጋጸን ፍርቂ ናይቲ ውድቀትን ሓላፍነተን ዝስከማ ንሰን እተን ደቅንስትዮ ሙኻነን እኣምን።

        ሓደ ነገር ክበሃል ተደሊኻዮ ንደቂተባዕትዮ ሃቦ፡ ኪትግበር እንተደሊኻዮ ንሰቀንስትዮ ሃቦ ዲያ ዝበለት ወይዘሮ ሓጺን (The Iron Lady) ማርጋሬት ታቸር?

        • Kokhob Selam

          HI Gentle Kbrom,

          “እቲ ካልእ ምጉተይ ሓደ ካብቲ ንቀጽሪ ተቓውሞ ኣዳዂሙ ዘሎ ረቓሒ ሱታፌን ተራን ደቀንስትዮ ብዘይምዕዛዙ ኢዩ። ይኹን ግን ሱታፌን ተራን ዝምጦ ዘይኮነስ ዝጥረ ስለዝኾነ፡ ዝግባእ ተረአን ብዘይምርግጋጸን ፍርቂ ናይቲ ውድቀትን ሓላፍነተን ዝስከማ ንሰን እተን ደቅንስትዮ ሙኻነን እኣምን።”

          True,

          KS,,

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        ጽጌረዳ ሓብተይ,

        ምስኩሉ አድንቆተይ ኣብ አቀራርባ ሓሳባትኪ ዘለኒ: ሓንቲ ነገር ክእርመኪ አፍቅድለይ::

        “እቲ ንኽእሎ ዳህስስዎ” ካብ ምባል “እቲ ንኽእሎ ብሓባር ንዳህስሶ” ይሓይሽ አይመስለክንን?

        • Tzigereda

          Selam Emma,
          ክብረት ይሃበለይ::
          By „እቲ ንኽእሎ ዳህስስዎ“ I meant, Kbrom et al should see that there are many eritrean women who can talk & discuss about national issue.

          I find disturbing ተውጅህ like:
          መስርዕ XY-> ሃገራዊ ዛዕባ
          መስርዕ XX -> መሰል ደቂኣንስትዮ

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            መርሓባ ጽጌረዳ ሓብተይ,

            ገድሊ ብቀንዱ “ሃገራዊ ዛዕባ” ስለዝነበረ ንስኽን ከማኺ ዝአመሰላን ንዛዕባ ሃገረን ተዋዲቀናሉ እንድየን:: ሕጀውን እንተኾነ ኣብ ጎኒ ብጾተን ደቂ ተባዕትዮ ኾይነን ዘበርክትኦ ዘለዋ ኣስተዋጽኦ ኣብ ሃገራዊ ዛዕባ ቀሊል መዓስ ኮይኑ:: ናይ ቃላት አመራርጻ እንተዘይኮይኑ ክብሮም ነዚ አጸቢቁ ይግንዘቦ’ዩ:: ንስኽውን ብኸምኡ እንተትርእይዮ ክንደይ ጽብቅ ነይሩ::

            ብጻይኪ
            አማኑኤል ሕ.

    • Berhe Y

      Dear Kbrom,

      It’s a great idea. Lately I thought Abraham Zere was doing a great job writing on international media giving the regime a headache and informing the world community at large.

      Berhe

    • Kim Hanna

      Selam Kbrom,
      .
      Great post. I want to use this response as a way to address the board of Awate Forum.
      Awate Forum must give a serious look at this post. I am sure the idea in some form was looked at, but the resources are such that it was filled away.
      It is really important to find a way, however limited, to start the project in a limited scope.
      It could be as simple as setting up a once a month discussion by invited participants only with an explicit instruction to Nitricc, Kim Hanna and hope not to show up, under penalty of banning for a month or more.
      .
      I think starting a modest simple way will lead to a great “Face the Nation” type of place where people from all over tune in.
      .
      This Awate University ushers in a graduate school where half a dozen invited participants and guests express their thoughts, not so much as debates for debates sake, but encouraged to put forward practical ideas solutions to problems of our region.
      I have a dream that one day I will read the discussion from SAAY, YG, Hayat, Kbrom and a couple of more invited guests at the same time to address a topic.
      .
      I would love to see the participants using, some FERENJI analysis as a useful idiots for a change, to really address the core issues of our predicaments from real experience.
      Who among us will not look forward to that class of learning.
      .
      Mr. K.H

      • blink

        Dear Kim
        Why would saay and kibrom come with People who has nothing to contribute to Eritrea and it’s people? saay and kibrom works for Eritrea and it’s people while the other two work to kill Eritrea and it’s people. If awate forum becomes a play ground for people who work for the decrepit of Eritrea then it means the owners and management of this site are dead.

        • Kim Hanna

          Selam blink,
          .
          You always make this kind of provocative statements. The statement is a perfect illustration for what I was trying to advance.
          .
          Let us give it a rest for one day a month, so that others like the Dr. who came back from the refugee camp can say something about what he has seen and heard. The invited guests will ask questions and express their take. You and me just listen.
          .
          THEN:
          .
          The very next day you can and will express your opinions as you always have done. Deal or No deal?
          .
          Mr. K.H

          • blink

            Dear KIm
            Is this some of your favorite courses from the 3000 years old book? Why, why would information from a person who lie day in day out would be given such kind ? You can go to moyale and drive through to Kenya and tell us about the ordeals the real refugees . You see ,I don’t like false information and that is the reason I oppose the two , it is not provocative to say the truth. THESE TWO ARE LAIRS .

  • Amanuel

    Hi MS
    First correction I was not in the mechanised Units. Having said that I don’t disagree with your detailed points. However, I didn’t see the point of listing them here considering you said that “I already made it clear that IA did not want anyone who appeared to challenge his orders or viewpoint” knowing that this man had a monopoly of information, one can assume that non of the above projects/ researches happened with out his blessing.

  • Abrehet Yosief

    Selam Sadia,
    Thanks for sharing your take on the event. Your book on Eritrean refugees in the Sudan is my go to reference. Keep on engaging.

  • Mez

    Dear Hope,

    …work is in progress…

    Will be soon in the “open market”; just final touching on some important life matters.

    Thank you, Sir.

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selam Hope,

    I wish he condemn the act, for telling us that some had lost their lives because of having different opinion is not enough. Showing your position on the act paramount.

    • Hope

      Selam Wed Memhir Hidrat:
      I think,to my best knowledge,as SAY advised U,Teg Mahmuday Salih is one of the very few EPLFites,who openly ,not only criticized but “condemned” the PFDJ ,not just its Criminal Acts.
      It is unfair to bluntly ask people to say what u want them to say,as The Champion of the champions herr. Blink,would say it that”No one should hand certificates or guidelines as to how to opppose the PFDJ”!
      On the same token though,have U ever tried to criticize your own ELF let alone to condemn it for its criminal actions?

  • blink

    Dear Hope
    People like Mr.Amanuel Hidrat are the people who are pushing the propaganda of bashing Eritreans revolution by distributing Foro lies , it is not trying to know what happened in 1973-76 or any time but their main job is not to know either but to selectively destroy Eritreans sacrifices and extremely well made events . The guy lives and breathes Foro from Amiche (Tigrian) weyane goons. Forget about morality because he doesn’t have one.People like him are dancing over their comerads and great heroes of the Eritrean people. It is shame such people count themselves as opposition to Issaias while their time is 100 occupied to trash Eritrean past events . Sad

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Blink,
      Unlike you, who is hidden behind nickname, you have my name with my picture talking about the excess of our revolution that I was part with, without fear. Second you are the one like Ferro who is behind nickname not Amanuel. Third, You don’t defend our revolution behind pen name. Leave it for us for those of us who worked hard for it day and night in cities as well as in the bushes. Our revolution can be defended by us not by you and like you who have not courage to speak out with their real names. So know your limits and be a man before you talk about men with courage.

      Regards

      • Kokhob Selam

        Yes Sir,

        What did he know about you? Nothing, why don’t you keep it aside..
        Just I know you and I am confident..that you don’t deserve the description he describe about AMANUEL the great..

        KS,,

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Selam Kokhobay,

          ሓደ ሓደ ጊዜ ሓሞት ንዘይብሉ ሰብ ሓሞት ገይርካ ተመለሰኒ ምባል አገዳሲ’ዩ:: እንተዘይከአለ ከአ ነቲ ጉልባቡ ከፊትካ ምቅላዑ ናይግድን እዩ::

          ኣብዚ ቀረባ ጬራ ሓበረታ ዝረኸብክዎ: ግን ከአ ዘይተረጋገጸ: ትግራዋይ ኮይኑ ንወያነ ዘይፈትዎም: ግንከአ ነዚ ናይ ኤርትራ ስርዓት ደጊፍካ ጥራይ እዩ ምድኻም ወያኔ ዝመጽእ ኢሉ ዝአምን ዝብል እዩ:: ስለዚ ነቲ ጉልባቡ ቀስእንዳበልና ከፊትና ንቃልዕ ከነውጽኦ ኢና::

          • blink

            Dear Mr. Amanuel.H
            Really? Is that a grown man character? Really. Laughable is the minimum point of this .

          • Mez

            Dear Blink,

            Please focus more-&-more on relevant subject matters.

            Occasionally, take things easy and-move-on.

            Thanks

          • Thomas

            Hi Blink,

            I have now a big project. You are under my investigation. You have been acting “fedain” on us here. I know this time is so unfortunate that the real Eritreans are sidelined whereas the none “wedebat” are taking revenges on true Eritreans. Still I will need some investigations to support my case to prove that you actually are a tigrian/ethiopian NOT an Eritrean. Your comments here suggest that you have been saying things for a cover up. Trust me, this has been very common because I know people from Ethiopia/Amhara who grew up in Asmara and now they happen to have a strong ties with the Issayas regime. They are the once who have become a die hard Issayasists. I advice you to stop your ambivalent feeling and make up your mind here before it is too late.

          • blink

            Dear Thomas
            Consider this , Amanuel Hidrat gave you a conspiracy view just like Foro did in the Tigrian smerr Amiche room . Go ahead lunch your investigation, kkk u make me laugh .if I was from Ethiopia, I would spend enough time preparing propaganda videos about TPLF crime , do not you think? I mean why would I care about ELF and EPLF history?

          • Thomas

            HI Blink,

            You would never question the real Heroes like Amanuel Hidrat. Look, Amanuel was an ELF fighter and that means he was with the first liberation front volunteering and determined to fight the occupying/invading power. Here you are trying to degrade his contribution as a fighter and even dare to question the love he has for his nation. If this is not strange, what is it then?

          • blink

            Dear Thomas
            I never questioned his past contribution , I have never ever do that , I have great respect for his contribution in the line of ELF ,what I don’t support is his consistency for years to bash EPLF day in day out . Look ,there are many ex-ELF fighters and all these people never have been so consistent attack on EPLF , in fact none of them are . Why ? Why do you think who continue to do such things? Heroes of ELF are equally to any Eritrean heroes and that is my understanding. I wish and hope one all the bravery of ELF become a TV program in Eritrean national TV .

          • Thomas

            Hi Blink,

            Good answer, now let me continue with my investigation of you.

            Thanks,

          • blink

            Dear Thomas
            Ok please don’t open sibhat nega files because I am not there . And last please don’t look me any where because you will not find me. Can someone come with my CV ?possible but not at least at your request.

          • Thomas

            Hi Blink,

            Your concerns are noted. Let me know carry on with the blessed task now.

          • Kokhob Selam

            Dear blink,

            “I mean why would I care about ELF and EPLF history?” wrong..You should know the history and plan nicely about the future..This site is for reconciliation..More you should live in now and now..present..

            KS,,

          • blink

            Dear is
            That’s was my intention sir . I was just asking Thomas if I was Ethiopian, why would I care about EPLF and ELF ? I am waiting his take unless you are right I actually care about the two deeply because the two means the essence of Eritrea at a circle.

          • Kokhob Selam

            Dear blink,

            “I actually care about the two deeply because the two means the essence of Eritrea at a circle.”

            Nice, keep up in the same.

            KS,,

      • blink

        Dear Mr. Amanuel.H
        So why do you distribute Foro lies on your Facebook if you think you are able to defend the things you paid your ages and your colleagues? Having my name is not important so do your picture.what you said is the things that counts. Well kid ,,, ahmm , what about old men turned to kids then ? What do you call them ? Is this because they missed their families advice despite their age ?

        • Kokhob Selam

          Dear blink,

          I am as old as Amanuel (younger may be some years just 4 or 5 years) I mean am in the same edge category.. I know the man when we were in ELF — the same front I know him very well more than you..believe me when I read you description of the same I am feeling very much disappointed..We have to respect each other and he deserve so..

          KS,,
          .

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Blink,

          Throw your comment to FB and I will pull it to file it in my face book. By doing that it does not mean I support your view. Ferro is sent from Friends to hear it what he is saying. That is all. Did you read any of my comment to it?

          • Mez

            Dear Blink,

            Please focus more-&-more on relevant subject matters.

            Occasionally, take things easy and-move-on.

            Thanks

          • blink

            Dear Mez
            I should have but these people are the basis for the bashing campaign over Eritreans heroes achievement and bravery. Who do you think open the gate for others to bash Eritreans founders and where does it stop . I think it is the least we can say openly that , such demoralizing our founders act is no go area , if we are ready to creat a united viable opposition to PFDJ we need to clean such attitudes of building from grievances of the 1980th because we have enough people who are gunned down by PFDJ .

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Blink,

            Do not be stupid. Opposing Issayas is not opposing our heroes. You don’t know them. Which hero did I opposed this all crying. The heroes are passing away in the jail of the despot. I know our heroes before you even learn about them. You could go where you belong Blink. They don’t belong to you

          • blink

            Dear Mr.Amanuel H
            You understood me wrong, what I am saying is sir , you and your banner boys Amiche , Foro and others are spending your time in bashing Eritrean people history rather than working to get support from young Eritreans to destroy PFDJ . You never know if I know Eritrean heroes. My comments don’t depend on my age , you see the difference.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Blink,

            Go and talk to Forro or who ever is the amiche. Don’t bring it to me. I am not a paltalk person. I do not listen paltalks for obvious reasons. Even the face book I do not visit that much. Go there and do your business, and don’t do it here.

          • blink

            Dear Mr. Amanuel H
            I got introduced to Amich and Foro from your Facebook distribution. That should have been clear to you from the beginning. You know I have been consistent to accuse you for that .

          • Haile S.

            Selam Emma and Blink,

            With your permission gentlemen, just to turn away you attention from each other I have a question for you two and all Awatistas.
            Bile (ሓሞት), at least in our culture is associated with courage. It is also considered one of the most bitter and also a remedy for variety of ailments. I am assuming when people talk of bile, it is about the bile contained and coming from the gallbladder. Now give me names of two very brave and hard working animals that don’t have gallbladder. Two reminders:
            1- It cannot be Blink, human beings have one.
            2 – Paulos avoid goolgooling. 🙂 🙂 :-), BTW applies to all.

          • blink

            Dear Haile.S
            I am not sure where you are going with this but the hardest worker from animal Ant the great has bile and I don’t know any animal that works like ant , but for your general question reply. I have the answer, All members of the deer family except for the musk deer, all of the equine family (including zebras), camels, giraffes, elephants, rhinoceroses, whales, some birds (such as doves), rats and some fish do not have gallbladders. You know in animals bile is stored in gallbladders . Now what was your point.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Blink,
            Great complete answer and good question. Not everybody know this.
            Then if elephant doesn’t have gall bladder (the visible part of the ሓሞት) why do we have so many expressions with ሓሞት ሓርማዝ, almost to obsession?

          • blink

            Dear Haile .S
            You are unique by any measure, now I think it’s connected to human beings old life style of Hunting or eating meat of certain animals like you know the obvious once , I don’t know if our ancestors eat elephant . Even if you watch killer whales group work and the way they flip a shark , and the way Elephant show love for her kids or even partner is mind boggling.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Hailat,

            All the animals that do not have gallbladder such as Giraffes, rhinoceros, zebras, elephants do not have bile. You just reminded me my biology class of long time ago.

          • Haile S.

            Hi Emma,
            They don’t have gallbladder, but their liver produces bile and they have bile duct that pours directly the bile to the duodenum. Without going into details, the bile composition is different due the absence of the gallbladders’s contribution and specie differences. Now think about my follow up question.

          • Paulos

            Hailat,

            That is really interesting but at a risk of going into details let me say this: In the rest of mammals including humans, bile is produced in the liver where the gallbladder is just a small sack whose function is for a mere storage. As you know the worn-out red blood cells are broken down in the reticuloendothelial system including the spleen where it is converted to a bile and the bile gets modified in the liver and it gets transported to the gallbladder for storage where it is mainly used to digest fats. Of course I didn’t mean to be a smart azz and degrees but trying to see how the elephant is any different by not having a gallbladder.

          • Paulos

            Hailat,

            You should see me laughing. Here is the deal though, the forum was sliding onto boringville till you showed up and please keep coming back.

          • Kokhob Selam

            Yes Paulos,

            That is wisdom. Isn’t it? Yes wisdom..

            KS,,

          • Nitricc

            Hi Haile; That is easy; Thomas! Let me ask you, who have the strongest heart out of all living creatures? No ” Goolgooling” lol thanks P. lol.

          • Thomas

            Hi Nitricc,

            Hahaha but you picked a wrong guy to talk about because this Haile S admittedly run away from Ghedli with his tail tacked between his skinny legs. Haile S was a coward herd/“Guassa” like yourself:)

          • Nitricc

            Hi Thomas; you talking like that to Haile-S? Oh my, how is that happen. As dumb as Thomas talking smack at people like Haile-S? Easy Thommy boy. lol

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Thomas,
            A brotherly advice–I hope you get it before I spell it…the boring duel between you and Nitricc is not productive and hinders the otherwise educational discussions. Please think about it.

          • Thomas

            Hi SGJ,
            I know I know I know but look who started first or it wouldn’t be fair. I know you are a fair person also. You know the power of self defense::)) otherwise I will try to stop that kind of nonsense .

          • Saleh Johar

            Thomas,
            Thank you for realizing we need to keep this forum inviting, not a place of disparaging envaironment.

          • Paulos

            ኣታ ቶማስ ሓወይ ንሃይለ ከምኡ ኽትብሎ? ዓገብ! ናይብሓቂ ዓገብ!

          • Thomas

            Hi Paul,
            You are one of my favorites. So, I take your concern but I would never disrespect someone for no reason. I will need to take a long break from here. I wish you the best though.
            Thanks.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Thomas,

            If you need to take a break from AT by all means go ahead.

            But before you need to take it back what you said to Haile and apologize. I don’t know what prompted you to say that, but your comment is on reference to the personal narration and story he wrote, I think there is no shame what he wrote and turn it as insult against him.

            That’s not decency and those of us who want to fight the PFDJ need to lead by example, and leave that to them and hopefully it will get buried with them.

            Sorry if I overstepped my boundary but a brotherly advice.

            Your concise will be clear I know that.

            Berhe

          • Haile S.

            Dear Thomas,
            This is the second or third time you are insulting me from no where. I never said anything bad or negative on you. You may not like my comments, but there is no need to go insulting like that.

            Deat Moderator, please notice this ongoing unprovoked insults.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Nitricc,

            This is a brotherly advice: do you see the quality of discussion going on here? Very informative and educational. If I have nothing to add to the comments by knowledgeable people, I just read, maybe ask questions, but could not bring myself to lower the discussion bar. Can you try it, please? Just check what you have been discussing and compare it to the rest and you will get the idea. Why don’t you educate us on stuff I am sure you know–chemistry, military and other stuff that are enviable knowledge–find your elf Nitricc

          • Nitricc

            Hey SJ; I have no idea what you are trying to say. The last time I was on this forum was Saturday and I just stopped by and noticed Haile S post, I thought he posted what he posted to break up the ongoing back and forth between Aman-H and Blink. You lost me on this. I don’t if you being sarcastic or you mixed me up with other people. I have absolutely nothing.

          • Paulos

            Nitrikay,

            Don’t forget SJ can pull his Chancellor stick on you and Thomas and can ground you both for a month 😂.

          • Nitricc

            Hey P; i know that trust me. But the funny thing is i thought i was helping Haile-s in breaking the on going and i was only joking. SJ took it in different light. Any way i will refrain from such activity. Although Haile-S should take the blame : -)

          • Paulos

            Hailat,

            Let me beat Google for this is not in its reservoir. Bile as a sign of courage in fact is not confined to our culture only, rather it is across the board. Let me illustrate by giving two examples: We call people Hypochondriacs when they are obsessed with disease where if we divide the word Hypo-chondria into two we get the idea why.

            As you know Hypo means below Chondria is related to the ribs. People assumed that all the known diseases were coming from the bile (as the gallbladder is located under the ribs) hence Hypochondriac. The second one has a lot to do with emotions as in subdued emotions as in depression where the extreme form is called “Melancholy.” As you could see the word “Choly” pertains to the bile where again people thought that the depressive emotions emanate from the bile simply because it has rather dark-green color. It is the the “Amygdala” in the brain with in the Limbic system which is responsible for emotions instead.

          • Haile S.

            Paul,
            Greatly elaborated answer as usual. Now how about our obsession with elephants bile or humour (body fluid) that is not apparently there or not visible to everyone?

          • Saleh Johar

            Haile S,
            And you think the rest of us cannot tell if something is a product of goolgoling or a properly acquired knowledge? It’s so obvious even if you do not know the subject as the experts.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Saleh-J,
            No, I just thought that the “hard working animals” (horse and elephant), was sufficient hint to bring them out easily.

          • Saleh Johar

            Oh Haile S,
            Then I am either a horse or an elephant 🙂

          • Haile S.

            Saleh,
            You are both with bile, at that!

          • blink

            Dear SG
            Elephant would be a disaster to everyone around you because imagine the amount of food you would consume plus pulling everything around ,,,but it is historically recognized that humans are the number one enemy of elephants. Can you imagine still I would love to be any animal except cat . I don’t like cat. Cat is simply worthless to humans. Do any society ever use cats to any thing ?

          • Saleh Johar

            Blink,
            Yes. Cats chase the mice away. I hate dogs but it doesn’t mean I am not fond of cats.

            While you are at it: can you ask Nitricc and Thomas to join in this topic about animals and get a break from provocations and value-decreasing discussions. You are doing fine these two days 🙂

          • Selam SJG,

            I wish one day you would come across the chance that would make you say, “I love dogs too”. 😀.

            You wouldn’t believe what wonderful creatures most of them are, like our “Persa”, a female Boxer. She is beautiful and naughty at the same time. She would move around the house, hide our slippers, and when we come home, she waits for each one of us at the door with a slipper in her mouth. It does not matter to whom it belongs, and she is ready to jump and hug us. She is part of the family.

            It is said that you can trust the love of a dog, which lasts a lifetime, and not the love of a cat. By the way I do not hate cats.

          • Kokhob Selam

            Yes Horizon,

            You remind me my Cats from Bahir Dar. And one of them use to do the same what you said about your dog..very smart cats use to accept me when I reach home, from my old school.

            KS..

          • Haile S.

            Selam Horizon,
            Persa, what a beautiful name. We share the love of dogs, cats too.
            For SGJ, some of the beautiful cat breeds are: the Abyssinian and the Somali. My favorite cat breed is the Somali breed, not because of current politics 🙂 🙂 , but is simply gorgeous and colorful, goolgoole it. It is not easy to get it and not cheap. The Abyssinian was bred in UK and its origin is not necessarily Abyssinia as the name indicates. The legend says, the british soldiers back from Abyssinian invasion in 1868 brought a cat by the name of Zula that gave the abyssinian breed. But it is very controversial. To read the controversy please go to ‘The Abyssinian Homepage’. The Somali is not from Somalia either, but since it was derived from the Abyssinian breed, it was given the neighbour country’s name.

          • Saleh Johar

            Aha Haile S,

            That is good to know–I never knew that they breed Abyssinian cats.

            I once saw an interview with Peter Ustinov, he said his mother’s name was Magdelene, she has an Abyssinian ancestry. He explained that she was named Magdelene (after Mekdella) after General Napier occupied King Tedros’ fortress.

            On dogs–do you know dogs called Basenji? They are the dogs that the Pharoahs bred. Almost a decade ago I wrote a Negarit about Basenjis. I do not remember the title but know you made me think about it. I will search for it and provide a link. I doubt if it as about dogs though.

            On cats, do you know the Persian breed called Shirazi, named after the city of Shiraz in Iran? How about Siamese cats, a breed from Thailand, which was called the kingdom of Siam until a few decades ago before they adopted Thailand.

          • Haile S.

            Hey Saleh,
            How can you not like dogs, to write be it just the mention of a name, as elegant and handsome as Basenji? I didn’t know Shirazi cat. Thank you. Found out it is a variety of the Persian cat. I am not fun, it is for old ladies, good for the lap. Sorry old ladies. I prefer the Shiraz wine! Yep I knew about Peter Ursinov. Several europeans have left their mark in abyssinia, some with interesting stories. I may come on it another time.

          • Paulos

            Selam Hailat,

            I am not fond of dogs or cats. In fact, I am not fond of any animal for that matter but I love the cool idea behind the evolutionary adoptations dogs and cats developed in relation to humans. Here goes it but will make sure to make it short so that your yawning-O-meter won’t get over-heated.

            When we humans transitioned to bi-pedalism [Please excuse the “ism”] in a bid to hunt and gather, we lost the ability to identify preys through the power of smell or night vision where dogs couldn’t transition but got compensated with strong sense of smell. The same rationale goes for cats where they are compensated with extra rods in their retina so that not only they would be able to see in the dark but their field-vision is 200 degrees where ours is 180 degrees.

            Here is another cool stuff about us humans: Évolution put limitations on us on the number of colors we would be able to identify as in Red, Blue and Green where the wavelength ranges between 400-700. There is a reason for that: When a fruit rippens, it goes from green to red and that was precisely the reason we are endowed with those ranges of wavelengths of colors so that not only we can stay fed but to distinguish between raw and ripe as well.

          • Saleh Johar

            Paulos,
            Until Nitricc comes to my aid, you are saying there are 300 wavelengths of light somewhere in the 12 colors in the RGB spectrum–or CMYK. I worked with ad agencies for years and I heard many creative and art directors repeat that. My question: If we can identify only a fraction of the 300, including color shades, it means there are other colors that we do not see. Can you show me the colors that we do not see, or teach me to see them,? 🙂

          • Paulos

            Selam Ayay,

            Not 300 wavelengths of colors. The white light is defracted so to speak into different colors with different wavelengths where the three colors as in Red, Blue and Green are the primary colors. For instance red has a wavelength of 700 and green has a wavelength of 400 and the rest of the colors that we see fall with in that range. I am sure you have heard of infra-red and the reason we are not able to see that is because the wavelength of it falls outside of that range [400-700].

          • Saleh Johar

            Paulos,
            I wanted to pull your leg but failed. There is a friend who hates Cyan with passion and we had an argument about colors. The moment I typed the comments I copied him. He refused to get his legs into the forum. Now, why do you think people avert certain colors — apart from the cultural upbringing of liking certain colors and hating others. For example fearing red, blood, black, darkness, etc.

            The Egyptians say: lew aawiz tedHak ala’lsmer, lebisu aHmer–if you want to mock a black person, dress him in red. That could have racist content, but can you think of anything else–taste, etc.

            Nitricc! Where are you? You know the TPLF and PFDJ love red colors! This is potentially your favorite topic 🙂

          • Paulos

            Selam Ayay,

            Good question but not sure to be honest. How about Qeyih Bahr’na as in our 600 miles long Red Sea? That sure give us the reason to grow fond of red color 😂.

          • Haile S.

            Hey Paul,
            Thank you for this intertaining science. You certainly are surrounded by love, but you are missing the love of dog. Nothing so warming as the regard and the right or left of tilt a dog’s head when talking to it asking you ‘what do you mean’ are you asking me to go for a walk or go fetch the ball…

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Haile S<
            Look what I just found in Wikipedia:
            "Peter Alexander von Ustinov was born in London, England. His father, Jona von Ustinov, was of Russian, Polish Jewish, German, and Ethiopian descent. "

            That confirms what I heard years ago. But now I am afraid the EPRDF and PFDJ would fight over Ustinov–is he Ethiopian or Eritrean? Who has the right to build a statue of him, like the Pushkin drama?

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Horizon,
            My wife grew up with a famous dog in their house. If you grew up in Mercato, I am sure you were scared of that dog. It was just very aggressive and popular. If she failed to convince me to like dogs, what makes you think you can convince me 🙂

            But I have a story with dogs. One of them is Ambess, and I have written a chapter about him in “Of Kings and Bandits.” I grew up away from my neighborhood for the fear of that dog who never liked me for reasons I can’t figure out. He was just being a dog, and that is why I do not like them.

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Saleh Johar,
            .
            Let me tell you about our dog. He was famous too and most aggressive in Kazanchis Sefer. I grew up with that dog hating and loving him at the same time. The dog hated beggars most of all.
            .
            So I sort of understand your position on dogs. Dogs are supposed to be guards of the family. I am sure your wife’s family dog hated you at first.
            On the other hand, I completely understand Horizon’s outlook on dogs. Out in the west, later in life I had dogs of my own, I hate to admit it but were part of the family. They add to the family fabric.
            .
            I have a life long experience with dogs. Having said all that, I have a confession to make. I have developed a phobia of sorts.
            I cannot watch on television today, in 2018, a dog licking its owners in the mouth. I on instinct, violently turn my face before I almost see it. I get disgusted by it and have accepted to live with the illness.
            .
            Mr. K.H

          • Kokhob Selam

            HI Horizon,

            What a coexistence !! Today ATV covered the same news..at 9:40 on ward they cover how animals were honest to their owners..The Bahir Dar Broadcaster was covering how. The cats and dogs and even horse were kind and showed.. how they manage after the death of the owners…

            Here is the link and please make sure the covered was 9:40 pm.

            http://www.allcomtv.com/2016/10/09/amhara-tv/

            KS,,

          • blink

            Dear Haile.S
            Long time ago , I thought Elephant was only in the forest but once I set my foot in one rice country I saw him pulling a huge metal in a very very messy swamp like field and from that time I just thought about the gash Elephant power to put in to Bultug field labor force. Can you imagine an elephant as an ox ? Elephant is smarter than ox I guess .
            Now ant has a bile constantly supplied to his digestive system,and he is with no duodenum I mean he is short of the 4 parts of the small intestine again , is he the hardest working animal? We don’t have scientific evidence either, still we say ant is the hardest working creature. We don’t know what happens in the deep sea .

          • Paulos

            Selam Ayay,

            If you think about it, there is no difference between goolgooling and getting the information from a classroom say when you were a student. Even goolgool doesn’t own the piece of knowledge for it is someone else who discovered it or invented it. The difference is of course how much one can sponge information and retrieve it in minutes from the memory bank.

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selam Mahmuday,

    The issue is not wether the two organizations had intellectuals or not. Yes they had intellectuals with PHDs, MA/MS and BA/BS. The issue is how were their intellectual assets were being treated. Who do you think will question the wisdom of their leaders except the intellectuals within the ranks and files? Weren’t the intellectuals were the victims of wrath of Issayas? Just to mention Betsay Goitom, Yohannes the brain, Dr Iyob Gebreluel (my mentor), Tareke, Afeworki, Mussie, Memhir Tekle…et al. If the intellectuals are by virtue of their education and knowledge are those who question his wisdom and if they are always the victim of him, why are you reluctant to say that he was hates intellectuals. Second, because the organizations were politic-military organizations, your argument seems that you are exempting Issayas from the crime he committed.

    Third, when you go to this long hateta it is not necessary that you are answering the simple question, rather you are making your readers confused and make it hard to find the simple answer in the long hateta. All this hateta is talking about where and how the intellectual were contributing in the organization, for which you are not asked for that. I might edit it, I am just rushing to work.

    Regards

    • Kokhob Selam

      Yes, ended Amuni,

      What important is not knowledge but Wisdom…

      “Read in the name of your Lord Who created. He created man from a clot.Read and your Lord is Most Honorable, Who taught (to write) with the pen. Taught man what he knew not.”
      ― Anonymous, The Qur’an / القرآن الكريم

      01,“Wisdom is not a product of schooling but of the lifelong attempt to acquire it.”
      ― Albert Einstein

      02.“To attain knowledge, add things everyday. To attain wisdom, remove things every day.”
      ― Lao Tzu

      03,“Emotion without reason lets people walk all over you; reason without emotion is a mask for cruelty.”
      ― Nalini Singh, Archangel’s Kiss

      04,“A true teacher would never tell you what to do. But he would give you the knowledge with which you could decide what would be best for you to do.”
      ― Christopher Pike, Sati

      05,“I know nothing, because I know too much, and understand not nearly enough and never will.”
      ― Anne Rice, The Vampire Armand

      06,“Time, as it grows old, teaches all things.”
      ― Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound

      07,“Unless we learn to know ourselves, we run the danger of destroying ourselves.”
      ― Ja A. Jahannes, WordSong Poets

      KS,,

      • Ismail AA

        Dear Kokhob,
        Unwise person with knowledge is a lesser man; a wise one with knowledge is a full being. Being endowed by both is special grace and blessing. Thank you so much for posting those gems.

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Kokhobay,

        Both are important in the life of human being. Knowledge without wisdom is dangerous. And it is impossible to have wisdom without knowledges.

    • MS

      Ahlan Emma
      My readers are so smart that they have already understood what is written. I give context and facts. The judgment is up to each reader. The question was specific, and if you read my comments in this thread you will find the answer you are looking for. I say what I can back up and I backed up what I have said. If you contest any of the points I made, you are welcome. AS far as defending IA is concerned, you got it wrong. Probably you were in a hurry, Emma. Give it a try when you get time.

  • Ismail AA

    Selam hope,
    Just curious, sir, with due respect. About relativity and perfectionism, I can understand. But providing a leadership free ride to exercise dogmatism and arrogance in conditions where there is absolutely no checks and balances, and when all is said and done, anticipating an “arrogant dictatorship” to close business and walk away seemed to me misses the correlation of leadership and power.

    • Paulos

      Selam Ismail AA,

      After reading Muhamuday’s one heck of long Hateta [I say this with admiration for his vigor and wealth of information of course], I had to dig in through Awate archives and reread Aklilu Zere’s classic essay or expose’ if you will “The Birth of Despotism” where Zere walks us through the genesis of not only what to become of Ghedli but independent Eritrea as well. Again, if Muhamuday’s response to Dr. Beyan’s inquiry is an emphatic “No”, Isaias knew precisely what independent Eritrea would be like, a nation created in his distorted psych not only where the human mental faculty is arrested but frightned as well.

      • Ismail AA

        Dear Paulos,

        After watching Isayas through the decades, I agree with you that he did know what kind of post liberation Eritrea he wanted. I think on this issue no amount of explanation could change what his ambition was, and as well as how he wanted to attain it. The means, tactics and strategy he had followed were known.

        But once he succeeded to impose his view(read: vote in its hilarious sense) as supreme that no one could dare to challenge, those who knew where he was leading them could do nothing except obey and move on. A source who had attended the second organization congress related to me a telling anecdote. At the congress one mustered courage and asked about what happened to fighters like Mussie, Yohannes and many. Isayas closed the case with few words: ተጋጊዮም ስጉምቲ ተወሲዱዎም. That was end of the story and no body could dare take risk in pursuing the matter at the congress.

        I think things became clearer from the organization’s second organizational congress onward when Isayas pushed Ramadan out and became the supreme general secretary, and restructured the leadership hierarchy in strict pyramidal form. The status of all members of the leadership were changed to aids of the general secretary and should report to him directly without allowing any space for horizontal co-ordinations or consultations.

        Of course I am saying from my follow up and information friends who were members of the organization had reported. Thus, ustaz Mahmoud could correct me on this and help us understand better.

        • MS

          Ahlan Ustaz IsmailAA
          Hayak Allah
          Paulos knows how to push the button; I think he does it when he wants more juice from individuals like IsmailAA. Anyway, Brother Beyan’s question was specific. He did not ask me about IA’s intentions and preparations of what future Eritrea would look like. He wanted to know the overall readiness of the organization, what people like me had in mind about the nature of the government of future Eritrea. Of course, I can’t speak for IA. My answer as usual was giving him the general vibe of that time.
          Having said that, even if I disagree with you, it would take me forever to arrange my thought because you are just so gentle. I feel comfortable with Emma because I could nudge him on the phone if I have something to say. I just tell you that meeting You and KoKhebay would be a treat for me. That’s how irrelevant the politics of the past is to me.
          Anyway, I have to go.

          • Kokhob Selam

            Dear MS,

            ” I just tell you that meeting You and KoKhebay would be a treat for me. That’s how irrelevant the politics of the past is to me. ”

            Why?

            KS,,

          • MS

            Ahlan KS
            حياك الله استاذنا نجم النجوم: حبيت اجلس معك واحكى,طبعاً مع القهوة

          • Thomas

            Hi MS,

            “ash’kiekana” or I lost you:) To me, your above script is first “tshfet/xhfet derho” and second “some writing in the language I cannot read: Arabic:)

          • Kokhob Selam

            Dear Thomas,

            “حياك الله استاذنا نجم النجوم: حبيت اجلس معك واحكى,طبعاً مع القهوة”

            He actually said ” welcome our teacher the star of stars,I want to seat with you and talk and sure with coffee”

            May bee he mean in Jebena page..Ha ha..

            KS,,

          • Thomas

            Hi KS,

            MS is right, you are the star of the stars & the King of kings indeed!!

          • Thomas

            Hi KS,

            MS is right, you are the star of the stars & the King of the kings indeed!!

          • MS

            Ahlan Thomas
            Because sometimes you behave nicely, I will translate it for you. Here is the translation of the “tseHfet derho”:
            After greeting, ” I would like to sit with you and have coffee.”
            It does not make sense if you don’t read it in its sequence in the thread.

          • Saleh Johar

            Ahlan Pasha,
            Some technical feedback to you and a few others.

            I see that you have formatting problems and you couldn’t get space between your paragraphs. I also see Kim Hanna, for example, puts a dot after every paragraph to get a clear space between paragraphs.

            One solution is to type in notepad (text only) because it clears all HTML tags.

            The second solution is to type on MsWord and then select all and click the “NORMAL” button on your style selections. That way you clear all the tags that are creating the problem…

            The cumbersome way is to go back to Disqus and edit the spaces again.

            I type anywhere, cut-and-paste it on Disqus and edit it. If anyone has a suggestion, please share it here.

            Hope that helps

          • sara

            Mahmouday… selamat
            its 30 years since—– Nadew nabey abele?

          • Paulos

            Selam Muhamuday,

            If there is a sense of anxiety with in the gist of your thread, I say, it is justifiable simply because your argument revolves around the idea that the merits of EPLF ought to be seen in isolation where its legacy becomes rather murky when Isaias eclipses its historic role.

            The G-15 for instance made a case along that line when they tried to put EPLF on a different light but Isaias made equal but opposite argument when he buried EPLF with them. Characters in a novel can not revolt against the author as the adage goes.

            The rich legacy of EPLF could have lived as a shrine and Isaias’ crimes could have been seen with in a context (If I may borrow your line), if and only if the aspirations and hopes of the people were realized but obviously not, instead what we have is misery and perpetual agony and in desperation we try to find an answer to the question, “What happened and when did it go wrong.” To answer the fundamental questions, we need to tell it as it is even if it compromises the legacy of the Front.

        • Hope

          Well, Ustaz Ismael:
          Here is the Dilemma:
          If we have known it all along,then it becomes the fault of those of us,who have known exactly what Isayas was planning or intending for Eritrea and Eritreans.
          It is the collective failure of all his enablers,the Intellectuaks and the Silent Majority to let one individual to mess up the whole Nation and the whole people.
          The next dilemma:
          Why haven’t we learn and try to stop this Demon from making us down further rather than letting him do further damages?
          Just blaming and cursing an individual day and night rather than doing our past due home work ain’t going to be the solution.
          Our debate should focus on learning from the past and and figure out as to why we have miserably failed to do better .

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Hope,

            We have been learning for a long time but not all of us at the same speed.

            KS, for example knew Aboy this man in 70s but no body listen. A lot if us learned Aboy this man 2001.

            But we have people like you, despite all evidence still refused to learn :).

            Berhe

        • Selam Ismail AA,

          I could be wrong, but sometimes this crazy and not so crazy idea comes to my mind, which is, could it be that dia became a paranoid dictator, because eritrea is too small to satisfy his voracious appetite for power, his huge ego and narcissism, made worse by people who revered him as if he was/is an earthly god? It is really important to know how he felt when M.Z. from the south ended up with the biggest portion of the pie, and he, caesar, got the smallest portion.

          It is not far fetched to ask, after all, is it possible that he may have wanted to be emperor Isayas Afeworki, of ethiopia, because it is said that he is a far away relative of emperor Yohannes IV. Ambition and paranoia go hand in hand, and on top of his unpredictable behavior, the fact that he could not become another abyssinian emperor, has made him become an extremely angry man.

          I think that at one point Isayas Afeworki had said to the effect that the border should not be an issue, and when asked, M.Z. had also said, if i remember well, that it is eritreans who wanted independence more than Isayas Afeworki, and he is obliged to abide by their demand.

          • blink

            Dear Horizon
            I think it a fair point to consider because if you remember the man was open for confederation or something like that similar. Did you remember the interview he gave when he was in Addis ? Plus still I don’t believe dia wanted the disintegration of Ethiopia because if he wanted ,he could have done it in 1993 because he was way way rendered even in the TPLF circles. Who knows the inside motive of this man. I mean he already destroyed EPLF from inside and yet want to have his go. You can also refer to the Meeting of senafe where all the oromo and other parties were nearly thrown away and TPLF was ready to dance with OLF. Meles was ready to deal with OLF in the first face of discussion at that moment DIA could have played his disintegration of Ethiopia card but didn’t . I think your view is fair to consider.

          • Selam blink,
            I am happy i could provoke your response. I cannot say that i have a detailed information like you do on the points you brought . I hope that somebody else would add to, or subtract from the information you have given us above.

          • Ismail AA

            Selam Horizon,

            Dictators do not have limit to their ambition. I read once that the late Gadaffi of Libya had complained that Libya had a leader but Egypt had population but no leader. We had seen how Saddam Hussein risked the future of his country when he invaded Kwait because at the heart of the reasons was not oil and marketing but expansion and grandeur. Empires start from smaller terrains under over ambitious absolutists and expand. Was Emperor Menelik II led by any other reason than “gezat masfafat”. Thus, with Isayas, too, such dream and greed might not be ruled out.

          • Paulos

            Selam Horizon,

            Perhaps the analogy you’re looking for is a big fish in a small pond. I sure personally wouldn’t fault Isaias for being ambitious for it is human element. The striking difference is however, the fact that a psychological ambition is not only unrealistic but history doesn’t favor it as well where Alexander, The Ghings, and later on Hitler to mention but a few come to mind.

            Here is something of s scenario that goes parallel to Isaias’ unwarranted ambition where few Eritreans bought the idea that cheap manpower would be shipped to Eritrea from Ethiopia and the product would be competetive in the latter’s market.

            In hindsight, what Isaias seems to harbor a rather fatal mistake from the get go is that he underestimated the Weyanes and they acted as such till they out-done and out-smarted him in every turn. The Weyanes became his obsession to this day where instead of using his energy and resources for the betterment of Eritrea, he diverted it to destroy them where the out come is limited to a merage.

            If he was astute enough, there was a way of having his hand in Ethiopia and that is by sharing the same vision with the leaders in Ethiopia where democracies do not go to war against each other as the saying goes.

          • Ismail AA

            Dear Dr. Paulos,

            History had rarely recorded astute over ambitious absolutists. They took logic of force and ruthlessness as guiding principles rather than logic of reason and astuteness to judiciously exercise it. Some for sure employed astute statesmen and diplomats merely to help them how maximally to use force and greed to satiate their passion for control. But I would argue the man at the helm in our injured land is too mediocre too employ shrewd statement. Instead he eliminated any who risked showing such potential. He did everything he could to surround himself by less mediocre than him save a few like Y. Monkey whom he irreparably tamed to do his bid.

          • Paulos

            Selam Kbur Haw Ismail AA,

            My earlier comparison was perhaps a bit far fetched particularly with Alexander and the Ghings where their oversized ambition ultimately helped to create states where the established theory goes, “War creates States and States create War.”

            When Monarches or Kings campaign for war, they collect taxes from the population in a bid to fund the war effort and in the long run the process of collecting taxes gets structured and becomes the beginning of the création of bureaucracy and ultimately the creation of a functioning state. It is one of the established théories of the formation of a state and for a reason that sounds counterintuitive war is the main ingrédient. But of course, in the modern world, the objectives of war as General Patton famously put it is different, when he said, “The objectives of war is not giving your life up for your country but making the sonafabitch on the other side die for his country.”

          • Ismail AA

            Dear Dr. Paulos,

            Blessed be grace that endowed you with amazing memory. You are right: wars create states and emprises and these cause other wars for glory and grandeur and “lofty national interest” in our modern world. That jingoistic (nationalistic) description of General Patton says it all. But, where do we place our own disfigured grandeur and glory seeker?

    • Hope

      Ustaz Ismael:
      Respect is mutual and,rather,more respect to U,Sir,as you deserve it more!
      I agree but please read Mahmuday carefully and my response is crystal clear.
      My point was NOT to justify the crimes but to remind u that such ” Class and Power Struggle are expected in such a kind of a complicated Revolution.
      When I say “Relatively Speaking”,what I was implying was that we have to compare and contrast our Unique andcComplex Revolution with the ones,which went thru hell and with devastating outcomes.
      As a Veteran ELFite,you know better what the ELF went thru and to the extent of destroying one of the Largest Liberation Movements.
      Checks and Balances?
      Are we talking about the Scandinavian Democracy or the complicated Eritrean Revolution?
      Are you watching the trump Era Presidency related Scandal?
      Regards!

      • Ismail AA

        Dear Hope,

        If I missed to read more closely that your comment was contextual to what our good brother Mahmoud had stated, and I sounded implying you were condoning offenses and crimes committed, I ask you for forgiveness. Upon re-reading you comments I noted you have a point, and thank you for alerting me. I just looked at matter from broader perspective. Moreover, lack of balances and checks throughout our national liberation era was more common than specific though objectivity should not rule out that personalization of prerogatives of power was tighter in EPLF than ELF, which some opinions assert was to the disadvantage of the latter.

  • Beyan

    Selam MS,

    Fascinating entry. You give excellent image of so many moving parts that had to work in synchronous manner for the revolution to achieve its goals. Now, was there a department that thought of the day after the fall of Ethiopia, what Eritrea would look like. In your entry, by necessity, it had to deal within the framework of the matter at hand of right then and there. But, I am just curious, with all of this vested intellectual hub that existed in different sectors, there was no mention of projections as to what independent Eritrea would look like. Just wondering if you knew anything about it. Or that would’ve needed top secret clearance? Was that overlooked entirely in the ambiance and the urgency of other matters that needed due attention at all times? In other words, did you have a picture of what Eritrea would look like when you (collective you here) liberated the land?

    Sincerely,
    Beyan

    • MS

      Ahlan Beyan
      An excellent question. I assume you are looking into the political aspect of the equation and the answer is big “NO.” To elaborate farther:
      1. The EPLF leaned on leftist theories and experiences for a quite considerable period of time. The sticking point for countries like Eritrea to join the socialist camp is its low socioeconomic status (socialism espouses fool-fledged industrialization). Mao and others came up with theories that purported to circumvent this obstacle. On the role of party and the doctrine of proletarian dictatorship, there were ample exercises and educational ;literature, practical organizational preparedness, etc.
      2. The organization shifts from a socialist path to national democratic revolution, accepted plural democracy to be the ultimate goal (I don’t know if Gorbachev’s glasnost and perestroika had contributed in the U-TURN). All propaganda and educational materials geared towards the renaissance of nationalism (as opposed to internationalism).
      3. But the ship was so mammoth and entrenched cultural practice could not be corrected within few years; Eritrea became independent (You could refer to EPLF program and subsequent IA interviews on the nature of government that EPLF espoused, at least on official level).
      4. There were efforts to startup a prototype government with all of its ministries. There was a department headed by Ramadan Mohammed Nur and Beraki G/Selassie (the justice Dept.) to look into reconciling different Eritrean jurisdictions (traditional, ELF-practices; EPLF; Sharia; colonial, etc., but no political preparations. Remember, even during the three years prior to referendum, there had not been preparations. The council, flag, and other issues came as a shock to most of us, and there were bitter debates in the few days that preceded the declaration, including the protest of tegadelti.
      5. So, while it was ready functionally (administratively, the software part, if you will, or the political infrastructure, such as legally (constitutionally and institutionally bound functional branches of the organization that would ensure checks and balances were not in place. There were no debates on inclusion of others, or preparing for the splintered Eritrean organizations and how you accommodate them; practicing the art of free speech and debates…preparing citizens to check for the boundaries separating them from the government; expecting four Eritrea: EPLF-Eritrea; ELF-Eritrea (with its splinter groups); diaspora Eritrea (with its diversity); Occupied-Eritrea, etc.
      Therefore, since you are looking for the last one, no there was no preparation; and I don’t think there was opportunities to chime on those matters. People were exhausted, particularly, in the last year, and every ounce of energy was dedicated to making the eventual victory as quick and as irreversible. This is where leaders are wanted, to see things that the average could not see. We were not lucky at that.

      • Beyan

        merhaba Ustaaz Mahmoud,

        You’re wealth of reservoir that one can spring an immense amount of critical information that otherwise couldn’t be had. Much appreciated. You read me right. You gave exactly what I was looking for. This explains a great deal of where the slippery slope had voids in it. And, unfortunately, you are absolutely right, there were no visionary leaders who could put a brake on that slippery slope.

        Mucha appreciated, bro.

        Beyan

  • Sarah Ogbay

    Dr Sadia haftey,
    Greetings. I am surprised by the fact that you seem to feel that there was lack of diversity as well as opportunity for people to engage.
    Diversity – an open invitation was in circulation in social media (Paltalk, Facebook etc.) for more than a month. This was not an ‘attendance by invitation only’ event. In addition it is not like you were not approached when the planning started. As for the letter, it was drafted by able and educated women and approved by the organisations involved so rest assured it will serve its purpose.
    Opportunity to engage in discussion—I am sure you understand time is of great essence in events like symposiums and conferences. If some participants still have ideas they did not get to discuss, we do have open discussion sessions on our Paltalk rooms where Eritrean women discuss their issues. We need to bear in mind that the participants travelled to the event site, spent their money, time and hard earned annual leaves to be there; so yes time was short, yet the job was done and expectations were met.
    Like you, I did not attend the event. However, I was following the planning and preparation discussions, not that I was a member of the organising committee but I thought it was my duty as well as a privilege.
    Dr Sadia, women like you and I who were/are privileged with access to education should be right behind and beside the rest guiding, pointing and leading our sisters/people towards the right direction. Mistakes can be made but it is our duty to rectify them making sure our sisters/society can trust us.
    Finally, the event was organised by dedicated women from all walks of life with different educational background. We should applaud them and thank them with deepest sincerity. They have set a good example of WORKING TOGETHER for a common goal. Opposition parties and groups should learn from them. It can be done and we can all do it together.

    You know where we are and how to contact us when you want to talk to us.

  • Fanti Ghana

    Selam Ayneta,

    “It is intriguing that Muslims form half of the Eritrean population, and yet one hardly finds them actively participating.”

    I forgot who it was but I remember someone asking similar question before.

    What exactly constitutes actively participating and how does it get verified? If you clarify that for me I may have a word or two to say about it.

    • Saleh Johar

      Raasi Fanti,
      Do you really want to pursue this with Ayneta?
      If he says they don’t exist, then they don’t. Take his word for it. If you think they exist, they must be converts. See! I explained it 🙂

      • Fanti Ghana

        Selamat Memhir,

        I was genuinely intrigued. I didn’t want to assume that there is a guest and a host type relationship between Muslim and non-Muslim Eritrean Politicians.

        Contribute to what, be involve in what, participate in/with what/whom, because of our religion or your religion, do you not trust us or do you think we don’t trust you, do you think we don’t belong with you or is it because you think you don’t belong with us. Is Ayneta a Muslim or a non-Muslim. All those unanswered questions left me with nothing useful to say hence, the question.

        • Saleh Johar

          Raasi Fanti,
          A few people, very few people associated with the PFDJ and its satellites, and its patrons, (a minority of a minority) chased anyone with an unpalatable “name” away–accusing them one time of being a Hamshai-Mesre’e, another of being a Jihadist, and yet another time of being terrorists, and what have you. These people are doomed, whatever they do will nit be acknowldged by such lots. But thanks to decent Eritreans, that kind of classification (nerom’do ay’neberun) is way behind us. The anti-PFDJ camps, in all its colorful diversity, has blossomed. No turning back my dear. But if one is obsessed with pigeon-holing certain groups, they cannot help it. Yekhunelom!

  • said

    GREETINGS,
    God Wills It!
    INTERESTING ARTICLE ,From National Book Award-winning writer James Carroll and , a former columnist for the Boston Globe.HE is the author of 20 books, His history of the Pentagon, House of War, won the PEN-Galbraith Award. His memoir, An American Requiem, won the National Book Award. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
    LINK TO SITE
    https://www.commondreams.org/views/2018/03/08/when-god-wills-it-american-reckoning

  • blink

    Dear readers
    The TPLF government formally accused Eritrea in distablizing its security by supporting destructive groups. The TPLF government are trying to play the blame game while arresting one of the highest officials of the Oromo state government. This game has been tested many times but failed to garner any support from majority of Ethiopians. How many years do the Weyane government to play this game ?

  • Beyan

    Selam Aman,

    I honestly didn’t know where to begin in responding to your note above. I’ve read each and every piece in the thread herewith, blessed are those who can articulate their thoughts succinctly. Let me take this opportunity to say this: If I didn’t respond it each one of who have written in this thread, it isn’t out anything but because adding anything to what are written in this thread are gems that need no polishing, each in its distinct way shines bright, meant to be indulged, not be tampered with. I am truly grateful to your not only sincere rejoinders, but also to the way you do it with class and integrity.

    Someone had said a while back quoting somebody else who wondered aloud by saying, the so called leaders in Eritrea should be in exile and those who are in exile should be the ones to be there leading (It was far more refined than this, but that was the gist of the message). That feeling is sinking in here and now.

    At any rate, Amanel hawwey, I couldn’t have said what I wanted to say any better than the way Mez captured the letter and the spirit of a response that addresses your query. Forgive me if I truncated your response Mez, but I am doing that because it gets to the heart of the matter that Aman needs to be considerate of. Therefore, here it is:

    “Like every one else, Terminal degree holders may have varying opinions on different social interactions and challenges; these opinions are not necessarily scientific in nature–since they may not have the “routine scientific approach invoked on them” to start with.

    “The writeup of the author is an opinion piece; with a generalized postulates on females role in the Eritrean society and beyond. Nothing is wrong with it. But at the same time it have to be clear that it is not a scientific subject matter paper; it misses every basic things to be this one.” (Mez).

    Thanks

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Merhaba Beyanom,

      Anta Beyan my critic is on the word “reflection” she chose for the title of her article. No Beyan. One who wasn’t in the “event” can not give a reflection of the event. This is a simple logic that any intellectual of her stature should avoid it. I am sure you will not indulge yourself to such kind of circumstances, for it will questions your intellectual integrity. Do not dislike critic for critics. Critics are appropriate for corrections and not for undermining the character of the person. The rest I will leave it for it will drag us to unnecessary polemics.

      Regard

  • Beyan

    Selam,

    This note has eclectic pointers that it raises, therefore, it is best left standing on its own here rather than trying to name several individuals as addressees. I can’t find any category in particular. I will use Dr. Paulos’s skeletal trajectory that he gave when responding to Aman and Fanti’s note as well only as the jumping off point, not necessarily directly addressing anyone in particular. So, “Is the colonial experience the culprit; Ghedli; the very notion of Eritrean identity or the very Machiavellian political craft of the man at the helm?” So, I am trying to “…”identify problems from [our collective] experience, propose solutions for [our] future events, improve [our] good start, and have some tea?” I am all for it!” (Fanti, earlier today in a different thread below). I will also touch on the notion of PhDs while I sip my team, literally, Fanti, that’s what I am doing ፊ።።።ት that was my first sip.

    First, I would hasten to add one that looks to within as opposed to without. The within part deals with our own machismo culture. For example, Eritrean women have managed to excel despite the odds of cultural baggage stack against them. አፍንጭኤን ሴርና ንጽባሒቱ ከይሐነኽና ዓርናሳት ኢልና ንጽውዕ ሕ/ሰብ’ኴ ኢና:: This is our cultural heritage. The other area of consideration, among many, is the notion of belittling accomplishments. PhD requires discipline, in turn teaches one to be disciplined. PhD is not for everyone. Granted there are those who have natural proclivities to intelligence that PhD should be given to them handily by some sort of procedure if they have enough discipline to go through that procedure. Some of the brilliant minds can’t hold PhD because they lack that discipline to go through the rigorous motions. At any rate, much as medical field teaches doctors how to care for patients, law school teaches how to think like a lawyer, PhD in social science teaches one not only how to teach but how to have that discipline to go through the rigorous training to think conceptually through theoretical framework.

    Many of you know this more than I do. I am bringing it up because this is why ghedli shouldn’t be removed from being a culprit in this. This scuffing at educated lot started with ghedli and has found its place in our psyche and continues to inflict us today. Education was revered before ghedli and during ghedli for those who stayed in the country and for those who fled to neighboring countries. But it was slowly being eroded as the ghedli era took center stage in Eritreans’ lives outside the country. When the man at the helm continued to belittle our educated lot, he emasculated them to a point of having no confidence to speak with authority using their knowledge.

    But, that’s what weddi Shuq does. What he doesn’t have he tries to make up for it by bullying educated and uneducated alike. The former more so, because he knows they would make a moron out of him, that of course he is. But he knew it, too, that they weren’t willing to go to the language of the gutter with him. So, he was emboldened to insult at every opportunity he got. He would come to beg for money during the ghedli years and later, soon after independence, and wedges educated lot against the laymen by saying, ካባኻትኩም ታክሲስታት ይመርጽ:: Who do we have controlling the country today Generals who can’t even write their names in a straight line, but are good at destroying innocent lives. I have nothing against ታክሲስታት. I spent seven years driving a taxi in Southern California and I know firsthand how honorably hard and difficult that work is.

    The point is, we cannot allow and frame our discussions using the frame of mind of the very man at the helm we are trying to unseat. People with PhDs can be good and bad just as any profession, but we shouldn’t pass judgments wholesale. This notion of ብጂምላ ንኹሉ ምኽሳስ needs to stop if we are going to make any headway. Just as ghedli shouldn’t be judged by the man at the helm no more than should we make similar judgments in generic terms of people. Let us address the issues they raise. Let us judge people by their merits or whatever we see in them lacking. It is unbecoming of a forum, a forum that some use as their podium to malign, that just isn’t the way to have a conversation. It so happened a woman with PhD is sharing her observation; addresses issues and ideas as she deemed it fit to do so. What some are doing instead is insinuations, innuendos, and red herring, which will get us nowhere near to a healthy discourse. This is the reason many educated Eritreans tell me why “ነብሰይ ዘመራስሕ.” I won’t blame them one bit. This might as well be the last we will see of Dr. Sadia, hope not though. I honestly hope not. This just dawned on me: In fact, seldom do we see women writing articles in awate, why is that? Certainly, it is not because they don’t have the capacity to write, they definitely do.

    Beyan

    • MS

      Ahlan Ustaz Beyan
      Well said and ab lbna yeHdro. On IA’s record on intellectuals, we need more research because the organization some people describe and the one I know often come in conflict.
      Here are some reminders that astute people like have to consider when commenting on ghedli’s role about repressing intellectual activities with a caveat that may be biased since I never was one of them….nqexl?
      1. It was a tough life where constant movement and engagements were everyday/week/month occurence; there was no stability.
      2. The main mission was military; all other supporting departments were geared towards winning a war, even the mass organizations of that time: remember there were associations of intellectuals abroad and they did a heck of a good job; actually, more impacting than what they are doing today for the opposition….Nqexl?
      3. If you came from Harvard with Masters degree or from Adi Qnxi leaving your oxen assembled and harnessed in your plot, it did not matter. The first experience would be to finish the boot camp and after that you would both do the same, fighting battles; later around 1985, the organization started gathering skilled individuals to form commissions. An island in all this was the department of Education, information and awareness (mnqqaH), later named National Guidance where I was lucky to have spent most of my ghedli years among giant intellectuals. The leaning was leftist anchored around democratic centralism (U know it), other than that it was relatively a bastion of research and knowledge. Nqexl?
      4. As a leftist organization, you have to judge it within that lens plus it was the main military machine opposing the Derg; military societies have their own level of discipline, including following rigids hierarchy, and you would be judged by the main task you were required to accomplish- military readiness, toughness…thus came the Cheguar danga (or country man?)….Nqexl’do?
      5. Despite all these, there were research departments all over the field, agricultural, technical, medical, pharmacy, ideological and propaganda, etc. There were schools, up to college level, there were efforts to teach peasants how to read and write. Frankly, the organization committed a lot of human resource in those department considering the pressing war demands. Who were involved in all those educational and research tasks? It was the intellectuals. The only thing you would ask if if there was free speech. The answer is Nope, and that’s because there is no free speech in the military, all over the world. Plus, put into consideration the rampant ideologies of that time.
      6. You are absolutely right if you mean the organization was not open to accommodating divergent views, and some had lost their lives for doing just that. I’m also aware of IA’s occasional diatriabe. I’m just bringing this to your attention to alert you that EPLF was more complex and diverse than some tend to believe.
      7. This goes with number 6: remember the definitions of intellectual and cadre in leftist literature are quite different from the one we are familiar with. Revolutionaries demand that followers should look only towards one end, no right or left. That’s why intellectuals were derided as petty bourgeoisie because they were thought to be curious creatures who could ask every step the leader takes. and leaders like IA who were in reality military leaders did not appreciate that. They wanted to give orders and see those orders done. However, even the little guys like me expected that MO to change once we reached independent Eritrea. The rest is XXXXXXX.
      8. It is absolutely important we scrutinize the past and learn from it. But we need to do so while giving credit to those who contributed intellectually, within that limited environment.
      9. AS far as Dr. Sadia is concerned, I welcome her (I think I read two or three of her articles and they were always unique.) And for our PhD holders, please keep stirring the murky waters. The Tigre speakers say, “Water does not settle clean before getting agitated…LatHamrega Ixere (ichere).”
      I’m running of time, appologize for any typo errors, or mangled ideas.

      • Haile S.

        Selam Mahmoud,
        As a good defense lawyer, you came with stacks and stacks of defense files. I believe the wide huge gap that now exists between the regime and the people (the educated for our purpose) started as small cracks during the era. Just to give an example of the early cracks of absence of respect; it was in the 70s when Ghedli started to have more contacts and control of liberated areas when people realized how EPLF addressed elders you (መዘናኻ) instead of you (ናይ ኣኽብሮት)። It was a shocker that no elder accepted deep inside. With time and with complete disregard to correcting such practices, it grew to into where we are like a snow ball down the hill. So Ghedli cannot be completely exonerated, but also researched as you suggested for IA.

        • MS

          Selam HaileS and Prof. Beyan
          Thanks both. The important point is that this area needs more researched approach.
          Beyan: in addition to duties every father is bound by, I have a couple of projects frozen in time. But I take your encouragement seriously and will try to give it a try sometime in the future.
          HaileS: I don’t take your tegsax lightly and you are right. We thought we would change society overnight. We were so intoxicated with leftist literature, particularly, the Chinese Cultural Revolution. That’s why we always need to see Eritrean ghedli within its time. Another point is that of subculture. You know when a group of people live together, the group develops its ethos. Therefore, you would see attitudes and viewpoints slightly different from the main culture. Tegadelti were subjected to develop their own subculture and that subculture(s) might at times have clashed with the mainstream cultural norms. Some of it might have been officially sanctioned but most of the objectionable expressions were spontaneous. To the credit of many astute observers in the organization, there were instances where some issues made it conducting seminars.
          Regards.

          • Haile S.

            Mahmoud,
            Agree, and well said. The tegsax, It took me time to figure it out. I even went to consult the english dictionary. Some of us don’t even know the name of the profession we practice:-) 🙂 :-). Finally got it ተግሳጽ, I laughed a lot

      • Beyan

        Selam Haile S. & Mahmoud,

        This is when one says, if such a delightful response come as you two have gotten us hitting the ground running, subsequent to my bowl-of-assorted-salad, thank goodness the main course I have enjoyed thoroughly. Mahmoud, this one, I strongly recommend you elevate to an article form. It cannot be committed to a commentary section. We need to be able to search and find it and the best way this can be done I know of is when it is elevated to an article form.

        Saturdays, I try to read material outside Eritrean stuff. This was recommended to me by the same friend who pesters me about my project that I have mentioned earlier in another thread. So, I read it, what a treat it was. In it the author – Eritrean American – Rahwa Haile – cites a quote from Claudia Rankine’s book Citizen: “The past is a life sentence, a blunt instrument aimed at tomorrow.” This is exactly what Mahmoud you just did. You brought that “life sentence” and used ” a blunt instrument aimed at tomorrow” by telling future scholars to take note of these issues so as to problematize ghedle instead of “essentializing and dichotomizing” it to borrow what Dr. Sadia mentions in her piece above.

        In case, you are curious, the article is about the famous Appalachian trail that the author traversed over several months. Racism seems to be entrenched in the trails as well. You know the old adage about how sticks and stones may break my bones but words will never hurt me. Well, I am saying forget about the sticks and stones…or the words bit, ideas excite me thoroughly. And this was one of them. You thought you were lucky for being assigned most of your ghedli years “among giant intellectuals.” Well, are we lucky to have you now in our midst to hear these complicated stories.

        https://www.outsideonline.com/2170266/solo-hiking-appalachian-trail-queer-black-woman

        • Haile S.

          Selam Beyan,
          Your bowl-of-assorted-salad was delicous. Now with the marvelous sauce you added, it is the best digestive cocktail I ever had before sleeping. Thank you.

      • Mez

        Dear MS, Ismail, Amanuel H, Beyan, Paulos……

        Why do PhD or Post Doc candidates invest their (two or three years of) time in addressing a specific research question? Does it worth?

        As a common practice, candidate students are offered to tackle research questions of unique, highly specific nature–after they finish the basic graduate Master of Sciences/Arts programs.

        The research topic must be very subject-specific (could also be inter-disciplinsry), and unanswered. In the old times it was more of analysis of “past and immediate -past”. Now the new trend of research is also “to look into the future” via modellings; both lend themselves for statistical tools to be applied on their inherent, unbiased constituting data.

        This TERMINAL Degree (by male or female researchers) is very fundamental, if any modern nation of today and tomorrow is going to survive and trive, thereby serve well its people.

        No one (and no where in human history) had ever solved challenges of sciences by using text books and research works done some where else. And also the inherent knowledge of a PhD holder is very specific, and subject wise localized. Even the major advisor of a PhD student don’t know what really the student is doing. Because it is soo different and unique.

        TERMINAL Degree holders are “Locomotives” of a nation. We need them in thousands.

        Like every one else, Terminal degree holders may have varying opinions on different social interactions and challenges; these opinions are not necessarily scientific in nature–since they may not have the “routine scientific approach invoked on them” to start with.

        The writeup of the author is an opinion piece; with a generalized postulates on females role in the Eritrean society and beyond. Nothing is wrong with it. But at the same time it have to be clear that it is not a scientific subject matter paper; it misses every basic things to be this one.

        Thanks

        • MS

          Selam Mez
          1. I concur with the first point that we need more of the top notch academicians for our beloved nation; there are a couple of them I’m pushing through the pipe. The promise my sons have made is that they would go back to Eritrea and serve in their respective field. I truly hope to see that, which means I hope to see positive change coming to Eritrea so that my sons don’t get flagged out for being the sons of a “traitor”. One is a freshman and the other is doing post Grad.
          2. The second point: yes I agree the article was a critique/opinion, but I understand it to be a prelude to full engagement. I hope Dr. Sadia and NEW will reach to each other and smooth out things.
          3. As such, I value all articles for their informative and inspiriting qualities. the majority of readers don’t really care about a paper’s academic status (that is judged only by peer academicians), they don’t care how many citations one makes. I don’t think there is purpose, time nor appetite for laypeople to check out citations. That job belongs to professors and peers who review papers for scholarly merit. I’m not in that club, therefore, don’t care. But I understand your point, and appreciate your input.

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Selam Mez,

          You have a valid question regarding the issue at hand. Though all PHD holders do not continue their research after they successfully defend their thesis and honored with a doctorate degree, the whole idea is, it is part of the disciplinary process of acquiring knowledge for those who want to expand human knowledge, with new inventions and new formulas to explore our universe in the effort to change the quality of life of human race. From this prospectives, I am from the proponent who advocate and encourage the production of PHDs in the Eritrean intellectual community to help us in the transformation of our nation.

          However, I will refer you to Ismail’s comment who articulated it better than I do. Ismail has weaved his view as follows: “Regarding practical utility and value of acquired knowledge depend on individuals. One with passion to learn and achieve higher educational credentials, and resolves to undertake entailed rigor and discipline as Dr. Beyan pointed out is the one who should plan what to do with knowledge and technics he had acquired. Some individuals limit their ambitions to just making a better living and using the academic titles for social prestige and nothing more; others had broader vision and need knowledge and technics to help them attain their goals as reformers and expansion of knowledge to benefit their communities and beyond.”

          Regards

          • Mez

            Greetings Amanuel H,

            Regarding your second paragraph i want to add: 1) Earning a terminal degree is the ground-zero in the academic world. A lot has to follow,
            2) once completed, one have to compete in the social/ profetional world and contribute on the go,
            3) one must stay practicing the profession, or stay in the academic workd–otherwise it will expire (generally after 3 years).
            4) the transitions are mostly fluid and volatile.
            5) activities include research, publication, patentable findings…..
            6) see for example what Sen* did while he was stationed in Alamata? / Ethiopia –on hunger and entitlement vs hunger and destitution.

            * he received a Nobel Prize for this specific work, inherently
            Thanks

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Mahmuday,

        Everyone know that EPLF and ELF were a Politico-military organizations. But within that kind of organizational discipline, Eritreans still do have the right to examine the excesses of the organizations that led to the killing of many Eritreans for asking simple questions (asking to have a conference or congress, or to have periodical evaluation of their failure and success). What the Eritrean people are witnessing now, is the continuation of that politico-military discipline, putting innocent people and government officials who questioned the wisdom of their leader’s decision in to unknown prisons. So do not be sensitive, let our conscious citizen questioned them/us every turn of history from ghedli up to now. You and myself can only answer questions relevant to us as we were part of the ghedli journey. These stage of our history – it is a stage where our citizen should interrogate us every possible question for those of us who were in that particular journey without being defensive.

        regards

    • Paulos

      Selam Dr. Beyan,

      “Let no one ignorant of geometry enter.” These words were inscribed at the gate of Plato’s academy where they objectified what it was later to be known the foundations of Western Civilization. Plato later on defined knowledge as “Justified true belief” where the justification was based on rationalism and the belief became a system that has henceforth monopolized the boundries of knowledge.

      Knowledge became structured and systematic in the sense that any kind of knowledge if it failed to be reproduced and loses validity, it remains not only to be discarded but gets labelled as “Untruth.” Dictatorship of “Rationalism” became the supreme ruler.

      To train Philosopher-Kings, meritocracy became the modus operandi where society was screened or level of intelligence was calibrated by a set of standards where one is tested and granted a degree upon passing. Ph.D degree is not any different where one is trained to employ critical thinking and discard anything that falls any short of it. It is with in this rather rigid and uncompromising approach to all kinds of knowledge or aspects of knowledge that the person with a Ph.D becomes dogmatic instead of internalizing the whole as greater than the summation of its parts.

      Here I would like to jump onto the thread which seems to treat Isaias as a Kitten when he is infact a rabid Tiger with anti-intellectual bent where the “it needs more research” is a veil intended to sugar-coat the obvious. The MenkaE movement and how it ceased to exist has a signature of an anti-intellectual bent. The closure of the only higher learning institution in Eritrea as in Asmara University bears a signature of anti-intellectual bent. Dan Connel’s “Conversation with Eritrean Political Prisoners” highlights Isaias’ anti-intellectual bent. A member of Chinese deligation in Eritrea once quipped when he said, Isaias learned from us all the bad things during his stay in China and of course the delegate had the infamous “Cultural Revolution” in mind.

      • MS

        Ahlan Paulos
        You could be right only if you stick to a simplistic and wrong assumption that EPLF=IA. I can tell you even within that organization, there were different terrains. Example: You would ser a lot of differences between mechanized and infantry units, between Halewa sewra and ziena, the ealth department and co stru yion, etc., and the differences go across all units.
        So, unless you view it within its ideological prism and the military nature of the time, all the above snapshots and anecdotal reports will lead you to oversimplified assumptions.
        Remember the Chinese and Soviets had harnessed impressive intellectual contributions, but they killed millions who were suspected to have not adhered to their ideological line and party loyalty requirements.

        • Amanuel

          Hi MS

          Long time!
          ላም ሓዊ ወሊዳ ፣ ኸይቲ’ልሕሶ ነዲዳ፣ ከይቲ ገድፎ ወሊዳ።
          I hope I am not generalising by saying that most EPLF vetrans don’t allow it to be criticised by non members. It is a culture developed over long time and not easy to drop it over night. By saying that I mean I understand when you say EPLF=IA is wrong but based on the facts on the ground it is not wrong and simplistic assumption. You know well IA has monopoly of what is discussed with in the organisation. Any idea he didn’t agree on not only dismissed but the originators of those ideas were either isolated or imprisoned.
          On your second point about allowing intellectual contribution. I have a different take on the meaning of “intellectual contribution” I think it should be based on facts and research. If it is based on ideology or to suite same narrative, it loses it meaning automatically.
          Thanks

          • Sarah Ogbay

            Dear Ms and Amanuel,
            This discussion you are having is very interesting. However, saying EPLF=IA is not wrong assumption as an organization smells of and behaves like the leader/leadership. Because we are grateful for the liberation does not mean we can not call a spade a spade. Eritrea is being governed in gedli time style except that now the enemy is different – the Eritrean people (not derg). No matter how people especially x-fighters try to make excuses for what is happening in Eritrean to Eritrean; no matter what names (መንግስቲ ኤሪትራ፣ ህግደፍ፣ ዲክተቶር etc.) we give the present bosses of Eritrea, everything smells of EPLF. መንዩ ነዚ ሰይጣን ዝሕልዎ ዘሎ? እዞም ንህዝብና ዝቕጥቅጡዎ ዘለዉ ብናይ መን ትእዛዝ እዩ? ነመን ከሕጉሱ እዮም ዝገብሩዎ ዘለዉ? ካበይ ዝመጹ አበይ ዝተዓለሙን ዝተማህሩን እዮም? ሓቂ ተዛሪብካ አብ መንገዲ ባቡር ደቅስ እዩ ነገሩ። ክንስከፍ የብልናን።

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Sarah and others,

            Just to add to what you said, if EPLF was NOT equal to IA, the the question we should ask is, what exactly has EPLF as an organization achieved without the direct control and order of IA.

            Off course IA didn’t tend the farms and the fields to feed everyone. But he controlled all decision making (he can decide what ever he wanted), he controlled all the money (he can spend the money how ever he wanted and everyone was accountable to him) and he controlled security (he can murder, arrest, exile anyone he wants without anyone approval). I even doubt now that all the military operation were conducted without his approvals.

            What is there left to the organization decision making process.

            As Adhanom revealed how IA forced Romodan MNur resignation and the theatrics that was used, was a clear indication how the man has absolute and total control of EPLF. If he was able to do that in 1994 to Romodan, the 2nd highest rank in organization and get away with, with full knowledge of all the CC, you can imagine what he was able to do in meda.

            Another simple question is: who opposed IA (as in having different opinion than him) and survived another day to tell the story. Everyone of them either exiled, jailed or eliminated.

            He never tolerated anything from anybody that’s not inline with him.

            Berhe

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Dr Sarah,

            Yes, not only smells of crimes of the organizations are sensed during the liberation era and now as a government, real crimes was committed. Citizens have the right to question any kind of question to find out the culprits of the crimes. Most of the time organizations smells and behaves like their leaders. Leaders do not function and stay in power without organizational disciplines. The notion that Issayas is the only culprit does not pass the smell test of logics. So we have to encourage citizen to be conscious on the politics of their nation and to know their rights to ask all kinds of questions. It is the “submissiveness” to our leaderships that brought all the anomalies and suffering that are happening upon our people. These character ought to be changed to come to normalcy.

            Regard

          • blink

            Dear Sara
            If EPLF was all about Issaias, I think you are missing the point that EPLF was doing great work which is not the norm with Issaias . The fact that you and people like you are spending their time talking about EPLF says much about you than EPLF. EPLF as organization was the best ever that Eritreans can dream for given that time . Who are these crying fool about EPLF , let’s see their CV first so that we can see their own views in the 1980th . Losers will tend to look nice by find fault in great things that passed them while running in western corners . Let’s see who are these on a mission with sleepless night trying to connect EPLF with PFDJ despite the difference on every thing.

          • Mez

            Dear Blink,

            “….Don’t you know EPLF was dead long time ago just like ELF ? …..”

            A very fundamental, and i may add controversial, postulate.

            Thanks

          • blink

            Dear Mez
            I am just not quite convinced that these who bash Eritreans history are doing it to find the truth or justice. The consequences of such bashing is not easy to remove and it has to stop because who on his right mind would think these are after justice?

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Mez,

            While the cause of our struggle has found its closure. The history of the two organizations haven’t found a closure yet, for the obvious reasons known to all of us. I am sure, that no need of explanation from me to the fact, for a smart and knowledgeable person like you.

            Second, it is not easy to come to a common understanding as it stood now, for there is no national platform to do it with nature of the government we have. Remember Mez, as we speak, a biased history education are undergoing in the Eritrean educational school system.

            Last week, EGS had a symposium at George Washington University in Washington DC. I was a participant in the symposium. In the lunch time, I was talking to a young Eritrean historian, who was one of the presenters, and who also was teaching history in the University of Asmara, before it was closed. What he told me was, that the history of “ghedli” was part of the curriculum and he was teaching it at UA. Now imagine what kind of history they will teach. I will leave it for you to speculate as to whether a biased account will feed to our young generations.

          • Mez

            Dear Amanuel H,

            1) I will have imagined “ghedli” would be part of a course like “History of Modern Eritrea”.
            2) If this course is offered by itself (and that in senior claases), i assume it most likely be 3 credit hours, it will cover quite a bit substance–especially if offered in senior classes.
            3) it will be interesting to get a glance of the course outline to learn:
            3.1) the objective and expected outcome,
            3.2) the references given (compulsory ones),
            3.3) thems of class (or group) projects handed out
            Thanks

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Mez,

            I sensed on you a professorial approach in the way you outlined your comments. Always short to the point. Are you teaching in an Institute of higher education?

            Back to your point, I can’t agree more. The only qualms I have is, the history of “ghedli” is not yet compiled by historians and the winner organization like in politics they are indoctrinating history in their perspectives in the Eritrean educational system.

            Regards

          • Mez

            Good Day Amanuel H,

            I commented above, willing to get an insite:
            1) if this course was designed as a plausible scientific (history) subject matter of ,say, the ghedli dynamics (including its pre and post eras included),
            2) or if it is more of a propaganda drill vehicle.

            3) if it is approximately resembling #1, we may want to embrace, own, and work for it ,
            4) otherwise, we’ll have to fight, and get it rectified on the go.

            PS: Yes Amanuel, my profession is in the area of research and teaching; subject matter of natural sciences.

            Thanks

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Merhaba Mez,

            On your point: I agree.

            I am glad to have you from the academics. I want this website to be a learning center. I hope your presence will also encourage others to join. Stay with us.

          • blink

            Dear Mez
            The UOA history course was all fromthe begning from the word mereb ,axumite and all over the colonization forces and there was no special treatment for EPLF and it did not glorify EPLF. The histroy department was actually not lead by an EPLF fun and awet knows this well as well as the Titorial guys .

          • Mez

            Dear Blink,

            Thank you. It is refreshing to know the appropriate direction of its content.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Mez,

            An experience never dies, EPLF and ELF were just an experience, an epoch in our history–those who believe the history of the struggle era is our history. The problem is, as the EPLF and ELF are done in the form we know them, the experience is within us–as history and not as a wedge issue. I think those who cling to the problems of the pre-independence era are living in the graveyards of martyrs–picking stones from the grave mounds and throwing it like Tsehaitu– she was a famous, scary insane women who traversed between Keren and Asmara, just in case you are too young to remember 🙂

          • Sarah Ogbay

            Hi Blink,
            I and people like do not have to produce our CV to talk about EPLF. we have every right in the world to talk, criticize and have opinions about EPLF, ELF etc. Losers and liars do not blink their eyes when they see their nation being decimated and their people in disarray taking refuge in countries they ones called enemies. How embarrassing is that? Who do you think is the culprit?

          • blink

            Dear Sara
            You see you can not stand anyone who questioned your CV while you bulldozing hundreds of thousands brave men and women CV. Why do you need to spend your time about 1980th mistakes while you have a hot crime scene at hand and can actually galvanize support from majority of Eritreans to topple Issaias and his cronies? Why , to know the truth , no that’s not the reason. How do you expect to get support from people who are proud of their mothers and fathers bravery against Dergi to come in terms to topple the current problem at hand ?

            Do you Sarah believe talking lies about EPLF will help you get support from Eritreans. Kerienlos tried it , so many people even manufactured lies about ELF and EPLF just to get a few amount of birr to their account, we know what happened to these people. You have every right to question but not to push a propaganda lies about EPLF and expect people to let you do it without questioning your CV .
            Say whatever you want you can not win this game against the history of the people. It is your choice you can call Eritreans achievements any name but I want you to know that , it is not a winning strategy.

          • Sarah Ogbay

            Hi Blink,
            Blink! blink! What are you talking about? I think I have to list my points for our discussion to be focused.
            1. I am proud of my lifetime achievements so I have a CV I am proud of. So stop the EPLF/PFDJ/DIA style personal attack. challenge ideas.
            2. What did I say that is a lie?
            3. I never said anything about the Martyrs but I can see, like your leaders, you want to bring them (may their souls rest in peace) in a discussion about IA=EPLF. It is an expired tactic. Leave them in peace.
            4. Oh my God! founding fathers? DIA, Filipos, wichu, Tekhlai mangus etc. ARE NOT my founding fathers (God forbid). They may be yours. So I will talk about them and their regime whenever I want in whichever light I see them.

          • blink

            Dear Sara
            Here we are, stagnant in one place , you will not stop propping up the paltalk world about EPLF and you can have all words at your disposal yet stack at one place for years talking about unproven and unproductive time. The crime done by these people at this time has nothing to do with EPLF unless you wanted to attach that . Every individual of these who are enablers of the current situation must be not used to connect with EPLF . I am sure if wuchu was dead in 1989 you will not bring his name here right? Proud of your achievements and yet you are still going at such cheap things looking at cracks of the 1980th.

            You see you can have all you wanted under PFDJ crime books but to assume EPLF as the current problem is simply dishonesty at the highest level of your core premises. Ride your horse and attack EPLF, ahmm martyrs, where were all these martyrs? Under Dergi or EPLF , you can not differentiate between EPLF martyrs and EPLF the organization.

            Still you have a bragging chips from your CV but not productive as EPLF.

            By the way I categorically rejected PFDJ before 15 years and I have been like the since , but you are right Sara I am not a paktalk zambi who claps for the obvious reason.

          • Alex

            Hi Sarah,
            You are generalizing on mistakes of few Ex-EPLF on every body who made miracle by defeating the biggest army in Africa. Only a person who have hate on EPLF will equate it with IA. It is funny to think what you state above is the truth.

          • Sarah Ogbay

            Dear Alex,
            No I did not generalize. In fact I was careful not to generalize. If they are few what happened to the tens of thousands of fighters? The head of almost every section, department, directorate etc. are from EPLF (you can call it whatever you want now), loyal to DIA. We can not deny this.
            Secondly I never, ever denied the heroism and bravery in the battle field. Please do not twist my argument.

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Sarah Ogbay

            – “Saying EPLF=IA is not wrong assumption as an organization smells of and behaves like the leader/leadership.”

            – “Eritrea is being governed in gedli time style except that now the enemy is different – {it is} the Eritrean people (not derg).”

            – “No matter how people especially x-fighters try to make excuses for what is happening in Eritrean to Eritrean; no matter what names (መንግስቲ ኤሪትራ፣ ህግደፍ፣ ዲክተቶር etc.) we give the present bosses of Eritrea, everything smells of EPLF. መንዩ ነዚ ሰይጣን ዝሕልዎ ዘሎ? እዞም ንህዝብና ዝቕጥቅጡዎ ዘለዉ ብናይ መን ትእዛዝ እዩ? ነመን ከሕጉሱ እዮም ዝገብሩዎ ዘለዉ? ካበይ ዝመጹ አበይ ዝተዓለሙን ዝተማህሩን እዮም? ሓቂ ተዛሪብካ አብ መንገዲ ባቡር ደቅስ እዩ ነገሩ። ክንስከፍ የብልናን።”

            If my assumption is right, during Ghedli years, you were
            comfortable living under Derg rule. I’m I right?

            Well then, I suppose when you question the integrity of Tegadeltis as a whole, as former Tegadalay myself, it is within my right to ask you – why all the love and care for Eritrea and Eritreans today and not yesterday?

            Semere Tesfai

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Hey Samray,

            We did not struggle to govern the Eritrean people. We fought in order our people to govern themselves by electing their own leaders. Don’t we, Samray? What happened to you Semere? We did not struggle to intimidate our people because they were not with us? Didn’t we join the struggle to emancipate our people from foreign colonizers in the process to help them to govern themselves when we liberate our land?

            Regards

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Amanuel Hidrat

            1. – “We did not struggle to govern the Eritrean people. We fought in order our people to govern themselves by electing their own leaders.”

            What is the difference between us (the Tegadeltis) and the people? Did we (the people and the Tegadeltis) stood for different causes? Can you elaborate on your “we did not struggle to govern the Eritrean people” argument?

            As far as I’m concerned any Eritrean, Tegadalay or Gebar, male or female, has every right to elect and to be elected, to lead and to be led in his own country. Am I missing something?

            2. – ” We did not struggle to intimidate our people because they were not with us?”

            We didn’t sweat, bleed, and died to be insulted and denigrated by cowards and Derg/Haileselessie lovers either. Respect is a two way street. When she insulted Tegadeltis, she insulted the Eritrean people and the Eritrean cause. Each Eritrean family that stayed inside Eritrea the whole course lost at least one immediate family member. Gedli and Tegadeltis was never a mission of few people.

            3. – “Didn’t we join the struggle to emancipate our people from foreign colonizers in the process to help them to govern themselves when we liberate our land?”

            Yes we did. But make no mistake: we are/were them and they are/were us. Our cause is/was their cause and their cause is/was ours. Only a fool or someone cunning with a sinister motive claims otherwise.

            Semere Tesfai

          • Haile S.

            Selam Semere,

            There is nothing wrong in responding to what one considers a generalization. But I don’t think it is right to go on the easy attack. This reminded me of Isayas’s answer to questions asked by tegadeltis and others at the eve of independence and that appeared in a print-out ሳገም in October 1990. The pre-impeetive attack, the plan on how to deal with his administrees is revealing and the way a supposed leader was going to treats his people.

            You may say I am preaching for my own parish, i.e. living under Derg, like Sara, while you and other tegadeltis were in that damn field! Fair enough. I agree with you respect is on both ways, but did you need to go on the easy attack?

            ሕቶ – ኣብዚ ሃገራዊ ቃልሲ ንጡፍ ተራ ህይብሎም ኤርትራውያን ኣለዉ። እዚ ከይኣክል፡ ተመሊሶም ኣብ ዓድና መሰልና እንተኸሊእኩምና ክንርኢ ኢና፡ ዝብል ናይ ኣቅጫጭ ዘረባ የዘውትሩ። እዚኣቶም ኣብ ናጻ ኤርትራ ማዕረ’ቲ ዝተቓለሰን ዘበርከተን ድዮም ክርኣዩ? …

            መልሲ ዋና ጸሓፊ ኢሳያስ ኣፈወርቂ – ኣብቲ ቀዳማይ ሕቶ፡ ብዛዕ’ቶም ገለ ነገር ዘየበርከቱ ዘለዉ፡ ንሕና ጽባህ ንግሆ ዓድና መን ኪኸልኣና’ዩ ዝብሉ ዘናሽዉ ዓይነት ሰባት፣ እቲ ዝጋደል ዘሎ፡ ዘበርክት ዘሎስ ምእንት ኦም ኢሉ ኣይኮነን ዝጋደል ዘሎ፡ ዘበርክት ዘሎስ ምእንቶም ኢሉ ኣይኮነን ዝጋደል ዘሎ፡ ምእንቲ ሃገር ኢሉ’ዩ። ምስዞም ምናልባት ዕማኾ ዝዀኑ ተሃላሊኽካ እዚ ኣቶም ሎሚ ኣየበርከቱን’ሞ ጽባሕ ክንርእዮም ኢና ኢልካ ናይ ሕነ ዓይነት መንፈስ ምሕዳር፡ ወይ ድማ ነቲ ዘረብኦም ትርጉም ሂብካ ምስኣቶም ክትትሃላለኽ ምፍታን፡ ናይ ብሓቂ ናብ ደረጅኦም ምውራድ ጥራይ ኢዩ ክኸውን ዝኽእል። ነብስኻ ምንዓቕ እዩ። ሃልዮም ኣይሃልዮም ዝውስኽዎ ዝንክይዎን ስለዘይብሎም፡ ብዛዕባ ከምዚኣቶም ዝኣመሰሉ ምጭናቕ ብዙሕ ኣድላዪ ኣይመስለንን። ተገዳስነትን ኣቃልቦን ምእንቲ ክረኽቡ ዝዛረብዎ ዘረባታት ስለዝኾነ፡ ከም ዝኾነ ዝተጓሕፈ ነገር ንእግረ መገድኻ ኣስተናቒካዮም ምሕላፍ ካብኡ ዝዓቢ ነገር የለን።

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Haile S

            ኣብ ዝኾነ ይኹን ነገር፡ ሰብ ዓቕሙን ክእለቱን ‘ዩ ዘበርክት። ንሰብ፡ ካልኦት ዝገበርዎ ዘይገበርካ ወይ ልዕሊ ዓቕምኻ ዘይገበርካ፡ ኢልካ ኣይተወንጅሎን/ኣይትቀጽዖን/ኣይትሓምዮን ኢኻ – ካልኦት ዝገበርዎ ዘይመግበሪኡ/ኣ ዘዕግብ ናይ ወልቁ ምኽንያት ስለዘለዎ። ግን……..

            ክብሪ ናይቶም ዕድሎምን፡ ገንዘቦምን፡ ጉልበቶምን፡ ረሃጾምን፡ ደሞምን፡ ዓጽሞምን፡ ሩሖምን….. ዝሰዉኡ፡ ክደፍርን፡ ክዝልፍን፡ ከጸልምን ከሎ/ላ ግን፡ ስቕ ኢልካ ኣይትርእዮን/ያን። ንኽብርን ሞጎስን ነቶም ዘገልገሉ ኣልካ፡ ዓገብ ምባል ጌጋ ኣይመስለንን።

            ሃይለ፡ ‘ክቡር ማዕረ ነብሱ የኽብረካ፡ ሕሱር ማዕረ ነብሱ የሕስረካ’ ‘ኮ እዩ ዘረባ ወለድና።

            ሰመረ ተስፋይ

          • Kokhob Selam

            ክቡር ሰመረ ተስፋይ:-

            ግርም :-” ‘ክቡር ማዕረ ነብሱ የኽብረካ፡ ሕሱር ማዕረ ነብሱ የሕስረካ’ ‘ኮ እዩ ዘረባ ወለድና።”
            ሕራይ -እሞ :-

            -መን እዩ ሕሱር ?
            -መን እዩ ክቡር?

            KS,,

          • Kokhob Selam

            Dear Semere Tesfai,

            Our struggles was to make our people free from the Ethiopian Military occupation. Just to make our nation free of that criminal Derg and before the arrival of Derg from that feudalistic king…Nothing else.

            “What is the difference between us (the Tegadeltis) and the people? ”
            You know very well what was the difference…Semere, why do you pretend if as you don’t know? Tell me, can’t you remember what was going on inside our front?

            KS,,

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Anta Samray,

            Though our positions on the current government is completely in the opposites, like day and night, we can talk on this simple issue. We (tegadelti neber) are so defensive especially when the critics comes from non tegadelti neber? Why is that, I don’t understand. Why are you defensive when Dr Sarah criticized the ruling government? Not only the tone of your language, but in your defense to the government when I criticize it (worse than Dr Sarah by the way) and when she criticizes it, I notice the difference of your language usage. That should not be the norm of our communication, and do not ask me go back and read them.

            Now back to your point:
            (1) What is the difference between us (the Tegadeltis) and the people? Did we (the people and the Tegadeltis) stood for different causes?

            If the governing body is from the tegadelti neber only, the distinction between “tegadelti”* and the “ordinary-people”** who were not tegadelti will come to the surface. Add to it the abscence of election to make it people’s government. So brother the ruling regime is a government of tegadelti in the eye of the public.

            (2) I will jump # 2, because it is a talk of angry tegadaly neber. You don’t know her whether she was from those who helped the cause of the struggle without carrying a gun.
            Attacking the leadership is not attacking to the cause of the struggle. And it is not attacking to the entire pool of tegadelti.

            (3) There is a distinction between those who carry a gun to fight the enemy with full commitment to the cause and the ordinary people who do their own lives, but give an auxiliary helps when asked. We can not deceive ourselves on the distinction of the two. Despite the cause of our people and the cause of our tegadelti is the same, the degree of commitment to the cause is different. You know it semere. Do not argue for the sake argument, and there is no any kind of sinister motives, unless to oppose the regime do mean it to you.

            Regards

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Amanuel Hidrat

            1. – “Why are you defensive when Dr Sarah criticized the ruling government?”

            Aman: I’m not being defensive – never been and never will. I’m not defending the Isaias government nor am I criticizing her for opposing the Isaias government. It is her right to criticize the Eritrean government all she wanted. But I’m not going to let her….

            EQUATE ERITREAN GHEDLI WITH ISAIAS AFEWERKI AND I’M NOT GOING TO LET HERE LABEL ALL TEGADELTIS AS ENEBLERS AND ACCOMPLICES OF CRIME – ISAIAS “CRIME”.

            You know full well Eritrean Ghedli and Eritrean Tegadeltis are bigger than any individual Tegadalay, government official, head of state. You know there is an elaborate campaign to denigrate – Eritrean Ghedi, Eritrean sacrifice, Eritrean value, and Eritrean history…….. by the likes of Sara Ogubay and by our Southern elite all in the name of opposing the PFDJ regime.

            You can defend her all you want….. but one thing is for sure. She was not criticizing the PFDJ government, she was assaulting the institutions of Eritrea (Ghedlis and Tegadeltis) and that is un-Eritrean to say the least.

            2. – “There is a distinction between those who carry a gun to fight the enemy with full commitment to the cause and the ordinary people who do their own lives, but give an auxiliary helps when asked.”

            You’re dead wrong on the whole Tegadalay and Ghebar thing – and the role they played during the Eritrean revolution. Let me help you understand the Ghedli terminologies and how the Eritrean Revolution (Ghedli) worked.

            A. – Tegadalay (Munadl) = The whole Eritrean People – except very negligible few like Sara Ogubai who never contributed a thing to the overall cause and who saw themselves outside Ghedli and Tegadelti.

            B. – Teqalasai(sti) (Al-Jundi or Al-Askeri) = young Eritrean men and women in uniforms – some in front lines others running different departments with different functions.

            C. – TewagaAti (Muqatleen) = CheguAr Danga like Semere Tesfai who knew only the art of fighting and survival.

            D. – Gebar = Non Uniform Eritrean men and women that were organized into cells – to collect money in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan, the Middle-East, Europe, North-America…..), to carry/load and unload arms and ammunition from battlefield to battlefield, to collect intelligence behind enemy lines, to recruit Ethiopian ranking army personnel and government bureaucrats to help with military missions, plain cloth Fedaeeen who hunted (killed, poisoned, abducted….) Ethiopian spies and high-ranking officers, messengers with written instructions/orders who kept the line of communication between the Eritrean Field and behind enemy lines……… all these and more with the possibility of getting killed.

            Case in point: Young Amanuel Hidrat who did his duties courageously behind enemy lines all without being trained to shoot and all without carrying a gun. Now, tell me: had young Amanueld died (martiered) then like many other Eritreans did, would that made him any less of a Tegadalay simply because he was not wearing uniform when he died and simply because he didn’t die in the Eritrean Field? Absolutely not.

            Therefore, think of the Eritrean Ghedli as a human body – one body with systems, organs, tissues, cells, cell membranes, plasma, cytoplasm……………. All parts of a single functioning healthy body, all with division of labor in a very unique way, all for the same porose, all equally important for a healthy lively body.

            The point: the idea of Tegadalay non-Tegadaly in the context of Eritrean Ghedli exists only on the heads of – the uninformed, the naive, and those with a sinister motive to tarnish our history and with the intent to do us harm. In reality, all Eritreans (except negligible few) were Tegadeltis for the Eritrean cause, and ወንበዴዎች in the eyes of our enemies. And we all were getting killed the same way anytime at anyplace.

            Semere Tesfai

          • sara

            Dear semere…
            As they say , do not go to an charted territory, tegadalay in general yekalo and warsay in particular have been maligned these few years by those who chose to stay in their warm homes with their family.
            take it easy semeri’na .

          • Berhe Y

            Dear sara,

            You are in Sudan and why don’t you go to the refugee camps and talk to the people in the camp where they have been there for over 50 years and they can’t return back to their homes.

            Who is responsible for them not returning to their homes?

            Off course the leadership of Eritrean government.

            No body is blaming the average tegadlti, warsay or yikaalo but the leadership of EPLF then and PFDJ now and particularly IA.

            You don’t have to be tegadal or someone who stayed home while others were fighting to criticize the policy of the government that’s making the living hell on earth of our country.

            If us and people like us who are in our comfort can’t stand with our people but instead look the other way, even worst endorse the oppression of our people (like Semere and you are doing), is the biggest form of hypocrisy..worse than those of us who stayed in our warm homes.

            Berhe

          • sara

            Ato Berhe, selam do?
            look, its a fact we all hear every day…. the patriot Eritrean is being demonized day in day out… and this is taking its toll on the very Essene’s of Eritrean struggle for the past 50-6- years… and its BAD.
            btw, i guess canada is much better than sudan, your choise of sanctuary was smart.

          • Berhe Y

            selam sara,

            I know you know it..but let me ask you a simple question…

            Do you think Eritrea = EPLF and = IA…

            Eritrea is our country and it’s our home too…so don’t you even think for a second to take that away….we were born in it, we grew up in it and it belongs to us as well as anyone else….

            The reason we criticize and fight the regime is because he made the country a living hell…But it’s not the same as criticizing our own country..

            for a thousand times..the government who over stayed in power by his own …does not equal to the country…

            If it was not, you would NOT be living in Sudan and Semere would not be in USA or where ever that he lives, with his family in your comfort …..the same way I am in Canada.

            How do you know what I can do for my country…how many jobs I will be able to create…how much money I will be to invest…how much children that I am able to teach…how do you know that….

            And how do you know Dr. Sarah that she was not able to contribute to Eritrea…how many lives she can save…how many children she can take care of…how many mothers she can help ….how on earth do you know that…

            I don’t know what you do…but I am sure you will be contributing a lot more to your country..if you had the choice to live and work there…

            Eritrea will become great by the contribution of all of us……and these regime…if you still did not get it is the reason where things are the way they are…

            Berhe

    • Ismail AA

      Dear Dr. Beyan and Dr. Paulos,

      It’s always joy to follow conversations between you because I detect in them what one expects from learned men and women do: educating readers by other means. Both of you do hardly miss an opportunity to share what you had read, watched or listened in book, movie and audio forms. This is a good way of aware and skilled educators. They challenge in their own ways their readers to pursue on their own a particular subject or even a discipline.

      Though it’s often extravagantly audacious to comment on some issues handled by intellectually better positioned compatriots, I will try to say a few things on the points Dr. Paulos had pointed out in response to what two ever cognizant and inquisitive members of this forum, Aman H and Fanti, has raised and Dr. Beyan had discussed in a broader way.

      First, let me digress here a bit to answer in passing a question Dr. Paulos asked me yesterday on whether I knew Professor Mesfin Weldemariam had a PHD or not. The answer as far as I know is that he did not. But he was, and still is, an accomplished authority on his field – political geography.

      Now sliding back to the points, in my view on the impacts of Italian colonialism on our social and cultural set up could be approached in the background of what their priorities were – expansionism and building segregationist settler communities. The fate of indigenous communities was none of their business. Thus, on the cultural and social levels, there was no discernible or pervasive interference. Actually, the way of life of the various communities was left unaffected with all the customary laws and communal norms and value intact. Thus, regarding the status of women in the framework of that policy had remained as it was before the arrival of the Italians. Whether or not the colonial ruler should have abrogated the old way of life of the communities and supplanted it with their own is another question. Therefore, the cultural and social oppression our women faced with in the various communities that were lamped together to form Eritrea had nothing to do with Italians rule. Racism and segregation of the Italians was common and was not gender specific.

      On the issue of higher learning and fitting credentials in the context of our social and cultural set up such as PHD, I can underscore without hesitation or qualification that our communities do cherish knowledge and accord due consideration to what their son and daughters attained. By the way, not only modern education or know how, even traditional craft (except in some isolated instances such iron and gold smiths) and religious education in both faith (Islam and Christianity) is highly regarded and respected. Regarding practical utility and value of acquired knowledge depend on individuals. One with passion to learn and achieve higher educational credentials, and resolves to undertake entailed rigor and discipline as Dr. Beyan pointed out is the one who should plan what to do with knowledge and technics he had acquired. Some individuals limit their ambitions to just making a better living and using the academic titles for social prestige and nothing more; others had broader vision and need knowledge and technics to help them attain their goals as reformers and expansion of knowledge to benefit their communities and beyond. Thus, from Eritrean social and cultural perspective, the reformist and professional advantage seeker have respectful place because education has merit and should be rewarded.

      Last remarks on how the armed struggle era had related itself to advanced education and compatriots who happened to had achieved higher credentials such as PHDs. First, let me repeat my view on the term “ghedli”. I believe this characterization camouflaged and do not represent the totality of our national liberation era culture. This is a curtailed term misnomer that had hit the limelight, and predominantly underscored by detractors, after the misfortunes our hard-won independence had suffered under the Isayas and his clique. The adversarial attitude to education and the educated is squarely attributable to Isayas and his companions who either cooperated or kept silent when he liquidated young intellectuals. It should be underscore that generalization of the so called “ghedli” and the negative culture it seems to connote beyond Isayas and his clique would count as unfair to others in the field. I know any persons with even rudimentary education, let alone PHD levels, were deservedly respected by the ELF. Who would deny that persons like Dr. Fitsum, Yahya Jaber, Hurui Bairu, Dr. Habte, Dr. Beyene, Dr. Michael Gebreselassie and many lower levels achievers who had been celebrated when they joined the front and raised to higher leadership positions without even waiting completion of probation time that training had required?

      • Paulos

        Selam Kbur Haw Ismail AA,

        You are an extraordinary human-being. Your sense of humility is simply beyond comparison. Thank you Sir for what and who you are!

        I think the enquiry posed by Emma was if the apparent schism with in our society along the lines of religious, ethnic and cultural divide including which seems to pervade with in the segment of women as well has any solution at all. And it was an attempt on my part to trace the schisms’ roots with in the colonial experience if it was at all as a candidate with the other possible factors as in the “Ghedli” experience or if it was the result of the man’s conniving state craft. And in my opinion, the latter seemed to have played a major role in the creation of the schism where to the contrary the Ghedli legacy brought us close together instead.

        I brought up the stand of Freedman Dyson on the imperatives of Ph.D or if it is necessary at all. Not necessarily I seconded his stand but to put a different prespective so that it could be part of the discussion when the number of Eritrean women with a Ph.D is rather scant in comparison with other countries. Having said that however, the guy’s points still remain compelling in an era where higher learning institutions are turned into profit generating contending high-end corporations.

        • saay7

          Paulos:

          Sal is not going to weigh in: it is not a coincidence that the Eritrean women’s meeting on Women’s Day was exclusively women. They are trying to say, “this is our issue; it doesn’t concern you men: you have done enough damage: stay the hell out!” I concur with, and I respect, their decision.

          saay

          • Hope

            Selam Prof SAAY:

            While you are entitled to have a ” Reservation”,people are expecting and asking U for your usual Expert and Constructive Feedback so as to diffuse the unnecessary and UNConstructive ” tension ” and NEUTRALIZE the confusion ,.. and to rather FOCUS on Constructuve Debate on issues of utmost Importance about/on our Women related issues at hand.

            We should focus on Congratulating them and their Effort and wish and support them in their struggle and give them constructive feed back as to how to do better next time!
            No,I disagree that we can’t be “silent” and leave them alone!

            You can make a concluding and Closing Remarks so as to move on.

  • said

    Greetings,
    Blink and alike
    You do not know anything about western feminist and their Icon founders like Kollontai she was a major revolutionary figure during and after the Russian Revolution of 1917. Alexandra Kollontai was a key leader of the Russian Socialist movement, the only woman in the early Soviet government, and one of the most famous women in Russian history. She worked tirelessly all her life as a speaker, writer, and organizer for women’s emancipation. This compelling biography recounts her life for an emerging generation of fighters for women’s liberation.
    The-feminist-threat-to-women-and-men.
    Just to give an idea ,an article By Paul Craig Roberts, a former Assistant Secretary of the US Treasury and former associate editor of the Wall Street Journal.
    https://www.lewrockwell.com/2017/12/paul-craig-roberts/the-feminist-threat-to-women-and-men/

    You want to know about salves and cave and about the rights of woman. Blink you have never heard of her. The question is – why not? Since you are advocating western Feminism Blink let me introduce you Alexandra Kollotaim she was a brilliant and passionate defender of the ideals of the Russian commonest revolution and women’s liberation. Kollontai, like many feminists of the time as well as today, believed in gender equality. She believed that the family unit and monogamy made women sexual slaves. She fought for the acceptance of free love, but was concerned that women would be left to raise their resulting children on their own. Therefore, she advocated for children to be raised by the state in group-homes, which parents were free to visit at any time for as long as they wished.

    Alexandra Kollontai was a key leader of the Russian Socialist movement, the only woman in the early Soviet government, and one of the most famous women in Russian history. She worked tirelessly all her life as a speaker, writer, and organizer for women’s emancipation. This compelling biography recounts her life for an emerging generation of fighters for women’s liberation. What she underestimated is how resistant women might be to relinquishing their children to a larger social body – whether a commune or a state. As for eradicating sexual jealously, this is on a collision course with evolutionary psychology. While both men and women wish to perpetuate their genes, their mating practices are different.this what Alexandra Kollontai
    advocated,welcome to Western feminism.
    Today in US .While we may think nothing like that could go on today, consider this. According to the National Farmworker Ministry there are over 500,000 farmworkers under the age of 18 in the U.S. today, and likely many more since the numbers are difficult to track. Many of these children are undocumented. According to Project Censored, child labor today in the US is worse today than in the 1930’s. In many cases, young children are left to care for their even younger siblings while their mothers work – often at minimum wage jobs, There you have it your ideal society.

  • said

    Greeting ,
    American Democracy Not a Model to Emulate
    The American political system is fast converging to that of an Oligarchy where powerful interest groups, foremost the wealthy who are predominately of the White race – representing a small minority of the American people – are in control of the political process. Capital and Controlled Media, as the latter the source of information, are the two quintessential elements – feeding one into the other – guaranteeing the successful election of the country’s political representatives in all branches of local, state and national governments; of the all the executive, legislative and judiciary branches of government.

    However, adding to the dilemma rendering the American Democracy of failing to being a truly representative Democratic System is the general insulation and isolation of the American public from closer interaction of the peoples of other nations, the intricacies of world politics and mingling in the International Affairs. This is mostly the product of the dearth of the general knowledge of the average American of the world as being geographically and physically removed from proximity to other countries of the world unlike the European nations and European democracies.

    Ironically, and until recently, the US was a continent by and within itself, enjoying a high degree of self-sufficiency. With International Trade being a powerful measure of the degree of interdependency between nations and in International Relations, Foreign Trade measured a mere 12% of the US GNP compared to more than 50% of most of the European nations. This is indicative to the degree of openness and interaction of countries and their people with the rest of the world.

    The American public is a generally misinformed, hypnotised and misguided race by their elected representatives at nearly every level. Emotionalism and false appearances come into play in influencing the decisions of average Americans in choosing and electing their local, state and national political representatives.

    Ironically, and through the manipulative collaborative symbioses of Capital and the Controlled US Media, American polity promotes and markets its Democracy and Democratic Institutions as the Model set for measurement of the degree of representation and proper functionality of other political systems in the world.

    Thus, it is easy and quite sellable to an isolated American public to denigrate political systems and political experiences of other nations as being labeled dictatorships and undemocratic. This, of course, to varying degrees of emphasis and reprimand depending if the subject foreign country is a close ally of the US in matters of geopolitics and forged security alliances. Besides, it makes for an easy formula to carry out aggression against other countries on the false pretenses of instigating political reform by claims of the intents of introducing America’s system of democracy.

    Stands in evidence to all the above the destructive Illegal Anglo-American invasion of Iraq in 2003 and the US dismal record of interventions, through the agency of the CIA, in the affairs of other countries of the world in the example of the toppling of freely elected regimes as in the Mossadaq’s regime in Iran in 1954 and of the Salvador Allende’s in Chile in 1973. The toppled freely elected regimes in the cases of Iran and Chile were replaced by US stooge ruthless oppressive and corrupt dictatorships of the Shah and General Augusto Pinochet, respectively.

    The American Model of Government is not the ideal model for other nations to try adopt and emulate. China can choose what fits its circumstances, conditions and the general aspirations of the Chinese people. Xi Jinping has proven thus far, six years after been made the President of China – as the benign ruler answerable to a collective leadership and a congress of the people – to have delivered in taking China and the Chinese to new higher plateaux of balanced socio-economic developments, technological breakthroughs and general prosperity.

    In Conclusion, I loved in this vein Simon Bolivar, I may not agree with some of his remark centralized government, the Liberator of Latin America, a student of the European enlightenment of the Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu, presciently elaborating his vision of Democracy for a developing nation as put in writing into a letter, rather a manifesto, in a widely disseminated document two centuries to the date. He wrote in 1816 a brilliant distillation of Latin America’s political reality, best elucidated with the following quotations:
    His people, Bolivar explains, “Are neither Indian nor Pardos nor European, but entirely new race for which European models of government are patently unsuitable. Monarchies, to the Latin Americans, were abhorrent by definition; and democracy – Philadelphia style – inappropriate for a population cowed and infantilized by three hundred years of slavery.”

    Simon Bolivar adds:
    “As long as we do not have the political virtues that distinguish our brothers in the North, a democratic system, far from rescuing us, can only bring us ruin.”
    Simon Bolivar concludes, insisting, that:
    “Most important to the welfare of these fledgling republics was a firm executive who employed wisdom, dispensed justice, and ruled benevolently for life. Latin America needed a strong, centralized government – one that addressed the people’s wretched condition, not a perfectly conceptualized, theoretical model dreamed up by idealists on some far-flung shore.”

  • Tzigereda

    Selam Dr. Sadia,

    First I apologize to awate readers, because we are talking about an issue they were not involved in. For the sake of clarification am adding my last comment on this topic.

    „However, I asked many of the participants and they were not fully happy about everything as you are, they mentioned positive things also like meeting fellow Eritrean women but they said it was tightly controlled, reason given, lack of time“.

    I never said I was happy about everything, I rather say it was an exhausting experience and still it was worth it. As Eritreans we are far far away from being happy by what we have yet achieved, including the event of The Hague. They are small steps which hopefully might help us go to the right direction: defining the aims, recognizing the challenges, establishing well organized functioning institutions ( civic societies etc) and work for a better coordination of the scattered activities in the spirit of mutual respect and recognition. We are still experimenting basics, thanks to the brutal policy of PFDJ and partly due to our own weaknesses we have been missing opportunities. Women belong to the most disadvantaged segment of the eritrean society so that one of the positive things of this event was that many had the opportunity to articulate themselves ( some, who never got the chance of presenting a topic, and they were very impressive!). We may brag about our past history but the progress we expected made halt 27 years ago ( actually longer than that!). So, am thankful not only that many women could join the event but they were serious and passionate about how they can contribute to the aspired change at home and related gender issue (violence against women etc).

    The main shortage I saw was that we had little time for discussions at the conference room, the reason was that every presentation and views were spoken in both languages ( tigrinya and arabic), it consumed a lot of time, and some exceeded the time given to them for a presentation. To my opinion, next time we should hire translators for simultaneous translation. Otherwise I can say that the conference was really well prepared and presented, kudos to all. And still basics ( for me).

    “Any way, I know at the beginning when you and your team approached various people, myself included, transparency was not implemented as it should“.

    I feel some words are excessively used and the word “ transparency” belong to that. What was not transparent during the whole procedure?

    „As for the burning of the bra analogy, well, now you are coming to the center of the issue. Why was the lone woman chosen to represent all Eritrean women.“

    I wish you brought this critic while the paltalk meetings. I am just puzzled by your interpretation. Interpretations are mostly subjective, in this case the message was by no means alluding for a “lonely hero”. It was a call for rebellion, to stand up for our rights, a rebellion which should lead to more ‘ heroes’ ( though I would prefer ordinary citizens conscious about their rights, instead of “ heroes”). Don’t you think that we have much more burning issues than “ a lonely woman on an invitation flyer? The content of the conference for example?

    „On what basis were the men who showed up chosen“

    As I told you in my previous comment there were men who came after the conference and met friends or relatives ( we invited none) not even the camera man was allowed to stay at the conference room, he had to leave after adjusting the cameras. The only man we “chose” to stay stay around us was Zeki ( he waited outside the conference hall) who helped so much transporting the guests and other stuff.

    „Did they sponsor part of the event, all of the event?“
    Please refer to our appreciation letter, in which all the names of the donators are listed.
    And the follow ups at FB.

    Thank you

    • Ismail AA

      Deer Tzigereda and Dr. Sadia,

      A personal passion has urged me to address these few lines to both of you. I always aspire to see our sisters engage in forums as this one and assert their role in taking the forward trenches in defense of our women’s cause and place it at center stage of our national agendas – be that the current struggle for national redemption from despotism or in the next phases of nation build processes.

      I did not comment on the Dr. Sadia’s article of reflection save a few lines as rejoinder to inspiring comments of Dr. Beyan. I have in fact followed the events at the Hague from quite close position through friends who participated. This gave me cause to believe that was a good initiative and beginning. It reflected hope that the prospective for continuation could be real.

      Now, positive reading of the exchanges between both of you tell me that in fact the expressed views do converge on a point of mutual care to make things better in future. If a done job would not not be subjected to unambiguous critical appraisal, and the grain be separated from the chaff before the next season, there would not be favorable soil to provide better seeds in next season of harvest. I believe that the truism that common good always outweigh details does not miss the sights of both of you.

    • Hope

      Selam Tzighereda.
      Thanks for straightening things out.
      Keep marching FORWARD our Heroine.Let the ” Kemish Addey Hanquiluni” excuses NOT drag you behind.
      Expect such old-styled mumbo-jumbo excuses, crocodile tear cries, unfounded allegations,accusations..
      U do NOT have any OBLIGATION to invite everybody once u picked up few Reps that represent ERITREA and ERITREANs but announce things thru the available channels and those who have the GUT and COURAGE should up for the Struggle.
      As long as Eritrea and Eritrean Women were represented in one way or another,I would care less about the back ground,Religion,Region,Sex,etc…of who is representing Eritrea and Eritreans and their NOBL ECAUSE.
      These kind of old-styles attitudes, misperceptions and “hashewiye” should be banned and stopped.

  • sara

    Dear sadia..
    you both are bringing unnecessary attention to your recent gathering, can you keep both do direct communication through your emails instead of bringing it here where most of the participants of the meeting are not around to share the exchange between you and tzegerda.

    • Fanti Ghana

      Selam sara gualey,

      I agree, but I don’t mind learning a lesson or two either. Besides, who can resist to hear what “they” are saying behind our backs-:)

      Anyway, are you then saying “identify problems from your last experience, propose solutions for your future events, improve your good start, and have some tea?” I am all for it!

      • sara

        Ato Fanti,
        you see above and dawn how it got UGLY…i wish those commenting stopped indulging in this, instead of taking it as a new experience, an event organized by women for women and say simple encouraging words good job… keep on organizing women etc.
        you see how our folks are tingy for activities they have no control,
        that has less attachment to those known political or civic ORG.

  • blink

    Dear said
    I just have problem with disgus , here is my take if it pass the disgus chain. Dear Said
    You don’t need to spend such amount of time really. These situations are to be judged according to what will benefit the religious people most and that did not start by you or the good doctor except the fact that is generally accepted by most of the two religion advocates. Again this is a matter of personal assessment ,for me love has no meaning without freedom. Let us not mistake possessiveness for love , the fact is religious people who oppose open society away from caveman rules are always anti futuristic ideas.Religious parents are possessive of their children. They think their children are their possession and their wives are their property. That is not love that is called mental ownership of the next generation and that is the most crime identity experts believe that originally come from the Abraham’s religion which is Christianity and Islam . Here the fallacy thrown by the writer and you keep trying to make a point is like the many people in Eastern countries keep singing birds like nightingales. They pay a lot of money for them, feed them and take care of them. And they keep them in beautiful cages. That is not because they love them. They want the bird to sing for them. The bird in cage feels lonely and in his or her desperation cries, which their owners find delightful. Is that love? Love is to set the bird free here the beautiful Dr. from Umeå university thinks she has Good idea about Eritrean women kniving under cage . She spent enough time takling about the regions women and from all her papers You can not find a single solution to set our women from the cage. Religious People are torn between their belief and their animal instincts. Because in Religion there is no balance oscillate between extremes. In one moment they give in to their basest carnal desires and in another, they become fanatical religious nut jobs ready to die and to kill for their faith.
    So are you ready to see my side of this earth shaking false flag of justice narrated by religious people? Ok they have none.The Greatest Crime and Sin ever committed by man against God I think because it takes God and turns Him into a monster , oh I really wanted to see this monster !!! The fact that we have a Dr. Woman who couldn’t see the given Right to Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness away from her religious views is simply a disservice to humanity. Instead of her showing the next generation to be more open she is trying to take the western grown kids back to kessela where men are the key to everything.

    • said

      Greetings,
      Hi Blink,
      Religious Ignorance and your islamophobia.
      Let me just start, you are an excellent shallow Demagoguery . I have no problem you being an atheist and card holder of Communist party with badge of honor , albeit, you absolutely know nothing about the bloody Communist era in Russia or china’s history .
      look at the realities from past to present . The world was divided into the colonizers and the colonized, oppressed and free . Let me quote you civil-rights icon Martin Luther King Jr. I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro’s great stumbling block is not … the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white moderate,” he wrote in his 1963 Letter From a Birmingham Jail, published the same year as his more famous Nobel acceptance speech. “Shallow understanding by people of goodwill is more frustrating than absolute misunderstanding by people of ill will,” he added.
      US Democracy is a not truly a representative democracy as it is increasingly in divergence from the upheld lexicon of the American definition of democracy based on the founding fathers’ ideal concept as that of a “Government of the People, by the People and For the People.”

      There is a lot ignorance and stereotyping when it to Islam, Part of it is pure “radical ignorance” includes a deep and profound ignorance of history of Islam. All kind of propaganda and lies spread about Islam like wild fire. islamophobia and hatred spread across the Western World and beyond It is the age-old political tool of mass media owned by western conglomerate – divide and conquer – honed to perfection and supercharged through mass information technology – particularly social media. and voices including the newly christened alt-right. Muslim Radical group is a relatively new phenomenon, invented by the west, cultivated and exploited to its full potential by the Empire the Saudis and Gulf kingdoms have been propped up by the West since World War 2, many of the same dynasties have sat in power, funded, protected and armed, and invited into some of the most lucrative business deals and economic activity.
      First nobody speaks for Islam. There no centralized organization or institution like Vatican.
      Any one can say what he wants rightly or wrongly. there are many center of knowledge and emanant scholar for point of reference. The Holy Quran – a book that few critics of Islam have even picked up let alone genuinely read – and or understood and this goes for many Muslims, in todays world. the Quran, must be read, and deep and objective study must be undertaken. not indulging in cherry picked of Qur’an verses to site their agenda and this is monumentally irresponsible. Few educated secular Eritreans are ready to give themselves as knowledgeable of Islam, ready and available explanation with knowledge about the radical group from where it is emanated. Yet it is likely that unfortunately they follow in into the trap and many who blindly hate Islam do so as football a spectator. They are disinterested in the truth because picking a side and rooting is the extent of their intellectual, physical, and moral depth suite them well. They are brain washed by the West’s massive propaganda machine.
      Radical group rather are very easily traced money trail that leads to their hidden master western government serving their interest. Eritrean Muslims, Christians, and the secular, stand united against all kind of extremist and radical group of every type. It is clear that a tall mountain of lies stands between fact and false, the truth – a mountain built so tall that it leaves entire segments of targeted populations in the perpetual darkness of ignorance. There are approximately 1.9 billion Muslims on Earth. That is approximately 24.5% of the world population. They live in regions spanning Africa, Asia, Middle East, and Central Asia, and reaching as far as Southeast Asia. There are Muslim communities in virtually every nation – and in many – they have played a pivotal, constructive, and welcomed role in national development. If even o.1% of the world’s Muslims were violent bent on conquering any nation. 0.1% that would constitute an army 1.9 million strong –Most critics of Islam infer that the number is actually much smaller than 0.1% . that fraction of a fraction of0 .1% engaged. the fact remains and for all intents and purposes a strictly political, designed to provoke direct Western military interventions in the region. Indirectly or directly the Western government that has created, established and branded, and marketed the radical group and fight In Syria and Iraq, and its allies by proxy, for young naïve that have been sucked up into radical group of all sorts. radical group does not exist in a vacuum. The radical group were created to fight the Soviets in Afghanistan. It was the US with the Saudis that funded them. such groups of every kind – are indoctrinated, brainwashed, radicalized, funded, and supported by their impearl power. In 2012 US Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) memo that revealed.

      • blink

        Dear said
        I have nothing to say about communists in China or anywhere on this planet not do i have any interest in picking Islam alone from the other one because from my perspective both of them are equally evil to humanity.The fact that you go on jumping about Islam and dump it’s shortcomings is a failure from your side . You see said Vatican is a children rapists House and if you aren’t happy that Islam doesn’t have a central raping house , well I cannot help you sir.

        Now why are you saying things that has zero reason to be in this thread ? Is this one of your story that nullify any negativity about religion and specifically about Islam? Yes there are millions of Muslims who are delusional about their own religion. Yes there are many people who thinks Mohammod is the savior of all their sins and yet they are paying with their life . The sad part of their caveman thing is that most or may be majority of Muslims, either in barren deserts of Middle East or in lush green tropical landscape; either in high mountains of the Himalayas or in swampy lands of river deltas, uphold very dearly the supremacy of their religion, Islam. Islam is their primary identity; any other identity – be it national or linguistic or regional – is subservient to religious identity. Without Islam, as if, their existence in this world and their purpose in life, their transition to after-life would become totally and utterly meaningless! the easiest way out from this is to open the gate for people who don’t accept this to be free. I am sure none of these known scholars you are mentioning wanted more freedom for their idea but they cannot get it in the Muslim world, they will be either hunted to death or thrown out to fire.

        Now why are we discussing this , well because you wanted it . My main problem with the writer was her weight and her views for Eritrean women. She is educated in the feminist land and yet wanted to see Eritrean women reject the western feminism because she wanted on her own way of kneeling to the caveman rule.

        • said

          Selam Blink.
          You are quite amazing. The evil to humanity is you and people like you ,your picking on catholic religion and Vatican, utterly sickening and un-warranted, for the act of tiny minority that exist in every society. Again to show how ideate you are and Is so sickening and ungrateful you mention in the most degrading Kassala ,as cave and backward city that Dr. wanted to us back . For the most Eritrean Kassala was simply 2nd home .i leave there.
          When life is not worth living, everything becomes a pretext for ridding ourselves of it … ,” Durkheim wrote.
          Plato wrote that the moral character of a society is determined by its members. When the society abandons the common good it unleashes amoral lusts—violence, greed and exploitation.
          The English regard and practice their religion only insofar as it relates to their duty as subjects of the king. They live as he lives and believe as he believes; indeed, they do everything he commands. … Giovanni Micheli, Venetian ambassador to England during the reign of Henry VIII
          Eritrean live in harmony. As acknowledged by both Eritrean Muslims and Christians, there are a number of differences between Islam and Christianity. But in spite of these religious differences, Muslims and Christians are living in peacefully and coexist in harmony and it is PFDJ atheist communism have brought about the present state of confusion and misery in the Eritrea.
          A remarkable irony of contemporary Eritrean life, someone like and that those who have is been in charge with the task of deciding who are PFDJ core supporters, like yourself as an educated cave man and who is not of sound mind and who venerable and who is mentally ill, you are not only utterly insane yourselves but are quite possibly admiring the greatest IA is psychopaths in all of Eritrean history.
          For PFDJ to give an example. Like you Home to the illiterate, the mindless, and the mentally disturbed, the mases of PFDJ followers are in peculiar politics, like fringe religiosity’s sect, PFDJ rooted in vitriolic anti-intellectualism and a love of unfettered Eritrean communism and devoting love of NUSO . Listening to a fundamentalist from the fringe religion vomit up their gibberish and crab.
          Let me tell I dislike you and I despise for your careless opinion , you are arrogant and aggressive person, what you characterize and you said about Dr ,is not related or fitting , she is above you are untested head , she is woman of high integrity and honor and highly respected at AWATA form ,she embodies the best of Eritrean people that I know and she is writing from her prospective no one asking to agree with her . You embody decayed and rotten soul of a criminal PFDJ and the ugly side of them , you embodied the pathologies of small part of diseased of our society and failed society. This sickness found its expression in the PFDJ often is same kind of the other coin of yours , you are willing to do anything and abuse anyone to advance your atheist unfounded foolish argument , you are really silly, demented and degraded mind, you come with idiotic idea and irrational argument, you are truly demagogue and irrationally ignorant person, you have no respect ,devoid of moral character, you no integrity to insult the Dr. This insult mirrors that carried out is similarly by cruel and corrupt ruling elites of PFDJ, it is their way of dehumanizing, belittling and insulting. you are an uneducated mediocrity compared to achieved and good elite Eritreans . You are morally degenerated person. cunning, manipulative, deceitful persona. I am lacking the language for appropriately characterizing of you.as I mentioned before
          The Greek philosopher Heraclitus called those who severed themselves from the moral and reality-based universe iditois . When these ideates, whose worldview is often the product of relentless indoctrination, form a majority or a powerful minority, like yourself ,the demagogue rises from the morass. You fit this discerption like a pair of glove. Do not insult and try to respect your fellow Eritrean what ever school and faith they come from .

          • blink

            Dear said
            Cool down brother, you don’t need to shop insulting words , I agree you have many of them and here are they for everyone to read. Now are you explaining or insulting? I mean come on , how could you go on so long lines of bad words unless you are stressed out of something that you cannot controll. Forget about me , just deal with the subject at hand. I mean I don’t give anything to your rants as they explicitly say about yourself.

            Now, yes Vatican was and still is guarded by rapist and it is known for everyone except well you and people like you. About the good doctor, ahmm what did I say ? I said the dr. rejected the western feminism in search of a backward solution to Eritreans.

            Ok , Religion, it’s true I don’t have any positive attitudes about it and stop blaming me for not accepting the cavemen rules to distractions. I thank myself for that because I have done it.Most of all, even no human father, with all his frailties and short-comings, would not wish to punish his sons or daughters for whatever crime they commit in the way Allah wants to punish humans in hellfire. Why is the so called suprem God willfully ok to punish his own creation, created out of his love. If He truly wants so, He is not worth the respect of civilized, compassionate human beings like you and me. I would rather protest this barbarity of God or Allah and happily join billions of otherwise good, humane and very valuable human beings, who will be in the pit of fire for eternity after death. Now I will not go to words market in attacking you or anyone but to say few things about the justice you are calling to see and beside it to flow the cavemen rules is inherently wrong. What I think about kessela is all related to the backward believes not to as” to the dr.”

          • said

            Hi Blink
            First i am not defending myself,it is when you disrespected the Dr, that i wrote you ,the Dr,Can easily defend herself she doesn’t need my input .
            Let me give a historical short quotation and I am repeating myself to something you might be familiar but you are very falsifier but you cho0se to ignore let me remind .since we talking about woman and woman can choose for themselves Just to give just one example According to UK guardian newspaper titled,Around 5,000 British people convert to Islam every year – and most of them are white women.ask yourself WHY, as you religion that doesn’t give equality and equity according your
            opinion,who ever think that way is ignorant of the fact and full of hatred,of sick mind and heart .

            Unfortunately, when we delve in the so-called glorious past of mankind we find that woman has always been subjugated to the worst of tyranny and inhumane conduct. It is a known fact that even though woman constitutes half of society equally with man, their influence plays a catalytic role in every single department of life whether as a loving spouse, compassionate mother or a grateful daughter. Sadly many a times Islam is portrayed as a misogynist social order by ignorant minds but before elucidating the honour and esteem which Islām has bestowed upon women, let us have a closer look at the status of women in non-Islamic societies:
            “From the earliest days of Greek civilization woman was perceived as an inferior being and was under the patriarchal authority of males. Segregated into strictly enforced domestic spheres, they passed from the male authority of the father to that of their husband. Not until later on, could women inherit property from their fathers, and then only if there were no sons…” ( A social history of Greece and Rome. Michael Grant)
            In ancient Greece, the status of women was that of slaves. It was not permissible for her to voice her rights and dues. The purpose of marriage was solely political, so that she may give birth to soldiers who will in turn defend the honour of their kings and country. It was a known fact in Sparta, that those men who suffered of old age or infertility should send their wives to other men so that they may produce mighty soldiers for military purposes. (Universal history of the world – London)
            Likewise woman was considered a burden, a disgrace and an inferior being in ancient Rome. She was a mere object to be used and abused at any given time. She could be sold or thrown out of the house and she couldn’t dare to say a word. The husband had the right of disposing of her by killing her and no one would even raise their eyebrows. In the instance of her husband’s death she was inherited by her brother in law. Up to the fifteenth century, Greek philosophers and priests argued whether or not woman had a soul.
            But the so-called civilized West has settled the question once for all, its answer: Woman is nothing but body that is why we see her semi-clad and nude pictures on every page of every magazine.
            In old history of Iran she was a token of public property, anyone could use her for their satisfaction and she had to bear all these tyrannies silently. During the presence of male siblings she did not inherit from her father.
            In Judaism, as well she was deprived of inheritance. She was thrown out of the house during her menstrual cycle. Upon the demise of the husband she was not allowed to bath.
            In Hinduism she was not allowed to own properties. She would be burnt alive alongside her husband upon his demise (such horrendous brutalities is prevalent up to this day). She is depicted as an evil emblem in the Rig-Vaid (Hindu’s religious book).
            Prior to Islam, in ancient Arabia she was buried alive.
            In ancient Egypt on the twentieth of June a virgin girl dressed in silk was drown in the Nile river as the Copts believed that such an offering would appease the river and ensure its constant flow. Human sacrifice in one form or another was common in pagan societies but most of these sacrifices involved women.
            As late as the 1860’s a married Englishwoman did not exist as a legal person, upon marriage she entered a condition known as a ‘covertures’ effectively making her the possession of the husband. In 1632 English law declared:”That which the husband hath is his own and that which the wife hath is the husbands.”
            What is the difference whether it is in a wife or mother; it is still Eve the temptress that we must be aware of in any woman – St. Augustine. (the most important figure of the western church-St. Augustine-Bishop of Hippo)
            That was in the past, but what about in today’s time. Are there any such horrendous activities taking place in our surroundings?
            With utmost conviction one may say that western civilization remains at heart a sort of pagan civilization, albeit a more polished one. The drastic rituals of the past have been replaced but the crooked ideas behind them survive. What was the idea in throwing a virgin in the Nile? That woman must sacrifice her life for the economic prosperity of society. In forcing woman outside her home and herding them into offices and factories, the industrial revolution preserved the same idea. In placing them on display to attract business and customers, the ‘marketing revolution’ preserves and promotes the same idea. Women must sacrifice their lives, dignity and security for the economic prosperity of society.
            If it leaves them unprotected to an array of advances and assaults, so be it.
            If it destroys their home and family life, so be it.
            Take a look around you and you will ascertain that woman is used for the advertisement and promotion of every commodity in the market, whether it may be a bottle of coke or the latest sports car, or just take a peek at the modeling industry and you will realize how women have been abused and exploited.
            It is the same scenario but just a different mould. Our mothers and sisters need to be liberated from the tyranny of modern paganism just like they needed to be liberated from the tyranny of ancient paganism.
            These were but a few examples as to how women were mistreated and abused by some of the most civilized nations of the world. On the contrary Islam has elevated the status of women. Islam has divinely protected the honour of women through the Hijab but the Machiavellian enemies of women have robbed them of this God-given garment of safety. They profess equality and liberation; they taunt Islam of not being a practical way of life whereas the most revered woman in their culture, the Virgin Mary have full chapter in her name in Quran and she is always clad in the Hijāb.
            They accused Islām of keeping woman in the back row whereas in Islām woman enjoys the honour of being by man’s side at every given moment. From birth until death she is regarded as a valuable member of society. Yes, her responsibilities and that of man’s are not similar due to the general difference in their anatomy and strength. Islam promotes equity
            The Qur’an requires the groom present to the bride a mutually agreed upon bridal gift (mahr) as part of a valid marriage contract. Unfortunately, it is common in western literature to translate mahr as “bride price,” thus giving the impression that the bride is being sold to the groom. (Ironically, this description fits better with the dowry paid by fathers to grooms in Jane Austen’s England than it does with the role of the mahr in Muslim women’s lives.) For many Muslims, the mahr is a woman-empowering tool, a sort of insurance policy that facilitates female financial independence upon marriage.

          • blink

            Dear said
            I would like not to go there but to ask , these 5000 you claim, how many of them are Shi’a and how many Sunni ??? Would a true God keep 80% humans unaware of Islam- his ‘only true religion’??? , what I would do is bring actual prove that Islam or Christianity or any thing similar have nothing good about women, none . The best followers of these religion are at best dictators at their home. Wether Islam is justice for women or not is another way of looking at the society. The Islamic world suffers from a man power put to prison, 50% of the Muslim society suffers an employment that set women at home. If Arabic is the uniting factor for all Eritrean Muslims despite their differences they should give a try at it because as we generally see Arabic is the language chosen by God to communicate with Mohamed , how is that even possible?? . I mean can you see the logic of this ? God who is claimed to have dictated the Quran is supposed to be omniscient- all-knowing and omnipotent i.e. all powerful. For such a God, it should be very easy to do something which is beyond the reach of ordinary humans like Muhammad, in the Quran itself, like to be able to predict in 620 AD that man will go the moon in 1969 AD, or for that matter, to give the then-unknown chemical formula of water, or to write a then-unknown language including modern Arabic. How hard was it ? as claimed by Muslims themselves, the book was finalized during Caliph Uthman’s period who ruled till AD 656. Also, scholars have shown that the Quran was edited and altered till AD 933, when it was finalized at last. And the Quran contains many contradictions, and many other mistakes as well.If God sent mankind a book, He would have given it in a way whereby it would be equally effective and charming in all the languages of the world. Or, as a minimum, he would have made the whole world know Arabic very well, so that it could understand the Quran very easily. A God who keeps his Revelation in a language which only a mortal human being knows cannot be termed as an All-Powerful or wise God. Now , just look at this idea , Would God who made Islam , Christianity and judihism as his only true religion leave so much ambiguity and difference of opinion among followers of his own true religion about a thing so important as apostasy??? Look at yourself and just ask your 6 years old kid to have a take at it with honesty.

            For example let’s see these things,The Quran in 2:27, 2:39, 3:90-91, 4:89, 9:66, 9:74, 47:25-26 makes it clear that apostates are to be punished plus the Bible has 10,000 mistakes and horrible lies . Now do I look anti religion? No I am not.

          • said

            Hi Blink,
            Just remember you are repeating, which is not of yours ,a false narration and quotation, known you, you do not have any background when it comes to any faith ,let alone Islam and it shows you have empty mind ,filled with hate and you are nobody and you represent nothing in faith matter ,your knowledge is zero and you are absolutely ignorant of Islam and Quran, you are repeating what being said for thousand years by many western and oriental scholar, the enemy of Islam ,if you can give an honest and real reference to your quotation, if you have one ,backed it up scholarly ,you will find out ,who they are .
            Quran challenge mankind . Then do they not reflect upon the Quran? If it had been from [any] other than Allah, they would have found within it much contradiction. Quran 4:82

            It much easier for you to comprehend and understand, beside if you can listen to the link , your ignorant and atheist mind is closed, if you have an open mind and you open your sick heart that is rusted and covered with black stone ,just try just a little.the door is open and Mercy of the creator may come down on you .let me introduce man ,he is near to our home who come totally from the opposite side of Islam . Dr. Umar Faruq Abd-Allah (Wymann-Landgraf) is an American Muslim, born to a Protestant family in Columbus, Nebraska. He grew up in Athens, Georgia, where both of his parents taught at the University of Georgia. He did his undergraduate work at the University of Missouri with dual majors in history and English literature. In his last year there, he won a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship and entrance to Cornell University in Ithaca, New York to pursue a Ph.D. program in English literature. By the way one of his humble and beloved teacher and mentor was the late Sheikh Basher an Eritrean and this is the reason he his preference to drees like Eritrean traditional clothes to honor his sheikh , a short link by Dr. Umar
            https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wCiKuz7xWos

          • blink

            Dear said
            You again are boiling over ahmm , where can we find that kind of anger behavior? Again cool down , don’t forget not to go over the top.If you wanted to refute it you have the time to do but you jump to insult and attacking. Is a kind of defeat and not give up? You can simply ran with your tail under your legs for your safety from the revolving door. I already asked you to explain not attack . You are insulting me instead of educating me about the things you knew about religion. You keep throwing words of insult because you ran out of explanation for your God chosen words and messengers . I understand many people are an able to face the truth. Since I don’t want to disappoint this forum I will leave this because if I mentioned verses you will be more angry .

            Women and religion, ahmm what can I say ? Women and the Abrahamic religion are simply enemies that could not reconcile even if you try every single scholar of your favorites. Women are slaves that can be thrown out from house by saying just 3 words repeatedly 3 times . Facing the truth has never been the symptoms of religious people like you , I mean who could possibly say the lies behind every religious book. We all know Khadija died in December of 619 AD, two years before Hijra. At that time Muhammad was 51-years-old. And we can read what happened in February 618 AD , right said? Now you can directly connect this to the battle of of Badr and Uhud , we all know who was at that war and we all know how old she was , did not read about that or you are not ready to say anything about it. Ok jump to insult. Now where in the abrahamic religion do you see women equal to men , in Christianity the girl must be checked her vergnity if she has to marry to an orthodox haleka , the emotional distress of this pure under age girl can’t be explained by simple words , we call it murder of her soul. You are an intelligent man capable of rejecting this religion lies and do what your humanitarian instinct leads you. I know you are unable to face the truth. Lies can be demolished with truth just as darkness can be vanquished with light. We don’t raise a sword against darkness; we lit a light. And I urge to join the game from the truth side not along the lies.

          • said

            Hi Blink
            It was Your long quotation, I was not happy about , your quotation speak for itself about Dr. Sadia, It was an insult out of nowhere and defaming her good name as I told you First i am not defending myself, it is when you disrespected the Dr, that i wrote you ,the Dr, Can easily defend herself she doesn’t need my input,
            Of course for someone who grow up In kessela who wanted to introduce Althorabbi doctrines back to Eritrea is very hard to imagine.
            (A) this Is utterly False accusation against Dr. Sadia. she does mention anything related to any kind doctrines ,Do you really believe Dr. wanted to introduce her theology to us and back to Eritrea.

            When it comes to women the western woman must dictate the next generation of woman as the Saudi and Sudanese women are still to get their share at the time of divorce .
            Again western woman will not dictate the next generation.
            (B) Dr. Sadia do not speak for Saudi and Sudanese women
            Western woman are the engine of bright future while the Middle eastern woman must learn from because they have nothing to show. The notion western feminism seen by a Dr. Who happens to be woman as “ not good to Eritrean women “
            (c)Dr. Sadia not good to Eritrean women, IS AN INSUALT .
            (D) what you characterize and you said about Dr ,is not related or fitting , she is above you, she is woman of high integrity and honor and highly respected at AWATA forum ,she embodies the best of Eritrean people that I know and she is writing from her prospective no one is asking to agree with her .
            Blink Now that being said , I was angry with you for reason above. Sorry Nothing personal, I agree with you my discourse with you should have being more courteous.

          • blink

            Dear Said
            It seems you cooled down now . You are not acting like yesterday insane personality, good ride.
            First the Dr. can say what ever she wanted so do I , this is not a Mosque that you dictate by your Hadith . Now , if i may , You don’t come up with points that can actually educate me about the book you try to live with. Your best take to this thread was insulting. The Dr. Who is gossiping about the Eritrean women meeting can actually help you with what her ideal Eritrean women she has in her mind. I mean you don’t need to go from all sides to a shadow of Muslimbrother hood women . What kind of women is a model for your Eritrean sisters ?

          • said

            Hi Blink.
            I don’t know the Dr, Other than what she wrote period . what I want to highlight here.is turning a deaf ear, Stop accusing the Dr, and her intellectual dignity and reputation. I will keep on defending what I have always defended, because this is not about the person involved per se. I am for woman full rights, defending women, defending their rights, social equality, fighting against all sort violence, against forced marriages and you name the list is long , but not the way you see it, and rejection should not be the way we react to this, we should calm the situation and have a deep intelligent debate, a soothing and serious,and responsible debate. I am always keeping my cool but not with yesterday . we must appease things, we need a debate which is a debate of substance, a serious calm debate It is with wisdom, it is with a sense of balance, I am humble enough to tell it is not my field to give an opinion about ,i refereed you yesterday to Dr. A .Omar. I am not representing anything let alone Islam. I do not none what so ever ,this a reason I do not respond to your question, you being jumping one view to another, I can easily answer to each of them ,it not my job ,I ask you to respect all religious faiths and views and not confuse ,custom and culture with religious practice.
            because our religious differences, be it Christians, Muslims, Atheists, Agnostics, or any other sense of belonging we have a long way to fight for justices in Eritrea , we must build future a pluralistic Eritrean society

          • blink

            Dear said
            I would like to stop here because I think what you said about women in the above comment is enough for the day and I really don’t want to stick it out . Respectfully I would like to leave at it stand. Cheers

  • Beyan

    Selam,

    After the passing of Aboy Musa this past week, a friend called me and we started talking, the usual Eritrean related topic, our region, what have you? Then, I suddenly found myself saying that you know Aboy Musa’s chapter began with his incarceration and ended four months later with his passing. Now, is the right time to pause he said and I understood it right away, because he was pestering me as he always does about a project that I should be wrapping up this year. I completely agreed with him that this was the right time to pause and clearly Eritreans the world over will keep doing what they do: Fight the injustice at home with all their might whether I am part of it or not, he is darn right about that.

    Now, I am in a pickle here. I found myself antsy about the subject matter being discussed, namely, the auspicious Eritrean women’s role that took place during International Women’s Day. This is such an important topic, so, there just was no way for me to not comment on it. But comment what, what value can I add to promote a healthy discussion about it. Chimamanda Adichie came to the rescue.

    Why not use something as impersonal as a non-Eritrean woman telling about the danger of a single story. Many of you may have heard it before. Adichie’s TEDTalk is profoundly deep. Each time I listen to it, each time that I find it more profound than the previous time I had heard it. Please take the 18 minutes it takes to listen to it, she never disappoints, the solidly imposing voice with this beautiful English accent, a voice that reverberates confidence, humor, pitch, delivery. She is through and through captivating not only to listen to, but to really watch her speak.

    She speaks of the “mental shift in [her] perception about literature..[which] saved her from the danger of a single story” She talks about the “domestic help” that her well to do family had; in how the speaker’s mother explained to Adichi the ” defaulted [single story] position. Adichi also speaks about “single story” in her estimate, which comes “from the Western perspective” in how dangerously limiting that narrative is. She relates the erroneous understanding she developed from the media about Mexicans and when she visited Guadalajara it caught her by surprise in how deeply held prejudicial view she had about Mexican people.

    She connects all these stories in “how it is impossible to talk about a single story without talking about power…Power” she says gives this “ability not just to tell the story of another person, but to make it the definitive story of that person”. What was profoundly deep is when she cites the Palestinian poet Mourid Barghouti, who says that “if you want to dispossess a people, the simplest way to do it is to tell their story, and to start with, “secondly.” Start the story with the arrows of the Native Americans, and not with the arrival of the British, and you have an entirely different story. Start the story with the failure of the African state, and not with the colonial creation of the African state, and you have an entirely different story.”

    If we can take away from the article at hand, irrespective of whether it is incomplete, tilted in one direction versus another; the motivation of the writer, the binary syndrome that we find regressive in how we end up dichotomizing our Eritreanity, etc.,etc. For me personally, the worry, whether explicitly stated or not; whether it is implied or not; it is about the danger of advancing a single narrative. Now, I am not suggesting that’s what Eritrean Women’s Day was in the Hague. Let us just make that the take away point and doggedly and consciously fight any such insinuation as Adichi perceptively understood at so many levels. From how she saw others that she was taught to believe to perceive them as and how others perceived her – like her roommate at the college – how that roommate saw others that she was taught to believe to perceive Africans as.

    https://youtu.be/D9Ihs241zeg?t=11

    • Paulos

      Selam Dr. Beyan,

      This is really interesting read. Relativism, context and perspective are certainly at play. As you have aptly put it, one for instance can not talk say about the human eye without apriori knowledge about the human body. The question is where do we draw the line to conserve the volume of information so that it would help the writer to keep things in context. To do that however, one needs clarity not only in the objectives of the intended message but courage as well to call the pink elephant in the living room by its name. It was with in these indices in mind that I found Dr. Sadia’s article a bit convoluted and also not bold enough to call out instead warped in euphimism. I say this obviously not to discourage her from engaging, rather as an academic she is trained to assess constructive criticism with grace.

      • Beyan

        Selam Dr. P.,

        As usual, your input is challenging, your perspective original, and the sophistication of language bar none. Because of the latter, I know how easy it is for someone like you with such dispensation of language can put a reader under the spell of that beauty of language, but I have yet to catch you doing that, at least, when we are exchanging ideas. One other person who can out dance many of us via language is Sal Y, but he is not the subject of discussion, just mentioning in passing because he came to mind. After all, isn’t part of the fringe benefits of higher education that: How to be vague and ambiguous without really addressing the issue at hand like I am doing right now. But I know you won’t let me get away with it, thus, I better turn to it at once.

        Indeed, as the young Eritrean activist at the UN, Veronica Almedom starts her speech in how the triumvirate, the two Yemanes and the man at the helm are spewing a single narrative in the name of “nation-building” which she rightly asserts is “not the project of a few. It ordinarily embraces the contribution of every single individual in the society. Just in the same way as the human body operates, every organ has its distinctive function and it would be senseless to assume that one single organ, like the heart for example, could take over the functions of the lungs or the kidney.”

        It is your comment about how one “can not talk say about the human eye without apriori knowledge about the human body” that reminded me of Veronica’s where she uses human body parts as analogy, though yours has philosophical bent to it that I am drawn towards. When one considers the writer’s educational instruction being from Sweden, it is understandable for clarity to be lacking at times. I say this, because I have read her dissertation for my own research and other purposes where she did her field study of Eritrean refugees in Sudan. The other scholar is Gaim Kibreab. So, I think if you knew a little more about Dr. Sadia as I do, you would’ve given her a slack and you would’ve focused more in what it is she is trying to convey. To me it is that danger of a single story, be it in the nation building that Veronica alluded to and now Dr. Sadia is getting us engage in that embrace as a take away message.

        I didn’t think it would end up being this long, but let me finish by quoting Veronica where she shows this danger of a single narrative. This is exactly what can be gleaned from Dr. Sadia’s piece as well, albeit in a different context. That we can do better than conveying a single narrative. Veronica’s speech is a forceful blow to the regime in the eyes of the world. Of course, the Eritrean delegate’s chair was empty, but what can you expect from these bozos anymore than to become an embarrassment to us all:

        “Madam Vice-President, Madam Deputy High-Commissioner, Distinguish Delegates, allow me now to go back to discussing Eritrea. PFDJ, which is a political party driven by its very distinctive ideology, has been acting as though it could represent all the functions and all demographic groups that exist in Eritrean society: from young to old, from the public sector to the private sector, from the judiciary, to the legislative, to the executive branch, and to the army. From education to religion, to information, etc. Such brutal dominion over all aspects of a given society would profoundly hurt a population and its cohesion. And this is one of the vicious circle of oppression in which the Eritrean society has been trapped in. So far, exile has been their only safeguard, given the lack of robust and effective governance mechanisms at national and continental levels.” (http://medrekh.org/index.php/en/blog/item/3-east-africa-the-world)

        Thank you Dr. P. I can’t seem to write succinctly as you seem to do in a flash.

        Sincerely,
        Beyan

        • Paulos

          Selam Dr. Beyan,

          I have always been a big fan of your remarkable agility with the English language going back to the good ‘ol days of Dahai. I insist, no one can match you!

          A single story or a single narrative is too narrow in scope to illustrate a system as subjective as the main factors in social or political dynamics. That powerful assertion is what I call original. Thank you!

          As you have aptly put it, “Hade Lbi Hade Hzbi” is not only a vulgar in content but also it is a grand scam designed for a reason only known to the brute machine PFDJ when the rest of us are limited to speculate. In fact, Veronica was too generous when she gave in her speech an impression of Totalitarianism to describe the regime when it is infact a chimera of all the “isms” where history tends to despise.

          I have never met both Professor Gaim or Dr. Sadia but I have come across to some of the works of the former. I also agree with you when you said, my rather hasty comment on her recent article should have come after having read her former works or scholarship to get a balanced picture. Again thank you Dr. Beyan.

    • Ismail AA

      Good morning Dr. Bejan,

      When my sight catches a newly posted front page article, and meet your take on it, my reading becomes easier. This time, too, your last paragraph and Chimamanda Adichie have nicely combined to help me grasp the salient reflections of Dr. Sadia Hassanen within the broader context of the issue. Indeed, promotion of a particular identity within contradictory identities of a nation is non-starter in projects geared to laying down elements harmonizing them require.

      • Beyan

        Selam Kbur Haw Ismail AA,

        Many thanks for finding my entry above useful. It’s human nature to react defensively and hastily when someone gives a perspective – justified or not – to what we believe to be not only at odds than how we intended it, but also that we shut our receptacle thereafter to see any perspective that does not align with ours at any level. It is how Adichie was able to go beyond that level what I found profoundly touching.

        When we let that first temptation to respond lie fallow, just sit on it like cultivated farmland where farmers know and trust the germinated seeds will in due course fecund; keeping that impregnated idea that wishes to born prematurely needs to be fought and controlled, where mature fecundity will come out in due course much like that land a farmer knows to wait patiently during the growing season.

        So Ismail Hawwey, I have learned to not react instantly when the topic is as important as the one under discussion, because there is untapped reservoir, wealth of wisdom that we Eritrean men have not been able to make the sociopolitical space as welcoming and as conducive to our sisters by creating such a brash and brazenly toxic ambiance. It’s for that reason I was antsy. I waited almost 24 hours to inject my thoughts in hoping someone will see what I am seeing, genuinely happy that I did, because, it resonated with you and Dr. P., to whom I shall now turn.

        Hawka,
        Beyan

  • said

    Greeting blink and alike , Name something positive.
    Over time I notice when an opinion do not conform to your atheist and godless Bolshevik and Maoist view, you are one of the most reckless and bigot commentator, you have been made against many in this form ,with your irrational hatred against some writers and your bigot comments is becoming normalized, your public discourse has only gotten much nastier , it seems to me you are uniquely and may be “genetically” predisposed toward manipulative as atheist ideologically motivated for you bankrupt political activities, spicily when it come to faith like Christianity and Islam, your ignorance and arrogance and prejudice that it reflected and how it didn’t correspond with enlightened liberal values. You always trying to spin your narrow minded full of hatred and prejudice , you are blinded and not able to Name something positive even if you try , you don’t manage to be positive, constructive or even complicated good idea . you not able to backpedal somewhat after being challenged logically and with reason . your fact that is irrational and unfiltered blabbering reveals such a deep hate and antipathy toward people of faith. Your comment below is one bigotry and evil and backwards adversarial comments . by being self-centered and you pretend to know, This is just a small sampling of the anti-faith comments and attitudes that pass, largely unremarked upon, in this form , in a predictably biased fashion, instead of looking the paragons of virtue. You are good-for-nothings at best and dangerous deviants at worst. Indeed, you been deluged with this anti-faith prejudice, you have allowed your sick head and lizard brain to be triggered by the constant demonization of faith . Most Eritrean we know to at this form, at least in the abstract, that few individuals or groups are purely good or bad. Most Eritrean are very respectable of faith ,other than IA and his minion and you are one of them and some are a complex combination of both. But many – including those who normally consider themselves to be open-minded liberals, may be you adore and admired the Greek goddess Sophia , may be you need read about Greek philosophy, may be you need to know about Buddhism, Kabbalah, and Christian Gnosticism, you will start to be open to the synthesis of differing values and viewpoints, you either truly ignorant and not well-informed on the subject of faith and believe or you are as often intentionally being disingenuous when it comes to religion. You try to smear and silence any voices that oppose your carefully crafted comment and stories of how religion is no good. You are the voices of anyone who is loudly anti religion. It’s about acceptance and being a fan of free thought and speech. It’s about getting the truth instead of a carefully scripted sick opinion like your narrative. This is something you have to stop now

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selam Dr Sadia,

    On the picture of the woman holding the torch: isn’t it the logo of the conference? Why is this too sensitive to Eritrean women, I don’t understand? Does it mean any woman can not represent the Eritrean women in general on the logo? Do you mean, it has to be of diversified women with torches on the logo? Were the preparatory committee constituted from our diversity? If the preparatory committee agree on that, why is it an issue to you?

    Regard

    • Paulos

      Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

      A few months ago, the editors of Wikipedia run into a conundrum as they tried to define the word “Human.” The issue however was not about the definition of what “Human” is per se, rather which ethnic group represents “Human” as an example say if aliens happen to read the article. Is it the black race, the white race or the “brown” race? As it happened, the editors opted to put up a picture of a couple from Thailand as Asians make up the largest number in world population. I am by no means alluding to the “fact” that a Tigrinya woman should hold the torch for the reason stated on the above.

      • Haile S.

        Selam Paulos,
        Wikipedia should have revived Guiseppe Arcimboldo from his grave to paint an imaginative human made up of every humanity existing in the world.

        • Paulos

          Selam Hailat,

          Never heard of him and too lazy to Golgol him. Please tell us more if you can. Thanks.

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Dr Paulos,

        If the Eritrean women could not have basic understanding that they are all victims to cultural oppression, and if they are indulging to a fight on pity issue, like who will be on the logo holding the torch, for sure they will have a big hurdle to have in building the identity bridge before they even start their common socio-cultural problem. What it kept me surprised is, when this pity non-issue in my view, compared to their cultural oppression “the gender issue”, is raised by the supposedly enlightened individual in their ranks. One expect such erudite to focus on the big women’s issue their socio-cultural oppression. This shows how metastatic our political malignancy is. It affected every aspect of our lives where we can not find our common denominators in our fights. The more we continue like this, the more the puzzle becomes difficult to solve it. From my long observation, there is nothing in common among social protagonists except of being Eritrean. What do you think doctore?

        Regards

        • Paulos

          Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

          That is a difficult and complex question with a blank price-tag on it. Perhaps, it would be prudent to trace back its roots till we exhaustively try to look for solutions if there are any. Archeological sites if you will.

          Is the colonial experience the culprit; Ghedli; the very notion of Eritrean identity or the very Machiavellian political craft of the man at the helm? One would be tempted to strike “Ghedli” out from the above cited candidates simply because Ghedli brought us together precisely because it helped us to focus on our collective commonality as opposed to on our glaring as you put it socio-cultural differences.

          Ghedli ended its time tested and honorable mandate when we made it as in when we achieved independence. The anomaly took its roots with in the transition from the conjecture of Ghedli to a State formation when the Constitution was meant to fix any anomaly that may create any crack with in the Eritrean social and political tapestry. When the Constitution is the supreme authority in any sovereign state, differences including socio-political differences lose their meanings where citizens build on the common destiny instead. It is with in this internalized understanding that the last choice as in the “Machiavellian political craft of the man at the helm” seems a viable answer to the difficult question. It was one of the main reasons that the man at the helm created hurdles including declaring wars lest the Constitution gets implemented.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Dr Paulos,

            Who else other than you and your likes could tackle the problem? The social problem except, during the brief federation era that managed to find the “equilibrium of the parts”, it was there for generations eating our social fabrics from time to time. Though the contribution of ghedli to our differences and our fault lines does not require microscopic exposition for our understanding, it has concluded its historic mission the “liberation of the land”, our only common identity and our common space we call it “Eritrea”.

            The current struggle is not only to remove the dictator and its institutions, but also to insure the coexistence of our social groups by building a fair system that recognize the rights of our minorities in the political and economic life of our people. Actually in my view, the later is more complex and difficulty than the former one. The mistrusts are embedded on the later than on the former, which is affecting us not to fight in unison to our common enemy “Issayas and his system.” Our elites on both sides are exploiting to their personal interest. How many genuine and bold elites do we have to face these challenges? I will leave it to judge for themselves, as history is compiling their moves and their intentions for posterity.

            regards

          • Paulos

            Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

            You raised great points. I say, mistrust is not only confined to the Eritrean psych or disposition. It is a human condition. On a macroscopic scale as well, in a rather counterintuitive line, the relationship of nations is based on the imbeded mistrust manifested among each other [One of the trajectory points of Power Politics exponents.]

            If I may degress, experts tell us that, the embeded mistrust traces its conception with in the early formation of a society. The evolution of a society started out as a group of distinct bands and later as a tribe before division of labor took hold where it shattered the cohesive force of “Altruism” and “Genetic Fitness” that had held the small bands together. And when the relationship started to lose its genetic roots and got replaced with “Reciprocal-Altruism”, mistrust reigned in. But of course, if mistrust was to take hold and graduated onto violence, society would end up in a Hobbesian world as in all declaring war against all. To mitigate the potential calamity, the human rational devised a “Social Contract” as in Constitution where a citizen is obliged to give up his or her certain rights for the common good or in Stewart Mill’s-speak “Utilitarianism.”

            Of course, I need to get off the Ivory Tower of the philosophical dispensation and see the Eritrean conundrum for what it is now not when ብዘበን እኒ እኒ ሕምባሻ’ኸሎ እምኒ.

  • Kebessa

    Thanks Dr Sadia.
    It is said the most exclusive club in the world is that of the living Presidents’ of the United States.
    Next to that must be non-Kebessan Eritrean women with PhD degree. Actually, Kebessa women do not fare much better either. Eritrea probably has world’s lowest (per capita) PhD holders, both men and women.
    Congratulations on your educational accomplishment Doc!

    • Paulos

      Selam Kebessa,

      You probably heard of Freeman Dyson. If you haven’t, he is well known theoretical physicist who gained fame with in the scientific community when he devised a mathematical formulation for the historic “Feynman Diagrams.” His fame or rather peculiarity didn’t end there—

    • Paulos

      I guess Disqus ate part of my comment.

    • Paulos

      Selam Kebessa,

      You probably have heard of Freeman Dyson. If you haven’t, he is a renowned Professor of Theoretical Physics where he gained fame with in the scientific community when he devised a mathematical formulation for the famous “Feynman Diagrams.” His fame and peculiarity didn’t end there. He never got a Ph.D. And he took it upon himself to advocate and campaign against any Ph.D program for he was convinced that it was a total waste of time. He particularly said, Ph.D programs hurt aspiring and prospective scientist women as they often get discouraged to continue in the program for it takes a longer time to finish as they want to settle and form a family in the middle.

      • Ismail AA

        Selam Dr. Paulos,

        You hit the nail right on where the hammer should land, as is popularly said. My best professor in college had no Ph.D and my other lecturers who were making researches as candidates were evaluated by him before they joined his department as staff members. You might have probably heard about the late Sven Rubenson and seen some of his works.

        • Haile S.

          Selam Paulos, Ismail, Kebessa et al,
          I am expanding what you guys said. Certainly there are many individuals who excel in many domains without the need of going through the formal coronation, so to speak. These people have more depth and breadth of experience and publications that by far exceeds what is necessary for a PhD. And such people deserve to encourage others of the possibility of self attainment through several means. Although paradoxally it takes time to get a PhD, it was made to accelerate the making of an individual to obtain an education of critical thinking in a specialized domain. And this is measured by an original work she/he presents in a form peer reviewed publications. Evidently, there is a wide variation between countries and universities within a country or a city on how this is implemented. Most importantly the debate of its necessity or not distils to its strict requirements for certain jobs. But linking it to a hinderance for women appears to me a little wombic. Women should be encouraged by the society and their partners to have the time in the form of paid materinity and paternity leave. Knowing from where we are coming, we need to encourage every eritrean and african and especially women for attaining that level of accomplishement.
          If only the regime back home had that minimum respect for its people and the ideas of its learned in this case, PhD or not, instead of exporting them through every avenue possible!

        • Paulos

          Selam Ismail AA,

          Of course as you know one’s contribution to his or her field of study as in publishing research papers is what matters most than obtaining a Ph.D and doing nothing after words. I was trying to understand recently about this particular work by the Argentinian-American Physicist Juan Maldacena whose work called Ads/Cft which has been cited 17000 times with in major scientific papers and one can see the amazing contribution of some hard working scientists with in the scientific community.

          Not sure if you took any of Professor Mesfin Weldemariam’s courses in your years at AAU, I heard he didn’t have a Ph.D only Masters in Geography.

      • Thomas

        Hi Paulo’s,
        Hahaha. We should be living in a classless society. Yes, there is women Ph.D holders group. These group is also categorized as:
        1) Women of sciences
        a) Women of heath sciences
        b) women of acedamic sciences
        2) women of social sciences
        1) women of art sciences
        2) women of businesses
        3) women of law
        & so on so forth:)

        I am turning into Kramer is Seinfeld:

  • blink

    Dear writer

    The woman that hold the victorious torch must be a woman who doesn’t kneel to the man made false and idiotic rules , the woman that hold must be an Eritrean woman free from religious signs that depict woman as unfit to rule . Have you ever seen Eritrean women fighters , oh yes you did in video , halima’s of Eritrea did not look at backward man made rules . She cut the backward attitudes of men and she ruled the men in war times .Of course for someone who grow up In kessela who wanted to introduce Althurabi doctrines back to Eritrea is very hard to imagine . When it comes to women the western woman must dictate the next generation of woman as the Saudi and Sudanese women are still to get their share at the time of divorce . Western woman are the engine of bright future while the Middle eastern woman must learn from because they have nothing to show. The notion western feminism seen by a Dr. Who happens to be woman as “ not good to Eritrean women “ is simply irresponsible and beyond any logical reason of this 21 century. I wish all Eritrean women destroy the old rules made by priests and sheikhs . I mean who could object if a little girl in Hiday to be like Madonna ? Who , of course a very religious woman so confident on her educational level will oppose because this assumed little girl will not cover her head and will not go after a man who see her as his property.

    If there is any way out for Eritrean women from the horrible life chosen by men , it is the western feminism. Western feminisme is the only way to break the religious zealots.

  • MS

    Ahlan Dr. sadia
    Thanks for the clarification.
    Regards.

  • Tzigereda

    Selam Dr. Sadia,

    As you sure know the demonstration and conference held at The Hague (March 8-10, 2018) was initiated by few eritrean women from different women organizations with the aim of strengthening the networking of eritrean women organizations and individuals ( of all social groups!) fighting for justice. A preparatory committee was set up, who held open calls ( in all social media) and regular paltalk meetings to make this event successful. So, inclusivity was the self understood aim. Inclusivity should not be understood only as to be invited by someone ( when the process of an event is just starting and open calls going on), but to get involved if the event is of interest for you.

    You wrote “Somehow, one Eritrean man managed to be on the guest list – one couldn’t help but wonder why”, this is wrong, only women participated, after the conference was concluded there were some men who came to meet some women compatriots. Generating false stories from hearsay is misleading.

    “That the dominant culture dominating the entire narrative to a point of the letter that was written to the ICC was not shared so those of us who weren’t able to make it to the event could at least give our feedback – some such request fell on blatant deaf ears”
    The draft of the letter was read, edited by the representatives of the women organisations who agreed to participate. That is the professional way it has to be done and all participants were happy with.

    “Next time, I hope and trust that there should be representational equity where the invitees and inviters are equitably distributed”

    I wish you could participate or ask some of the participants of the event, the content of the agenda, the spirit of the three days. It was an amazing experience, in which eritrean women from different segment of our society were present, a good opportunity to know each other, discuss openly what is ailing us ( National issue, gender issue, divisive politics, bias etc). There were moments ዝነባዕናሉ , moments we laughed loud, and sing spontaneously, because there is more what binds us than what divides us.

    Critics become constructive when done appropriately and that starts telling the whole story in an honest way as is.

    As for “it is meant for Eritrean women to avert from falling into the trap of the Western feminism, where there is this one heroine who burns the…”, I kindly ask you what exactly you mean by this.

    Thank you

    • Hope

      Well said Dr Tzighereda!
      It will be difficult to convince such people with an old mentality of Muslims vs Christians; Lowlanders vs Highlanders…even if they are Doctors and Professors.
      I wish I could rewind what Professor Chefena said and the clip he posted about the Peaceful-Co-existence of our Muslims and Christians.
      They want everything form religious point of view…They will their BEST to find some non-existing or exaggerated loopholes and excuses rather than joining the Struggle wholehearted with a positive attitude and perception.
      It is kind of defensive mechanism or a sort of a Transference from Psychology 101 point of view.
      But keep marching forward and never look back.
      This Good Doctor, with all due respect to her, should have made it by all means possible and arrange her schedule and things ahead of time and be part of the Struggle rather than judging and making unfounded conclusions…and for a Professor to do that-judge and make deductions based on second hand info/hearsays is unfair and unreasonable..
      I hope she will not blame the Christian and Highland girls for participating in Sawa and admire or appreciate the Muslim and Lowland girls for NOT joining their Christian and Highland Eritrean Female Compatriots.
      Blink,despite his/her blunt approach, has made legit points
      These people should blame their Religious Culture, NOT the Heroic Christian Girls.

      • blink

        Dear Hope
        You know everything is in YouTube and I think it is fair to remember the speech given long time ago to the Afar mini state too. If such people views hold on in Eritrea we can be 100% to see a segregation of girls from boys even in biology laboratory but to such people’ disappointment Eritreans will not buy such things. The record is there and the only that has to be defeated and completely destroyed is the backward cave thinking.

  • Paulos

    Selam Dr. Sadia,

    Please forgive me for being obtus for I am unable to follow your article through. All women have something fundamental in common: They are all women. If there is any glaring difference, it is a social-construct. They are products of their respective cultural, religious, psychological and economic standing as well. As such, often times than not the differences seem to outweigh the commonality. Eritrean women are not exceptions either. The challenge with in the Eritrean context to the very least is to capitalize on the commonality, the commonality of course not the phenotypic or genetic expression but the brute force imposed on them by the regime.

  • Kokhob Selam

    Dear Dr. Sadia Hassanen

    How true!
    “Next time, I hope and trust that there should be representational equity where the invitees and inviters are equitably distributed. In other words, we should work together as associates.”

    From different back ground..really must find common line..

    KS

    • Tzigereda

      Hey Kokhob,
      Let me tell you what one particpant of the confernce said, she said ( in arabic) “ today I saw Eritrea”, implicating the diversity of the attendees, and Aisha Gaes ( the best translator I ever met) translated it into tigrinya “ሎሚ ኤርትራ ርእየ”. And still there was no kunama, no afar women ( only one from Afar)…

      • MS

        Dear Tzigereda
        As long as the message is out and made public, I think it is up to each individual and community to reach out to the coordinating committee to discuss on how best they could contribute to making the event more eventful.
        I looked at the clip, and it seems fine to me considering this is happening in Europe. We should remember that there are demographical deviations in each of the main regions of the world as compared to Eritrea’s social composition. One may find more of Highlanders in Europe and America whereas that composition is tipped for the lowlanders when such activities take place in the Middle East. So, our focus should not be on numbers but on the messages and on how open and accessible those events are.

      • Kokhob Selam

        Dear Tzigereda,

        Thank you very much..

        KS,,

        • Tzigereda

          Dear Kokhob,
          You are welcome.

  • MS

    Dear Dr. Sadia
    Great article, thank you. It would help the reader contextualize your article if you briefly described what the event you are mentioning was, What, when, where, who organized it, agenda, theme, etc.
    I completely agree that sometimes I feel like there is disconnection between the mission of some civic organizations and the operational mechanism. For instance, if there is a women’s network, does that network engage the political system(s) and cultural challenges within which it operates, or its activities are aimed at helping the women inside Eritrea? If its founding reason is helping ERitrean women inside Eritrea, how does it intend to permeate it inside our diversified societies? Do terms such as feminism work in eritrean context?
    In my last hastily patched up article [http://www.erigazette.org/?p=11253], I tried to air this concern: how do we digest the message of March 8 within eritrean context? That’s to mean, taking the gist of IWD and applying it in Eritrean society, with its unique experience in experimenting with women’s equality (something that Eritrean women earned through their exemplary sacrifices). Also, I believe Eritrean societies inside the country are more close to each other and are able to understand each other’s unique concerns than Diaspora Eritrea which is spread throughout the world and is influenced by myriads of cultural nuances: the Middle East with its varieties, Europe, America, Australia, Africa, etc.
    You seem to be highlighting the above, and for that, I wish you all the best. I’m certainly hopeful next year’s IWD conference will be more inclusive. I am also hopeful the organizers of the event in question will heed your constructive input.
    Regards.

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Selam Mahmuday,

      I think it is a paper presented to their conference (Women’s conference). If it is, then, the way she presented it is okay. She does not need to tell us about the agenda and other pertinent to their conference. Because, those things should be told in their communique. What I like from her presentation is the phrase “the others” and how this phrase explains the nature of our politics and the realities we are in.

      Regards