Home / Negarit / Major Dawit Woldegiorgis: More Of Red Tears

Major Dawit Woldegiorgis: More Of Red Tears

The following article was published in July 2, 2009, as a response for Shaleqa Dawit Woldegiorgis’ article “The way forward for Ethiopia and Eritrea” which appeared four days earlier on Ethiomedia on June 29, 2009. I decided to publish it because Dawit’s article has been brought again in the Internet for discussion.

I would like to note that I have heard good things about Shaleqa Dawit Wolde Giorgis1; many people characterize him as intelligent and human. I read Dawit’s two books, ‘Red Tears’ and ‘Kihidet Bedem Meret.’ I spoke to him on the phone twice, briefly, and I can confirm that I sensed humility and intelligence in his tone. Of Dawit’s tenure in Eritrea in the eighties, it is said that he saved many lives, that he installed a few pressure valves to control his regime’s brutality. I am sure all those whose lives he saved are grateful to him, and he deserves credit for being a rare embodiment of compassion within the ranks of the otherwise monstrous Derg regime.

Shaleqa Dawit’s “task was to pacify the rebellion and stop people from supporting the EPLF,” and his niceties were aimed to serve that goal; they were not independent from it. Still, charity is noble and his benevolent acts cannot be denied. But what also cannot be denied is the fact that Dawit represented one of the most repressive regimes in Africa—he was simply a benevolent dictator by extension.

His goal was realized when, “young people stopped joining the rebels and many started deserting from the EPLF.” For that, Eritreans would not consider him a friend, but a smart enemy, and his recent article, The way forward for Ethiopia and Eritrea, proves it in spades.

I hope that Dawit, the enlightened person that he is, will take this article as an intellectual provocation or challenge—it is not meant to be accusatory though it may sound as such, since that is the only way it can be presented. It is an attempt to shake some sense and persuade typical Abyssinian politicians and intellectuals to see beyond their narrow social, ethnic and geographical enclaves. It is a protest not against Dawit per se, but the elite culture and attitude that produced him. It is a protest against the elite attitude that considers Ethiopia a Christian nation in eternal war with Islam; a protest against the attitude that Eritrea is made of a Christian highland with a Muslim lowland appendage; a protest against the habit of constantly re-writing and revising the history of Eritrea and Ethiopia to fit this narrative; a protest against the attitude that prescribes Ethiopian elite interest-driven alliances, always at the expense of others, and thus sowing the seeds for the next war.

A Sample of an Exclusionary Attitude 

Shaleqa Dawit asserts that when it comes to Eritrea and Ethiopia, “[our] genes, our culture, language and history are identical.” Then he goes on to tell Eritrean and Ethiopians to meet and talk in “…the streets, the restaurants, the clubs, churches and various forums inEthiopia, Eritrea, America, USA and Africa.”

The above quotes may appear faultless to the uninitiated, but for those who were on the receiving end, for centuries, since the 14 century, they are a typical manifestation of the Abyssinian elite’s psyche—I don’t expect Dawit to entertain the idea of talking to people in mosques—they should not be included in any type of dialogue: the Abyssinian elite would do it for them as they have done for centuries. And if Dawit would violate the mental restraint that he has, breaking free of the Abyssinian chauvinism, he would see the light, or the pitch darkness that has been the cause of all miseries in the region.

To a non-Christian (an Ethiopian or Eritrean Muslim), as well as to a progressive Ethiopian and Eritrean Christian, nothing can be as offending as the Abyssinian elite’s self-centered analysis of the social, historical and political issues of our region. Dawit’s thinking is representative of the typical Ethiopian member of the elite (and nobility in the old days); he states that “the history of Ethiopia has been about winners and leaders,” and contradicts it by adding, “Internal conflicts in Ethiopia have always been about power and not ethnicity.”But a confused person, non-elite, would ask: Which one is it, winners and leaders or power and ethnicity?

Until Dawit makes up his mind, I am claiming that to the marginalized people of the region, the history of Ethiopia has been a continuous saga about oppression, savagery, aggression, violence and subjugation—and bigotry. When Ethiopian kings invaded Muslim lands, it is always “the king asserted his control over the Muslims.” Muslims are never referred to as Ethiopian Muslims, they are just Muslims. The situation of the Oromo was even worse, people who were considered and treated as slaves by the Abyssinian elite for centuries. For details of such historical fallacies, look at most of the Ethiopian history textbooks, especially the history of the Eastern parts of Ethiopia, with Harrer at the center. I think 1400 years is long enough for the elite to decide, whether to consider Ethiopian Muslims equal citizens or illegal aliens.

I was once talking to an elderly and respectable Amhara neighbor. In the course of our conversation, I mentioned a friend and tried to describe him to my neighbor. I told him that my friend grew up in Addis Ababa and that he is Amhara, and that his name is Omer. My neighbor wrinkled his forehead and snapped his head up in surprise: someone with a name like Omer cannot be an Amhara; he is a Muslim!

I don’t want to bore you with that surprise lesson I learned from my neighbor.

It was easy to remember Haile Sellassie (and his predecessor’s) policy of building a nation state: an Ethiopia centered on the Amhara nationality and the Orthodox religion. The rest, if they were not willing to assimilate and shed off their identities, would practically be relegated to second-class citizens, if not worse.

Following the contemporary mantra, (though this scare tactic has always been the central theme of Haile Sellasie and Derg), Dawit warns“Arab Chauvinism (expansionism) and Islamic Fundamentalism have always been real threats to Ethiopia, and Eritrea can possibly turn out to be the main conduit.” He stops short of suggesting a final solution: eradicate any Muslim from the region. Maybe that could be the solution the chauvinists could not accomplish over the centuries.

Under this pretext, Muslims have been victimized for centuries, since the 14th century when power was usurped by the reemergence of the violent claimants to the Solomonic empire that disrupted the traditional religious harmony among Abyssinian Muslims and Christians. That empire planted bigotry everywhere, including present day Eritrea, and destroyed the enlightened and progressive legacy of the great Axumite Empire. The Atzies never learned to develop their country, but became crusaders and tools of Portuguese extremists. Driven by the fable of Prestor John, they went out of their way to victimize their Muslim compatriots—it is they who first invented the draconian anti-Muslim policies that victimized so many people, their modern versions are just copycats.

After creating the Muslim bogeyman, the Abyssinians climbed back to their mountains and the world left them behind and advanced while they immersed themselves back in their favorite pastime, Zemecha, inter-fighting, invading and looting innocent villagers. One has to be brave enough to admit those facts and not represent them as a golden era; Ethiopia has nothing to show for the centuries of rule under its elect-of-god kings. If they do, there is nothing indigenous or authentic in it. The country is still living off a rich legacy, leftovers from the glorious and enlightened Axumite Kingdom of the past—even the fables and the culturally paralyzing fables are a creation of the usurpers who claimed decent from the Axumite rulers, not the original Axumites.

I always wished that the Ethiopian elite would stop addressing their compatriot’s raw nerves to arouse Ethiopian nationalism; history testifies that expansionist wars are fed by the arousal of raw nerves. One would think that enough blood was spilled, everyone’s blood to satisfy the elites’ demons, and contemplating on that, the elite should have been more inclusive, less expansionist and less self-centered.

There is always an excluded Eritrea (and an excluded Ethiopia) in the elite’s message that doesn’t recognize anyone but its own social group; and when they talk about Eritrea, they are locked in what they consider their Orthodox Christian extension while crying Red Sea, Assab. That has been their problem and still is. And I don’t think I need to reiterate that democracy is NOT a key to all those ailments. That has been the core of the issue, which no one seems to want to tackle.

As long as the elite keeps defining Ethiopianism as a church based, exclusive club of Abyssinians, they are bound to lose their own Ethiopian Muslims and others who are relegated to the peripheries. They need to worry about that first before thinking of getting Eritreans to the fold of a nation that has always oppressed them and considered them second-class citizens in their own country.

Who Represents Eritrea

In what seems a call for part two of Red Tears, Dawit advises his compatriots “not relating with the Eritrean government is a misguided position.”

That is certainly not a call for befriending the Eritrean people; Dawit has countersigned the right to decide on behalf of Eritreans to the Isaias regime. There could not be more disrespectful affront to Eritreans, who are suffering under the yoke of the Isaias regime, than that. The wise would better be aware that nothing brought about by Isaias would hold for long, it would be a game played with fire. Dawit knows that Isaias and his regime do not represent Eritreans—he leads a minority regime.

History By Omission

Describing the mood on the day Haile Sellasie showed his disregard for agreements and protocols and his lawlessness when he violated the Federal Arrangement with Eritrea, Dawit admits he was “on security mission watching the Eritrean Assembly when they were voting. It was unanimous vote.” He also explains that “The Eritrean elites were the first to express their joy.”

Here, Dawit’s presence in the assembly while it was in a critical voting session is not significant; what is worth noting is the reason for his presence, and in what capacity. It is obvious he was not a parliamentarian. He was not distributing roses or releasing butterflies either; he and his troops were there to intimidate and coerce those who would dare vote against the will and imposition of Haile Sellassie. The fact that there was, “a competition within the Eritrean elites to send telegrams and messages to Emperor Haile Sellassie expressing their joy and congratulating him” doesn’t say anything—people might recant their faith, accuse others wrongly, or admit to crimes they never committed when a gun is pointed at them.

True, there were those who wanted to land in Haile Sellassie’s lap since decades earlier; and they were empowered (while others were threatened) by the presence of M14 clad troops under the command of officer Dawit; troops who were there on a mission. Dawit was there; and I was there like Dawit; but only through the person of the much- respected parliamentarian of the time, the late Gengazmatch Hussein Kaffil whom I once heard recalling that congratulations among the Unionists was well underway days before the voting started, well before Dawit’s troops cocked their guns and marched to the assembly building.

Dawit also claims to know the motives of the independentists; he explains how the voting drama in the Eritrean assembly ended:

“Some disgruntled elements that felt excluded from the new dispensation and therefore expressed dissatisfaction for personal reasons — the loss of power and influence. I was there celebrating with the Eritreans the long awaited unity of Eritrea with the mother land. It was an unforgettable moment.”

Indeed it must have been designed to be unforgettable; and it is unforgettable—I was born in it, grew up in it and I am still suffering from its repercussions. I was there and so were many of my generation that was consumed and driven to carry the burden of sacrifice because of that sad day in our history. That sad day of betrayal, conspiracy and lawlessness. That day when the seed of our modest democracy was crushed and replaced by an archaic, bigoted and repressive feudal regime of Haile Sellasie—isn’t that the day that the Ethiopian elite in collaboration with the Eritrean elite killed democracy? Doesn’t Dawit see the irony in screaming democracy fifty years after witnessing the massacre of democracy in Asmara? Isn’t it ironic that he considers us so naïve that he condescendingly tries to sell us democracy after the almost cultish indulgence of sacrificing democracy, for the benefit of the elect-of-god, over which he and his troops stood guard? What did the poor Ethiopian or Eritrean get out of that but decades of misery? Who is responsible?

My generation grew up believing that the Amhara are the cause of all our miseries; and I grew up in a town called Keren hearing and witnessing Amharic speaking Tor Serawit abusing the people. It was unlike what Dawit detailed in his article while placing himself in a position of an observer though he was in the middle (and the wrong side) of it. He was a Tor Serawit officer in the Eritrea of the late fifties and early sixties. Remember I said I was there? I was on the opposite side of Dawit, a victim of his troops, a child who grew up being pushed and harassed by Dawit’s troops throughout the sixties and early seventies. I am even scared imagining saying what I am writing now in front of a Tor Serawit officer in Keren! Me, my family and the whole neighborhood would have disappeared. Thanks to God that didn’t happen.

A few years after Dawit stood with his “troops at the door step of the police headquarters,” I was clinging to my father’s legs when soldiers from the “2nd infantry division” who were probably trained by Dawit, came and gun-butted my father and drove him to jail: he was an ELF supporter. I was there when the Ethiopian soldiers forcefully exposed me to corpses: they used to hang mutilated and bloated bodies of killed Eritrean combatants in the marketplace. I witnessed that countless times. I was there during the massacre of Ona when hundreds of villagers were killed and the village burned by Ethiopian soldiers. I was there, overlooking the town of Agordat from the top of a distant high ground beyond the Barka River, when Ethiopian soldiers mowed hundreds of innocent civilians, indiscriminately, in broad daylight. My generation has stories that would fill volumes of what it witnessed: we were there as well. I can “forgive, but never forget.” It is also important to note that a story recounted by a victim of Auschwitz would never agree with the version told by Gobbles, for example.

Yes, I grew up. I matured. And grew up more; only then could I discover that an Amhara peasant in the outskirts of Gonder or an Amhara shepherd in Menze never oppressed me; it was the elite who used the Amhara nationality (of the poor souls as a vehicle) that were the culprits. The elite wreaked havoc throughout the country. The elite that never seems to learn how to break the walls of denial that it built around itself.

Dawit fails in his history writing, but calls for more biased revisions: “Our genuine historians had to dig a lot to bring the truth out and popularize it.” The genuine historians have been turning out the usual “truths” since the Kebre Negest was authored; and it is open knowledge what type of truth are included therein: chauvinistic, deceiving and self-serving bundles of lies and myths.

One can write volumes about the narrow, feudal Abyssinia centered history; Eritreans have been subjected to that for too long. But now, the zeal for standing up to injustices is alive, the oppressed are struggling for their rights. The spirit is different. No one will take it with folded hands.

Who Is Marginalized By Whom?

As long as the members of the Abyssinian elite do not divorce their chauvinism and change their attitude, as long as they insist on keeping the peripheral people subservient to their egos, as long as they do not recognize that the marginalized are citizens with equal rights, they are doomed—and the country that they claim to love so much, is doomed. They should realize that the numerical fact of the marginalized alone does not justify their exclusion. And Dawit accuses the “Weyane” as the “elite people from Adwa, Axum and Shire.”

Commenting on strictly Ethiopian affairs is something I try to avoid; but Dawit leaves me no choice and I deserve to be excused. Since Dawit traveled the “width and breadth of Eritrea,” he would have served the reader honestly if he described the origins of Isaias and his clique as well. He should have completed the tapestry instead of leaving it a half done image. He didn’t, though he knows. He chose to feed his readers select political, agitating messages. Going all the way, it would have been nice of him if he described the ethnic and religious composition of the Ethiopian opposition, those whom he is pushing to bond with Isaias. He didn’t.

The issue has become similar to a neglected picture frame that has been hanging on a wall for too long. It is so present, so part of the wall that after a time one forgets its existence. In other words, it is taken for granted and you don’t check if it is there every time you return to your house, as frequently as you would check your valuables. But the picture frame that you do not notice is clearly visible to the rest of the people—Dawit has not freed himself from the ancient Abyssinian goal of hegemony and forging dubious destructive alliances. Why would someone call for an association with the Isaias regime? Another cycle of destructive war?

The same elite have already committed enough destruction for centuries. But the next time around, the elite should remember that there are other social forces around; if they keep ignoring that fact, I foresee a terribly rude awakening.

I would dare say that under the current government, the lots of the Oromos, Tigray, Somalis and Afars (and generally Muslims) and other marginalized people have improved many folds relative to their historic situation under successive feudal Ethiopian regimes—some were being enslaved until recent history. As for Eritreans, to me, the fact that the EPRDF recognized the self-determination of Eritrea places them in a favorable historical position. Some Ethiopian elite could hate the EPRDF, but it is clear that they have achieved so much towards empowering the marginalized people; they deserve credit on this regard. And they have done it softly, awakening the elite by singing lullabies and the smell of roasting coffee. If the marginalized did the awakening themselves, it would have been very different.

Dawit mentions that “The Nile, the Red Sea (Eritrea) and Somalia (the Ogaden)” are paramount strategic importance for the well being ofEthiopia. Leaving aside the elite’s obsession of portraying the Red Sea as some cave where Cyclopes and Pirates hide to jump at Ethiopiaanytime it blinks, I am baffled by the fact that the rights of Eritreans, Ogadenis and Afars are always subservient to the proponents of Greater Ethiopia. They think that all those people in the peripheries of power are there to serve the Abyssinian elite that never questions its legitimacy to perpetually control others! They take that as given, as a god-given right!

For an Ethiopian, whose history and guiding principles is based on mythologies and fables to state that “Eritreans have been exposed to many kinds of propaganda and external interests,” is incomprehensible. But the land of the Gold & Wax has this:

y’ras simmwala now k’lela whdetu
kentu mettaket now abbrie maletu::

Unlike Dawit’s description that “Eritrea is Mehal Ager” and “the place where Ethiopiawinet began” I have many relatives whose ancestors fled to Eritrea escaping from Ethiopiawiniet. But Dawit, and the rest of the elite, need to zoom out of their comfort zone and see beyond their ethnicity, religion and region. This will be elaborated in my upcoming book, God willing, soon—I am following Dawit’s advice: “Our genuine historians had to dig a lot to bring the truth out and popularize it.” I don’t need to be a genuine historian, I try to be a genuine storyteller.

The Phobias

The elite should know that people will some day spring out of their slumber and fight for what is theirs. No one should be taken for granted, all sane people know that no one would take oppression and sidelining with no reaction indefinitely. Any reasonable person would recognize that geopolitical situations have changed and the statuesque is no more guaranteed. Technological advancements have come a long way, and thankfully, they are accessible, not monopolized by the elite. One can either embrace democracy in its genuine, and honest form, or choose to live in endless seasons of pillaging and violence—and for a country that knew nothing but “elect-of-god” kings and imitation Stalins, Ethiopia is not doing bad.

If I were an Ethiopian, I would take it easy and be thankful I have reached this far. I would stop the tactics of the ancient regime and try to improve the playing ground by using indigenous tools, education, work for justice and equality and engage directly in the country. I have so much respect for those who make their points and pursue ideal democracy and mobilize their people towards peaceful struggle inside the country; I have zero respect for those who totally depend on political NGOs from world capitals.  I would not allow my country to be run by whoever has the deepest pocket.

History by Commission

An often-repeated obsession with belittling the origins of the Eritrean struggle comes straight from the Eritrean ruling regime’s discrediting manuals:

“I was there as troop commander when the first conflict started between the government troops and the rebel forces (then they were just bandits) because they did not have any political agenda.”

This is typical of an elite that is so arrogant it thinks that it owns all the tools of knowledge; others are dummies. No one else is able to plan as they plan; no one else is as smart as they are. Dawit’s club of elite (including Isaias) lacks basic humility in acknowledging what is done by their opponents and keep making such outrageous declarations. Bandits? That doesn’t even warrant a response but the more serious claim does.

Though they would have been considered brilliant and progressive if they waved a communist manifesto—which is the only thing Dawit’s Derg regime had (and imported, at that), Awate and his brave colleagues had an agenda, a concise political agenda at that. It can be summed up in one sentence: it was to get Dawit and his troops out of Eritrea. Dawit himself has confirmed, “many [Eritreans] joined the rebels …because they …were denied their right to live without fear of being persecuted, arrested and tortured and executed.” What agenda is needed when the reason is clearly identified? Why join Ethiopia when all that comes from it is more death and oppression, a long history of persecution, aggression and pillaging starting from the time of the likes of Degiat Wube? Eritreans joined the rebels because they wanted nothing to have to do with Ethiopia. They wanted to have a fence they can close when they go to bed at night. They wanted any dealing with Ethiopia to be in broad daylight, when everyone is wide-awake, when each neighbor opens his door willingly without coercion.

But leaving tit-for-tar aside, for those who wish to be educated, though it is coming over half a century later, the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) was started by parliamentarians, lawyers, university students and labor unionists. They knew they did not fit in the tight club of the Ethiopian elite of the time, they were its anti-thesis. They were so progressive that they rejected an archaic feudal regime and had the courage to pave the way for its eradication. Ethiopians should be grateful to those people; they hastened the political transformation ofEthiopia. If not for that, today, there would have been another feudal Janhoi ruling over the millions of landless peasants. Yes, the power structure of ancient Ethiopia was destroyed. Yes, there are many who are fond of that era and remember it with nostalgia. But if that was good or bad depends on your perspective—of course, those who suffered, “the loss of power and influence” didn’t like it, just like Dawit.

I was Also There, Shaleqa Dawit

What is amazing is that Dawit was everywhere, even in places he imagined he was. He claims, “I was there when [Awate] was captured and killed.” All right, I was there in Meqdela when Tedros swallowed a bullet from his pistol. I shook General Napier’s hands. Too ancient a history? I have lived that age, in my imagination—why not, if Dawit can imagine witnessing Awate’s capture and death, I was in Meqdela. Prove me wrong! But Dawit’s claim that Awate was captured and killed (didn’t say if he was summarily executed!) is a novel claim—there is no single document, or even a claim, that Awate was killed or captured. I have never seen or heard such a claim even from official Ethiopian sources. I challenge Dawit to prove this, substantial proof, not the ‘I was there’ type. Awate died of a sudden illness and was buried by his friends, the band of courageous men Dawit calls bandits.

Dawit is a career soldier, a politician and a leader. To make it worse, he has a fourth component, he is an intellectual. Those four in one container are a deadly combination.

Eritrean liberation fighters had all the incentive to keep the death of Awate a secret so as not to demoralize the combatants; conversely, Ethiopia then had every incentive to publicize his death, for the same reason: to demoralize the enemy. If Dawit’s troops laid their hands on Awate’s body as he claims, they would have displayed it in the marketplace just like they did with the other bodies: for God’s sake, as a child, like everyone else in town, I was forcefully herded by Ethiopian soldiers to watch the gruesome sights of mutilated corpses the Tor Serawit hanged in the marketplace. They wanted to show their trophies whenever they had a good day and laid their hands on killed ELF combatants—this is from a nation that went through the Italian fascist rule that did the same after the attempt on Graziani’s life in Addis Ababa and its surrounding; a nation of a corrupt king who solicited foreign powers to bombard Ethiopian villages in Tigray, with chemical bombs. If I were Dawit, or anyone who thinks like him, I would reread my country’s history again, this time, critically and honestly.

Dawit further claims: “I was also there when in September 1956 (Eth. Cal.) our troops suffered their first causality at a place called Haikota, close to Agordat. The ELF took out peaceful soldiers on leave from a public bus and executed them.” I am hardly pressed to disbelieve this claim, if Dawit was there, he must have been the only Tor Serawit in Haikota. At that time, Haikota was manned by Eritrean police—Tor Serawit had not been stationed there yet though they passed through there a year earlier to pursue Awate who gave them a battle at Togoruba where the man with the ragtag group of “Bandits” came out victorious.

The date corresponds to 1964 European calendar and the people who executed that operation could still be alive. The Haikota operation is considered one of the first ever-daring operations the nascent ELF executed. The claim that the ELF killed peaceful soldiers from a public bus and executed them is either a dishonest recounting or an intended clever under the belt hit, I am not sure which. It didn’t happen.

That story is recounted by all veterans with so much pride and passion.  Here is what really happened: The bus was stopped on its way to Haikota, the combatants in civilian clothes ordered the passengers to disembark. Then they boarded the bus and entered Haikota singing and clapping (traditionally, people on a trip to bring a bride from a different place traveled that way). They surprised the policemen in the Haikota station. They were not prepared for such a surprise; it could be because their trainers told them Awate and his group are a bunch of simple BANDITS. But the “bandits” stripped the station of all its arms and stores.

In any event, EVEN if what Dawit recounts is true (and it is not), where do these two acts fall on the morality scale: executing “peaceful soldiers” who were vacationing from their one task to kill you (the alleged victims in Dawit’s mournful tale) OR burning alive women, the elderly and children (which happened in Ona and is recorded by history)?

A Peace Intended to Serve War

What Dawit is calling for is the rebirth of the Unionist Party and a new coalition of, again, of Abyssinians, to fight another targeted Abyssinians, Weyane. Haven’t we had enough of this reckless politics? Wouldn’t this be Red Tears, Part 2?

The sad thing is that Dawit is calling for another cycle of confrontation though he remembers that his friends (and many he doesn’t know),“died with a smile on their face: because the cause was the flag and the unity of Ethiopia.” And sadly enough, from another perspective, many Eritrean fighters died with a smile on their face: because they wanted to rid Eritrea of the Ethiopian troops and flag that was imposed on them. Now let’s go to war not for a noble cause, but to beat up the Weyane!

For most of history, Ethiopian ruling power has been under the control of the three-headed hydra: Amhara, Eritrean Highlands, and Tigrai. The body of the hydra represented Abyssinia. The competition among the three heads has been a typical alpha male confrontation: two heads have to suffer for the third to walk away and mount the only female. You will discover that this selfish and meaningless competition has burned centuries of the country’s history. Centuries were wasted on infighting, destroying and never building. All the violence and destruction is hatched, led and executed by one of the three heads of the hydra; other people in the area had to suffer the consequences of calamities not of their making. Dawit’s audience are not being encouraged to befriend Isaias in order to promote peaceful transition or fair competition; Isaias knows only the language of the gun and they seem to have embraced that. Oh Abyssinian elite, have mercy!

I would like to volunteer an observation: one who resorts to Isaias for a solution has nothing to do with democracy! The dream of peaceful coexistence cannot be achieved with Isaias holding the compass; he can only devise diabolical plans to take the two nations into a Somaliasituation, then we would envy Somalis and wish we were in their state. Dawit has called on Ethiopians “to work very closely with our Eritrean brothers and sisters to get rid of Woyanne.” He is betted on Isaias and his minority regime and we all know that this is another bloody adventure being hatched. For me, the day you side with Isaias, you lose my respect.

Dawit confirms, “Assab is negotiable. Badme is negotiable.” If I was negotiating on Badme, I would suggest we give it to the Delai Lama and legislate that every Abyssinian spends three months there to be deprogrammed, cut the nerves that attract the smell of blood to his nose. Then cut the wires that ignite fire and force everyone to meditate until the devil that encourages them to wage wars is ejected. Everyone would go hungry until they forget war cries that go, Geday, Geday. It is just not ‘cool’ as the young would say. One cannot rap with pride screaming that he is a killer like a downtown gangster. As far as Assab is concerned, I would station Isaias in one of those one-meter square Gurage shops to learn how to do honest and smart business. One cannot open a grocery shop in Arat Kilo and boycott the residents of the neighborhood. Assab has been idle for ten years thanks to Isaias—boycotting 80 million people is not smart at all, in fact, it is the dumbest thing one can do.

New, More Accommodating Bridges

In conclusion, less I be misunderstood as someone who is anti-cooperation, I would like to state that I have no phobia of any kind. What I wrote above should be considered my attempt to offer a jolt, send people to an uncomfortable zone that they avoid, to make the elite understand how they are perceived and how arrogant and insensitive and irresponsible their political designs are. The region has suffered enough and people with abilities should build practical modern bridges instead of reviving bridges that we crossed and found to be weak and useless. We should call for the building of two, three, four and more bridges that would carry us all, not only the elite who have been the cause of our miseries for centuries. Dawit is a decent person, no doubt, but his message just scratches raw nerves. I wish he would revise his posture and stop igniting fires that he is sure would not burn him. Geopolitics has changed and the situation is more volatile than we care to admit. We should not pretend to promote democracy and at the same time practice what is contrary to democracy. We should not call on others to be closer to us yet we are not ready to shed our chauvinistic and paternalist posture.

Respect is the way to any future cooperation between the region’s countries. To an Eritrean (all Eritrea and not the elite’s Eritrea) cooperation is sought equally with all the countries of the region. It is good that Dawit has come to terms with Eritrea’s independence; but belittling the Eritrean struggle and repeating the old Ethiopian rhetoric, agitation and actions of the forties is a call to repeat the violent cycle that resulted the first time around.

Finally, I beg (it is only asking a favor) the Ethiopian elite to stop saying that the TPLF, “gave away [Eritrean] independence in a silver platter.” Not denying the positive role the TPLF played, but it is an insult to ignore the sacrifices and the courage with which Eritreans fought to gain liberation; the fact that it is not complete does not change that.

1 Major Dawit, a graduate of the Harar Military Academy during the Haile Sellassie era. He carries a Law degree from Addis Ababa University and Columbia University in the United States. Major Dawit was a military trainer and operations officer in Eritrea. In the eighties, he was the supreme representative of the Derg and Workers Party of Ethiopia (ye etipia serategnotch mahber (ESEPA). He was also a Deputy Foreign Minister and the Commissioner of Relief and Rehabilitation of Ethiopia. 

About Saleh "Gadi" Johar

Check Also

Please Come and Invade Us!

A fringe racist, bigoted, and servile group has been trying hard to undo Eritrea and …

  • V.F.

    Hope, that was a very interesting read to say the least. Asra Aleka Abi will have no patience to go past the second paragraph. His beloved EPRDF is under attack.

    I see a big flaw though in making the Eritrean regime as an honest partner for anything. It is a crumbling regime and it should be left for a final blow. But most Awatistas are patriotic Eritreans and so are the website owners. So I would have thought that article would have made it somewhere here in boldface but surprisingly, it is not here. Thanks for pointing the article out.

  • Resun

    Shaleqa Dawit is still a neftegna Derg at heart. So what if he went to Columbia? He is still an Amhara supremacist right wing nationalist .
    What he and his cohorts fail to see isthat they are irrelevant in today’s Ethiopia and Eritrea.They wouldn’t recognize present day Ethiopia 🙂
    He is a racist too. In one of his interviews he was referring to the EPRDF forces as “ye Tigre serawit” and to Dergue army “ye Ethiopia serawit”

  • AOsman

    Dear Awatista,

    Report on conference held on the 18/10/15, that I guess may have been the trigger for the republishing of the article?



  • Brhan

    Hi all,
    Indeed it is sad news. He was in wrong place at wrong time. The price he paid for to reach in there went to vain. My condolences to his family. May RIP.

  • tes

    For All readers,

    What the PFDJ regime is forgetting is that it is his policies that is letting Eritrean people to humility and victims of anyone who doesn’t respect humanity. Instead of writing such a trashy editorial, first and foremost, the regime should ask himself the crimes he did unto his own people. For the Israelis, they did before and they continue to do now.

    The editorial reads:

    “The Eritrean national purportedly killed by mistake today is one of the many victims of global organized crime of human trafficking. These Eritreans have been whisked off, as it were, to Israel through illicit arrangements in the past years for political objectives and as a source of cheap, manual, labour,”

    Shame for the Ministry of Information of the PFDJ regime.

    PFDJ Editorial

    Every citizen is respected in his own country not when he/she is counted as a refugee.

    And here is the video link

    shame to Israel, who has witnessed this brutal act been committed in her own soil.

    Israely mob brutally turturing an already dying Eritrean victim of Israel Security


    • Abraham Hanibal

      Hi tes,
      The PFDJ junkies are for sure using this unfortunate Eritrean’s fate for their cheap and ugly propaganda. It is the usual hypocrisy; accusing others of trying to use cheap Eritrean labor, while the fact is they themselves who have enslaved the Eritrean people to work on their gulags for decades without any compensation.

      • tes

        Dear Abraham,

        Indeed it is. Even for the message of condolence to their embassy were not sure about. Lets see how they started the news:

        1. In the introduction they said,

        ከጋውሕኦ ውዒለን ኣለዋ:: … ኣብ ማዕከናት ዜና ኪቃላዕ ዚወዓለ ወረ

        In Tigrigna, when you say, “…ኪቃላዕ ዚወዓለ ወረ” it signifies, you don’t own it, you don’t trust it, you don’t approve it, etc. It is a negative connotation.

        In english, they made it a little bit formal,

        Several news agencies have reported today the fatal shooting of an Eritrean citizen by Israeli soldiers in the city of Be’er Sheva.

        Here ኪቃላዕ can not translated as reported. rather, ኪቃላዕ stands for disseminated, diffused, etc.

        From this what we can conclude is that, they are simply rejecting what is said.

        2. About condolence message

        “… መልእኽቲ ናይ ሓዘን ውን ሰዲዶም ተባሂሉ ኣሎ”

        Its English version is again more formal. here it is

        “…condolences have been conveyed to the Eritrean Embassy by Israeli authorities.

        Here the editorial is either not sure about the message to the Eritrean embassy or wants to discredit the message.

        3. “…ኣብ ልዕሊ ሰላማውያን ሰባት ዝወርድ ዘሎ ዘስካሕኪሕ ግፍዒ”

        Haha, here they are trying to sheeps when they are rally the wolfs. They could have ashamed when they narrate like this. PFDJ has no any trace of humanity to talk about mistreatment and torture. All the young people who are exposed to racists and traffickers are primarily because of their brutal administration system.

        Let me take its english version.

        “”…intensified violence that is being perpetrated against civilians.”

        Haha, real joke from the master of criminals.

        4. …ኣብ ልዕሊ ዓሰርተታት ኣሽሓት ዝወርድ ዘሎ ግፍዒ..”

        Here they were talking seriously but they should first include themselves as the main actors. Without PFDJ torture, this news becomes incomplete.

        Its English version:

        is one of the many victims of global organized crime of human trafficking

        Here the English version is carefully constructed. They omitted the figure which amounts to 10s of thousands and replaced it by “many”

        5. “…ዝተወደበ ዓለማዊ ገበን ፍልሰት ፖለቲካዊ መጋበርያን ከደምቲ ሕሱር ዕዮን ንክኾኑ ንእስራኤል ከምዝተሰዱ ዝተገብሩ”

        Here, they are really making their case. the hidden message of the editorial is here. they wanted to accuse the world while trying to be sane. Worse, they are talking in cheap labor force. Aha, PFDJ, they have no shame at all. PFDJ forgot that they are slaving Eritreans for the last 18 years with no payment at all.

        At least in Israel, those who are allowed to work are able to manage their life. Even some saved money and constructed houses back home. Unfortunately their houses was demolished by the brutal regime. Who was then hiring for cheap labor? Ah, sorry I forgot, back home no one was hired but enslaved. PFDJ, you were right, just I was wrong.

        Its English version

        “to Israel through illicit arrangements in the past years for political objectives and as a source of cheap, manual, labour”

        I remember that the higher board of education was hiring professors from India because they were cheap in labour. Hold on, those who were working with me, their monthly salary was 1500 US dollars. This is a cheap labour for PFDJ. And you know, I was getting only 2500 Gross salary (net 2011 Nakfa) which is equal to 41 US dollar. (Remember, I was the privileged) and had full salary. Those in National service (aka slavery), they were getting 3 US dollars per month (145 nakfa). (I had this 145 Nakfa salary for 3 years.)

        Sorry cheap labour is diffrerent from slavery. In Eritrea, there is slavery but not cheap labour. In Israel, there is cheap labor but not slavery. You are right in this regard Mr. Editorialist.

        I am really patient to read, listen and contemplate on this gibberish editorial. Shame to Yemane Gebremeskel to type this and broadcast it.

        Shame to PFDJ

        Shame to Israel.


        • Kokhob Selam

          Dear tes,

          ክንደይ ከ ትዕገስ ነዚ ሃጠውቀጠው ክትሰምዕ! ኣንታ ኣነስ ዳርጋ ኣዋርሕ ኮይኑ ነዛ መደበር ዜና ሓሶት ካብ ዝኸፍታ ::

    • Gogo

      Selam Tes,
      The PFDJ and its supporters reminds one of a criminal who kills both of his parents and pleads the court to show clemency because he is an orphan. If that is not Chutzpah, i wonder what is.

  • cool

    Hi ayneta,
    your third point exellent, it may serve as some impulse to stop brother saleh johar from thinking christ vs moslem in every aspect of life.By the way he is not the only one thinking in this category ,it is like an epidemic spread all over the moslem world.
    If you tell a moslem news: “man landed in the mond” he would automtically ask you what is his name? expecting the answer to be “osman or Ahmed” If you tell the same story to (the landing of a man in the mond) to a budist or juda or hindu or christ ,he would enjoy the news as it is a step forward in the developement of man kind.

    • Saleh Johar

      You are right, those Muslims are bad. As for myself, I will keep asking whenever someone goes to the moon hoping it’s you.There are no Muslims there and it will be a perfect place for you 🙂

      • cool

        hi saleh ,
        donot take it personal i have just described a phenomenon ,hoping to take impact!

    • Resun

      You are a douchebag (and I come from an orthodox Christian background )

  • Saleh Johar


    I know humor in short supply. I am sure Fanti can ship you a few sacks of humor. If not, then Abi has some smuggled humor that you can buy at reasonable price. But you need some humor. I will do as you said and immigrate to the holy land, Lasta.

  • Ted

    Hi Ayeneta, if you let me go by numbers
    1, i agree, nothing new what he has said about Eritrea and never moved an inch from his position one Ethiopia.
    2, Do you believe what Dawit said. I don’t. When it comes to federation and another arrangement, whether IA/PFDJ thought about it or not, it didn’t show when Eritreans made to vote only one of the two; independence or Union. That is your proof.
    3. You need to understand Dawit was playing from his old book Muslim vs Christians when he was in charge in Eritrea. Why the Muslim Eritreans start independence struggle is your proof that they were getting the short end of the stick( don’t expect dawit or any other Ethiopian to tell you that, just ask Eritreans, more so Muslims).. The rest is history after the privileged christians got the memo, together we got our independence.

  • Saleh Johar

    Hi Ayneta,
    Thank you your insightful comment though you had one reservation. Let try to explain why you should be reserved about the mention of other dimension.

    I am sure you will agree that in the politics of our region what is said and written always carries what is not written and said for political correctness, or to ameliorate the anxiety of the recipient. Add to that Marxism that raped the Eritrean politics and which discourages such topics because it hinders the quest for a classless society. I understand, but writer admitted his politics are about winning, power, leadership, and ethnicity. Nothing of these can be achieved without considering constituency and social classification. And we know how politics are calculated in our region, religion was always at the center of it. Unless we talk about it openly, it will always haunt us. Therefore, I dint only mention what he said, but what was not said and which was there between the lines.

    I hope you understand my perspective though you might not agree with it.
    Thanks again

  • Eyob Medhane


    1) Well, let me start with this. “One of those Patriarchs”? Ethiopia in its 3000 years of history (I know this will get you :-)) Has only SIX patriarchs. Abune Baslios, Abune Teoflos, Abune Tekle Haimanot, Abune MERKORIOS, Abune Paulos and Abune Mathias. Four of the are dead and two are alive. One has RESIGNED and later claimed he was pressured to do so and one is still in charge. You, my friend are confusing names of two different people. Abune MERKORIOS is the former patriarch, who changed his mind about resigning later and Abune MEKARIOS, a man, who was a bishop at one time and now just a crazy priest no one takes seriously. He is the one, who claimed he went to Isayas to negotiate Col. Bezabih’s released. Not the Patriarch MERKORIOS. They have two different names, and the old and fragile patriarch MERKORIOS, wouldn’t do such travels.

    2) Col. Bezabih was not technically “enlisted” again. After EPRDF decided to demobilize the rebel fighters and professionalize the army. It called the former army members back to work with conditions. 1) they had to go a rehabilitation process. 2) unless some exception specified they could not be high ranking members of ESEPA and their military ranks could not be higher than Colonel. With that call most former Air Force members rejoined their former unit. Colonel Bezabih took advantage of that call and went Debrzeit barely a year after he was released. Mind you how really magnanimous EPRDF is (I am really serious) his brother elder Dr. Beyene Peteos was a chief opposition leader and the harshest critic of the government then and now. Yet, Colonel Beyene was trusted with high ranking military post.

    3) I don’t believe Colonel Bezabih is alive. If he is he probably is having the same fate of those who are in Era Ero or was let to die in a container. Even his brother now a secretary of MEDREK Beyene Petros doesn’t believe he is alive. That is my answer with bunch of corrections to you, sir…. 🙂

    • Pass the salt

      6 patriarchs in 3000 years? Wow! They must have lived long years. Really long.

      • Eyob Medhane


        Ha ha…. Until 1959, All patriarchs were Egyptians, per the order of “Fitha Negist”…. 1959 is the year Ethiopian Orthodox Church separated from Coptic church of Egypt and appointed Abune Baslios as the first patriarch in 1960….

        • Saleh Johar

          Hi Eyob and PTS.
          A little addition: Abune Teklehaimanot had made a deal after the defeat of Queen Judith’s dynasty, among the deals were the return of the “Solomonic” Dynasty; a third of the kingdom’s land to be ceded to the Abun for to maintain himself and the church; and that no native Abyssinian should be appointed Abune. Since then, as the treaty of the 14th (?) century treaty, Abyssinian Abun was appointed from Alexandria, Egypt.

          • Eyob Medhane

            Gash Saleh,

            Ha..you and Sal today are into mixing up names… 🙂 You actually are talking about the ORIGINAL Abune Teklehaimanot (St. Teklehaimanot) Do you know what we used to say, when we were children? (I think kids still say it) ( Abuye tsdiqu, gedel ende akirma yemisenetiqu) 🙂 Or we used to sing Abune Teklehaimanot, endegnaw sew nachew, Sebat Amet mulu qomew band egrachew…. (I forgot the rest of the lyrics) Anyway, that Abune Teklehaimanot was never a patriarch. He was a an “Echege” or a “candidate”. He was a saint in Ethiopian Orthodox Church and later on canonized as such by Egyptian Coptic church. I did not know that he made the decision, which I think really strange for an independent country to have a head of its church to be brought to From Egypt. I will have to research on that. I was actually talking about the modern era of Abune Teklehaimanot. Who Derg helper to come power, but ended up being a pain on the neck to him. He was a fierce critic of it and died illness induced by hunger strike in opposition of Derg in 1988…..

          • Saleh Johar

            Check it. He made the treaty with poor foolish king who I think abdicated to reinstate a Solomonic prince who was in hiding in Shoa as king that is where haileSellasie claims his continuation of the dynasty. Abundant teklehaimanit is the founder of a monetary whose name escapes me know. and yes. that became part of the kibre negest and passed by anonymous vote in the first ever Ethiopian democratic legislation. Abi shoul know about that 🙂

          • Eyob Medhane

            Gash Saleh Eshi, I will check it out,

            All I am warning you about is that don’t make me receive the wrath of “Abuye Tsadiqu, gedel ende Akirma yemisenetiqu”. You know that, if we doubt his wisdom, both yours and my fate will be to be torn apart just like the “gedel”. So, I am going to do my prayer and “silet” to Debre Libanos for both of us, before I started with my research… 🙂

          • Saleh Johar

            The Abun is believed to be a saint but I think he was also very smart, and clever.He could have terrorized the nobility by his ability of “gedel mesenteq” and walked away with a third of the kingdom’s land. It took centuries and the brutal derg for the poor Ethiopians to get a piece of their country. See the irony? The saint take the land and the brutal Derg meret laarashu 🙂

        • Kokhob Selam

          Dear Eyoub,
          Ha ha… pass the salt want as to lough. but again before I finish laughing on you. “untill 1959 all patriarchs were Egyptians” does that mean all those years Ethiopian christian population was there for the last 3000 years ?
          Ethiopian was christian country before Christ Lol. When are we going to stop …! I read also Ethiopia declared christian religion as state religion in 330AD. Hahaha.

          you know the propaganda we use to hear similar to that one “IA writes his name by shooting his bullet on the wall” Lol… the guy never use gun, he let others use it.

          • tes

            Dear Kokhob Selam,

            Please leave Eyob Mehanie to hallucinate. He is good except he hates Arabs. What he does is to try to make his narration free of Arab influence as much as possible. For that, 3000 is fine.

            Christianity was introduced just after the death of Jesus by his one Apostle in Rome. Before, there was no religion called Christianity but Jews or something like that.


          • አዲስ


            Is this an attempt to sarcasm? or a serious question? Surely you know about the relationship b/n Ethiopian Orthodox Church and Egypt Coptic Orthodox Church and its breakdown. no?


          • Eyob Medhane


            The sarcasm is actually something I don’t expect from Khokhob. He is a decent man, but he was off the rails on this one…also it is a proven fact that Ethiopia has declared Christianity as a state religion after only Armania right after the Nicea convention. Yet, he seems to scoff at that fact, too. Very sad.. 🙁

          • Saleh Johar

            And of course the church was against the Nicea convention…

          • Eyob Medhane

            Gash Saleh,

            Not exactly. The church had amendment that it recommended along with Coptic church, Armanian church, Syrian Church, Indian malankara church, which was not accepted by Nicea. Hence they are called “The Oriental Orthodox Churches”. (A group, which several hundred centuries or almost Millania later joined by “Eritrean Orthodox Church” just some 24 years ago. ) 🙂 All of these churches don’t have an outright rejection of Nicea..

          • Saleh Johar

            I think you need to ask a knowledgeable tewahdo scholar, forget wiki for the moment. Besides, I think our church keeps most of the gospels that were rejected by Nicea, leaving aside the difference on Christology, and the Monophysite doctrine. This is a fascinating philosophical issue which I want to learn seriously.

          • Eyob Medhane

            Gash Saleh,

            I actually asked someone very close to you, if you were a closet orthodox 🙂 because you seem very well versed in the church’s history…I will keep digging on what you recommended…Speaking of Nicea rejected books, a Muslim friend of mine told me that one of the Canons that were rejected at Nicea 2 which Ethiopian Orthodox Church included the book of Enoch (Metshafe Henok) is too close to Quran’s narration of creation and the story of Adam and Eve. Is that true?

          • Saleh Johar

            I think the book of Eunoch is very close. All I can say is that the Tewahdo (not orthodox) is the original name of the church and Islam is a religion of TewHeed-meaning Unitary as in singularity. What happened in Nicea is a political settlement or decision on many theogical differences that arose after the time of Christ. The Abyssinian church rejected most decision following the church of Alexadria. Many pious saints were brutally murdered as a result of their rejection of Nicea. Check Ali if any church includes Ahadu Amlak in one sentence of payer with Besme ab be’weld be’menfes qddus (and then add) Ahadu Amlak. What I know is, they say in he name of God, the son, and the Holy Spirit, amen. No Ahadu Amlak. In Italian, close to Latin, it is el nome del Padre e del Figlio e dello Spirito Santo, Amen. No one God. That I think makes it closer to Islam, I think, but i am not a theologian.

          • Eyob Medhane

            Gash Saleh,

            Belew……Your last sentence would have Abune Teklehaimanot torn down not only gedel, but everything that moves, but the good thing is you added that you are not theologian… 🙂

            However, that actually not the most blasphemous thing that you said. 🙂 It is this one. “…..pious saints were brutally murdered as a result of their rejection of Nicea….” Do you know the most grave and serious condemnation in Ethiopian orthodox Tewahido church? It is “Wuguz keme Arios” (be condemned like Arios) Do you know why Arios was condemned that severely? Because he rejected Nicea council. That was all his sins were. And yet, you seem to praise him as “pious”. Tsk tsk tsk….egzio maherene kristos…Even in everyday lexicon, when some one is too cruel in Amharic..we say… “Oh… So and so (insert Isayas Afeworki) is Arios… Anyway, I do agree with you that Nicea 2 was a political settlement. Which is partly why Oriental churches objected to it. But Nicea 1, which we have no objection to it was a genuine effort to consolidate Christianity. Roman Catholics were not happy about that so they convinced Constantin to call up another council to strengthen their position. That is what we (by we I mean Coptic church of Alexandria) objected to. About Ahadu Amlak…of course the name of our church is Tewahido, but interestingly today’s Ethiopian Protestant churches also include Ahadu Amlak… I guess it is something unique to Ethiopia…. 🙂

          • Saleh Johar

            I would have enjoyed this discussion but I am afraid the touchy-feely-sensitive people will create a fork road a take us too far. I really love the topic.

            Nicea 1 and Nicea 2? Well, I think it is like the League of nations and the United Nations, different though for one purpose. Nicea was all about politics, and a Roman initiative. I think it results in division within all the ancient churches.

            Don’t you think the divisions that many kings tried to resolve, but Yohannes IV brought to rest, was a division that had its source in Nicea? Please tell me the source of those divisions because I think it was on the nature of Christ–that is the only major difference I see between Islam and Christianity, and that is why I mentioned it based on the book of Eunuch that you mentioned–not necessarily the other details.

          • Eyob Medhane

            Gash Saleh,

            True. Both Nicea conventions are political. I think the difference is that the first one was right after a time, when Constantin was converted to Christianity and he really wanted to 1) To make up to Christians that have been persecuted in Rome and elsewhere by uniting them and make them powerful. He convened all sects because both he and his wife saw the growing influence of Christians and tried to gain their favor particularly those East of the Aegean Sea by creating a united Christian block. When the council was adjourned about six months later, almost all of the canonical and doctrinal issues were ironed out and particularly Russian, Greek and Alexandria churches walked away with a lot of what they have proposed. Roman Catholics and Old Catholics were not very happy and using their geographical proximity to Constantin they nagged him (later on his son) to call on another council to settle canonical issues, which they claimed it was not properly addressed. Unfortunately, there was also some internal struggle for influence between Nicea 1 signatories particularly between Arius (Arios) of Cyrenaica (Modern day Libya) and Athanasius (Atnateos) of Alexandria (Modern day Egypt) to object and counter the Roman Catholics which rather Athanasius found the new called up second council could be used to have his nemesis Arius condemned. Later on he objected the council, because, he found out that a large sect of the particularly old Catholics (now ISIS is completely erasing them in Syria and Iraq by the way) agree with many of Arius definition of the nature of the Christ and also wanted the sea of St. Peter’s (Rome) to be the seat of “Christiandom”, giving the head of St. Peter’s (the pope) a power over all churches. That did not sit well with Athanesius, and Eastern Churches (Russian, Greek and all Eastern rights) because they believe among the equality of all Christian rites and the leader of the church is on the basis of “First among Equals” which means a leader is used only to chair congregation of bishops and to have the flock pray to God orderly, but not to claim infallibility. Hence, leaders of the church should be guardians of their church or fatherly to their flock. They are called Patriarchs. The first among equals was the Alexandria church, therefore, it’s leaders is called “Baba” the father and chair all meetings, when all Eastern rites are gathered. So, these agreements were skirted in Nicea 2 and the Romans claimed more power on that convention and marginalized the Eastern rite churches…

            Now, when we come to Atse Yohannes attempt to resolve disputes between religious leaders was a bit different. There were some Catholics, who called themselves (qibat) largely in and around Bahir Dar, who were challenging the Orthodox Church and honestly I personally do believe that he was pressured by the Egyptian patriarch. Who was whispering over his ears who he should side with. But largely that was a debate between philosophies of Catholic lite and Tewahido church….In a larger sense, all Christian denomination divisions have source in Nicea. But, the Boru Meda debate was about some priests, who were ancestors of converted Catholics by the Portugese, during the time of Susnios and priests between Tewahido church..That is my take….Phew..I talked your ears off… 🙂

          • Saleh Johar

            Eyob, you did, you cleared a few points for me. But I believe the Jesuits in Gonder, once they gained the favor of the king, went a bit out of the way and required all Tewahdo (notice, I do not use Orthodox until I clear a few things) to be baptized again and that infuriated the Tewahdo whose rejection changed the religious balance for good. The Jesuits were expelled and that is history. Are you saying Boru Meda addressed that issue or you have other Catholics in mind?

            By the way, Mohammed Abdulwahab of Saudi Arabia (Wahabi) did just the same. He ordered the Muslim of Arabia to once more pronounce the Shahada (bear witness that Allah is the only God and Muhammed is his messenger). In Christianity you are not a Christian unless Baptised; in Islam, you are not a Muslim unless you bear the witness (Shahada).

            Could you please elaborate the doctrinal difference between “Kara” and “Qibat”?
            Thank you

          • abrham

            Dear Saleh
            The Oriental churchs accepts all councils held before the council of chalcedon which resulted the church to be divided into factions.At this time leaving aside the political conflicts among the main issues that created schism is their misunderstanding on christology not on the books. And the brand monophysite which is mainly used by the western churches doesn’t match our doctrine hence the church condemned when ‘አውጣኪ came up with such teaching. Finaly, if there is any religion from the christian denominations that resembles Islam is, it must be Johva witness which is very alike with Arios of libyas teaching who is excommunicated in nicea.

          • AOsman

            Dear Abraham,

            You are correct, with the many conversation that I had with Christians, I found Jehovah Witness the closest in the believe to Islam about Jesus Christ. The divinity of Jesus was the hot topic at the time, his nature when on earth

            Are you aware the similarity in belief between Jesus and Krishna? (I think also Mithra)

            Krishna is said to be:
            1. a God and the Son of God
            2. sent fro heaven to earth in the form of a man
            3. called Savior, and the second person of the Trinity
            4. his adoptive human father was a carpenter
            5. a spirit or ghost was their actual father
            6. from royal descent
            7. visited at birth by wise men and shepherds, guided by a star.
            8. ….and many more link below

            Dear Saleh,

            Semere’s announced next book is supposed to be about History of the Tewahdo Church, he may be the expert in the house to consult, not sure if he has published the book. Looking at the link provided by Eyob there was a council prior to that of Nicea around 50 AD (Council of Jerusalem) where the issue of following the rules in the Old Testament was at the heart of the debate (Gentile conversion and the need to adhere to many traditions of Judaism). One of the agreement was that TRE SGA is not allowed, now you have something to tie Eyob on when he will invite you to it.


          • Semere Andom

            Hi Osman:

            Although both Islam and Johovahs believe that Jesus is not God, Islam believes that Jesus is a human, born to a human and an average prophet like Moses and Mohammed. God was sending prophets to his people according to their maturity and with different powers that was fit for the times, Islam teaches. They believe in the second coming of Jesus who will rule for 40, no one knows if this is 40 years, 40 centuries or 40 months, or 40 days just “sofa yahkimma arbaEEn”., but the sending of Prophets stopped with prophet Mohammed that is why they call him, the last prophet of prophets

            The Johovas do not believe that Jesus is a man, but he was created man like the son of Adam, but as the first being created by God in fact when God said let us create man in our image he was talking to Jesus they say. So Johovah’ss do not believe that Jesus is a moral man, he is created, but he is not God, he was created by God, which is different than waht the Catholics, Orthodox and Protestant believe: Jesus as the son of God, he is is God and he was not created, you know the complicated versus from John: “in the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God”, King James and NIV translation. The Neworld Translation, which is what the JW use, translated it like this: ” In the beginning was the word and the word was with God and the word was a god”

            Although as Saleh said the ” Wo Ahdu amlah’ is only unique in the Tewadhod, all three believe that he is divine

          • AOsman

            Dear Semere,

            John 1:1 is a typical example where the message can be lost in translation, add to that variations that you may have from available manuscripts. Without knowing the Greek and Hebrew languages, it is difficult to know whose translation is closer.

            An Muslim would say the Word is “BE” “كن”, which God used to create all…thus “BE” preceded all and it fits with Genesis of creation

            And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light.

            إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُ إِذَا أَرَادَ شَيْئًا أَنْ يَقُولَ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ
            Surely His Command, if He wills a thing, is only to say to it, “Be!” and it is.

            As for the differences on Jesus from the early generations, the following documentary mentions the Letter of James (brother of Jesus) and an old manuscript that is in a Church in Palestine. The presenter discusses the struggle of the early Christians and an interpretation of Jesus as just Servant (Prophet) of God.



          • Saleh Johar

            Bruce of Kinniard (very racist block by the way) mentions that in his volumes of books–that blood should be let and touch the ground (or something like that) and therefore the raw meat, etc. I would never eat raw meat even if someone shows me a script in the Kuraan, Bible, and all the holy books. That is my main reason for rejecting unity with Ethiopia–Eyob and Abi, take note 🙂

            As Abraham mentioned, The Jehova seem to be close to Islam on certain parts–but mainly their aversion to alcohol and stuff of that nature–but so are the Pentecostals. But I am inclined to learn more about Tewahdo for many reasons.

            My friend Semere’s book project is alive, he is just waiting for some divine revelations on certain chapters to put as footnotes 🙂

          • Saleh Johar

            Dear Abraham,

            I would appreciate it if you would explain the monophosite doctrine in relation to our church. I read many books by Western scholars (like Ollendorff) that says it is Monophosite. But I have come across many Tewahdo who reject that, like our Friend Eyob (?) I can believe that Eyob could have an offshoot church 🙂 but I want to know that from you.

          • abrham

            Dear Saleh,
            When Nestrius( ንስጥሮስ)condemned for his emphasing the human nature of christ upto separating Him into two persons, and Eutyches came with wrong answer against him. By his teaching he(Eutyches) is the well known monophsite ever. Unlike tewahdo he believed the devine nature of christ has absorbed the human. But the tewahdo rejected his assertion and stated tha nature of christ as follows.
            “One united devine-human nature, will and energy in th same christ. It is a union without confussion, without change, without division, without separation”
            ነገር ብምሳሌ እንድዩ ሓንቲ ሓጺን ናብ ሓዊ እንተ አትያአትያ’ሲ ሓዊ ዶ ሓጺን?
            ኣውጣኪ ስለዝጓሃረት ሓዊ ኢልዋ ሊቃውንቲ ተወህዶ ድማ ሓፂንን ሓዊን በልዋ ንስኻኸ ግርማ ዓዲ?

          • አዲስ


            Oh well…May be he will do better next time 🙂


          • Rahwa T

            Hi Eyob,
            I, too, was surprised to read such a weak comment from Kokhob selam. bekegn gonu altensesam neber mesel.

          • Kokhob Selam

            Dear Rahwa T,

            ኣረ ኣይደልም – እንዴ !! ግርማ ቸሩ “ዱብ ዱብ በሉ – ተንቀሳቀሱ ” ሲል ትዝ ኣይላችሁም ? ኣሁን እኔ በጀመርኩት ስንቱ ተጻፈ ?ይሀው የምንወደሽ ራህዋ ብቅ ኣልሽልን :: ማን ያውቃል ሃያትየም ድምጽዋን ታሰማን ይሆናል::

    • saay7

      Hey Eyobai:

      Welcome come and thanks for all the imaginary corrections:)

      The EPRDF didn’t make a call to ex-Derg officers until 1999 (8 years after it held power and less than a year after the breakout of the Eritrea-Ethiopia border war) so some* people may be excused if they think this had nothing to do with magnanimity but necessity. All credit to them: while they were reconciling with their arch enemies in Derg (people who bombed them), Isaias and Co were antagonizing their comrades-in-arms.


      * me.

  • Ted

    Hi the Greatest MS. This man would have been in the center of Ethiopian politics if weyane have not stole his thunder with the time tested approach “punish Eritreans to submission”. He seems at the loss who he want to address as good hearted person :Eritrean Christians , Ethiopian Unionist or Eritrean Unionist. As awful person as he is, still want to cover his heinous crime by “ IA’s confederation aspiration” and his role in it. He is one sick person need to be shunned by all Ethiopians and Eritreans.

    • Mahmud Saleh

      Marhaba Ted, Semere &Abraham Hanibal

      The man is full of ከረንሾን ጌሶን። He lets fumes of lies out. In the following he says Eritrean youth were joining EPLF in droves, and guess what he said in the article Saleh pounded, he said that while he was the “governor of Eritrea” (thanks sebri for the correction, Dawit also corrects himself here), the youth were abandoning the EPLF!!
      ” The proposal ‘Hule Geb Abiyotawi Zemecha’ was prepared after discussion with many people who understood the nature of the war and how and why the secessionist movement, the EPLF, was able to recruit so many young Eritreans and challenge the largest army in Africa and why so many Eritreans were fleeing the towns and villages to join the guerrilla movement.” (another Dawit?)

      This is when he was the “governor,” 1980-1982 (the 6th offensive began in Feb, 1982, that means it was being prepared while he was the governor. But in the article Saleh wacked, he said that he made Eritrean youth abandon EPLF.


      Semere wed Andom: What did gual Qeshi say ” just look around, may be you have not looked at the right places Bezabeh Could be hiding next to you, just look for the right places” and then added, ” weriduni gual Qeshi, that’s what they say!!”
      Abraham Hanibal: Don’t give much attention to all these crazy conspiracy theories. I trust our observers more than dawit and his co. Ask Awate.com. The idea of confederation and federation by itself does not help us extrapolate it to IA wanting to boss greater Ethiopia. It all depends in what context he said it. What is official is he said that closer ties or confederation were possible, and all the relations of those days pointed to that possibility.

      • Abraham Hanibal

        Selam Mahmud,

        I’m surprised a man of your calibre can’t see the intentions of Isayas: the fact is, as I said to Dawit, not of a conspiracy. It is a daylight robbery. Why would one host and nurture groups that do not even believe in Eritrea’s independence, after all the ወያነ ጠሊሞምና cry we heard after the war. This is just a reckless crime that is being committed against the Eritrean people; he is planting the seeds for future deaths and meyhem long after he is eaten by the termites. I hope he dies soon before nothing is left to salvage.

        • Semere Andom

          Context matters but IA was clear, since our rights/identity is assured now border does not matter was a paraphrased version., this is a stuff for resignation.
          I am not sure if you remember when Regan was shot the secretary of state who is a third in the succession planning of the USA said that, right now I am in charge in control Bush senior was outside the country, I think, the press jumped all over him.
          IA makes that comment literally before the dead were buried and the blood had dried and the crowed was clapping, and still dawit is still clapping. IA was hurt when MZ at a time of his choosing called him betrayed him. Ethiopia has the right to ignite the war and invade PFDJ for the crimes they were committed to make Ethiopia economically fail and the war changed the fortunes of the opposition changed. War or no war Eritreans will would have been murdered, and imprisoned. The Disabled were murdered before the war, the Johova witnesses and Muslims were hunted and murdered before the war, Bitweded was arrested before the war and many, many names Eritreans from villages. In terms of repression and death the war had no impact, it just made PFDJ eat each other, the survival of the most brutal. HS was better than Dergi and Dergi was better than EPLF, I hope the trend does not continue

        • Mahmud Saleh

          Selam Abraham
          Well, there is a plausible explanation and there is a conspiracy theory. From the comments you make, I can safely say, you are intelligent and rational. People go to superstition and speculations when they fail to make a sense of what is going on around them, or when they could not find a handy explanation of phenomenon around them using available knowledge….just like what cousin dawit is doing in his weekly sermons, trying to find some explanation in astrology why IA could not win the hearts of the youth he has made their lives hellish. But we can explain what IA is doing, we don’t need sheleQa dawit W/giorgis’ delusional understanding of what transpired between him and IA in Sahel. I was not present in their meetings but there were people present in all the meetings and I have not heard such thing as giving assurance to a man of no entity anyway. It appears ShalaQa dawit was mesmerized by the hospitality he found in Sahel, the places he was pounding by fighter jets and ground-to-ground missiles. I’m amused how delusional he is. He actually believed he could twist the arms of EPLF and TPLF at that late time of the game when the superpowers had concluded the game of arm twisting had passed. So, anyway, I have two well grounded premises when I say I don’t give much attention to the idea that IA doing all these because he wanted to rule both Ethiopia and Eritrea, or the war was as a result of betrayals between IA and Meles….
          1. I don’t speak of IA but I spent years in EPLF and I followed its evolution. Therefore, as far as the organization is concerned, the bottom line was for the Eritrean people to have a final say in determining their affair. The idea of peaceful co-existence, or forming a close tie with Ethiopia, provided that Ethiopia respected Eritreans’ right for self-determination and the principle of mutual respect, was not our of the political radar of EPLF. IA openly repeated this years after independence, and the cooperation and the coordination I saw between ministries (at least up to the time I left) indicated that the atmosphere was one of close relation. Therefore, ShaleQa dawit might misinterpreted this general explanations. Dear, Abraham, ShaleQa dawit did not have any weight except his connections.
          2. I don’t believe that man. I have seen too many lies in his writings and interviews. It is natural and easier to me to believe Eritrean politicians, some of them people who know IA better than Dawit, credible Eritrean analysts…and up to this point no one came with plausible explanation why IA could be working to rule Ethio-Eritrea.
          Dear Abraham, it is easy for me to say “yes” and move on. But I don’t want to say something I could not support with hard evidence. IA is doing what dictators do, and that’s enough for me to oppose him.

    • Eyob Medhane


      Wow! This is one of the rarest time I agree with you, totally. (y)

  • Mahmud Saleh

    Ahlan SAAY
    WO Saleh, Thanks brother. Bezabeh Whereabouts? Saleh, we don’t even know where Biteweded…Sherifo…Drue..are. You are asking me about Bezabeh? Cousin dawit is going to give us heads up in his next sermon.

    • Semere Andom

      Hi Mahnud:
      I think Sal’s questions makes sense. We knew where he was when he became POW in Saleh, we in fact knew where all the POW were and what they were up to, developing their skills, enjoying to lessen the stress, but we did not know of Eritrean fighters who were taken as prisons for different reasons
      Now as yu=ou rightly say we know not where DuruE and Sherifo and the rest are but maybe following tradition we may know where Bezabeh

    • Abraham Hanibal

      Hi Mahmud S,

      There is no doubt people like Bezabeh Petros could be enjoying a diplomattic lifestyle while our Ghedli leaders are languishing in the caves of Ela-Ero. It is ዘበነ ግርምቢጥ. Bezabeh was training the Eritrean air force right before the outbreak of the war in 1998, and now, who knows, he could be an important player in the game of Isayas, Ginbot 7, and Arbegnoch in their unholly partnership to undo the Woyane and establish a greater Ethiopia.

      • Semere Andom

        Hi Abraham:
        This comment, the information you provided that Bezabeh was training Eritreans fits into the conspiracy against our people we discussed earlier. How is that an enemy, a POW is trusted to train elite pilots, he knows what planes we have what level of skill and all the whole shebang , all working to cashier our people.
        Though he was treated royally he sure had some grudges against Eritreas so giving him access to the training manuals is frightening. IA trused the Ethiopains more than his friends and comrades

        • Abraham Hanibal

          Hi Semere,
          That he was training the ERAF is something everybody knew; and indeed he knew the Asmara air force base inside out. So when he came back to bomb, he had his targets ready; infact he was shot down because of his daring very low flight maneuver. Remember at that time the Eritrean air defense was almost non -existent.

    • dawit

      Field Marshal, M. Saleh
      I thought you had the list of all the prison guards who defected and joined the opposition. If you don’t have it please direct your enquiry to Assena.com or Asmarino.com to get the latest gossip about the where about of G-15. I think they have on file the exact prison cell number. Sorry, dawit does not disclose national security items.

      • Mahmud Saleh

        bxaay Dawitom
        In the rest of the world, it is not a matter of national security; it is a right for prisoners to have their cases known, to be brought to a court of law, to have access to lawyers and their families. I know those words don’t exist in PFDJ dictionary.

    • saay7

      Hey Mahmuday:

      I suppose, you knowing there whereabouts about Col Bezabeh is as unlikely as the Seattle Seahawks losing to the Panthers…. at home. Wait. They did. All hail Cam Newton (until he self-destructs.)

      Cousin Dawit is, as he said, smart. He called his political speeches “sermons” knowing fully well that you can’t rebut a sermon — if we could, I would have a lot to say to all the preachers whom I silently suffered all these years. Then, Dawit preached the Ertrawit Ade political philosophy. That’s potent, man. I think I told this story: an Eritrean who grew up in Comisariato Hamassien neighborhood of Asmara, now called, “Eritrawit Adde” was bemoaning that what happened to his neighborhood is irreversible: “Which future government dares to go against Ertrawit Adde? Who will dare change that name back?” Yeah, he is screwed.

      This week saw both Semere Tesfai and Dawit make appeals to nostalgia and tradition. Semere T (using a white man invention called a computer and internet) told Emma to stop referring to the White Man as an expert in pol-sci and I was hoping to see a list of the published works of our social scientists and…then he made an appeal to the greatness of Geez civilization, as if we are going to find the cure to what ails us written at an obelisk. Semere, civilizations rise and fall, and ours fell. Civilizations also borrow and steal from one another—ELF/EPLF borrowed/stole heavily from previous revolutions–so your criticism of Emma was invalid, until such time that you can show an alternative Geez solution.

      Then dawit made an Appeal to Heaven, which is fine as far as Sunday prayers go, but terrible reasoning because it is considered a logical fallacy by the people (sorry, white people) who invented that particular discipline. It reminds me of a comedian who noted how every boxer/athlete who wins gives thanks to God and he said, “I wish at some point a loser would say, “I was doing really fine until God intervened against me!” That is Appeal to Hell, just as invalid as Appeal to Heaven.

      “Baelu yetsebqo” is not a strategy; it is prayer of the helpless, and that of the least politically conscious social group at that. In contemporary art, the guy most famous for “BaElu Yetsebqo” is Haile Gebru, from his song, nsemamaE. In it, he sang (the song came out in 1973):

      ንሓውና እንዳ ተሰቀየ ኣውዲቅና ንቀብር!
      እንታይ ኣሎ ድዩ?
      ካብዚ ዝከፍአ?
      ባዕሉ ይጸብቆ!
      ነገሩ ከይሰፍሐ!

      Well, a year later, Haile Gebru didn’t wait ባዕሉ ከጸብቖ when all hell break loose: he joined the ELF and from then, on to exile, and now he is alive and kicking, singing at PFDJ festivals. Our youth are not waiting for divine intervention: they are taking their destiny into their own hands, and they will return home to sing at a future festival and they are just as God-fearing as dawit.


      • Saleh Johar

        Osman Abdulrahim also has a song baElu yetsebaqo negeru keysefhe

        • PTS

          no, that’s Haile Gebru, unless u prove it with a link.

          • Saleh Johar

            Yes Haile Gebru does it, but I think Osman has one also, I will tell you when I remember it. NowI can only remember the term…

      • Mahmud Saleh

        Ya hala ya Ustazna
        My…My…that’s an earth shaking, heaven’s door opening, reesi dawit cracking, semere’s heart aleslasit, the mother of all sermons.
        ab lbna yeHdro, rovided that we have four chambered and beating hearts.
        Seahawks? Ahh, I missed all evening awatistas conversation because of them. Ted needs to come with some explanation why they are not finishing.
        Is the “Eretrawit ade” thing real or you are joking? Like in Zoba Eretrawit Ade?

        • Ted

          Hi The Greatest MS, why why why!!! May be a God didn’t let it happen after a good start;-) Lockett’s catch was stunning if it’s any consolation to you .Toronto baseball team is playing in ALCS. The will lose and blame it on Semere Andom, everything he associate with turn to dust.

      • Semere Andom

        Saleh: phew
        You are in in that mood, weaving music, history scriptures, Asmara and sport, all married to yield this coherent comment

        • saay7

          Hey Cousin iSem:

          Maybe your muse crossed the border to avoid the Canadian political season. There was a trigger u see. Years ago, yonathan (sheikortet/lula band) did a cover of nsemamae, and it is accompanied by a random video at YouTube: an Eritrean movie, and Eritrean youth dancing terribly to terrible renditions of hip hop dances. And I always thought it was awful; now when I hear about all these young, too young, too painfully young kids, taking extreme risks to extreme exile, I just wish they stayed home and did terrible renditions of terrible dances at their homes.

          It’s all just a ticking clock of a passing of a time gone by never to return some gone for good some just gone. The football game? When I came here it was a given that blacks are not good enuff to be quarterbacks In the Seahawks Panthers game there were two. I thought of going all Grand Torino and telling my teenage son its significance then I asked why do I want to pollute his mind: let him take it as a given. In time, he will go to Europe and learn of what was paid for him by complete strangers to him, African americans, to make his home HOME. And in time, as the center of Modern Islam gets created in America (not Arab land not turkey not Malaysia but America) in his lifetime, then his home will be his palace.

          So that’s what the muse whispered. I will send her back to you now, Ane Dea weriduni veal qeshi.


          • Semere Andom

            Sal: Good one.
            My muse is distracted by the election, do not tell this to anyone but my friends and I used to have election parties, just drinking tea, eating nuts and watching the elections like sport, then some one got married and bailed out, no more parties 🙂
            I wrote two lines to share with him the joke, then decided against it because my Canadian friend will accuse me of “esube” and then I wrote one line to ask you to tell it to Mahmuday as you are better story teller then I decided against it as you will be accused by the same party as Jihadist. So I postponed it till we convene with Mahmuday for that “shahani fool one day Inshaa-Allha”:-)

          • saay7

            Hey Sem:

            Did u say eating nuts as a pastime activity ? System of a Down sings about that, except for them it is seeds and they are making fun of their immigrant parents.

            Turn your speakers to maximum and wake up your neighbors:



      • SenaiErtrawi

        Selamat SAAY,
        When we grew up, we had a Amharic term for a bitter Asmarino, “mererew brigade”. I don’t know how we started to use it, we just used it.

        You know who dared against “Ertrawit Adde”, a “mererew brigade” friend, 1st round Sawa recruit. These were his words . . .

        “nay zen sheramut adietatna’yu zgermeka,
        sawa keydley elen elelelelelele,
        tesewi’eley elen elelelelele!”

        • tes

          Dear SenaiErtrawi,

          What happened with? Somebody may say and worse becomes when other repeats. Don’t you have some respect? Refrain please from using these derogatory words.


          • SenaiErtrawi

            Brother tes,
            Sorry, edited … not because of its lack of respect (bs does not deserve respect even if wrapped with “Eritrawit Adde”), but its lack of civility (keeping Awate forums clean).

            Seriously though, I don’t know if I can respect a woman who is throwing chairs at meetings just because she is “Ertrawit Adde”.

          • tes

            Dear SenaiErtrawi,

            I am particularily on a single word use. Rest, it is your opinion. It is better to use safe words even if one is not happy with especially when it comes to people.


          • Solomon Haile


            May you rot in the darkest holes of hell! That woman you are disrespecting happens to be my late Mother who..,, If you are SenayEritrawi… Don’t worry though it seems I am falling for the bait, I got your number and the wrath “ehh” mergemmm of my mother and many more is heading your way

  • Kokhob Selam

    Dear Mahmuday,

    ወዮ ኣንቢብና ጸጊብናስ ኣይትሓዙለይ ከኣ ትብለና : ናይ ማሕሙዳይ ነገር :: የግዳስ ሰብ በቲ ዝገበሮ ሕማቕን ጽቡቕን ኢንዲኻ ትዝክሮ ንኢትዮጵያውያን ዝወዓሎ ጽቡቅ እንተልዩ እዋእ ሕውስ ኣቢልካ እንተሓለፍካ ኣይጎድእን እዩ :: እቲ ምንታይ ሲ እቶም ኣብ ግዜ ድርቂ ዝደሓኑ እሞ ዘመስግንዎ ነቲ ኣብ ሃገርና ዝገበሮ ገበናት ክፈልጥዎ እንተኾይኖም መጀምርያ ነቲ ንሶም ዝረኸብዎ ፋይዳ ምዝካሩ ኣድላይ እዩ -ሓቀኛነትካ ድማ እዩ ዘንጸባርቅ ኣይትጽለኣዮ ::

    እንተ እቲ ዝሓለፍካዮ ተሞክሮ ዓቢ ምህሮ እዩ ይቀንየልና ::

    • tes

      Dear Kokhob Selam,

      could you tell us from your experience If there are/is good deeds from the Ethiopian side during the arm struggle?


      • Semere Andom

        Prof Tes
        Well, we have to define what good is. If we take the definition of good as dawit defines it as PFDJ defines it as all the supporters of PFDJ define it, then they did many things:
        They kept the lights on, students went to school, they maintained roads and issued deeds in house ownership.
        Even without using dawit’s metrics they did good: people were actually got paid, some even got their pension while residing in Keren under PFDJ administration, you were not born then, I was too young to remember but that is true. And actually many got in trouble for going to Asmara to collect their hard earned pensions and got disappeared in Sahel, Eritrean mothers actually visited their husbands and kids in Sahel and returned to Asmara and when the Dergi got a wind of it in some cases interrogated them they denied it by saying they visited their villages, they were released. If you were imprisoned for political reasons and you were not involved in killing you were released if not released you were visited, that is why Haile Ghebru sang “tsubuqat zenabil kolekina”
        They did not arrest parents whose adult kids joined Ghedli, they did not force them to pay 50k for their missing kids, They kept the university of Asmara open, people studied there and went on scholarships on the government tab. If you stayed out of politics for the most part you were left alone. Thee was national services and if people dodged it and were not sent to WiA
        Even if you add the crimes on the villages and civilians during the armed struggle both Dergi and HS did more good for our people than PFDJ. And even if you want to compare only crimes, PFDJ mowed entire and murdered people en mass, but remember they are not reported like Ona, Weki Duba because they learned they did not advertise it like the Ethiopians , as they knew it would back fire, they tell people history is useless but they study it for themselves
        If one day people gathere enough courage and the kids and “addetat” march in Godena Harnet to demonstrate I can bet that they will mow them in broad day light and dawit will bless the action in his Sunday sermons because it is likely that none of his family would be there
        All the ministers, directors in high echelon of PFDJ studied by Ethiopians funds
        They had more schools than prisoners, PFDJ has more prisoners than schools

      • Kokhob Selam

        Dear tes,
        well, I was just saying about his good deed in his own country. now if you asking me about my personal experience, yes I have. I know someone who saved my life from those Zemach during our national struggle. I also experienced the same from PFDJ high rank personality in 1990’s in airport of Asmara. I am lucky so far . This makes me kind to people. generally speaking man is not cruel, it is the system that he creates that modify him. when man goes for war, he forgets everything of humanity. he thinks what he is doing is right and he don’t have choice. so all the crimes done during war are just not much important remembering them. the crime is when the war stars itself not the results not the things happened during the war. this information might be enough ,as telling you the story will not give much lessons for now.

  • Belay Andarge

    It is sad to see such gift for superb articulation used to disseminate falsehoods and sheer hatred for a culture and civilization that those of us in the 21st century have failed to maintain. Ethiopian Christians were victims of Ottoman interference through the agency of “Gragne” Muhammad. The Portuguese arrived a decade and half after the country has passed through a Turkish assisted devastation. Once the authority of the state was restored Ethiopians did not choose Portuguese Christians over their Muslim compatriots and neighbors. Instead, they dethroned the emperor Susneyos who favored alliance with Portugal, expelled all Europeans from the country, and the succeeding emperor Fasiledes signed agreements with neighboring Muslim rulers not to allow Europeans access to Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the only Christian dominated polity that never used its power to forceful conversion or expulsion when it had the power to do so. Compare this with what the Spanish ruling elite did to Muslims or the fate of Muslims elsewhere in southern Europe where Christians got the opportunity to gain the upper hand. I am not arguing that Ethiopia was an ideal place for its Muslim citizens, but consider the time, context and what the rest of the world did in relative terms.

    Saleh, what you should worry about is not the likes of Dawit who still consider Eritrea as his blood and flesh, but the new and emerging perception that threats Eritrea as some kind of disease that needs to be avoided.


    Dawit has become irrelevant due to his failure of reading the political developments of Ethiopia.

  • Amanuel Hidrat


    Bold and reflexive response. Thank you for sharing your personal story during those live or die situation our people were confronting with.

    Amanuel Hidrat

  • Tzigereda

    Dear Mahmud,
    Doesnt this Major belong to those who should actually be brought to the ICC?

    • Mahmud Saleh

      Dear Tzigereda

      What’s up? kefo halieki?
      My knowledge is limited with regard to the legal dimension of the subject. As you know the world is run by criminals and zombies. One would need huge amount of resources to get these criminals in addition to the fact that witnesses might have diesappeared, and records either distroyed or are in custody of parties who don’t want to cooperate. ICC has some restrictions (see link), but many countries of the west allows charges against such individuals, but as I said, it needs huge backing.


    • sara

      Good question and huge home work to all .

  • L.T

    His firstc book I read when I ended up in northern Sweden 1989 and this man going to Eritrea when I was 10 years(1979)He pretend us to cycling ,we can be out in Asmera to 1o am in the evening,he stopped to murder Eritrean and we can play where and what we want in short that he was more dangerous then Asrate Kassa and Meles Zenawi and I am very sure that many Ethiopains do not want to see what Salih write now. I do not get it why many Ethiopan wants us now?Mengestu said”We do not Resea but people of Ertitra and Sibhar Nega said the same.It’s a load of carp talk.

  • cool

    well done Mr.Mahmud saleh this was actually the answer i was expecting from saleh johar but he cut it short without any valuabel analysis
    Dear mohamud saleh can you also respond to his description of hamid idris awate as a shifta?

    • Mahmud Saleh

      Selam cool
      Thanks. Since Awate.com and particularly Saleh G Johar have been in the lead for shading light on the man who led the first Eritrean army (in interviews and many articles), mine will be a repetition. And I think Saleh addressed Dawit’s attempt of misinformation adequately.

  • derebew

    Dear Saleh

    I have in the past read comments from few Eritreans, that Dawit was kind and humane in the 80ies when he was in Eritrea and I should think for humility you joined the chorus and you have introduced him as such in your first paragraph followed by sledgehammer on the head, which in my opinion, the later is well deserved.

    How is it kind or humane when he was one of the high ranking officers of the brute regime, the Derge, that killed hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians and Eritreans. Would an SS high ranking officer be called kind and humane if he smiled when he killed or release brothers and sisters of his mistresses while murdering and torturing others who had no relevance for him and perished voiceless. Those who died in his hands have no one to tell their stories but it has to be clear when he was the highest officer in Asmara a lot of people were tortured, killed and suffered in prison under his command and responsibility. That by itself is a crime on humanity that can not be absolved, because he did a “favour” to some who could bribe him with money or sex.

    For that matter in Dawit’s position, where by choice or otherwise he had to participate in the bloodletting, torture and murder there can never be benevolence or charity but tit for tat. (otherwise is put for the benefit of the few who think he was merciful when he spared them from torture or execution for ulterior reason than respect of their individual or collective right….they forget they shouldn’t have been in that predicament of being at the mercy of any one in the first place, if it was not for Dawit and his ilks)

    Saleh, your comment is informative, it is from your own and your people’s experience and as sad as it may be it is good you bring it to the open so that many Eritreans & Ethiopians can read and learn from it.
    I have always supported the Eritrean struggle not because I am not patriotic to my country (Ethiopia) but because I believed the Eritrean struggle was a just struggle for independence of an aggrieved people whose rights was trampled and fledgling democracy was usurped.

    The TPLF/EPRDF had accepted/supported the independence/cessation of Eritrea out of principle and that principle is still the unwavering stand of the TPLF/EPRDF.
    Dawit’s and Isias’s unholy alliance is based only on mutual hatred of the Woyane and has no much traction because Woyane is much stronger and larger than the total sum of its enemies in the world leave alone the alliance of the useless Dawit, Ginbot 7, Arbengoch Ginbar, ONLF, OLF…. or other creations of Isaias and PFDJ. But if one was to assume the likes of Dawit and Ginbot 7 were to succeed and unseat Woyane what do Eritreans think will be the goal of the group or party that will come to power in Ethiopia? Do they think they will respect the sovereignty of Eritrea? I am not sure if a fox can be trusted to look after chicks? but I will leave the answer to the smart Eritreans with long term interest of Eritrea.
    TPLF/EPRDF contrary to the deceit of the PFDJ and its supporters has never and will never claim Aseb to be Ethiopian port.
    The TPLF/EPRDF and Ethiopians in general know Aseb can benefit Eritrea and to less extent Ethiopia if Ethiopia was to utilize it. Aseb is a burden for Eritrea if Ethiopia doesn’t utilize it (I am not saying own it as it belongs to Eritrea and not Ethiopia ..I am qualifying it with this careful statement, so some don’t distort my words or put word in my mouth) as the cost of maintenance of two ports (Aseb and Masawa) to service the small population of Eritrea will be exorbitant and the alternatives are either to let Aseb rot or allow Ethiopia to use it for a reasonable fee.
    The tarmac road from Djibouti to Makalle is already finished and trucks are hauling goods from Djibouti port to Makalle in 6-7 hours and the railroad construction from Djibouti to Dire Dawa, Awash and Addis Ababa is nearly complete and it will start working in 2016. The railroad from Djibouti to Woldiya, Makalle and Addis is being constructed which will exponentially increase flow of merchandise from Djibouti to Ethiopia faster and easier and the relevance of the already fading memory of the port of Aseb will become negligible. The trade benefit lost for Eritrea is not reversible due to the thriving political, cultural and friendly relationship between Ethiopia and Djibouti and the investment in infrastructure construction (road,railway, gas pipeline, water supply to Djibouti etc…) between Ethiopia and Djibouti.
    However, Ethiopians and Eritreans need to realize sooner than later, that their destiny is tied together as neighbours and have to make good decisions that benefit both people than to hanker in the old destructive political dogma.

    My wish for Eritrea is peace and prosperity as much as I wish for my country Ethiopia because I know a rich Eritrea will be a good partner for peace than a poor Eritrea. Ethiopia has expanded its economy and the living standard of Ethiopians is changing drastically for the better, while it seems it has stagnated in Eritrea if not deteriorated and that is not because of the fault of the people but due to the wrong policies & decisions of PFDJ and lack of internal peace.

    Even Somalia is now emerging from a destructive war, thanks to the massive operation being carried out by Ethiopian armed forces against Al Shebab. Soon the Somali government will be able to completely control the whole of Somalia, pacify and accelerate the economy. Somalia will become a rich neighbour and stable partner in peace to Ethiopia. The port of Berbera in Somaliland, which is being utilized to a less extent by Ethiopia now, will be expanded as it is only a 2 hours drive from Jijiga, the capital city of Somalia Administrative Zone of Ethiopia and less than 4 hours drive to Dire Dawa.
    Hopefully one day the port of Aseb will also be utilized by Ethiopia in similar arrangement with a peaceful state of Eritrea.

  • sabri

    Dear Mahmud Saleh,
    Thanks for your content-full and well written post. As you put it correctly Dawit was neither benevolent nor intellectual. He never saved people’s life. The source of this lie is he himself.

    PS: by the way Dawit was not a governor of Eritrea. I know he was trying to portrait himself as if he was the governor of Eritrea. This is another lie of him. The actual governor of Eritrea at that time was Fikru Woldetense. Dawit was a representative of ISEePAAKO (preparatory organization for forthcoming Ethiopian worker’s party). I also know there was a conflict between these two.

  • Abraham Hanibal

    Selamat Saleh Johar,

    Once more thank you for for your tireless endeavour to tell the history as seen through the Eritrean lens speaking in defense of the poor Eritrean and Ethiopian peoples who have been the victims of centuries long destructive hegemonic competitions between the Habesha Abyssinian elites. Thank you also for laying bare the lies of the Shaleqa in relation to his role during his time in Eritrea.

    Here is a quote of the last paragraph of Shaleqa Dawit’s article which is the subject of Saleh Johar’s article:

    At one point, I was discussing with the leader of the EPLF, the current President of Eritrea, Isaias Afewerki. I asked him why instead of partitioning Ethiopia, he does not become the President of Ethiopia. He gave me some reason why this would not be possible but assured me “You can be certain Mr. Dawit, that if and when we get our independence, our priority will be to unite the people under some sort of federal arrangement.”

    I don’t know whether I can believe this claim or not, based on the track record of lies of the Shaleqa, but from our observations on the actions of Isayas ever since he took control of Eritrea, may be there is some ground to believe it. We remember when Isayas spoke loudly about his wish to see a confederation between Eritrea and Ethiopia right after Eritrea’s liberation, before the bodies of our martyrs who paid with their precious lives for our liberty and independence was laid to rest. We have also seen how Isayas has been destroying systematically our legacy of Ghedli, our social unity, our pride as Eritreans by his extreme brutality. We have seen him disappearing our liberation era leaders, decimating our fledgling independent press, disappearing thousands of our compatriots whom he saw as risk for his evil mission of destroying everything that Eritreans had built. We have seen him unlawfully and single handedly discard our political institutions and our never implemented post-independence Constitution.
    My guess is that Isayas indeed had a secret plan of uniting Eritrea with Ethiopia, and that he was dreaming of a grandiose position for him as the leader of the Greater Ethiopia. The war that he ignited in 1998 could be seen as a way of blackmailing Meles Zenawi to submit to his insane ambition. Lackily to the Ethiopians, Isayas was outsmarted by Meles and Co., and what he has been doing to Eritreans ever since losing his lifetime dream is an expression of his frustration.

    • dawit

      PIA is still alive and kicking while you hero Meles Zenawi is six feet below ground. Whether you like it or not Confederation of Ethiopia and Eritrea is a better option than anything else on the table. Your conspiracy theory is based on hate.

      • Abraham Hanibal

        Ato Dawit,

        There is no conspiracy theory here: everything Isayas and Co. have been doing to Eritreans and Eritrea speak for themselves that he is for the destruction of Eritrea’s nationhood. But for someone like you whose motto is ዝነገሰ ንጉስና ዝበረቐ ጸሓይና what Isayas does doesn’t matter. I’m sure you lived after this motto even during the dark years of HS and Derg, when our people were murderd and their corpses dispalayed in market places. Dawit, you do not own empathy and compassion towards your fellow countrymen/women who are being brutalized by the ringleader Isayas and Co.

    • Semere Andom

      Hi Abraham:
      Well the claim that Shaleqa makes is as you said consistent with what IA clearly said and also consistent with what MZ said before in the after math of Dergi’s fall.
      IA has always used the cause as a spring board for his ambitions. From his his Kanjew meeting to murdering Wedi George to what Shaleqa Dawit to MZ and himself said all point to one thing But also his arrest of Bitweded to bend backwards for MZ, when Bitweded objected to Woyane’s unfettered access to the property of Assab, all are tidbits that can be added to point to a bigger conspiracy against the people of Eritrea
      That is sad, but also sad is what the other dawit, cousin dawit wants to protect IA at the expense of Eritreans and Eritrea and the injustice against Bitweded, which is not just injustice on Bitweded by the way, it is a metaphor for the injustice on genuine Eritreans who wanted better deal for Eritrea

  • Saleh Johar

    If you clear all your perceptions and misconception, you will understand it. I do not represent “all the muslim folks” therefore, hold me for what O say not what others said. Since you read my comments and what I wrote, quote from what is mine and ask me specific questions and I promise to answer. But as you can guess, generalized questions do not cut it.

    This might help you:
    1. Jeberti is not a race (as in related by blood) therefore, it is not a tribe. Its attributes, economic activity, language and faith are known to everyone, I assume.
    2. The article is very clear–I don’t understand what you are objecting to. State it clearly please–what is the “same” that they are thinking? The same with what?
    3. If you want the collective mindset of Jeberti, I am afraid I can’t help you–just like you can not answer for any group you belong to. But I know what I am about: justice, freedom, and an honest discussion…. and I love history 🙂

    NB: I never instructed you or anyone else, I just made comments.

  • AMAN

    Dear awate forumers and readers,
    As usual I have also come today to share some
    ideas with you from my continuous reserach &
    study of our Ethiopian and Eritrean history.
    Here it follows
    It is true that the main problem of the region’s politcal culture and history
    comes or arises from a jilted national identity which still manifests itself
    in two faces eventhough one Abyssinian/Habesha/ Abesha people and
    one country in that region of Africa.
    But the question is when and where did this identity jilt happen ?
    The answer is,
    Certainly it is not as the last past regimes and their historians and ideologues
    describe it or show it to the people. The HSI and Dergue regimes point to the
    Italian occupation , the HEWEHAT/ TPLF points towards the Liberation movement
    and struggle of the Eritrean people as the cause of the problem. But this is only
    a flawed resolution and description of the root cause of the problem. Actually it
    is a desperate act of finding a scapegoat or someone to blame for the fear to face
    the truth about the problem.
    Rather my reserch study shows that these identity jilt occured in about 1500 AD.
    When the country is permanently dislocated from its original resulting in a fake
    representative country of the original one. ( WILL CONTINUE )

  • sabri

    Dear Saleh,

    When Dawit was a representative of Derg in Eritrea I was a student of junior high school in Asmara. I vividly remember that Dawit was more a fearful man rather than a respected person. His speech in radio was a replica of Mengistu, full of terror and arrogance. By terrorizing and intimidating people he was indeed successful by eliminating most of the cells of EPLF in Asmara. I clearly remember in a broad light day his soldiers surrounded our neighbor. There was a kind of fire exchanges. We didn’t know our neighbor was one of the main cell of EPLF. Another thing Dawit did was he presented major Busness men like Tsehaye Moges enda golfo in radio and they were forced to say that they contributed money to EPLF involuntarily. Dawit did many such kind of dirty jobs and he was one of the main facilitator of operation red star ( shadushay werar). How can you believe him that he saved many lives?


    • Saleh Johar

      Hi Sabri,
      Didn’t believe any nicitiesc from the derg, but he might have been nice to a few he blackmailed or even saved. That was not the issue of my article though, but what follows beyond the courteous “Sunna”. I tried to show the contradiction in his claims and his ethnocentric political disposition. That is the gist of the article in addition to exposing his outrageous claims. Please focus on the main content.

      • sabri

        Hi Saleh,

        What you did in your main article is good. I did read it the first time you published it. It is good that you expose him and his like mentality.

        In your introductory remark you gave an impression that Dawit saved people’s life. I focused on it because I know the opposite fact. If you see it in a broader perspective my remark is complimentary to your good article. I thought you see it that way.

  • cool

    Dear saleh,
    (my comments and questions are concerning the piece of dawit weldegergish)
    Allthough the spirit and soul of his piece, can be considered as dovish, some contents have to be taken with the atmost caution.
    A coup planned and executed by major Dawit weldegergish in cooperation with EPLF with the final objective to confederate eritrea with ethiopia???never heard about this! eritrean untold stories??
    What is your stance to, his description of hamid edris awate he says ,awate was a profesional shifta, he was living in his village after he was released from british custody untill he was recruited by ELF??? we thought he was the intiator of the eritrean liberation movement?

    • Saleh Johar

      Was my loooong article not enough to give my take on his views, everything he wrote is dubious.

  • Sarah Hagos

    Yepp, and when did Kebessans have elits that rotted with the Abesynians…. the Kebessa chief families are killed, imprisoned and made disfunctional starting from Alula time, continued systematically with the ITalians, killed and destroyed by Haile Sellasie, and the Tigrayan Isais Afewerki. What elit did we have worth mentioning on the side of Dawit. Shouldn´t Saleh rather have written the amhara elit, and or the Tigray elit. Buttom line is neither Tigray or amhara see themselves as brothers…Abesynia was Tigray.

    • Saleh Johar

      If you are one of the elite bring your rebuttal to my views. If you are not an elite, hold your peace.

  • V.F.

    Hello dear all:

    I wonder how many people think it’s minoritiies against majorities in our region and country? Or is it brutal equal offender tyrants against everyone else? If anything, the Abyssinias of Eritrea are the ones who are faring the worst. Poor people, who will fight for them because their elites are ‘useful idiots.’

    • Fnote Selam


      The absurdity of your reason for unification of eri and eth continues to befuddle me. I don’t like think that way, but according to your ‘logic’, you realize that if Eri and Eth were to be united, the ‘abyssinians of eritrea’ will be minorities with no voice and influence….and by your advocacy they will just be a minority group that will reamin subjugated to the majorities in Eth….????

      I think there are many good reasons for unification, find them and advocate accordingly,,,,,,


  • Amanuel

    Hi Saleh
    You have been kind and fair to Dawit. Yes, he has saved lives but it is not out of humanity. It was a cunning plan to deceive the Eritrean public. Thanks God he left early. He is also a liar and I am proud of you that you striped him naked on the Haykota victory.
    He is getting old and when is he going to tell the Eritrean & Ethiopian people that under what agreement was he leading the 1989 coup from Sahel?

    • Saleh Johar

      Hi Amanuel,

      He did write About the 1989 coup plans, it was a federation of sorts under And Etiopia where EPLF would be part. Read his article which is linked in my intro.

      • Kokhob Selam

        Dear Saleh,

        I have attached the link below under Aosman post.

      • Amanuel

        Hi Saleh
        I will, thanks.

    • Dear Amanuel,

      if saving human lives in a situation of war is not out of humanity, but a cunning plan, then Schindler who saved about two thousand jews from the nazi gas chambers, should have been hanged, because one could could form an acusation against him for the heck of it, by saying that his actions could be a cunning plan to cover up the use of slave labor in his factory and his role in the nazi war economy. one can accuse a person for all the crimes of the world he has or has not done, but not for saving human lives.

  • AOsman

    Dear Awatista,

    The following is the relevant article, so you can read both and air your view:


    • Kokhob Selam

      Dear Aosman,

      what I read above was exactly what he said here too, good conformation of what he said. now he said

      “I am the only survivor from this pioneer group. For us the sanctity of the flag, the unity of Ethiopia was paramount. It was not questioned and dying for it was a cause to be celebrated.”

      the man who celebrates his death on that war is telling us “I believe that not relating with the Eritrean government is a misguided position. Let me explain why based on my own personal experience.” as all of us still believe the so called “Eritrean government” is the extension of EPLF a front who fought for national freedom – which is on the opposite side of Mr.Dawit Weldegioregis. how comes he want to have relation now? who is coming to whom, is that Eritrean government who make U turn or this man is accepting the national identity? isn’t that strange? for sure this is eye opening phenomena. the most difficult homework for PFDJ supporters. but not for you Aosman, yet say you say please.

      • AOsman

        Dear KS,

        I realised the link was provided in the first paragraph of the article, failed to notice it.


        • Kokhob Selam

          Dear Aosman,

          yes, I read the above article early, you know what I am wondering about, intellectuals of this type are nice as human beings but they are programmed with those old fabricated histories and they decide to be part of political line that never present them. imagine working under Dergue, what makes a man work as hero in such dangerous environment? the problem now is this nice soul still didn’t clear the pattern printed in his mind. here I have attached how much this soul works for his people during drought of his people. it is the same with those who are kind but who risk their life and history working under PFDJ today or those who already arrested and killed. I think it is the early edge information that affects people to fallow such anti peace forces. his mind still didn’t feel the change that is taking care in Ethiopia, the hate he own against Wenyane is covering his eyes. watch.


  • AOsman

    Dear Awatista,

    Not directly relevant, can someone here give detail on the following news.



  • Rahwa

    “The region has suffered enough and people with abilities should build practical modern bridges instead of reviving bridges that we crossed and found to be weak and useless. We should call for the building of two, three, four and more bridges that would carry us all, not only the elite who have been the cause of our miseries for centuries”.

    I will try to put this quot on the wall of Eritrean and Ethiopian embassy and send a copy with DHL to Isaias and Ethiopian leader

  • Sarah Hagos

    Dear Saleh Gadi,

    I read your article a while ago. It was a good punch, to the point and effective!!

    However, I couldn´t stop but dwell by this paragraph “For most of history, Ethiopian ruling power has been under the control of the three-headed hydra: Amhara, Eritrean Highlands, and Tigrai. The body of the hydra represented Abyssinia. The competition among the three heads has been a typical alpha male confrontation: two heads have to suffer for the third to walk away and mount the only female. You will discover that this selfish and meaningless competition has burned centuries of the country’s history. Centuries were wasted on infighting, destroying and never building. All the violence and destruction is hatched, led and executed by one of the three heads of the hydra; other people in the area had to suffer the consequences of calamities not of their making. Dawit’s audience are not being encouraged to befriend Isaias in order to promote peaceful transition or fair competition; Isaias knows only the language of the gun and they seem to have embraced that. Oh Abyssinian elite, have mercy!”

    You have a point in the violence, agression, basic RAW EMOTIONS that lead the Abesynnian leaders in the past. However, “THE THREE-HEADDED HYDRA”?…. Really?.. That never was the case. Eritrea – rather Medri Bahri by our own cultural source and knowledege have never been a part of the Abysinnian coalition and competion. Indeed, we have been attacked by both of them countless times and suffered and resisted so many times, but we rarely or never went down south to occupy. It seems the “jeaulousy and greed” was rather coming from South, both ends… it doesn´t seem that the Medri Bahrians had any interest in occupying either Amhara or Tigray. Even during the Axumite, Amhara was not……a place they cared much for…, which is part of the reason Amhara has little to show for when speaking of Axum…. They just used it for Elephants and Nile access…. as far as we know.
    Now, we have HGDEF speaking about MEdri Bahri being under Abesynia… !!!! They are the only ones in Eritrea to claime so!!!???? And I don´t believe one squat of it. None of the Kebessans by and large think MEdri Bahri was a part of Abesynia…. and culture is actually quite different… and mind, way of thinking, and way of joking.. dressing in similar clothes, kisses church walls, and speaking somewhat similar language doesn´t make people have ONE CULTURE. What is the pshyce?…What is the paradigmes of each countries, and etc. Do you know that the Amharas are mostly agaws speakers who converted to chirstianity with the Lasta and Agaw kingdoms… it was during that time that geez spread, churches spread, and amharic the original and mainly agaw/oromo language became 25% semetic… the help of christianity and spread of geez. The amharas have been christians and been “similar to us” only these last 1000-800 years. How is that our thing???
    You could say the same about Tembien and the rest of mostly Agaw Tigray, save Adwa, Axum. I think there needs to be more scolarly research before you can claime MEdri Bahri as part of Abesynnia which we all Kebessans know we never were, but had very short moments of military weaknesses…. but they never lasted longer than couple of months to couple of years throughout history.. The longest is the Haile Sellasie annex and now the last Tigray colony of Eritrea through the supposedly “Eritrean” president! It´s hard to swollow that the Kebessans suffered 50 years with Abesynian colony all together since the 50s…. they have never had these chances ever before.

    Dear Saleh, by contrary.., you should rather have had more caoutious and understanding for the suffering of the highlanders… Did you ask about the tales of Tigray in Akkele Guzay throughout time, or in SEraye, Hamasien, Tslima…. They all basically hate Tigray, and Amhara a bit. Those stories are terrible. So from my perspective, in reading and in the “folklore” – Medri Bahri was not a part of Abesynia and was not agressive in occupying amhara or tigray land. On the countrary, it could not live in peace and prosper. To say it like it is, since you overgeneralized…. it is not the stupidity of the Christians in the highland, and in Ethiopias fault that we are such backwards…. Kebessa is not known for agression. I honstly do not know how you could that far as to include us in a “three-headed hydra”. That was mindless of you!

    • Yoni

      Hello Sarah

      Poor you! Trying 1000% to prove that you are not who you are. it is pathetic. It is actually the two headed hydra . You being under the tigrai branch. As for saleh he forgot to mention the jihadists who burned raped enslaved converted people in the name of an arab god that i.e. ” his beloved victims”. Horn african history is not that clear but to blame everything on Abyssinia i don’t buy it. Oromo somalis afar also ruled by iron fist. So spare us your victimhood nonsense.

    • Rahel

      Yo Sarah,

      Tigray is busy hosting your family members crossing the border
      with love and care. Bigots like you have
      no place in a civilized world you belong in the dumpster. Any ways you are inconsequential.

      Dear Sahel, at his age he should have been wised-up to be
      the builder and a healer rather than a war monger. His likes
      know how to create poverty, ignorance, endless conspiracy, and endless
      animosity. They cannot move forward but backward all the
      time. Shame!

      • Sarah Hagos


        why should Tigray´s wellbeing concern me?? Your logic is beyond me.

    • tes

      Dear Sarah Hagos (aka selam),

      Very much concerned on the Kebessa now. Is this a new tactic?


  • PTS

    Hello forumers,
    I don’t know much about this man, but as a senior Derg official, shouldn’t he be in jail for crimes committed on Eritreans and Ethiopians?

  • Kokhob Selam

    Dear Sir,

    Thank you very much. I hope our Ethiopian Awatistas will read this. I wish this article is also seen by all Ethiopian opposition. above the entire history written here , the game that some opposition trying to play that concern me more. of course this is not history that has taken long back, it is in our era or our elders era. I love your intention, as usual creating love among people but not just a fake love. here is the genuine love by saying the truth. is is about people who suffered by their own elite. I can’t stop crying,

    you have done a big job Saleh, it difficult for me to put it in words. your experience like every Eritrean is tough to remember, painful to talk about it- that can’t forgotten but can be forgiven. here is my poem while my tears are running, short in Amharic, እውነትን መያዝ ነው ቁልፉ መጨረሻ::

    ……ፍቅር ከእውነት ጋር ….: –

    የወረደው ስቃይ ብዚች ብምድራችን :-
    ለውግያው ለረሃብ ስለመጋለጣችን :-
    ሃዘንና ፍዳ መሆኑ ንሯችን :-
    ጥላቻና ብቀላ መውርሱ ኣእምሮኣችን :-
    ዋንኛው ጠንቅ እውነትን መካዳችን ::

    ፍቅር እማ ፍቅር ነው ዝግጁ ሊገባ :
    በሩን እያንኳኳ ሲመሽም ሲጠባ :-
    ክፈቱኝ ይለናል ታቅፎ ኣበባ :-
    እስኪ ምህረት እንበል ሆዳችን ይባባ ::

    ምህረትም ቢፈልግ – የዋህ ሆደ ባሻ :-
    እውነትን መያዝ ነው ቁልፉ መጨረሻ::