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Ethio-Eritrea Rapprochement: Revival of Expansionist Nationalism

Having for some time dominated national politics in both countries, the publicity-saturated, emotion-laden and fast-paced diplomatic activities which the July 2018 Ethio-Eritrea peace agreement had triggered have now subsided. But the event has yet to spur bold initiatives in such critical areas as implementing the border ruling, institutionalizing the agreement and addressing long-standing issues that led to so much destruction, death and despair of the recent past. These are, no doubt, steps that the two leaders must take if they are to set their countries on a path to sustainable partnership and to shared opportunities for peace, security and progress.

However, these shortcomings should not imply that the rapprochement has not impacted realities in both countries. Above and beyond creating conditions — some short-lived, others overstated — that gave semblance of progress, the peace agreement did induce genuine changes. It removed the tension and “fear-of-war” that had once weighed heavily on the lives of populations on both sides of the border. What is more, it generated a feeling of a “new down” among the public in both countries thereby raising optimism about prospects for peace and progress.

Unfortunately, subsequent developments quickly dampened expectations and created suspicions in the minds of many. Most Eritreans were engulfed in a cloud of uncertainty when their tyrannical leader, acting alone, concluded secret agreements whose details remain unknown. Worse, official pronouncements and frivolous remarks by the two leaders stirred latent ultra-nationalism among a growing segment of the Ethiopian population. Consequently, the hope that Eritreans had held out for peace, security and progress faded and was quickly replaced by political angst about their nation’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.

Revisionism and Resurgent Expansionism

The post-agreement period has witnessed a resurgence of deep-seated, long-suppressed expansionist nationalism in Ethiopia. Mass demonstrations staged in various parts of the country routinely flaunted doctored national maps and emphatically called for “Ethio-Eritrean unity” and for “Ethiopian ownership of outlet(s) to the Red Sea”. Fueling these activities have been the revisionist and expansionist rhetorics of ultra-nationalist elites who advocate, in effect, total or partial annexation of Eritrea.

In a sly attempt to win sympathy for their expansionist cause, these elements argue that the claim by Ethiopia to Eritrea’s southern port has historical, legal and moral bases. But, as outlined below, documented facts on each of these factors indicate that the claim is revisionist in its historical perspective, violative in its legal implications and totally lacking in moral worth.

Historical Facts

Modern Africa’s political geography is the legacy of Europe’s colonial adventure of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. European powers of the time engaged in political wheelings and dealings — and, at times, fierce competition — to divide up the continent among themselves, each carving out a territory (territories) that it claimed as its colonial possession(s).[1]

Shrewdly manipulating this inter-European rivalry and capitalizing on its independent status, Abyssinia injected itself as a junior aspirant into the ‘territory-acquisition’ campaign of the time. As such, it undertook extensive conquests of its own and expanded its dominion considerably to the south. Throughout Italy’s colonial control of Eritrea — a period during which Eritrean national identity and nationalism flourished — Abyssinia concluded treaties with Italy which recognized the latter’s territorial possession and its borders.[2]

The wave of decolonization that swept across Africa in the aftermath of WWII drove colonial powers out of the continent upon which their territorial possessions transitioned, in almost all cases, to independent existence as “nation-states.” Abyssinia itself emerged as an empire-state whose rule extended far beyond the territories it controlled when the Scramble for Africa began. It is thus the geopolitical intrigues and military adventures of imperial Europe to which both the Eritrean state and the modern Ethiopian nation owe their present physical characteristics of size, shape and contours of borders (boundaries) that frame them as political entities.

As Eritrea moved through decolonization (1950-52), its fate (political status) was decided not by the wishes of its people, but by America’s military/security interests in the region. The US manipulated the UN Organization into handing over Eritrea to its client-state Ethiopia disguised as “federation” with the latter’s feudal monarchy! Not long thereafter, Ethiopia annexed Eritrea triggering a 30-year war which ended with Eritrea’s triumph. It is this repugnant history of US-crafted neocolonialist subjugation of a neighboring people that expansionist Ethiopian elites are trying to resurrect as “historical justification” for their renewed claim to Eritrean ports.

Legal Grounds

Agreements, conventions, treaties, etc. between free nations guide the way countries deal with each other and provide the basis for international law. One such agreement is “AHG/Res. 16(1)” adopted by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) Summit in Cairo in 1964. In this resolution, respecting the principles laid down in the organization’s Charter, “… all Member States pledge[d] themselves to respect the borders existing on their achievement of national independence.”[3]

Sometimes referred to as “respect for colonial boundaries”, this pledge was the basis of the AU-sponsored Algiers Agreement that Eritrea and Ethiopia signed in 2000; and it was the (Italian) colonial boundary between the two that the UN-mandated EEBC was tasked with determining. The UN, AU, EU and USA were both witnesses to the agreement and guarantors of the arbitration process.[4] Having been delimited by EEBC under these international arrangements, the boundary between the two countries was defined unambiguously thereby providing an ironclad legal basis for Eritrea’s territorial integrity.

An international legal instrument that addresses any legitimate maritime concerns that Ethiopia may have is the 1982 “United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea”.  Article 125 of the convention grants landlocked States the right of access to and from the seas and freedom of transit, with the terms and modalities for exercising this right to be agreed between the concerned landlocked States and transit States through bilateral, subregional or regional agreements.[5] It must be emphasized that, because of the convention or perhaps in spite of it, Ethiopia has had unrestricted access to and from the sea.

Moral Considerations

Ethiopian elites also try to present their country’s lack of sea-outlet as a moral issue arguing that “it is unconscionable for a country [Eritrea] of 5 million people to own two ports while a neighboring country of 100 million is ‘forced’ to remain landlocked.” This argument is the moralistic camouflage of a hidden national ambition intended to obscure the ambition’s colonialist and expansionist nature.

Nations are essentially accidents of history with respect to their geographic characteristics (i.e., location, size, shape, etc.); and, through nature’s mysterious workings, all have been endowed with resources, but not necessarily in proportion to the size of their populations or land areas. Nor are there natural or man-made laws that apportion additional natural resources to those countries which believe that nature’s largesse has left them with some “unmet needs”.

In the modern world, such “unmet needs” are circumvented by (i) developing one’s own resources vigorously and effectively and (ii) cooperating with neighboring countries so as to reap the benefits of ‘complementarity’ that come from coordinating economic development policies. Indeed, these are precisely the strategies that most of the other 48 landlocked countries in the world  (16 of them in Africa) — some larger, others smaller than Ethiopia — have adopted.

Documented Facts and Irrefutable Truths

Unable to establish sound “historical, legal and moral bases” for their claim, Ethiopia’s expansionist elites often resort to dramatizing and mystifying Ethiopia’s landlocked status in an attempt to appeal to emotion. One such alarmist argument threateningly declares that “Ethiopia cannot exist forever with a noose around her neck” implying that not owning a port is an existential threat to the country, and insinuating it will have to get one from you-know-who. However, Ethiopians who are courageous enough to face the truth will agree that if at all there is “a noose around Ethiopia’s neck”, it is not because the country is landlocked but because vexing ethnic/religious conflicts are threatening to tear it apart!

Until the 1998-2000 war, Ethiopia enjoyed unrestricted use of Eritrean ports under terms highly favorable to it: Assab essentially served as its freeport; Massawa charged a mere 1.5% transit charge and both ports received consignment fees in Ethiopian currency although Eritrea was strapped for hard currency.[6][7] When war broke out, Ethiopia was able to quickly shift its maritime trade to the port in Djibouti and later additionally secured use of ports in Sudan and Somaliland. Following the end of the war in 2000, US and UN relief agencies had, on various occasions, proposed use of Eritrean ports for delivery of food supplies to victims of Ethiopia’s recurrent famine. But, despite Eritrea’s expressed willingness to commit to the effort, the proposal was abandoned in favor of less efficient, more costly alternatives because Ethiopia’s leader ferociously objected to it.[8][9]

The hatred and ill will that Ethiopia’s vindictive late prime minister, Meles Zenawi harboured towards Eritrea — as evidenced by the diabolical reasoning he gave for his objection — and the luxury of choice of ports that Ethiopia enjoyed were the key reasons for the UN-proposal’s demise. Ethiopia’s circumstances and decisions, as outlined above, are hardly those of a nation with “a noose around her neck!” Indeed, there is no way in hell that a country in such an awful predicament as claimed could: (i) ‘grow its economy in double digits’ for over a decade, and (ii) emerge as the ‘fastest-growing economy in the continent’ — achievements declared by Ethiopia’s own government and confirmed by international financial institutions and western governments.

Looking ahead, Ethiopia is poised to further diversify routes and outlets for its maritime activities. Ethiopia is a key stakeholder in the LAPSSET mega-project which Kenya has been developing since 2013, and entails construction of a new port at Lamu (Kenya) to be linked by major transportation corridors to Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) and Juba (South Sudan).[10] Furthermore, the recent peace agreement has enabled Ethiopia to regain use of Eritrean ports under terms that, by all accounts, are bound to be generous.

Thus, the region’s present realities and future prospects (together with the UN Law of the Sea) guarantee that Ethiopia’s legitimate maritime interests will continue to be safeguarded just as they had been in the last 28 years. The political agitation by expansionist nationalists is therefore motivated not by a genuine concern about the country’s right of access to the sea, but by a dream of seizing ownership rights to sea outlet(s) of a neighboring country. Simply put, Ethiopia’s problem in this regard is nothing but obsessive territorial ambition!

A Look into The Future

The arguments, facts and evidence outlined in the preceding sections point to some critically important considerations and conclusions which can neither be denied nor ignored.

  1. Any revisionist history that Ethiopia invokes to support its territorial claim(s) will open a pandora’s box for the continent and for the country itself. Ethiopia’s traditional and modern-day adversaries would use similar arguments to renew old claims (and/or lay new ones) to the Ogaden Region and to much of the southern half of the country which Abyssinia acquired through military conquest during the Scramble for Africa — not to mention a number of Ethiopia’s contested border areas.

    As the cornerstone of the AU Charter, the principle of “respect for colonial borders” has served Africa’s politico-geographic stability well for over half a century. Ethiopia must, therefore, come to terms with its landlocked status, renounce its claim to any of Eritrea’s territory and respect the colonial boundary as delimited by the EEBC. Ethiopia’s continued irredentism over Eritrean ports would be a political plague capable of throwing the continent into turmoil and, ultimately, undoing the Ethiopian nation itself.

  2. In 1963, Ethiopia was chosen to host the OAU Headquarters on account of the country’s prestige and the diplomatic clout of its government at the time. But events and conditions witnessed in Ethiopia in the years since have largely eroded the basis for that choice. These included the country’s 30-year scorched-earth military adventure in Eritrea, the summary execution of scores of officials of the imperial government, the 17-year reign of terror under the Marxist military junta, the accompanying civil war, the incessant poverty and recurrent famine, and the long-standing and worsening ethnic/religious conflicts. This is not exactly the record of an exemplary African state worthy of the honor of hosting a continental organization! Should Ethiopia, in contravention of the AU Charter, engages in acts that threaten Eritrea’s internationally recognized boundaries, post-Isaias Eritrea must join (and even lead) a diplomatic campaign to have the AU Headquarters moved out of the country.
  1. It is foolhardy for Ethiopian elites to advocate their country’s territorial aggrandizement at the expense of its neighbors at a time when its ability to hold itself together has become increasingly tenuous. They would be doing great service to their country if, instead, they focus their efforts on resolving the ethnic/religious conflicts that are threatening its very existence. For the long haul, Ethiopia must enter into a covenant with its neighbors pledging peaceful co-existence, respect for each other’s sovereignty and cooperation in the interest of peace, stability and prosperity for all.
  1. Forgotten by the world and betrayed by its institutions, the Eritrean people stood fast in a 30-year-long, life-and-death struggle in the quest for freedom, justice and dignity. And they won! But only after sustaining enormous devastation and loss of 100,000 of Eritrea’s finest sons and daughters. Now, as a sovereign nation and with so much at stake, Eritreans will be even more ferocious in defending their hard-won independence and preserving the heroic legacy of their martyrs. Expansionist adventures — be it political treachery or force of arms — that target Eritrea’s sovereignty and territorial integrity will, in a repeat of history, meet with humiliating defeat!



About Yohannes Zerai

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  • bmi1

    Eritrea is producing more refugees than ever;

  • mokie berhe

    Salam Yohannes Zerai. Sorry, but your and Burhan Ali’s articles are what one could expect a graduate TPLF Mekelle University students master’s thesis to look like. Poor execution of strategy to promote ridiculous conspiracy theories stoked by incredulous threats against Eritrean state sovereignty. But hey, you have a lot of TPLF PhDs here to give you free editorial service, so it’s not all in vain.

    • Hope

      Selam Mekonen:
      I respectfully disagree with you on this one as Dr Yohannes Zerai came up with a better anda Pro-Eritrea Historically Scientific Article .

      Just read the last paragraph,#4!

      The only deficiency I see in his Article is that he should have elaborated more on the TPLF ‘s relentless but futile attempts by all means possible, fully backed up by the same old new Western Powers,who supported in the same the old Ethiopian Regimes to destroy Eritrea ,Eritreans and their legit political and armed struggles.

      He shied away from acknowledging at least,if not form giving credit to the same GoE along with the EDF ,which DEFENDED Eritrea the way he mentioned it in his last paragraph.

      Even though he acknowledged PMMZ’s insanity and evil agenda,he remained SHORT of condemning the TPLF’s devastating and keidi-albo adventures during its last attempt of invasion of Eritrea.
      Apparently either he did not want to credit the the same PFDJ Gov and/or he did not want to annoy or anger the TPLF,his alleged friends.

      The fact that he shied away from challenging Ms Hayat Adem and her hypocritical
      and partial as well as selective narration about the alleged goodness of PMMZ in his response speaks volumes about his BIAS.

  • Paulos

    Selam My Good People,

    “A bit of history for our Ethiopian friends.”

    Most of you, I would assume, watch CNN on a daily bases particularly those of you who live in North America. If you notice, as you might have, there is this pretty much everyday guest on “Don Lemon News Show” with a bit of Eastern European accent who is a harsh critique of Trump. His name is Max Boot. He has two books to his credit where one of them is titled, “Invisible Armies: An Epic History Of Guerrilla Warfare From Ancient Times To Present.”

    In it, he commits a good chunk of pages on the lives and times of General Wingate whose full name is Orde Charles Wingate and his involvement in Palestine, Ethiopia and Burma.

    In Addis, a prestigious school is named after him where notable personalities as in Haile Fida, Meles Zenawi and Ba’alu Girma among others had attended. Winget was a unique person in a lot of ways where his odd personality was at odds with the strict aristocratic etiquette frequented with in the British Empire.

    He was born into a very strict religious family, growing up with seven siblings where his father was an army Colonel who was frequently stationed in India. Wingate, growing tired of the strict Protestant sect, abandoned it altogether but took the Bible as his guiding principle through out his military career. After he graduated from the Artillery school in the late 1920s, he was assigned to Sudan where in no time was fluent in the Arabic language.

    Sudan was a turning point in his life where he fought fierce slave traders and poachers and employed hit-and-run tactics which became his military philosophy throughout his career which was an alien with in the established convention. His odd personality rubbed elbows with his superiors where he for instance, grew beard when only growing mustache was allowed. Moreover, he would receive guests and dignitaries half naked and was notoriously known for wearing stinking soaks with holes in them. Perhaps, the eccentricities were a sign of a genius so to speak where his military career was one of a kind.

    When he was about to get married to his long time fiance, he fell in love with a 16 years old high school girl instead and left his fiance but she remained dedicated to him where she thought no man could match him. Only five feet and six inches, he was larger than life nevertheless and his commitment to help others including King Haileselassie was part of his solid conviction in life.

    In 1935, when Italy invaded Ethiopia, the King fled to Great Britain but he was not given any military assistance until Italy attacked Great Britain. And it was in 1940 that Wingate was assigned to accompany the King to Sudan and organized an invading force from Sudan to Ethiopia. At that time, Italy had close to 300,000 soldiers with artilleries and tanks where as Wingate had 1,600 Sudanese and Ethiopian soldiers, 70 Britons, and 20,000 Camels. Moreover, when Wingate crossed to Ethiopia from Western Sudan, 60,000 Imperial soldiers mainly Indians and Africans had already crossed coming from Southern Sudan and Kenya. In the meantime, however, most of the Camels succumbed to disease and died out along the long trek. Undetered and making use of the hit-and-run tactics he garnered in his younger years in Sudan, Wingate marched on and defeated the Italians till the King became so anxious and apprehensive when he said to Wingate, “His subjects [the Ethiopia people] might take him [Wingate] for their true King” for he was extremely popular among the people.

    What was hidden from the public and his military colleagues alike is that, he suffered with clinical depression pretty much all his adult life. And the illness became more apparent when he left for Egypt from Ethiopia and a colleague found him lying on the floor soaked with blood in his hotel room when he tried to kill himself by slashing his throat with a knife. “You fool, why didn’t you use a revolver if you really meant it” his colleague joked. Later on, when Japane invaded Burma, he was called for duty to fight the Japanese from India. Like his distant cousin T.S. Laurence, his legacy lived on for fame or infamy depending who is writing and reading history.

  • Selamat,


    18. ** In 1967 the Ethiopians started outright genocide campaign and drove thousands of Eritreans, majority or nearly all Muslim low landers, who are refugees in the Sudan Today Fifty-two years later and TWENTY EIGHT YEARS AFTER ERITREA GAINED INDEPENDENCE. The Ethiopians deployed the Israel’y trained Commandos which consisted for the most part of Eritrean Highlanders. Sowing mistrust and enmity amongst Eritreans. The Ethiopian ferocity in 1967 and the divide and rule strategy they implemented on the Eritrean people may very well be the genesis of the ELF and ELA split a few years later with Isaias Afeworqi authoring the very controversial manifesto titled “nHnann Eilamanan.”

    24! 24! 24! on this May of 2019 FREE ALL ERITREAN CONSCIENTIOUS AND POLITICAL PRISONERS. *** The Galant ELF’s ELA and the Fedayinn conducted the surgical Asmera-Adi Quala Operation in 1975 freeing all prisoners save one who chose to stay in Ethiopian’s prison. Amongst the freed Eritrean prisoners in 1975 were Teg. Haile DuruE now suffering in the Isaias Afeworqi’s PFDJ dungeons Ela Ero. Ironically DuruE chose to rejoin the EPLF and was safely escorted by the ELF’s ELA. Also freed from the prison and later ELA’s Martyrs Saeed Hussein and Mahmoud Saleh Sabbe (Bother of the late Osman Saleh Sabe.)


    Independence celebration inside Eritrea. When I see how young the band, the singers and the dancers are I understand that future Eritrea is indeed for these bright young
    Eritreans. It will not be long for the tyrannical regime to leave alone these young Eritreans be free and just. They will be discarded and forgotten by hook or crook!

    tSinbel natSanet 2019 opens with Zikre SemaEtat with the flute whispering Fanusey. As I am somewhat celebrating with the future young Eritreans on stage, this year and every year going forward I will especially recognize, acknowledge and remember the galant ELF ‘s Eritrean Liberation Army and ELF’s ELA Martyrs starting with the first Eritrean Martyr in the war for liberation:

    Remembering and never forgetting our Eritrean history, the heroic battles and operations of the ELF’s Galant Eritrean Liberation Army and ALL the Martyred heroes of Eritrea:

    28 for 28 reasons this and all Eritreans should proudly celebrate and honor May 24th:

    1. – The first Eritrean Martyr Mohammed Fayd at the battle of Omal, at the end of 1961 less than a month after the historical battle of Adal led by Hamid Idris Awate first unit of the Eritrean Liberation Army (ELA) consisting of thirteen Tegadelti. Hamid Idris Awate was Martyred on June 16, 1962.
    2. ELF ELA’s Aqordat Operation on July 12, 1962 planned by ELA’s Tegadalay Mohammed Salih (Hanjamenjee) and the execution led by Teg. Adem Mohamed Hamid (Ghidifil).
    3. The ELF’s ELA overrunning and controlling HalHal on July 18th, 1962.
    4. ELF’s ELA setting on fire Goge Police on October 10th, 1962.
    5. The overnight simultaneous attacks by ELF’s ELA on police posts of Garsat, Guluj and Barentu on November 15th, 1962.
    6. ELF’s ELA Teg. Omer Izaz led the battle of Telay mid 1963.
    7. Battle of Anseba in Jengeren north of Keren in the fall of 1963 led by ELF’s ELA Teg. Mohammed Idris Has who was later Martyred from a wound in the battle.
    8. End of 1963 the Haikota Operation led by ELF’s ELA Teg. Adem Mohammed Hamid Qindifil. Martyred at this battle was ELA Teg. Mohammed Karrar.
    9. ELF’s ELA attack at Shalab on March 24, 1963, near Haicota on March 30, 1963 and on July 29 the attack at Arota.

    10. These early years the mantra of ELF’s ELA must have been “ntSelaEi bb gezaE bretunn EiTTqun!” “Defeat the enemy with his own armaments!” ELF’s ELA, in the above battles, operations, ambushes and attacks managed to capture and amass guns, machine-gun Brens and not too long after enemy tanks. By the end of 1963 ELF’s ELA had 250 Tegadelti in arms.

    11. Togorba Haben! When I was a child I heard and sang “WerHi megabit Soosan ArbaEten Tegorba Abay Haben. I did not have to be Kokhob tSibaH as the pride belonged to the Red Flowers equally. Nineteen ELA Tegadelti were Martyred at this very significant Battle of Togorba on March 15th, 1964 led by Teg. Mohammed Ali Idris (Abu Rijeila).
    12. Martyred at the battle of She’eb was Teg. Mohammed Saeed Shemsi leader of the ELA unit.
    13. In March of 1964, a few days before the historic battle of Togorba, Martyr Gebrehiwet Himbirti ambushed and killed Three enemy soldiers at the River Mereb.
    14. 1964 the war intensified and ushered the ascent of the ELF’s ELA to Eritrea’s Highlands. Major battles included on January 22nd at Sawwa in Bad-Jengeren, at Dembalas on April 12th 1964, On April 20th at the battle of Bushkua the ELA lost five Martyrs. The Five ELA Martyr’s bodies was exposed at the center of Aqordat. Simultaneous engaging the enemy’s police and army posts occurred in Barentu, Gulujj and Tamarat and battles were fought at Hummbol, Adi Kukui, Dembalas and Habro-tSaEda.
    15. In 1965 the heroic ELA conducted the Battle of Adobha in June 1965 led by the deputy head of the ELA who was Martyred in the battle.
    16. 21 ELA Tegadelti were Martyred at the incident of Mahlaib end of June, 1965. The 21 ELA Martyrs’ bodies was later were hanged and exposed in the center of Keren. They were shortly avenged at the confrontation of Hasheek by the ELA putting out of commission permanently large number of enemy soldiers including the guide Teklenkiel.
    17, In 1966 the ELA attacked enemy camps inside Aqordat registering a major victory. Teg. Danqir and Teg. Mohammed Saleh Afrut were Martyred in the battle.
    18. ** In 1967 the Ethiopians started outright genocide campaign and drove thousands of Eritreans, majority or nearly all Muslim low landers, who are refugees in the Sudan Today Fifty-two years later and TWENTY EIGHT YEARS AFTER ERITREA GAINED INDEPENDENCE. The Ethiopians deployed the Israel’y trained Commandos which consisted for the most part of Eritrean Highlanders. Sowing mistrust and enmity amongst Eritreans. The Ethiopian ferocity in 1967 and the divide and rule strategy they implemented on the Eritrean people may very well be the genesis of the ELF and ELA split a few years later with Isaias Afeworqi authoring the very controversial manifesto titled “nHnann Eilamanan.”
    19. kem Hasekha demmbe abb zilemlemelu, the Ethiopians unleashed their terror on innocent Eritrean villagers because in 1967 the ELF’s ELA intensified their fight for liberation in 1967 with the following: The Karora Operation on January 9th, 1967, the attack in Keren on April 18, 1967, the Battle of Ailet on June, 1967, the Battle of Rora Marra on June 16, 1967, the Battle of Gemhot on July 17, 1967, the Battle of Kohaito Summer of 1967, and the Battles at Amborey, Dembelas and Mihlab in 1967 as well as two consecutive battles in Tukumbia on July 26, 1967 and July 30, 1967.
    20. In 1968 ELF’s ELA The Mirara Operation in March, The Guluj Operation in the Spring and the Battle of Geleb in May of 1968 could be considered strong counter offensives against the enemy’s campaign of genocide against innocent Eritreans. The attack in Mensura brought the Martyrdom of the hero ELA leader Teg. Ahmed Welelo. The Battle of HalHal on September, 1968 suffered ELA 45 Martyrs among whom was the leader of the 2nd ELA Division Teg. Omer Hamid Izaz.
    21. 1970 saw the ELF’s ELA engage the enemy ferociously at the Battle of Lekotat near Hagaz in March, the Confrontation at Feru in August, the Battle of Omeli on September 3rd, 1970, the Battle of Nebagade (Ashagn) in October, the Battle of Halib Mentel in November.
    22. The Ethiopians after their defeat in the Battle of Halib Mentel in Novembe, 1970 retaliated with genocide by massacring nearly a Thousand innocent villagers in Besik-Dera and Ona.
    23. In June 1972 at D’alool and at Duluk near Aqordat the ELA suffered Seven Martyrs including Teg. Alamin Hajaj and Nine respectively. At Shettel Five more ELA Tegadelti were Martyred.
    24! 24! 24! on this May of 2019 FREE ALL ERITREAN CONSCIENTIOUS AND POLITICAL PRISONERS. *** The Galant ELF’s ELA and the Fedayinn conducted the surgical Asmera-Adi Quala Operation in 1975 freeing all prisoners save one who chose to stay in Ethiopian’s prison. Amongst the freed Eritrean prisoners in 1975 were Teg. Haile DuruE now suffering in the Isaias Afeworqi’s PFDJ dungeons Ela Ero. Ironically DuruE chose to rejoin the EPLF and was safely escorted by the ELF’s ELA. Also freed from the prison and later ELA’s Martyrs Saeed Hussein and Mahmoud Saleh Sabbe (Bother of the late Osman Saleh Sabe.)
    25. In 1977, the Galant ELF’s ELA LIBERATED! on April 4th Teseney, Debaroa on June 16, Adi Khuala on August 12, Aqordat on August 14 and Mendefera on August 24. In 1977 the Galant ELA battled fiercely and controlled the environs at Barentu, Adi Ghebrai, Adi Bidel and Hazega. By the end of 1977 ELF’s Galant ELA controlled the LARGEST PART OF ERITREA.
    26. 40 Fedayeen of the Galant ELA led by Cuban trained Teg. Debrom Tiluq were martyred at the battle of Mendefera after first neutralizing a large and heavily intrenched enemy forces at the castle. Heavy losses in Mendefera nearly 400 ELA Martyrs was incurred. At a heavy cost the Galant ELA along with their Brothers and Sisters equally Galant EPLA nearly liberated all of Eritrea.
    27. Eritreans Today would have been celebrating a very harmonious 41st anniversary of Eritrean Independence had the momentum of Eritrean Galant forces of both ELA and EPLA was supplemented with greater Eritrean political leadership. Things worsened from 1978’s strategic withdrawal due to the Soviet’s intervention to the darkest time of the WegiE HidHid in 1981 and the intervention of the Weyane.
    28!!!! From AfAbet, to Nakfa, Keren, Massawa, DekemHare to Asmara the Galant EPLA completed the Eritrean collective mission on the 24th day of the year 1991 the FIFTH Month. Victory was certain however from the inception of the ERITREAN REVOLUTION starting from the battle of Adal on September 1st, 1991. Essentially P for People of Eritrea inclusive of ELA and EPLA are the TRUE OWNERS OF ERITREA’S INDEPENDENCE.
    Remember ALL Eritrean Martyrs and Celebrate the Eritrean Peoples hard won independence by clicking the following link. It belongs to all of you and NOT only to the PFDJ. The Future of Eritrea the Young are smiling on stage.

    Main Source:


  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Dear Yohannes,

    Thank you for the well organized arguments. Like with Ismail AA, I still have to find a disagreeable argument to debate with you. Keep up to be the light of freedom and the voice of the voiceless in continuum.

  • Ismail AA

    Selam dearest fellow forumers,

    I should first ask dear Saleh and Yohannes Zerai excuse for using this main entry to react to what friends had commented on the link from the BBC/Tigrinya page that my dear brothers Amanuel and Saleh brought to To be candid, it was surprise. It never fell on my mind the piece would attract that much attention in social media and here in this forum.

    Anyway, I really do not know how to express my sincerest gratitude to all of you who took time to write words that extremely humbled me. Thank you very much. Some are too generous, and bigger than what I am, and what I did during my long career. I just did, still trying to do, what I could and can – as a famed US jurist had said when asked what should be written on his grave stone when he died. My bit was/is very modest as a citizen of our still suffering nation when I weigh it against the ultimate sacrifices in precious lives thousands of our compatriot heroes and heroines did for our nation.

    I would have liked to thank each of you one by one. But allow me to mention and thank two dear brothers whose comments caught my attentions for different reasons. One is lamek. Yes, I agree with you that people and human being come first, and our case cannot be different. I am not extreme nationalist that subordinate destiny of people to that of land they exist on. My conviction on that score is rooted in patriotism that celebrates human destiny within the of a nation. It is simple. People have to be alive to constitute and build a nation before claiming space for it somewhere in God’s earth. What will be land or national territory good for when it is empty of its inhabitants?

    This being the departure point, thus, the way we Eritreans used to regain our right for deciding our fate in an independent and sovereign statehood was not a choice we made voluntarily (if I understood you correctly) It was option imposed on us by circumstances occupiers had created. You remember, how much our founding fathers, later committed patriots, did from 1952 up to 1961. Our founding fathers and the ELM had pursued peaceful and non-violent struggle until things became intolerable – physical liquidations and incarcerations led to adoption of unequal armed self-defense.

    Of course, there were things we could have done, but did not do, in the process of the long armed struggle. One of which was our failure to resolve divisions that led to senseless competition and bloodshed, which wicked egocentric and power hungry individuals had exploited to bring us to where we are today. But, I think it is unjust to blame the compatriots who did what they could during the liberation struggle for the ordeal our people are currently enduring. I just do not blame my past for the 46 years cited in the piece you read to the armed struggle. I blame to the dictatorship we have today, and that does not for sure represent the armed struggle and its components. Blame the man and his enablers.

    The second fellow former to whom I would to address a few words is blink. Though I had given up engaging you him since some time ago, I would like stress that I respect and love him as fellow compatriot. I just have not gained anything yet from his single focused views. Anyway, I thank him for his comments on the piece. He has exercised his human and democratic right. But, he should have reflected a bit that there are humble individual and the entire nation by and large that are denied of what he has enjoyed here in this forum. It is the right he has used without hindrance that condemned people like me to live in exile. He thinks that it is after all our chosen fate for failing to submit to the very regime that has denied us, and him as well, modicum of right that could have helped us to set foot on the soil we call our own. He still believe in all his conscience, the reason was/is failure to the regime and its leader condemned me to stay 46 years in struggle and exile. But, here is a deal. I would like to assure him Eritrea and its next rulers would not be as “super democratic” as the regime he supports to compel him for to exile. I do not know how old he is; but I assume that as a committed supporter of the regime, he should be able to visit his country. But, latter, whatever his views would be, no one would prohibit him from setting foot in his country as my case is, unless he would choose. I include him in the list of fellow forumers I owe gratitude to.

    Thank you all.

    • Selamat Haw Abuye Ayya Ismail AA,

      I have read with delight your history and will more than likely read it again. For what it is worth, it has been 42 years in exile for yours truly. As I at times feel hopeless, reading and re-reading your history and the Eritrean struggle for liberty affords me to keep some hope alive that some day I may see independent and free Eritrea. I know you will! and I shall follow soon after you.

      ELF’s ELA lead by Teg Mahmud Haseb entered and liberateed nearly all of Teseney on April 4th, 1977. It was Easter Eve…., with our holiday new cloth we left the pitched battle for South East Teseney and it has been 42 years since now. Our neighborhood being Hilet Sudan we were up and close in the battle. As you know eventually ELF’s ELA liberated Teseney and pushed the Derg Torsorawit to Barentu. The first Tegadalay or Tegadelti I saw were ELF’s ELA. And as far as EPLF is concerned, with out ELF’s liberation of EilaBerEID Keren would not have been liberated Keren. And without ELF liberating Mendefera (you mentioned Teg. Husein Kelifa and the TanTu’s fat anecdote recently), EPLF would not have liberated DekemHare. In short without ELF, Today we Eritreans would not be able to speak of an Independent Eritrea.

      Ayya Ismail AA you are a great example of the popular phrase: Jebha Abayy bAltti TTebay! Please continue to tell us all of our history!

      Yom Barika wo Romadan Kareem.


    • Paulos

      Selam Kbur Haw Ismail AA,

      When I read the ለኽባጥ’s insensitive comment and cold indifference to psychological pain our people particularly your generation endure and when you embraced his evil self with an extraordinarily composure and told him that you love him, I was left speechless for it can only be said by people with extraordinary moral stature and standing.

      ክቡር ኣያይ ‘እዝጊ ኣኽኣለካ፣ ንዓኻ ዝሃበ ልቦናን፣ ትዕግስትን፣ ዓቕልን ንኹላህና ይሃበና፣ እዝግሄር እተን ትምነየን ማዓልታት የርእይካ!

    • said

      Greetings ,
      Thank you Ismail for your humble opinion that you write continuously, it is nourishing food for thought for anyone who reads it attentively and care to know and reflect.
      You seriously and very often wrote great opinion in examining Eritrean situation ,its soul and heart, its past and present . One wonder what makes this small nation ,it is so murderously detrimental to Eritrea freedom and peaceful people , and while we are at it rediscover what is this todays Eritrea really is all about and what will be the future of the nation.
      Your presence and opinion is one of the very best in my opinions and highly articulated ,historically and timely and attested by many here .You have being in the front ahead of time and your written is presented most objectively as a medium of dialogue to invite participation and the chipping in by all learned persons of their objective detached opinions to help give an opinion as no one at the end of the day is privy to the ultimate truth or possessing a final answer. This meant as an exercise to inviting a serious discussion with no hidden agendas attached.

      One will agree with you , the people’s well-being and the well-being of all Eritrean children for many generation to come ,comes first.
      Ismail you are ages ahead of us in the game of conscious awareness of the inevitable of the universality of human destiny. Your maturity and conscious resignation to the sanctity of the independence of human thought in the pursuit and attainment of the ultimate, a “Global Civil Society,” testifies to the relentless human endeavor on the trail of the “Spinozas,” that enshrined the universality of the quest for the ultimate truth, ultimate reality. I often ponder the sense of alienation, estrangement from one’s folks, witnessing your relentless struggle for the truth. However, in many ways,
      Ismail I revert to the store of universal values that binds us, and remorse transforms into a sense of envy, how deserving of your humanity a person you are with the moral strength and courage of conviction that catapult you to the pedestals of the sages, of the saints.
      Eritrean of all woke of Muslim and Christian , In normal course Coreligionists are in the habit of addressing one another with the endearing appellation. Insecurities blind us into the delusion of the legitimacy of claims of righteousness on the basis of the comfort of the familiar. For progressive person like you as kind Eritrean and open mind. The affinity that binds us stem from very deep respect for our humanity and impressive political maturity beyond the confines of the dictates of the urges of acceptance on the basis of creed and ethnic belonging.

      As you know well Ismail , as veteran and legend . For the vast great majority of Eritreans, the war legacy for masses and individual perspectives of those who went through it and somehow managed to survive still fresh in mind and memory of their lives were repeatedly disrupted by long war for independence , for most their personal time lines broken by major and often deeply devastatingly destructive of war events. And as these events still unfolded till today after 28 years after independent , still today PFDJ curule system is disrupting their lives and the living conditions became steadily more unbearable. Some survived by distancing themselves mentally and emotionally from the grim realities of the wartime years and from EPLF/PFDJ realty of today . so Eritrean in their memories of the past have not changed as well present many of the adolescents generation .EPLF/PFDJ hardcore communist politics and ideology were brought into everyday life and into every region and into every family of Eritreans . by the time of independence 1991. sadly naive and innocent Eritrean ,the damage was already being done and experimented in field of war . many people were merely going through the motions of demonstrating the public support that the new IA dictatorship required to show their love and affectation for the new liberator NUS . some genuinely wanted to help in the building of the new nation ,to carry their civic responsibility. Some were completely swept away by the EPLF/PFDJ propaganda war machine and considered it good that the IA/EPLF/PFDJ ,they hold power. Some dreamer thought They can help Eritrea regain the greatness which it deserves and to be the new African Singapore nation . in no time EPLF/PFDJ prompted heaving and shortly delivered hell on earth, for some an anguished reappraisal of their earlier seduction by the promises of a glorious future held out to them by IA and EPLF and propaganda machine was mere and truly first class illusion .After independence, many had to face persecution, marginalization, and the gradual elimination of economic possibility and lost jobs and career and business opportunities.

      EPLF/PFDJ constant military drills and the persistent indoctrination that were part of the EPLF/PFDJ and indoctrinating youth movement. Many Eritrean were merely victims .

      Ismail , a man of honest integrity and compassionate , your Virtue ethics posits that his morality is not just based consequentialism or deontological principle. Ismail deep sense of honest observation, reflection and deduction is truly an exemplary to us all, his comments , article and HIS WRITING , deeply reflects on the moral character of Ismail . he put people lives first and Human beings are moral beings, which means they have a hardwired sense of justice.
      A free thinker and liberal democrat like Ismail . His empathy and altruism for fellow Eritrean constitute an integral part of comprehensive high morality. As Eritrean , as human beings ,he is merely tabula rasa; like most of us our mindsets are structured by our social environment. it’s Ismail family upbringing ,value for life and culture and the good Eritrean traditional values he encompasses is well known in this from , which make him true moral being. Ismail believe and morality is based on set of values ,love of his people of all strip and his love of country is very obvious to us all , his true compassion and empathy for down-rotten Eritrean, he the man of integrity and intelligence and he have clear social cohesion. And is based in the principle and fountainhead of compassion and love worth-emulating;? His compassion and genuine caring for the downtrodden Eritrean and Ismail sincerely wishes for his fellow Eritrean, their freedom and permanent deliverance and their wellbeing.
      As you know , Eritrean regime supporters , are bloody ethicist, sellers of forgeries, vicious closed mind ethnicity adherent , shallow ,an unreconstructed political outfit, backward regionalist, bands of fanatical rogues and corrupt self-seekers. This punch of group supporters of IA ,they seemed detached from reality, that’s because they perfectly reflected IA and is cohort , uniquely ruthless when it came to advancing IA goals. The hard core regime supporters will continue until long after the wild flowers dry up on their master grave. None of this apparently mattered to regime supporters. I understand your open heart to them, but they hypocrite they are much worst than an enemy . When you put a shark and a seal and snake and a rat and a falcon and a rabbit in a zoo without separating walls, things start getting nasty and bloody. That’s what happens with hypocrite separate them from the rest of the people . In doing so you know best and you pinpoints ,it is one of the great intellectual and moral problems we are facing today, a moral challenge it is constant challenge, coming from many angles ,it deals with nature of Asmara regime and PFDJ dogma—is dangerously arrogant, and can’t even begin to understand or contemplate changing the system itself.
      Ismail In doing so you know best and you pinpoints ,it is one of the great intellectual and moral problems we are facing today, a moral challenge it is constant challenge, coming from many angles ,it deals with nature of Asmara regime and PFDJ dogma—is dangerously arrogant, and can’t even begin to understand or contemplate changing the system itself. With sharp mind and unflinchingly, with your usual unusual combination of depth, breadth and intellectual courage, you tackle injustice we face . And, given the subject, easy and simple probably wouldn’t be a good thing. Your thoughtful idea with the right motive, and in the right way, that is not for every one, nor is it easy . You brought one thing that stack in your MEMORY and how about an ending long list of grievances and suffering of the whole population but they can’t speak out. Eritrean are dreaming one day ,a system that is to take Eritrea society along any path of democracy, freedom, justice, dignity and reason.
      Ismail as you can see hard supporters come swinging on you, it was expected as usual and you are tolerant of them . Ismail Do not give much attention to those who are sellout , foolish and ignorant critics of you, you are generous to them they are trying to put your good contribution opipion and reputations maligned. You are speaking truth to power for very long-time , regime supporters ,they are dead soul and they have no compassion for victim of Eritrean dictator , they can not be reformed and they are sold-out long-time ago and they are particularly intellectually dishonest, and morally corrupt and compromised their value and integrity and nothing will come out them. They worship their master. They do know how to distinguish between Victim and Aggressor .they are morally and spiritually dead being . They can not be revived or awakened . There is no equivalence .You stand tall and superior to the moral equivocations of any of the morally dead and sold-out . they have nothing to say except what the regime adhere to , there is nothing they can contribute, losers, defending the criminal regime, Regime supporters are prone to both incompetence and ignorance . they are an paid spies and faceless ambassador of the regime . Do not listen to whatever they write or speak? They are mentally deranged and deeply brainwashed mind from early on , that can not be changed ,there is no help for them ,Pls do not give attention ,they are like one and same and the mirror of tyrannical outfits like master Nus , They never have a need or an urge to know fact and truth .or anything about Eritrean oppression unless their slave kind of service of their master NUS requires ,they are deeply dishonest ,arrogant ,ignorant and dysfunctional knowledge of what is happing and do not want to admit it. They are two sides of the same coin serving the same purpose . IA his hardly-concealed hatred for Eritrea was obvious They do not have love ,they do not understand empathy heartless like hermeneutic feel, they do not care of affective to encounter, no moral investment in our people’s sufferings . no moral stake in what our people are suffering in their liberated country that their master NUS has inflicted upon our people, our people will be stranger in their own country so sad it have to come to that.

      On the whole, humans have an enormous capacity for empathy as well—that is, imagining others’ pain and feelings as our own. the empathy involved in feeling another’s pain is quite ingrained in human cognition, to become more empathic toward others, especially the less fortunate embracing strangers in need and making the world a better place.
      In Eritrea the institution of family has always played a pivotal and role in our cloture . It is the institution of family which infuses compassion in its members and transcends immediate family and encompasses entire Eritrea, there no us v them .
      And Finally thank you for your contribution

    • Blink

      Dear Mr. Ismail
      I love any human being and I don’t know how hate develop but if I become a vegan and assume meat eaters with polluters then the chickens owners , cattleman will be always in opposite side of my views , I am assuming you always wanted only your way and that sir is simply a attainable . For me ELF and EPLF are history nothing more nothing less and with that assumption anyone who try to score cheap game against EPLF by marrying to PFDJ will be always have a number and card name .
      Back to your accusations, Again at it acussing someone who do not kneel to your preferred line painting as” committed supporter of the regime” , I don’t think it is personal sir , it is strictly our political business as usual,As you know with our political interest rate at the lowest level since 1952 there is no limit how far you can go with it ,borrowing from here and there and funneling through different media channels can only get this much . I don’t blame you for anything I have great respect for ELF and many ELF personalities but there is always things that needs to be stated . I only can quote from what you said and that is even upon me how I see your views but pls sir my comment are not deflection of what you said it is my own understanding . You can’t quote me a single defense of the regime in Asmara , you just don’t have it . Second I already explained how I see the land vs the people political game which is not my field of interest to look in between but what I know is your views are your views as a single Eritrean and there are probably many who differ with yours and mine . I didn’t engage you and I don’t believe I intend to but with this forum nature it is possible I may cross over . I apologize for any bad feelings created by me if any.

      Yes , you have been outside your country for 46 years and I knew this long time ago sir and I don’t enjoy it at all . If it was up to me and most Eritreans you would be celebrated for your sacrifice and retire in your country but that is “IF “ because the majority don’t decide . No hard feelings except putting a mirror in front of every comment someone made .

      I personally would like to apologize to awatecom because the burden to allow free flow of views is extremely getting unbearable for some and I hope banning people for criticizing views about anything will not be the chosen road for SG and this site.

      • Saleh Johar

        No idea or opinion is unbearable–this website and its forum have been bearing it for too long to require a testimony. What “awatecom and SG” require is decency, respect as a maximum, and comments with an added value as a minimum. Also, we hope people understand the goals of this forum is to have a free flow of opinion and for members to practice self-control and avoid cheap and low quality debates. That will certainly elevate the discussions instead of being part of its degradation. And if you put yourself in our shoes, it will be easy to identify disrupting individuals, rude members, and those who come here with a purpose to propagate PFDJ messages. Everyone has an equal right in this forum provided they do adhere to decency and do not trample over the posting guidelines. Clearly, some a few are trying to transform this forum into a resemblance of a Wahio get -together–that is bothersome. I hope you think about the situation in a holistic way, not in a personal manner.

        • iSem

          Hi Saleh:
          No matter how i hate the people who are enabling the regime, no matter how I love to vanish their evil ideas to the stone age, I want them to be here and unleash their venom because without them as I once wrote we cannot gauge the potency of their venom amid our community and without them we cannot learn to tweak the half a century damage done by IA and his gangs.
          The above comment by Blink is telling: on one hand he says EPLF and ELF are mere history and then complains when some conflate EPLF with PFDJ. Nice try. But that is the pinnacle of the hypocrisy.
          Yes,they are history that is why we want to talk about it
          It is not from the goodness of my heart to them that I want to hear their hate comments, their condescending remarks as in dear so and so then they say things that are far from dear, my desire to let them spew their venom, their insinuation to spy and chill springs from my selfish desire to preempt their damage

    • Senay Zer

      Dear Isamael — Much love and respect from your fellow Eritrean!

  • Paulos

    Selam My Good People,

    “The Joy Of Fasting.”

    The uniqueness of this young century or the second half of the previous century is that, for the first time in human history, people are dying of abundance of food as opposed to famine or mass starvation which had been the case where history is replete with punctuated crisis in populations around the world. When the Irish Potato Famine was the last of its kind, the 1974 and a decade later, mass starvation in Ethiopia was a blip when the world thought famine was a thing of the past. Now, we are dying of morbid obesity where being skinny is a multi-Billion dollar industry.

    Experts tell us that, an adult person needs 2000 calories per day just to get by or to stay alive. Anything over 2000 calories, either ought to be expended through physical exercise or the body won’t know what to do with the extra food except to turn it into fat. The question is, why does our body get confused on what to do with the extra food? Well, the body is not genetically designed to accumulate excess fat but to remain thrift when our ancestors lived in a world where food supply was not only scarce by they had to be always on the run where the body constantly shed any extra fat—in a world of fight or flight.

    To make the case, a landmark study was done in the early 1960s which was dubbed “Thrifty Gene Hypothesis” to examine the rapid prevalence of Type II Diabetes in the Polynesian Islands. Prior to the 1950s, that is before the introduction of the high energy Western foods into the Islands, Type II Diabetes was rare but afterwards it became an epidemic where it got not only alarming but drew huge interest for the experts to study the cause.

    The hypothesis asserts that, populations on the isolated Islands evolved through out the ages, a mechanism on how to conserve energy in a time of scarcity of food. That is, a particular gene with in the population “learned” to fatten the people in a time of abundance so that, the accumulated fat can help the people survive in a time of scarcity. To be more precise, the “Thrifty Gene” helped the people to adopt to a fluctuating environment which goes in a continuous cycle of abundance and scarcity. But after the 1950s, when the Western life style started to make its presence on the Islands, the cycle got interrupted and it became a single phenomenon of abundance throughout. And it was then, the “Thrifty Gene” didn’t know what to do with the new way of life and the fact that the gene’s responsibility was regulating the secretion of Insulin, the scant amount of Insulin started to get overwhelmed by the over supply of sugar or glucose and eventually the body succumbed to Type II Diabetes.

    Over the next four decades or so, fad diets not only became mainstream but took the center stage in popular culture, medicine including bio-technology where people are obsessing with foods that are organic and the synthetics are shunned. Over the ensuing decades, the debates on what works and what doesn’t vacillated between “Restrict Calorie Diet”, “Mediterranean Diet”, “Atkins Diet”, “Paleo Diet” and now to “Intermittent Fasting.”

    The said fad diets generated billions of dollars for the industry where the success rate depends whom you’re asking. The latest one as in the “Intermittent Fasting” is sweeping the media by storm where the experimental data shows that, experimental mice who fast for 16 hours at a stretch decreased their cardiovascular diseases by huge margin compared to the controls including incidence of various cancers as well. This is certainly great news that ought to be taken seriously. The secret of its success however is not in decreasing the food intake per se but in giving the body a repose as it is in a constant stress when it is given food to digest and process almost the whole day. The gist goes, as much as a person can not possibly run the whole day, the digestive system can not work the whole day. Fasting is the key to a healthy and long life, say the experts. Well, at least for now till another fad comes along and presents entirely new thing to ponder on and “fall” for.

    • iSem

      Nice weekend enlightenment! Grazie
      But it is easy: Do not eat trash, move your butt and follow what your grand mother/mother told you: go play outside until i summon you for dinner.
      I am having trouble with this: “….Well, the body is not genetically designed to accumulate excess fat but to remain thrift when our ancestors lived in a world where food supply was not only scarce by they had to be always on the run where the body constantly shed any extra fat—in a world of fight or flight”
      Is not the reason our body converts exess calories to fat to use it in a rainy day, when food becomes scare, that our body’s “factory” has all the intricate “biochem plants systems” to convert excess calories to fat and back to calories when needed
      One caviat: 2000 is a ballpark, it depends on gender eg female need about 1500 and if you workout with weights for 24 hours your body burns excess calories while you enjoy ur favorite show from your sofa. Muscle making requires energy sand burns fat and calories.

      • Paulos

        Selam Semerile,

        You are absolutely right. The complex biochemistry or bio-chemical pathway [Gluconeogenesis] is there to convert Fats or Proteins into simple Glucose as you put it in a rainy day. Moreover, the body makes inflammatory markers using fatty acids including cholesterol which is essential for the synthesis of cell membrane where the cell can not live without. And of course as you have rightly pointed it out, women need to gain a lot of weight during pregnancy in particular.

        However, the point I was trying to make was that, through evolutionary history, we as species are not meant or designed to be obese.

        • Berhe Y

          Hi Paulo,

          I think the IF make sense to me. I was visiting a cousin in the US abd there was another cousin who also was visiting. The host was telling us about IF and Keto and all, and everyone was like wow. The other cousin came to the US not long ago but he lived and worked in a Africa (different countries).

          He does not eat breakfast, drinks his coffee black etc, abd obviously he is the most physically slim than most people.

          He said, the whole world knows these and it does not have these problems (obsity), now some white people discovered it (that the world knows) and they are selling you as new discovery:).

          Do you remember growing up in Eritrea, we drink hot tea. We hardly drank water at all dying the day except during lunch time, we walk to school, we play in school, most of the tune during recess there is no water fountain that works to drink. And we are not seating ideally but run around, play soccer etc. And during lunch there is usually a jog of water that’s passed around among all the kids. We ate spicy food on top of that.

          In the afternoon we play for hours outside and we hardly drink water or go for washroom break:).

          What do you think about these 8 glasses a day, my wife do not let me go with out water bottles where ever I take the kids and she is right they don’t last 30 min without asking.

          Do we have some sort of environment advantage being in the highlands? I think these is working out really well for our cyclists and runners.

          I am sure our soccer players were also benefiting from the environment.

          Mo Farrah trains in Ethiopian highlands, and I think that’s giving him an edge.

          I am thinking may be we have physiological and environmental advantage that hasn’t been fully explored from that terms.


          • Paulos

            Selam Berhino,

            IF [Intermittent Fasting] is a huge thing now. In fact, the guy who has done extensive research on it is from Toronto. And I have been reading a lot about it lately. It is a tough thing to do particularly to stay off food for 15 or 16 hours a day but I am giving it a try. What I do is I eat breakfast around 11 AM then I eat lunch mostly protein around 4 PM then I don’t eat at all till next day 11 AM.

            I suspect, as many people do, there seems to be evolutionary advantage for Ethiopians as they live and train on the highlands. As you know the highlands are 6000 feet above see level.

            Please forgive my technicality, as you know, the higher the elevation, Earth gravitational force becomes weaker and the atmospheric gases including Oxygen which makes up 21% of the atmospheric gases starts to escape to space if not becomes thinner and the people on the highlands get affected by it.

            Here is how their body adopts to the changes of the Oxygen level. As you know, when we breath in Oxygen, the Red Blood cells would carry it all over the body. That is, the number of Red Blood cells is proportional to the amount of Oxygen that is inhaled. What makes this mechanism interesting is that, when the body senses decrease in Oxygen, the body would read the decrease in Oxygen as if there was a decrease in Red Blood cells level and the Kidney comes into the picture to compensate.

            The Kidrney synthesizes a hormone called Erythropoietin and this hormone sends a message to the long bones to make more Red Blood cells. The constant increase in Red Blood cells compensates to the decrease in volume in Oxygen for the people who live on the high elevation highlands. And the fact that their body is so used to living on this highly stressed environment, imagine how easy it would be for their body if they start living or compete in physically demanding competition including long distance running and cycling as well on sea level. That is one of the theories floating around about Ethiopians triumph in long distance running sports. Do you remember Lance Armstrong? He was accused of dopping with a synthetic Erythropoietin and you know how he dominated the Tour de France for seven consecutive years which was mind boggling.

          • Nitricc

            “I am thinking may be we have physiological and environmental advantage that hasn’t been fully explored from that terms.”

            Hi Berhe; nothing is Mistry. For instance; The Ethiopian airlines can go to Addis from Toronto all the way none stop but it can’t fly from Addis to Toronto none stop. Why? Because it will crush. Then again why? When the plane flies from Toronto; it carries full tank of fuel but when it files from Addis it can’t have full tank fuel and it must stop somewhere in Africa or Europe to fill up some more fuel to reach to Toronto. The reason is because of the location of Ethiopia. Ethiopia is located on high elevation and the air is to thin to support the plane to take off. The same principle applies to long distance runners. Environmentally When the runners practice in Ethiopia their lung adepts to function with less oxygen then when they compete in low elevation location they get the advantage of oxygen utilization. That is the reason in most marathon the Ethiopians and Kenyans dominate. Physiologically the advantage comes from having less body mussels on their legs, especially on their mid legs. The bigger the mussel’s the more it uses oxygen which it takes oxygen from the lungs, the less oxygen to the lunges the less the runners gets exhausted. If you seen the Ethiopian or Kenyan runners they have spaghetti legs. So you are right there are advantages and there is a good reason why MO practices in Ethiopia. And regarding the Keto; that is the way to go. if you would like to know more about it, i can tell you the way to live the healthy and productive way. Personally i do cyclic Kito. IF works too but very hard and it is in-practical.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Nitricc,

            This is probably one of the most pleasant exchange I had with you:). If there is no Isayas, i can see that I can get along well with someone like you.

            I think IF and Keto go hand I hand. I know some one close who completely changed for him and he swear by it. Last year I thought this guy was going crazy when stayed in a hotel for weekend event abd he drinks black coffee, skips all the breakfast and waits until noon to eat anything. He drinks water with Apple Cyder Vinegar and hymalian salt. Eveytime I eat bread and have sugar with my coffee, he teases me, here you go your insulin is going to kick in. How could I resist the temptation of breakfast food in a hotel, that I already paid for.

            He gives me a link to watch this doctor from Toronto (Jason Fung), which I think Paulo probably mentioned. I listened to it and it actually made a lot of sense for me.

            Long story short, I experimented with it and it gave the results I was looking (iSem, hiding information, you remember Anwar, I saw him few months ago at conference, he said hello).


            I didn’t know much about the science but you and Nitricc break it for me nicely. Honestly I have not given much though what the elevation from sea level mean, except when going down from Asmara to Massawa.

            I had heard the interview of the guy who started the South African professional cycling describing, Eritrean riders for having great physiology, high altitude, lots of mountainous terrain, and cycling culture and in a decade or two they will be the next Colombians. I think what he said is actually becoming a reality and there are many Eritrean riders who can be on many professional team if the physical condition (such as proper training, proper diet, proper focus, proper sponsership) is no longer a hindrance.

            I think Eritrea will be the next challenger to Kenya and Ethiopia dominance of the long distance running. I think it’s proven the Eritrean can build strong mud muscle as they did for cycling but equally for other sports as well. I am thinking professional soccer as well, endurance will have huge advantage for the game after developing the technical skills and physical strength.

            Basket ball, Tennis as an example.


          • iSem

            Hi BY:
            You saw Anwar and you did not remember to tell me on Friday, this last Friday at 5:00pm:-)
            Yea, some one hiding lots of info. Good improvement with experimenting with the new nutrition tech:-)
            Yea, as if I believed someone started cycling, I can tell by the color and tone of their skin, the sparkle in their eyes.
            I really did not delve into IF in terms of reading about it liked I used to do with others, but it sound like it is backed up by solid science. You know some drs like the one who wrote about the eating according blood type and the one who wrote about ear your protein first (Dr.Periccon) are all medical doctors but the rigorous science is different. E.G the eat according to blood type is like the vaccin causes autism: it has been debunked.
            But it depends on what one is trying to accomplish
            Italians are not known for excercise, there are not too many gyms,but they are the healthiest people in the world when I lived there.
            Also in the late 1990 an American wrote about an Okwagan (spelling?) diet, a japan island with the most people who live beyond 1000.
            Both ppl do not have gym, but they are active.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi iSem,

            That’s funny. I saw him few months ago and I was rushing. You have to make time, and the cycling is actually true.

            You know we don’t agree on the vaccine thing, and you just repeat what you hear on the media recreated again and again. Since this is a weekend, watch this link and we can talk about it next time.


            These debunked is totally not accurate statement. A simple study for example would, out of those parents who opt out of vaccination, how many of them have autism. The government for example in Ontario know this number to the dot, because in Ontario, every licences childcare, every school (public or private), must present proof of vaccination for a child to get admitted. If they don’t they must provide the consent form of “conscious objection”. I think it’s fair how many percent of these children have autism?

            At the same time, what is the percentage of the children who have vaccination have autism. I know the numbers are not the same but why is this so hard to do.

            Another point, the pharm campaniles can’t not be sued for wrong doing fir the vaccination they creat. The responsibility have been shifted as law (for example in the US) and it’s the government (tax payers) who will pay the bill. Find out how many billions the US government have paid out in settlement related to autism.

            When you repeat debunked, debunked by whom? By the scientist who was head at the CDC or by a science journalist from the BBC without no medical degree.

            I don’t want to continue this but we can do it in person next time:).


          • Hope

            Selam Berhe:
            Hiji Ghirim .
            The Eritreans’ Potential is beyond our imagination in all aspects,not just in Sports, provided they can get an opportunity.

            Ezzi tekal sebAy hillim ente zibil one way or another,the sky will/would be the limit for Eritreans and the dream of Eritrea to be the Israel,the old Beirut,the Swiss and the Singapore of Africa and beyond, would have been, and could be and will be a reality.

            NOT coz they are more genius than others and super Human Beings but coz of their challenging history–“chighir bilhatin sile mifetir bicha”!

            Where is my friend, Guregnaw Abi?

            That is RIGHT Abisha,the Eritrean economy will be worth of
            $1000,000,000,0000.00 in the next 5 yrs if IA leaves us alone.

            Speaking of Soccer,it was due to the 9 Eritreans of Ethio Coccer Team that Ethiopia did well in Soccer.
            Talk about few but Excellent Soccer Game Referees.

    • Ismail AA

      Selam Dr. Paulos,

      I just showed up started reading your very useful entry on diabetes 2 and its relation with diet, quality and volume. Thank you; you always come with interestingly educative posts. This one has special benefit to a lot of people who suffer from diabetes 2 which the study rightly termed as a scourge modern easy life bring with it. As you have shared the body of bigger living organisms operates like a machine. The duration of the parts in a machine that runs nonstop is less than one that works intermittently. Some of the parts get depleted and should regularly be replaced. Science has established the same process in our body as you have clearly stated.

      I think many of us do remember that Himam Sikorya was very rare in our country. The few I knew lived in towns. As far as I remember a couple where I lived, and never heard about anyone among the hard working farming people having that problem. But, among the diaspora where I currently live I know many Eritreans suffering from type 2. Myself is one of them. I had no idea about having it before fate landed me in where I am staying. A few month later I added weight and started to feel not quite well, and consulted a doctor. She did a lot of checks, and told me everything was normal.

      So, I just thought it was stress exile and process of asylum had caused. But things kept on worsening. I had to go back to the doctor. She told me she had everything checked save the level of sugar in blood. I was sent to a lab and the result was shocking to me. The doctor had to put me on immediate diet to balance the blood sugar, and things returned to normal, and have to swallow control tablets daily since . Thus, pattern, sort and amount of food can be source of many health mishaps.

      Thanks for this important information.

      • Paulos

        Selam Kbur Haw Ismail AA,

        Glad you found it interesting. As you know, Diabetes is manageable, in fact there are a number of cases where people have stopped depending on medications after they controlled their sugar level through disciplined and lasting weight loss. The key to diabetes and high blood pressure is weight loss.

        • iSem

          Hi Paulo and Ismail AA
          Our renaissance awatista has graced us with a gem this weekend. From economic to nutrition to politics, his muse is on and I hope SGS does something to woo Paul’s muse so that this muse by a justice seeker for a justice seeker and from justice seeker shall not vanish due to what he calls “lekbatat”. I know this last line is not in keeping with Paulo’s attempt to inject some sense into u by unplugging us from politic once in a while, but I could not resist.
          It is not surprise that the researchers of IF hale from Toronto as this city is home of Insulin discovery and also the research behind GI Index.
          I believe that Diabetic 2 will soon be a thing of the past in a decade. There was a research out of UK that following strict diet and exercise Type 2 can be reversed as long as within 6 years. Also there is promising advanced research to inject insulting once in 6 months where it will release inslulin whenever your body needs it.
          The first mention of the word diabetic was made in ancient Egypt when they documented that ants gathered around a urine of a person with diabetic. It is makes sense that this is so as domiciling along the Nile river a fertile bank, the Egyptians got really rich with agriculture and ate too much as they innovate with oxen; Gain cannot help it but mention that PFDJ’s Eritrea now still farms with a tech that the was invented 5000 years ago. PFDJ instead of removing the yolk from the oxen, they innovated a yolk and harnessed it on the Eritrean person.
          It seems to me that IF can work in the west where the person rummages his way all day with glucose fructose laden snacks. And I think, the not skipping breakfast is established because you have fasted for at least 6 to 8 hours when sleeping, hence the name. At face value IF makes sense but am not sure if the science behind it is rigorous. If it is, then it could not be a diet fad. The eating according to your blood type was popularized it I presume thru anecdotal observation and a research out of, you guessed it Toronto could not validate it and several research did not find eating according to your blood is not work backed by
          I did no eat breakfast for a few years when I left Sudan because when the first week I arrived in Sudan, my aunt prepared, big break fast early at around 7 and I gorged on kicha fitfit, bread and tea and the Sudanese and Eri kids born in Sudan mocked me. Sudanese drink tea with mil with one or two ligemat (timbits) early morning then between 9 to 11am every thing stops for breakfast, so much so that the Eri mock Sudanese that when the British offered them to have their independence, the Sudanese asked the British to wait till after breakfast. And diabetic is rampant in Sudan. He/she was attacked by diabetic is the line they use, but diabetic does not attack, it is fostered

          • Ismail AA

            Selam iSem and Dr. Paulos,

            You damn right. The doctor is extremely versatile and I suspect him to be master of all way beyond … master of none, as folks say. A man who carries around a heavy l load of varied knowledge. God bless.

            Thanks for expanding on a very useful information he shared on a scourge of wellbeing and prosperity in lucky countries which, unlike PFDJ’s world, enjoy progress and its fruits under caring governance systems. As you have stated and read in Dr. Pauios’ post, diabetes type II is not actually life threatening death if the patient has will power to abide by strict pattern of fooding. My friend who lives in Germany and suffers from it, shrugged and carelessly said ዘይ ናይ ጽጋብ ሕማንዩ፣ ጽማሕ ጾመይ ክውዕልየ when asked to stop consuming bier. He is proving right; IF could turn to be one of the tricks for those who decide to be disciplined and watch their food intake.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Ismail,

            First I must say, I am so glad to have read your interview on BBC and my thoughts is the same along everyone else.

            I noticed that this IF that Dr. Paulos brought got traction and I am just reading the thread. Paulos mentioned a doctor from Toronto and I don’t know who he was referring but I know of Dr. Jason Fung.

            I thought I would share his interview which I think you find of benefit with regards to IF and Keto.



          • Paulos

            Caro Semerile and Kbur Haw Ismail AA,

            You two are too kind! Thank you.

            Semerile, many thanks for putting Diabetes in a historical perspective. The Romans as you said, to have noticed flies buzzing around urine saturated with sugar or glucose. In fact the full name for it is Diabetes Mellitus [Mellitus means in Latin–Honeyed.]

            And Canada, the grearest country in the world is credited for discovering Insulin—of interest, the reason the guy named the Hormone Insulin is the fact that the B-cells in the Pancreas which secret insulin, look like a bunch of isolated Islands. Insula is a Latin word for Island and hence the name Insulin.

            Have you ever heard when people say ጥሩምባ ሒዛቶ when someone drinks fluid pretty much around the clock? The medical condition is also called Diabetes but not the kind of Diabetes we are too familiar with as in Diabetes Mellitus. It is called Diabetes Insipidus instead.

            The cause for it is not a decrease in Insulin or when the Pancreas is unable to secret Insulin altogether as it is the case with Type I. Diabetes Insipidus has a lot to do with a certain hormone called “Anti-Diuretic Hormone” and this Hormone is synthesized in the Brain but it’s main function is in the Kidney.

            Here is where it gets interesting. As the name implies, as you know “Anti” means against and “Diuretic” is derived from the word “Urine.” And the hormone is anti urine in the sense that not only it regulates the flow of urine but also controls the concentration of the urine. For instance, if you are trekking in the Sahara, your body would try to conserve fluid as much as possible and that is where the Hormone kicks in by making your urine highly concentrated—because you need fluid in your body to stay alive in that kind of environment.

            Here is some cool stuff about it. I am sure when you and Berhino on the Weekends chill either at Pero’s or any other Restaurant-Bars in Toronto with Heineken, Bud or Coors pouring to your table, you must have excused yourself to go to the washroom frequently. Thing is, the Alcohol in Beer is broken down into a molecule called “Acetaldehyde” by the Liver. And this molecule blocks the Hormone “Anti-Diuretic Hormone” as it tries to concentrate the urine and preventing you from going to the washroom every now and then to Berhino chargin. Instead, your urine becomes too dilute and you keep going to the washroom.

            To get back to the people with the condition ጥሩምባ, either their brain doesn’t make enough “Anti-Diuretic Hormone—ADH” or when it gets to the Kidney, the Kidney may not work properly and it becomes a challenge to the Physician to figure out if the problem is with in the Brain or the Kidney and he runs some critical tests to that end.

          • Ismail AA

            Dear Dr. Paulos,

            Thanks again. This is amazingly true. A layman can observe what you have provided on his/her own, except perhaps grasping the medical and scientific terms. The curious may try it. They can just have a look at the color and density of urine after drinking pure water at intermittent intervals on a hot day. Depending on the length of the gab between drinks and volume, frequency of urge to urinate, color and density change. For those who fast, the operation is in fact easier. The color of urine and frequency of urge keep on changing as the day progresses.

          • Millennium

            HI Paulos:

            Diabetic mellitus is derived from the Greek word and means siphoning (Diabetic) and honey or sweet (mellitus); historically, because both diabetic mellitus and insipidus share the same sign: (polyuria/excessive urine productioon), doctors used to tell them apart by observing if the urine attracted ants; cause ants are naturally attracted to sweet products. Ants flocking to wards your urine will give you a positive diagnosis for diabetic mellitus ( type I or II will depend on your age and other considerations)

            NB: diabetic mellitus enhances polyuria because excess sugar in the urine exert more osmotic pressure and draw water out


          • iSem

            Hi Paul:
            This is mini biotechem lecture. Yo have enriched this forum
            Berhe’s fav drink is beer but he likes to stand up when drinking it and my fav drink is gin tonic on the rocks (what did u call this in Tig?), ironically James Bond his is fav but his fav drink is beer::)
            When you visit her, forget Pero’s, we will take you to other places

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Paulo,

            Wedi Asmara, iSem gets lost when you talk asmarino stuff. He mentioned James Bond but I am sure he hasn’t seen any of his movies, unless he found him when flipping channel. It’s martini “shaken not stirred”.

            iSem loves movies but he has no time for the fantasy movie but series movie specially those that involve the legal system. I don’t know why he didn’t want to study law, never asked him just occurred to me.


          • iSem

            BY, do Asmarino have their own langauge when talking abougt science? and are you Asmarino, Iast time I checked you were not. I see no Asmarino speak Dr. Paulos amazing treat of biochem. But when the so called Asmarino came to Sudan and tried their Asmarino Arabic thinking it wills save the day and wore jacket in the middle of the day in May, Asmarino connoted irrelevance back in the days, late 1980, I told you before. Capito BY di Asamrino
            The James Bond was to say his fav drink is not beer and yours is, that was the point

          • Paulos


            There was this joke floating around a while back if there was some sort of index whereby one can tell if one is Asmarino or not. One just has to check one’s armpit. If you see hair in the armpit, that means the person is Asmarino, if you don’t see hair at all, the person ካብ ዓዲ ዝመጸ እዩ ማለት’ዩ፣ the rational being all ካብ ዓዲ ዝመጹ carry በትሪ under their armpit and the stick balds all the hair over the years.

            Berhino will have to check your armpit and hope you are not going to implant some hair so that Awatistas would take you for Asmarino 😂. Just messin with you Semerile amico mio.

          • iSem

            Hi Paul:
            Yes, and they teased each other with that all the time and even in Sahel. If MS is reading he will think I was tegadalay.
            Well, I have carried betroe and i wrote I about it here, when I wrote about Ansebait:-)
            But it is the opposite about her now> Rem the Asmarinas used to like a guy with hair on his chest, with a gap on his front teeth, now/
            Remember, hair like energy is never destroyed it changes form: from head to some whereelse;-)

          • Berhe Y


            iSem gets sensitive when teased about his lack of asmarino:).

            Paulo is fino asmarino, he is probably one of the rare one that has everything.

            He knows enda ChernaE, and he knows enda Roma. It can’t get more asmarino than that:).


          • Paulos


            We all are Asmarinos in our own unique way. The Nerds, Introverts, Hustlers, Campanas, Schizoids [as in ዘጎምፎ], Delusionals [as in ፍረወይኒ ጎማ], all have stories to tell about the city we all love and cherish and how it shaped up our formative years when we came of age. It is priceless!

          • iSem

            BY, I have to check when he come here. There are two kinds of Asmarino; the shittra kind, the superficial, and the older, known for their generosity, the kind Yemane Baaria sings about and I used to envy them, the one our age that I know well, I used to distance myself from them and actually at one point I told you we used to call someone who is not cool Asmarino are well cannot say much, you know:-). Asmarino is location, location, location, if you apply cool thing somewhere else you become “goof”. Paul looks like the opposite

          • Saleh Johar

            I iSem,
            Don’t allow asmarinis to intimidate you. They went downtown on vacations only and I find a lot of them who know nothing about Asmara. But the Italian words are their camouflage 🙂 once I mentioned “enda Emma and they had no clue. It’s where the ambassador hotel is now standing. But some passed the test when asked about “end BeTebeT, end khelbi, enda Buzzi, etc” they don’t even know enda Sdstu 🙂 if they know that last one, and go into a hysterical laugh, give them the Asmarini card 🙂 I think Berhe fails in that one, Paulos, I am not sure. But HaileS, I think he graduated that class:-)

          • iSem

            Allora Salehino:
            I just said to you, “so what!!: But Asmarino would thing I said hello?’
            Hello!! ምስሓ ዲኻ ከድካ? Out to lunch? 😉

          • Saleh Johar

            Paulos freighters me but I can take care of him. This Asmariin thing is overrated. Just wait until we move the capital city to Keren. SeTlebeT kenebellen inna! They have the temerity to claim Tsehaitu when we made her lose her mind in Keren. 🙂

          • Paulos

            Selam Ayay,

            I know all of them! Do you know enda Kebedom? Ok, will give you a clue. He was at one time reputed to be the wealthiest guy in Eritrea.

          • Saleh Johar

            I have head it Pauli’s,
            Is he the guy who had a strange relation with his……?

          • Paulos

            ha ha Ayay, ገለ ከተዛርበና ኢኻ ደሊኻ።

            And do you know how I remember ስድስቱ? The guy was pretty obese and I remember one time me and my cousin were in a car right behind him on a red traffic light and when it turned green, the guy didn’t move and it turned out he fell asleep. And of course this was in Asmara in the 80s.

          • Paulos


            Sure thing fratello. Hailat may know the Tigrinya version for Gin and Tonic. Thanks again.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Paul,
            እዚ መስተ ናይ ጥርሙዝ፡ ካብ ኣስመራ ምስ ወጻኹ እየ ፈሊጠዮ። ኣብ ኣስመራ ከለኹ ካብ መለሊኽ ሓሊፈ ኣይፈልጥን። ሕጂ ናይ ቢራ ሰብ እየ፡ ከም በርሀ። በርሀ መሳትይቲ ረኺቡ ኣሎ። ኣነ’ውን!

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Hailat,

            I am like you, I loved suwa (my mother’s), when in Eritrea and never tested Beer. We use to say it smells “Shinti biEray”, how they can drink it.

            I had tested areki when my young sister was born and there is plenty in the house. I still like it when there is the opportunity for a shot.

            Last time I visited Eritrea, I tasted Mellotti, I still don’t know the obsession of Asmarinos. It’s one of asmarinos belueve that the world revolves around them:).

            I can pass / blend in with real asmarinos but I never do consider myself as one. Like you I didn’t pass Firrappe / panino at Caraval.


          • Haile S.

            Selam Berhe, Paul, iSem,

            እዚኦም’ሲ ገና ቢራ ከይሰተዩ ሰኺሮም፡ ኣርእስቲ ስሒቶም፡ ብዛዕባ መስተ ይዛረቡ ከይብሉና እምበር፣ ካብ ኣልዓልካሲ ኣነ ዝገርመኒ ኣብዝኸድኩዋ ገዛ Heineken ስለዝቕርቡለይ ይገርመኒ። እዞም ኣዝማሪኖ ኮነ ካልኦት ደቂ ሃገር እዛ Heineken ኣበይ እዮም ለሚዶማ እብል።
            Toronto ምስ መጻኹ Bar Hop ኬድና ከመይ ዝበለ ናይ በልጁም ቢራ ክንጨርም ኢና። I just googled for the best beer bars in Toronto. I have been there few times only.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Haile,

            I don’t know how they got the Heininken, but I think I have some idea (wild guess). In Athens in the late 80s where Asmarinos start to flock in mass (between 1985sh-1990) there were two kinds of beer, that were popular. That’s why there hardly is tegadalay from that time, as the Derg figured out its better to have them leave the country rather than join the fight.

            Amstel and Heininken. Jaimie Ken was a little expensive than Amstel (I don’t remember the exact difference, but few Greek Drackmas), so having Hainken I think is a little upper class I think.

            Now those same Asmarinos come to US and Canada, and they spread the habit. That’s what I guess.


          • Paulos


            That is a plausible theory but Heineken albeit a bit pricey tastes great as opposed to the other brands. At least for me, I can never drink any other beer except Heineken or Stella or Sapporo which are similar in taste.

          • iSem

            Fratelo Paulo:
            Ok for this weekend: The joys of beer. And your writing prompt is this
            Since a mother in law invented beer to woo her daughter’s husband beer has gained popularity 🙂
            Then you can write about its melecular and chemical properties

          • Saleh Johar

            You reminded me of a person who was an avid football fan but had an aversion to drinks. While his friends wasted many beer bottles, for each round he will drink a bottle of Fanta. At the end of the day he was the most drunk person, swaying and all.

          • iSem

            Hi Haile:
            Rememberer how I delineate between Asmarinos. The ones that Yemane NEVER sings about, they make irrelevant points I wander how Paul’s deep insights about the biochem turned to Asmarino discussion.If you are playing billiards and u beat them, they tell you, gize koynu ember ab gezana neruna, if you compliment them, that they swim well, instead of saying thanks, they say, we had swimming pool in our house etc: i can go on
            I had a teacher, Asmara U grad, cool guy, i liked him, bad teacher, he arrived to Sudan in 1988 and has to make irrelevant thing every time and he once told a student when he questioned him about his math steps : “go up and down I came from a big town”. He has said many funny things. And once the late Michael Gabir came to class and told us: ‘ “I am disgusted, you got to be lucky that ppl are teaching you here and this guy has friends and metaabity who can beat the hell out of you all, spoiled brats, stop teasing him and harrassing him. And he vowed that he would never change him, take it or leave it”.
            The unAsmarino Me, I went home and looked up the word disgust.He used to wear jacket in the mid day in May and also shoes with socks. And since then Wedi Asmara became synonymouss with “farra” probably some one will read this and know what I am talking about

          • Berhe Y

            Hi iSem,

            I have upgraded since:), now I am into vodka. I remeber beer when there is some sort of sport to watch, it’s just what I learned in collage to do. Other than that I don’t even remember what I have in the fridge. The whole alcohol thing, I never get it. It’s like people go out of their way to damage their being, I understand occasionally when socializing.

            Beer was economical back then, and you know the reason I use to like standing rather than seating:). 1) it was easy to check the ladies and 2) it avoids the campana Asmarino, tereKibu eilom they drink hard liqueur like water and drop the bomb of houndreds bill then, ETiTiY… where if I stick to beer I can last the whole evening with under 20 dollars.


          • iSem

            Hi BY:
            I do not know what is going on, you are getting slow for me ( No am not borrowing Nitricc). I was teasing you know about buying new clothes, drinking beer near the door you know with who. So that was I was getting at, i fyou do not get it yet, I will tell u and u will remember and laugh But your remembered half of it why you u used to stand, am impressed:-)
            will explain. About upgrading? come on you did that with the staff you introduced me at the wedding in Cincinatt oh almost 14 years go.
            And I have never boguth beer and brought them home and you remember the bottle you gave me from Asmara and used to clean my room with it:-). We have to tell all this to Paul:-)

          • Hope

            Hey hey Cousin:
            You sound to me a Post Doctoral Researcher in Public Health and/or Clinical Medicine!

            Beyond a mere reader!

            Speaking of DM-2,Diet and related complex Medical (co)-Morbidities,the rule of Thumb is:

            1)Moderation….in what and how we put into our mouth(s)


            -Quality ….minimizing dairy and processed foods and emphasizing on the organic and Plant-based diet(formerly called”Vegetarian Diet”)
            Eat ONLY if you have to,NOT coz you want/love to
            Frequency–small but frequent meals
            Consistency and regularity:
            Timing matter(s)…..avoid late meals (at least 2-3 hrs before going to bed
            This issue has been a controversial issue and the recommendations keep changing every year
            Adequate Fluid/water intake depending on the heart and kidney function and status (3-4 L/24hrs or Grossly ,the amount of water in Ounces equivalent to one’s wt in pounds)…since my wt is about 200 Lb,I am expected to drink about 200 Oz of water….
            We used to be told that fat is a killer but now SUGAR and Salt are the killers
            Alcohol has NO health benefits but may be moderate red wine?
            Carbonated and more so Soda Drinks ,and even worse, the Diet Sodas, have been found to be major health risk factors

            2)Life Style Modification

            a)avoid bad habits(tobacco,ETOH abuse,etc.
            b)Healthy Relationship(Social Life)

            c)Exercise of any kind one can handle or tolerate,depending on the the underlying medical conditions –especially Lung and Heart problems.

            Per the AHA,an adult should walk at least 7 miles per week or for an average of 150 minutes per week
            We should know that there is NO a perfect formula and we have to personalize the diet and the exercise —depending on a lot of factors(genetic,hereditary,metabolic and related factors).

            The latest recommendation seems that the ‘COMBO” exercise approach helps better,i.e.,a short but an intense cardio coupled with resistance exercise, provided our Exercise Tolerance is good enough(Watch out with those Cardiac Patients).

            Speaking of IF/keto diet,we need to be cautious and check with our providers frequently.

            The keto Diet is being modified due to its rare but dangerous complications including a blown out “Ketosis” and I have seen two hospitalized cases.

            On a separate note:

            No doubt that you are a sharp Intellectual and Debater minus your Extreme Obsession with the EPLF and your staunch support of the Dedebitawian Opportunists.

            Yep,this Janda will NEVER EVER set its foot in my own Keren.

            I wish your debate is solution-oriented rather than just critique-oriented one.

            Back off from Mahmuday’s back and his 99.9%EPLF innocent tegadelti,who sacrificed their entire Youth for the sake of others.

            Mahmuday and the 99.9% of his EPLF Comrades in arms are but INNOCENT Christs.
            No sane Eritrean let alone Mahmud et al would support the Brutal Regime but do NOT expect them to use your language or approach in criticizing and demonizing the Regime.

            They have proven to you their own way of Justice Seeking!

    • Haben

      Dear Paulos,
      Very teaching post. I am in the health science and I found your post very helpful. In the west, diabetes mellitus type II is one of the major chronic health problems destroying peoples life and it has mostly to do with the way we eat and our life style pattern. Good Teaching.

      • Paulos

        Selam Haben,

        Glad you liked the comment and many thanks for those kind words. We are here to learn from one another. God bless!

    • Millennium

      Hi Paulos:
      I tried intermittent fasting for a year in 2017 and it worked; I lost 8 kgs and all my vital signs were optimal, but I couldn’t maintain it beyond one year. I failed in making it a permanent life style. My eating habits changed when some aspect of my life changed. But I am thinking of going at it again


      • Paulos

        Selam Millennium,

        I really encourage you to go back to it. I am into it now and I can see drastic changes in my body including vital signs. It is really hard but we have to see the long term benefits. Go for it!

  • Consolation


    To see the Weyane stooges, the people, who for 20 years waited for the dirty Weyane thugs to destroy Eritrea, reverse its independence, now pretend to be nationalists and clamor the celebrate May 24. Don’t they understand that this year we are not only commemorating the 1991 victory but that we are also celebrating the defeat of the Weyane thugs?

    ወያነ ምስ ተሳዕረ
    ‘ተጸምበለ ወዲ ኤረ
    ኣይገርምን ተፈንጠዘ ተዓንደረ
    ዕዉት ክጽምብል፥ ኰይኑ ዝነበረ

    ከብዕልየ ኢሉ ተገዓረ
    ከዳሚ ወያነ ተዕገርገረ
    የስደምም ምስምዑቲ ወረ
    ስዕረቱ ዝጽምብል ኰይኑ ዝይነበረ

    • Paulos


      Don’t you people have anything or something fresh and original to say except the same trite mantra day-in and day-out? Do you realize how unbearably boring you are? Please get a life! Will you?

      • Consolation


        I have a life. It is you who need to get one. Here you are day and night defending the Tigrayn thugs. who are on their way to the junkyard of history. What kind of a life is that. It might have made sense if you were a Tigrayan. But for an Erittreasn to be so defeated that he has become a Weyane puppet is a tragedy. For God’s sake, remember that tens of t thousands of Eritreans paid with their lives so that you and I can be proud Eritreans. Stop your sycophantic fawning over the thugs.

        • Paulos


          All I am saying is tell us something new, something interesting, something fresh, something that brings us the Aha! moment, something enlightening that makes our lives meaningful.

          • Gerogee

            Hi Paulos

            You said “All I am saying is bring something new….something enlightening.” We will bring the “aha” moments the minute you stop trying to sell the unsellable Woyane. You are one guy who goes out of his way to admire Woyane even when it is glaringly obvious they are one of the most shortsighted a d dimwitted group of people that walk on this Earth. Just the other day you were admiring Debrestion (double talk) for his “mature leadership”

            How can we let it go? They guy is a fake Dr. A very interesting article is posted on line about him by many y people that worked with him. He is notoriously unreliable. He says one thing and the very second says different thing that completely contradicts each other.

            Woyane right now can easily let go of the Eritrean land and normalization can continue. Nope not your shortsighted Woyane. They want to hold on lik6the Hyena they are and drag everyone.

            In the meantime outsiders with huge capital are flocking the whole east Africa. They can afford to lose. Just ask a Kenyan. He will reveal to you the devastating effects of instability and corruption which Woyane is known for. Stop pushing Woyane in us. We don’t care how Debrestion mature is. No Eritrean I know would ever admire a corrupt, shortsighted Woyane.

          • Haben

            Dear George
            You are programmed by PFDJ to spew one and one thing only: externalize Eritrean problems. Repeating Weyane thousand times is not going to solve the problems in Eritrea. Be pragmatic and above all knowledge thirsty person. Do not try to be catholic more than the pope.

          • Gerogee

            Hi H

            First of all call me by my right name PIA worshipper. Second, your amateurs attempt to dismiss eritrea’s security problem is laughable. It deserves no answer. I don’t know what are you trying to convey when you said I need to be pragmatic. Elaborate. Again you say I need to be knowledge thirsty. What makes you think I’m not? Sound like you’re a scaredy cat. Is there supposed to be some random cryptic message, come clean and say what you want to say did it don’t be afraid. I don’t bite

  • Saleh Johar

    Hi all,
    Now you get a chance to be introduced to a genuine patriot: Ismael Ahmed

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selam Awatistas,

    Please read the life history of my comrade and our own Ismail AA , the gentle of the gentles, who is known for his humility and wisdom in this forum, in the link below. Ismailo, even we know each other thousands miles apart on an assignments in the struggle, this is the first time to be acquainted in real picture, for a comrade I admired dearly. Hope one day to meet you in person.

    • Hayat Adem

      Thank you so much, Emma,
      I have always thought about Ismail. I was imagining him a lot. And what I got here was not much of a deviation from what I have been imagining him to be. Thanks a lot for the link.

    • Paulos

      Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

      Many thanks for the priceless weekend gift. Kbur Haw Ismail AA is my inspiration, my mentor and my hero! I want to meet him in person so that I can ask him questions about life, humility, morality, perseverance and most of all I want him to tell me about the turbulent history of Eritrea where volumes of books can not fill in the void. May God grant him a long and healthy life!

    • Haile S.

      Selam Emma,

      Thank you for putting a face to this giant educator. An authentic historian, by profession and by his laser sharp acute observation He is one of the faces of reason in this forum. A perfect mediator, whenever he intervenes the thunder calms to murmur and the tide flattens to surrender. I hope his wishes will be realized not only for himself, but for those of us who could squeeze out some of the good, bad and ugly he had absorbed over the years. I will take this opportunity to encourage him to write his observations and experiences of struggle period.

      • Blink

        Dear Haile S
        Our Ismail has to write a book and tell all , there is no reason for him that he has to wait for 40 years , we already have some ELF stories here and there . Ismail has everything on his side to tell his colleagues heroism in plain Saho , Arabic , Tigrinja and english and Thanks to Technology he does not need Eri TV . Sadly many ex ELF members still complain about 80th mistake and spend their time in unproductive politics of the past. SG has written books and anyone interested has the chance to chip in and look . Weldeysus Amare wrote one short book around 1992 or 93 while based in Iraq ( I think) .There are other books too and many youths are learning ELF history from different outlets yet that is not enough and more works to be done , as he said the story must be told by these who were there without going to cheaply accessible words like the Paltalk rooms . I read Ismail defense for some weyane views in this forum and sometimes his outburst like using ዝበረቐት ጽሓይና ዝነገሰ ንጉስና stereotyping some society in Eritrea , if the BBC has access to the comments written by Ismail in this forum , well there is no way they can match the two.
        What happened in the past will not change and ELF stories about anything
        is a plus for any Eritrean if only if these stories are put in a way that would add more positive influences to our society.

        • Saleh Johar

          Hi Blink.
          I agree with most of what you wrote, but something is missing in the story.

          “He and his colleagues are in the old line attacking EPLF as if they were more ELF than some ex ELF fighters who end up with EPLF .”

          Being physically in an organization doesn’t mean one is loyal and totally convinced with the political nature of that organization. For instance, many elements betrayed the organizations they belonged to and surrendered to Ethiopia. Can you say their loyalty stayed with the organizations they left? I think one stays with the organization they believe in and pay a lot, others are not convinced anymore and they leave to different sides. Therefore, we will always have people who still act as if they are in the 70 and 80s–and I see that more nuanced with some than with others. But since all of that EPLF-ELF stories is Eritrean history as a whole, it shouldn’t be taboo or shouldn’t be looked at with a partisan lenses and be defensive or aggressive about it. The problem I see is that since one organization came out alone in 1991, a few people consider leading Eritrea and bossing over anyone else is a mandate that belongs to then and shouldn’t be challenged.

          • iSem

            Hi Saleh:

            There should be more to disagree with Blink. He calls the 1980 thing a mistake. Correction, it is a CRIME, CONSPIRACY and TREASON. An alliance to defeat the Eritrean dream.

            Blink is one of the ppl who makes fun of ELF fighters as those who were working at haga barda all day. But that job was more honorable than the treason against Eritrea. Working in lowly jobs was more honorable than joining the alliance of killers in EPLF. So you should not agree, at least correct him.

            Now Blink is b**ching about why Ismail’s colleague say ill things about EPLF and he/she wants them not tell their story.
            And where else could ELF fighters be, except in Paltak, they cannot appear in TV Eri or whatever its name is. He calls them nameless and faceless, how about Blink, him/her/It? I challenge him to appear in social medial to debate and settle once for all if I I am TPLF good or he/she/It is EPLF goon or spy. But he refused because only jewasis do not show their faces
            I am tires about the ex-ELLF fighters big heart:-) Rember with PFDJ and IA small heart is better:-)

          • Saleh Johar

            I always thought he is not this bad until today. I totally gave up on him–the atheist camouflage couldn’t keep up with the man’s reflex action to show his prejudice and arrogance. It is the habit of the y can’t divorce–stereotypical and blanket insults. He does not have the courage to show his face when he throws outrageous insults and he has the temerity to call selfless people cowards simply because they didn’t surrender to the EPLF or to the TPLF-his allies of yesteryear until they got personal. All this hate is personal (it’s a sad story and a personal vendetta quest) but taking it this far and taking the entire nation hostage is too much. One can only reciprocate decency to a level, not unqualified and indefinitely. They didn’t surrender and they made a choice–and that choice was clearly not selfish. But if one doesn’t know what principle means and their political message is one-word parroting, I should have known. Completely disappointed and feel betrayed for the trust I gave.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Abu Salah,

            No matter how you try to make to this nameless coward to be civil and respectful, it will remain in vain. You remember when I complain you told us to shot straight at them. It does not work. ስዲ ሰብ ኩሉ ግዜ ስዲ እዩ:: It does not surprise me for a shameless person who hide behind a nickname to call to the individuals who are open to the public for transparency purpose, call them cowards. Cowards do not come with full transparency to be accountable to what they write and say.

            So you remember when I say these destructive people should be checked, you told be shooting straight st them works because it worked with you. No my friend, there is reasons why they are shooting behind their shelters. Since they are not real people it does not hurt them. It only hurts to the individuals with their real names. Anyway, it is okay with you but it is not with the rest of us who are engaging with our real names. You let them to denigrate us and our history.


          • Saleh Johar

            Emma and all,
            I feel your pain because I am on the same trench. However, I have given decades of my life to create and maintain a civilized forum where every Eritrean airs their views and inter-act with their compatriots in a civilized way for the betterment of our nation. I have to remain true to the principles however difficult it is. And I have advised many of you to stay calm and tolerate the transgressions–that is what I could do in my capacity. However, I agree this should not be a den of uncivilized discourse because it defies the whole reason for its creation. And all are witnesses to the tolerance and accommodation we provided to all Eritreans. But that should not be taken for granted and there is a limit to everything. If one is coming here to disrespect and insult people, and clandestinely advance and promote the evil we are fighting against, it is better they stay out. We do not want to be pushed anymore and I the tea is discussing what measures we should take to keep this forum inviting and comfortable for decent people. Vagabonds, indecent people and Skunis are not doing us any good. They are not adding any value to the discussion but distracting it. I have little patience left for them and something has to be done to stop the aggressors and the Weddini. On behalf of my colleagues, I apologize for all of you for having to go through all the abuse. I hope you understand why we tolerate the intolerable.

          • Ismail AA

            Dear Saled and fellow forumers,

            All well meaning participants here in this forum share the discomfort that some times raises to frustration. But we should not forget there is price to pay for the mission we choose to embark on. This forum is a committed to inform, inspire and embolden (and educate I should add) for the sake ofgoodness on the level of
            a person, and for the sake of collective endeavor for freedom.

            Having said that, however, who am I to remind us all that we should remember we departed our families and loved ones without ever pondering on return because martyrdom was more tha a possibility?. But do know thousands of our compatriots fell in battles, diseases took toll and permanent injuries left living martyrs. All this heavy prices were paid for the sake of noble cause. This web site and its organs are also committed are committed to a noble cause.

            So, it has to keep its composure and tolerance. That is what makes it an authentic adversary of the regime it is out to challenge and fight. Getting rid of rogue individuals that refuse to enjoy their rights to right what they want in good mannered ways, would make the forum prey to their intention. They come here to defend indefensible. When they fail they resort to provoking anger and reaction in kind. When they trigger expulsion, they feel gratified and think they scored points, which make their egos satiated. Thus, what I do is avoid ugly tit-for-tat engagements with such individuals. I think this has also been done by moderators. It may be the best option though it is pretty frustrating.

          • Hope

            Selam SGJ:
            I read Gen Blink daily.

            Withal due respect,sir,contrary to your ” biased” assertion and that of few here,who felt targeted and exposed,other than his/Blink’s unnecessary rhetoric and tone,and few words that he should NOT use,for his best interest and own respect,his comments are, for the most part,factual and truthful;and in fact to the POINT when it comes to the Eri Political and Armed Struggle and its ups and downs ; and when it comes to those Pseudo-Eritreans,who have been demonizing and belittling our legit political and armed struggle.

            I admire his for his respectful apologetic approaches.I just advise him as I did before,to tone down and avoid the few unnecessary adjectives he uses and by doing so,he could be the best debater..

            Please enjoy Radio Erena’ S Editorial for the 28th Anniversary Independence day.
            Can you/The Awate Team, come up with a similar Editorial,please?

          • Blink

            Dear isem
            I don’t make fun of ELF , remember I said some . ELF was bigger than the few people you see in paltalk talking rubbish .The organization has many brave men and women , ELF was the best that time can offer , I don’t put Sabe with the cowards in the paltalk, I don’t see him as criminal as some do because for me the man was ahead of his time may be but he did a great job with some mistakes which can be also debated . I don’t go out of my way trying to know in person about ELF but from what I have until now these great ELF personalities didn’t even know how the paltalk world works and they didn’t spend their time scoring cheap slander on internet. They didn’t go down to weyane and ask for tanks , they remain great men and women who still contribute to Eritrean nationalism in different ways . Unlike you they have clear stand where they see a threat to the state they call out weyane and they also have respect for their colleagues who were on the other side of the fense in 1981. Do I make fun of these people ? No because I can’t imagine EPLF win without the existence of ELF and also the great men and women of ELF . So I have an open book about ELF brave men but not about cowards and yes there were many cowards in EPLF too but what don’t matter now don’t matter long time ago.

            You are repeating the weyane goon again and again even in a debate were it does not fit , I mean why ? How heavy is the burden on your shoulder ? Say sorry and get over it .

            The difference between ex ELF and some ex ELF is a big difference, don’t convince me they are the same because they are not .

    • Saleh Johar

      Thanks Emma,
      I didn’t see that you provided the link and I did a duplicate. I have removed it after I saw your post with the link//Thanks

      • Fanti Ghana

        Selamat Memhir and Mr. Amanuel Hidrat,

        Hayata beat me to what I wanted to say, but I will repeat it for the record!

        I sensed greatness in Ustaz Ismail from the first day I read him and it only got better as time passed. The linked story added to my conviction and gave me a face to associate with. Thank you both.

    • Kokhob Selam

      Sir Aman..

      “ታሪኽ ተሓኤ ማዕረ ናይ ህዝባዊ ግንባር ስለዘይዝከርን ብፍላጥ ስለዝተረሰዐን ከም ኣካል ቃልሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ግቡእ ቦትኡ ክረክብ ኣለዎ በሃላይ እዩ። ንጽንብል 28 ዓመት ናጽነት ኤርትራ ከኣ ብሓርነትን መሰላትን ዜጋታት ክደምቕ ከምዝምነ ይገልጽ።”

      It is what we all need..


    • Lamek

      Hello Aman. Thanks for this link. Let me apologize first because I will say something you and many others here would not like. I have grown more and more skeptical of the entire Eritreans of the Ghedli generation whether they were in Ghedli or not. Skeptical doesn’t mean totally given up but I am here to be convinced and I have to see it in action. One may argue they brought independence but I have lots of issues with how it was brought about and unnecessary human and material cost not to mention the displacement of thousands of ELF fighters including yourself and Ismail AA. The reason why Ismail has not seen his home country in nearly 5 decades is because of how independence was attained. I deeply resent that.

      Having said that, I have to admit that there is something different about Ismail AA. He really strikes me as a person who cares a lot more about the people of Eritrea than the land of Eritrea and I hope he agrees with me that unlike PFDJ who say “ተሃሊኺ እንዳ ኣልና ንህሉ፤ but the slogan should instead be ንሕና እንተሃሊና እንዳ ኣልኪ ትህልዊ:: I hope Ismail will soon be able to return to his birth place and pay tribute to his parents and many other close family members who have perished in his absence and has not even had the opportunity to bury. I think the situation in Eritrea at this time has never happened in the history of humans.

      • Blink

        Dear lamek
        If you and ismail choose the people and are content with their existence where ever they are ,why don’t you stop talking about the land then ? You have enough time to spend with your family and these who choose the people who cares only about their live , the choice is simple get out from Eritrea and live somewhere for 46 years .

        For me some ex ELF fighters are simply sour losers and not only they are bad losers they are also cowards who don’t have the courage to come level with the reality. Not all Some spend their whole life looking after a feud with their opponents. Remember these people don’t have love for the people they never do until today . All peaceful ex ELF fighters worked their head off to make sure all Eritreans vote for independence, Many ELF fighters lost their livelihood and property just because they organized Eritreans for referendum and many also worked almost 11 years to help Eritreans own their country , on the opposite some spent 46 years grinding their teeth about the failure done in 1981.
        Remember these people were not democratic and they never spend their Golden time fighting for democratic leadership, they were consumed in tribalism, they were consumed with hate and still working to get a USSR help at the back of the old dream . Once they lost, their main goal was to settle their grievances with the perceived enemies they still think is existing. Remember who said ሜዳ ኤርትራ ካብ ሓደ ውድብ ንላዕሊ ክስከም ኣይክእልን እዩ:: Just after 1991 people like Ghebrebrhan from ደምሓኤ were looking for the golden shoe in Ethiopian bushes , remember Sagim guys in Sudan and also in Ethiopia in the 90th , I can bring many things like these but what does it matter.

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Lamek,

        Since Ismailo had covered to what I intend to say, in his reply to all forumers who react to “his life history and his qualms on the Eritrean politics” my response will be brief. Let me thank Ismailo for he eloquently presented on the argument of priority “land vs people” in the context of the Eritrean struggle. In short we were forced to raise arms to protect our people and secure our self-determination. So there was no such an “issue of priorities” at that time for both “ the security of our people and the prescribed land called Eritrea” were at risk.

        In the current saga on the border issue, since the bloody war was ignited, the issue of priorities “land vs people” are very important political issue, that citizens ought to debate on it, even before the war was ignited to avert it. Since 1998, I was debating and arguing as proponent for the “security of our people” than for the “security of piece of land” that could be regained through diplomatic engagements and historical treaties that was made in early 19th century between Ethiopia and Italians. At least I was a lone voice against the war in the NYC metropolitan areas to the extent I was ostracized and alienated from the Eritrean people. Let me tell you how bad was the blackmailing against me. A friend of mine was in a subway with his other friend reading some articles written about the conflict. An Eritrean lady pointing to my friend asked him, are you the pharmacist who is against our government? Imagine, the lady does not know me nor do I know her, except she heard my name in their meetings. This is the government who took us in to an avoidable senseless border war and a government that never failed to blackmail their opponents to this date even in this vibrant Awate forum as you see them. What is land without the people by the way? What is the policy of the government of Eritrea and their supporters on this issue? What is the cause to the exodus of the Eritrean people? Didn’t they value land than the lives of the Eritrean people?

    • Yohannes Zerai

      Dear Amanuel,

      Thank you very much for bringing to our attention a brief history of a man who is exemplary in his basic qualities as a human being. The abridged outline of Ismail’s background and political experience (and the accompanying photograph of his) have all put a face on the civility, humility and wisdom that most of us have come to associate with the gentleman as we continued to read and benefit from his writings at Awate.

      One thing can be clearly discerned from Ismail’s statements: The pain he feels to see the organization under which he struggled to liberate his country and his comrades in arms, both fallen and spared, sidelined by the Eritrean regime’s false narrative of the revolution and its resulting actions. While the saying “Truth cannot be hidden forever” is obviously correct, it is equally correct that “the Truth cannot be asserted without exposing and denouncing the falsehood.” The handful of wicked individuals who schemed to distort the history of the struggle of the Eritrean people and to play the ugly politics of exclusion are fast approaching the end of the road — together with those who echoed their lies and deceptions.

      The day of reckoning is not far off for the tyrant, for his “angels of doom” and for all those who made a life out of perpetuating his injustices. That is the day when their lies and distortions will be exposed, debunked and denounced, thereby opening the way for the restoration of the integrity of Eritrea’s history of struggle which, I am sure, will give ELF (as an organization) and its liberation fighters their rightful place in its record.

      Many believe that Isaias Afewerki’s rejection at independence of ELF and its former fighters and his refusal to acknowledge their contribution to the success of the struggle was arguably the single most important factor that opened the door for all the sad things that followed: dictatorship, oppression, subjugation, destitution, etc. Put simply, an initial injustice which should have been resisted — but was not — bred more injustices!

      The country’s salvation and the task of reversing its bad fortunes — i.e., righting wrongs, instituting the rule of law, establishing democracy and justice, etc. — should start with the first step of immersing the country in a genuine, people-based “National Truth and Reconciliation” process. A process that should have been Eritrea’s first order of business following its independence in 1991!

      Finally, Ismail’s longing for a homecoming (in the form of a visit or a move) to an Eritrea that offers its people peace, equality, democracy and justice — and not necessarily affluence and excessive comforts of life — is a wish shared by us all!

      Thank you.

  • Hayat Adem

    Hello Friends, History is an early warning system, they say. This is my warning message to Woyane: DON”T DO IT!!! I hear there is an initiative going on right now to reconcile TPLF and PFDJ. I’ve heard this new move was sponsored by a certain Tigrean wealthy man named Dawit Gebreegziabher or Geberegziabher Dawit. I have also heard this initiative was okayed by Yemane WeaAg and some at the top of TPLF. Everything IA is doing is nothing different from giving himself a long clinical political life. He has been doing it all along that now he seems to have perfected it well. He did it with Mubarek, he did it with Gadafi, he did it with Gulf guys one after another. He did it with Abiy which has exhausted itself now. Keleta Kidane has a buitiful line on this:”ፍቕሪ ኢሳያስ ክልተቕነ ንሳውን ብዙሕ ተኸናኺነ”. Now he wants to do it with TPLF. TPLF hear me out: you can get Isayas but you will lose the Eritrean people for ever. Don’t act like saying “a watched pot never boils”. Very wrong time to do anything now with Isayas. Fanti, please!
    I’ve heard this certain wealthy Tigrean is not a person of good integrity. He was a guy who abandoned his family and his wife to raise her kids all alone. How is this guy trusted to deal with such issues unless he is doing for sinister motives?!

    • Millennium

      Hi Hayat:

      You are advising TPLF not to make peace with PFDJ? You still think TPLF is in a position to make choices of that nature? and if they heed your advice, what next? I hope you don’t still entertain the idea that they are capable of invading Eritrea?

      For me, no matter how much I despise the TPLF junta, I would love to see this whole border debacle put to rest this way or another, even if it means having to make peace with Weyane. The future for both the Ethiopian and Eritrea people means more than a stubborn and meaningless standoff.


    • Paulos


      Most likely, it is fake news. The alleged middleman [Dawit] is Fetlewerq’s brother as you may know she is Politburo member of TPLF and she holds a Ministerial position in Abiy’s Cabinet as well. The guy is obviously loaded as in he is a very wealthy guy but to put that much weight on him as in to play a peace-maker between Isaias and Debretsion is a bit farfetched and a joke to say the least. Isaias will never make peace with TPLF for he is determined to see them gone for good where the question of how and when is anybody’s guess.

    • Ismail AA

      Selam Hayat & Dr.Paulos,

      The name of this wealthy man flashed to my mind. During the long debate theTPLF (with other local parties like Gebru Asrat’s and Aregawi Berhe taking part) held in Mekele after the trouble that erupted in many parts of Ethiopia, I watch that gentleman speaking in one the sessions. He was critical about TPLF not helping him to invest in areas of Raya, and I think also in Aduwa. Not sure if this one is him. Anyway, the despot is capable of doing anything that can serve him as along as he knows myopic supporters accept his moves as fate their creator wills.

      • Paulos

        Selam Kbur Haw Ismail AA,

        You are right, that is him. I admired him for speaking out about the rampant corruption that was going on back then. But again, I wouldn’t think he would have much clout to effect a peace deal between Isaias and Debretsion much less to assume the role.

    • Berhe Y

      Dear Hayat,

      I think if TPLF make peace with Isayas and go ahead and settle the boarder and get it demarcated, it’s positive progress for both people.

      From Eritrean people point of view, unless the TPLF does not involve in illegal activities that harm the country and the people by siding with IA ( such as, deporting Eritreans to Eritrea, give his security free access to commit crime inside Tigray, to align with him thinking to bring Eritrea and erase its independence etc) then all should be okay.

      If like what Dr. Debretsion said, we went to do all things legally and based on institution, that’s welcome.

      Then TPLF, their hands are clean and leave the regime change for the Eritrean people.

      This should make the struggle against IA (opening boarder, opening trade, etc) easier and not harder.
      It does not harm it it helps it.


      • Paulos

        Selam Berhe,

        The irony and paradox is that, TPLF for a reason only known to them never wanted Isaias removed. They still want him to stay when he is determined to destroy them. And that is called the cold nature of politics!

        • Hope

          Selam Dottore:

          “They still want him to stay when he is determined to destroy them. And that is called the cold nature of politics!”

          Remember that Conspiracy 101 works/exists.

          IA is NOT against the Tigreyan People as Ms Hayat Adem tried to convince us..

          His long term Agenda since 1973 was to see a revival of the old Axumite Empire in his very words to a certain French Journalist.

          There are tons of direct and circumstantial evidence to that effect.

          IA has NEVER trusted Eritreans and that is why his under cover and de facto Agents and executors/Guards of his Agenda are ,in fact,original Tigreyans.

          Case in point:

          Read Prof Tesfatsion Medhanie’s Critical and CONVINCING Analysis on his Discussion Paper.(google is under the Professor’s name along with “Discussion Paper’).

          His successful systematic cracking down of his potential Opponents and the mysterious deaths and disappearances of top notch Eritrean Intellectuals and Commanders like MenkAe,Dr Eyob Wedi Haile ZeAbay Segheneiti,Tewelde Abreham,Wed Affa,Ali Ibrihim-the “General” of Sahil front as legitimately baptized by none but the Derghi for his known heroism),Wedi Flansa,etc… the Field

          His role against the Popular based ELF-EPLF Simur Ghimbar Movement and the worst of the worst,his successful evil agenda of “Amma Kithakik Alewa,when hie jointly with the TPLF destroyed the LARGEST and strongest Liberation Movements,the ELF

          The follow up kidnappings and killings of the ELF heroes in Ethiopia and the Sudan

          His successful demotion of Sec/Vet Romedan Mahamed Nur et al

          The killing of the 1994 EPLF Charter

          The dismantling of Enda 72/EPLF’s Intelligence Services

          The ‘BEST” opportunity he created for himself in 1998-2001 to completely destroy the left over and his old best OLD “friends” and enablers

          The way the 1998-2000 war was handled

          His alleged covert contribution to the scary Biblical scale Exodus of the Eri Youth/people–NEVER seen in 120 yrs since Eritrea was founded in 1898,when close to half a million left the nation within 12 yrs..

          The way he mishandled the UNMEE thru his amateur and chaotic diplomacy thereby setting up Eritrea and Eritreans to be sanctioned in the very words of Dr Andeberhan W.(werdiwo Hope)

          The role of Demhit and the role its left-over top and well paid Security Agents and Guards of IA….(Senior EPLF Tegadelti informed us that it is a left over Demhit “Gen” that gives orders to the Gen Philipos and Col/Gen Simon Ghebredinghil),not to mention that there is a well paid and compensated Demhit Gang in Asmera and Adi halo protecting and guarding IA

          The on-going kidnappings and killings of the left over Top Eri Commanders and Intellectuals,Pastors,Teachers,Bishops,Doctors
          The horrifying and convincing Testimony of Min Birhane Abrehe
          The latest Post-Ethio-Eritrea peace deal status and its poor peace dividend for Eritrea and Eritreans(read and listen to YG ).

          His latest suspicious ,coded and irresponsible NiEket zimelO zereba in Ethiopia in ref Eritrean Sovereignty
          His decison to keep Eritrea and Eritreans i nte same status quo despite the Peace Deal with Ethiopia–most likely signed to appease Ethiopia and/but keep us hostages for ever–as YG alluded and predicted.



          This is HOPE and am not talking gibberish or to impress you but to state some FACTS.


          I totally agree with you Georgee and am aware of about the destructive role of our internal and external enemies Eritrea has had and Eritreans for the last 60 years but am mentioning the other side of the the truth and about our own enemies…. to make you aware that the CIA,the M16,the MOSSAD and the TPLF are NOT our only enemies..

          We Eritreans have been our own enemies due to our collective failures.

          We ERITREANS should EXCLUSIVELY OWN the “ENOUGH” Movement and thereby expedite the change we have been waiting for decades by re-organizing and coordination to rally the silent Majority behind the Movement.

          I expect, as I said it before,we will have always some dis-tractors and interference to take advantage of this movement ,particularly the TPLF and its Digital Weyane….and we have to be VIGILANT and kick them out whenever possible.

          Georgee,I mostly agree with you about how Eritrea and Eritreans suffered for over 6 decades due to our overt and covert enemies….

          “Finally something you should observe. They do not have any track record of doing the right thing. They are a destructive force. The never had a leader that have a long-term thinking”.

          What Prof Leghesse said was right and true but politically incorrect the way he said things.

          But Hakki MERRAR EYYA….and we have No choice but swallow the bitter truth… and move on by forgiving each other…for the sake of Peaceful co-existence.

          NEVER EVER TRUST the TPLF and its Supporters,call them Tigreyans or else.

          The opportunist wedi Tabba et al(quite known to most of us as a serious and rotten/sell out opportunist) should be exposed and thrown into a trash bin.

      • Gerogee

        Hi B

        You listed several conditions that you wish to see from TPLF side before you “agree” for normalization between Tigray and Eritrea. Consider the following points.

        1. They are not trust worthy. You have said it yourself the Tigray alert have been nothing but trouble to Eritrea. They don’t care for nothing but complete a complete subjugation of Eritrea. Let me repeat this one more so we can get it through your head. Complete subjugation of Eritrea.

        2. Agreement means nothing to them. Do not waste your time. The only thing that will understand and that would make the only sense is to be more powerful than them. That’s it.

        3. Finally something you should observe. They do not have any track record of doing the right thing. They are a destructive force. The never had a leader that have a long-term thinking. Look at Ethiopia. They have the best opportunity to transform the country. What did they do. They bankrupted the country. They had at least 250 billion dollar go through their hand Spirit as we speak right now they can’t even deliver water and their capital city. And I deserve Obama is one of the wettest places on Earth. I’m just talkin about water basic human necessity

    • Hashela


      It is hilarious that you now call Yemane ውዓግ instead Yemane monkey.
      As he is graying, it makes more sense. Since you know ውዓግ you most likely know also ልሓም whose habitat is wet ravines and creeks, carries dark blue “berries‘, and is frequented by ውዓጋት

      My apology for this apolitical comment

    • Fanti Ghana

      Selamat Hayata,

      I feel your concern Embeyti Ayni!

      There are a number of famous individuals such as Memhirs Gebrekidan Desta, Muluwork Kidanemariam and Mr. Dawit Gebreegziabher who have been advocating for peaceful co-existence and/or unity between Eritreans and Tigrayans for a very long time. However, their efforts were usually dimmed by temporary political acrobatics and other consequential happenstances such as the personal vendetta driven amateur factions of the so called Aga’azians.

      Mr. Dawit’s interest is primarily economy, but Memhirs Gebrekidan and Muluwork base their opinions on solid historical and practical experiences. Among many other issues, what unites those three and many of their followers is the belief that TPLF did not make its best effort to make peace with Eritrea regardless of what party or who was leading it.

      TPLF probably believes that PFDJ is more focused in seeing the demise of TPLF well above what is good for Eritrea, and it seems to have decided to concentrate its efforts in “relationship with the people” instead. However, ithe pressure to make peace now to stop farther deterioration is very strong.

      Given the current political crisis in Ethiopia, it wouldn’t be surprising if TPLF falls to the temptation of wanting to bury the hatchet with PFDJ and give those who planned to squeeze it a bloody nose in the process.

      I am sure that you remember how MZ/TPLF was pressured to escalate the war with Eritrea and the applaud that followed for proving his/its “Ethiopiawinet.” Look now how every single one of those entities seems to have found a new love for Eritrea and Eritreans while depicting TPLF and Tigrayans as the enemy of all. “How the world turns!”

      So, some of the frustration and hence the pressuring of TPLF to cooperate even with PFDJ stems from a desire to undo the handy works of personalities such as Gebru Asrats and Birhanu Negas of the then Ethiopia who opposed TPLF primarily for aiding Eritrea in its quest for independence.

      I will be pondering the question whether peace between TPLF and PFDJ will give PIA a new lease in life or expedite his removal for the weeks to come, but in the meantime, I will promise you my full cooperation to give you a chance to persuade me one or the other!

      • Paulos

        Selam Fantination,

        Isaias is a highly vindictive person. The crushing and humiliating defeat he sustained in Badme has left a lasting stain on his dark soul and he won’t let it go easy before he sees Weyanes paying for it.

        Dawit is Fetlewerq’s brother and she is Abay Tsehaye’s ex-wife. For Isaias, they are all the same people—the same Weyanes who humiliated him two decades ago which is a fresh memory in his vindictive world. And to hope that he will carry the Olive branch all the way to Meqele is someone as he put it in another thread who doesn’t know a sense of history.

        • Alex

          Hi Paulos,
          It is your prerogative to hate PIA but to state he is humiliated in badme is wrong. You are letting down my compatriot from EDF that defended and fought the invading TPLF army heroically so that you can show your hate for PIA. I don’t know any body except hayat that defends TPLF with out any reservation as you in this forum.

          • Paulos


            EDF certainly fought the invading army heroically but Isaias was humiliated and defeated hands down. That is the fact and learn to live with it to eternity.

          • Hope

            Selamat Alex;
            I second you, young veteran.

            Not sure why people are obsessed with Baduma and defeat when they know the truth and the facts?

            Those might be the ones,who are ignorant about the EPLF style strategic withdrawal.

            I thought we withdrew from the outskirts of Asmera in 1978 or so but ONLY to walk back into Asmera within less than 9 yrs after destroying COMPLETELY the Most Powerful Black Army in Africa,which is beyond the defeat of the same a million strong and well equipped Army.

            I wish these people were at the Aseb and Eagri Maekel Fronts,man!.

            Do these people know that Generals Tsadkan and Siyye were crying and running away form the battle fronts with their tails behind/between their legs.

            “Ab Wighii’ zeyweAle jegnas…..”

            Forget about the battle fronts.

            I thought Eritreans and IA are human beings??

            But hey,they proved to be “SUPER HUMAN BEINGS” though.

            Where is PMMZ and the TPLF right now,the same entities ,who bragged about destroying Eritrea and its economy overnight ?
            they are quarantined and are begging for a breath to get out from the trap they are in after the same Issu closed all the borders including now, the Sudanese border?

            I wish ISSU shall/will DECLARE without any preconditions during his next week’s Independence day Speech as TN hoping and predicting :
            1) Declare National Reconciliation unconditionally and release all the Political Prisoners and the Prisoners of Conscience

            2)Declare the Implementation of the killed or modified Constitution with all its Provisions

            3)Welcome all Eritreans from all walks of Life and from all the corners of the world to join in the Nation Building thru FREE Economy

    • Consolation

      Ayte Hayat,

      Isn’t that wealthy man a nephew of Aboy Sebhat and a brother of Monjorno? If what you say is true, that the TPLF thugs have finnally decided to accept reality, then it is not Daiwt t hat is the instigator. His money belongs to the Weyane kleptocrats, So be bold and put the blame on the shoulders of the Weyane Mafia.

    • Hope

      Selam Hayat:
      “TPLF hear me out: you can get Isayas but you will lose the Eritrean people for ever. Don’t act like saying “a watched pot never boils”. Very wrong time to do anything now with Isayas”.
      So what do you want us to do then?
      Stay in the status quo?
      What if IA stays in power for another decade?
      Come on,can you be a bit sensible?
      With or without IA,what we need is PEACE..

      • mokie berhe

        Salam Hope. Tigrayans/TPLF are dividing the opposition and preventing it from gaining traction by pretending to be patriotic Eritreans and endlessly screaming conspiracy theories. Not only are they being allowed to do so, they are being openly praised and glorified for doing so, turning away those Eritreans who are really interested in pursuing PIA/PFDJ reform and accountability. It is a simple shameful fact. When I refer to Tigrayans, it is not the majority, but rather those closely hinged with the TPLF.

  • Selam All,

    I do not know if one can say that it is the end of history as much as the landlocked status of ethiopia is concerned. Nobody really knows. It is not an issue that will end here and now, only by looking at the present and the past forgetful of the future. As I understand, it is simply transferring a problem to a later date and for the future generations. Nobody is sure if the future generations will continue to accept the status quo as it is today, that Ethiopia is condemned to remain a landlocked country forever, and Eritrea is bestowed with the right to landlock Ethiopia with a stripe of land 60km wide, cutting from the sea a country as big as Ethiopia and a population 20 times bigger, thus condemning it to a dwarfed GDP, at least by 40% as studies show for a landlocked country, a precarious national security and a country that was historically a Red Sea nation from antiquity until the italians came. The new reality is secondary to the action of a foreign power that created the situation on the ground in which the one benefited and the other lost big time, as the result of an artificial boundary hundreds of miles long and only 60 km wide, curved out and its main aim being to landlock ethiopia so that italy could be the master of the region. Unfortunately, this was worsened by the actions of the two leaders at a crucial time in history.

    The colonial powers did not care about this injustice when they left, which can be called a time bomb for that matter, African leaders didn’t dare either and didn’t have the stature to tackle the problem and chose to postpone it to a future date to be solved by future generations, according to the geopolitical situation of the day, that does not remain the same as we all know, and international laws are as good as the world power that is dominating the scene.

    Injustice remains injustice even if it is the product of an international law. An unsolved problem will only be postponed as long as it is not solved. It becomes permanent, that will pop-up now and then, and becomes the reason for contention. 150 years later, Bolivia is still opting to recover its outlet to the sea. Can anyone blame it? Such things are generational problems no one is ready to accept.

    P.S. I will not try to say more than what i have already stated on this subject, because of the divergent and non-reconciling positions.

    • Blink

      Dear Horizon
      What is injustice? For you the Term doesn’t matter because here you are conflating with a false history that you keep under your bed for generations unless how can you dismiss the price Eritreans paid to own their country and keep it . Eritrea sustained years of battery and endured challenges never seen anywhere in Africa if not the world. Thirty years of Armed struggle from 1961-1991, war against the TPLF 1998-2000, and the last twenty years of No-War-No-Peace especially have proved extremely difficult due to Issias greedy for power . The only time Eritrea lived in peace was from 1991-1993 before referendum at that time until 1997 as UN recognized independent Nation , Eritreans did the best ever for their country . The Ethiopian elites have never paid any price for the mistakes and the only reason for this is Issias was greedy to hold on power that is a gift for you guys . You Horizon was one of the clappers of the sun set operation by weyane , it failed and I don’t know how many innocent lives are you going to spew out for a false history that’s extremely dangerous to Ethiopia the existence. Ethiopia is still a country due to Eritrea and I don’t know if you know this but Eritrea has still a chance to curve out a small country from Ethiopia and make sure elites like you face the reality, if you and people like you continue to play your false and coward game the future leaders of Eritrea knows which button to open up . Horizon , Remember Eritrea is a country not a Tigray state in Ethiopia.

      Menelik time Ethiopian leaders who have no clue about Geography as well as people brutally honest about what they want put in their pocket, you on the other hand tried 60 km gab to the sea as injustice. A fractured Ethiopia which can not be good for anyone around was the main obstacle for many and here we are a guy who spend his time at white men corners singing the lost cause of Ethiopia owning a sea .

      Ethiopia historically didn’t own a sea , it never was an owner of anything called sea and from this time on wards it will be only landlocked with a spare key to be many countries.

    • Ismail AA

      Selam Horizon,

      Your way you express you views is commendable – civil and composed. I have to thank you for that. But, the issue her is not something like ዛሬ አሸነፍከኝ ነገ አሸነፍሃለሁኝ. I mean there is no reason or logic in belaming leaders who acted at a certain juncture of history of nations to settle disputed relationship in accordance with ou tcome of conflict in the framework of norms and procedures international protocols and treaties prescribe.

      Now, aside from historical antecedents for the moment (will briefly deal with it shortly), Ethiopia had ignited a long war in 1962 when it unilaterally violated an international agreement with Etitrea, and with the powers you are blaming now looking the other way. After 30 years, it lost the war with hundreds of thousands of its citizen killed and injured, as well as causing similar number of losses in Eritrea. So, what government of Ethiopia, and the governing authorities did was legally concluding a conflict already settled on the battle field.

      The EPRDF as internationally endorsed government of the time had wisely agreed to an offer of proper legal transfer of status instead of simply walking away with defeat and comply with de facto fate accompli. Its acceptance of the referendum had in fact helped the good peoples of Ethiopia to avoid wounded pride, which was good to the Eritrean people as neighbours. The referendum, justified by victory in hot armed conflict, was funded, watched and endorsed by the UN in accordance to rules and procedures under legal system of the international community of nation.

      Now, I do not know how such a legality would be reversed, unless by flagrant aggression which is prohibited by international law. And if some elites in Ethiopia suffering from unfulfilled dreams and chronic sickness of irredentism rooted in irredeemable legendary fantasies and repeat a mistake their Emperor had committed more than half a century ago, I can emphatically undrescore that the Eritrean people shall, as they did in the past, stand up to the challenge, which no one can foresee the damage that would afflict both nations.

      Moreover, politics based on nostalgia and packaging of aggression in geographic proximity, length-width expanse of a territory of a sovereign state, unverifiable and possession of pre-modern Ethiopia of sea cost and hope powers blamed for establishing the current relation between Eritrea and Ethiopia would change heart to repeat mistake they had committed in 1952 would surely not help the future peaceful and cooperative relation between Eritrea and Ethiopia. Actually, some of the chauvinist elites in Ethiopia should visualize sane politics sanitized from senseless, old fashioned and dream incentivised prowess and avoid the strive to satisfy insatiable aggressive jingoism. It is simple not possible and costly.

      Besides, it is time for them to read history. It will tell them that Ethiopia had no possession and control of sea coast when the Italians arrived through their pioneering Rubatino Company in 1869 and bought foothold in Assab. They did not buy it from the Ethiopian monarch of the time. The transaction happened with the rightful chief of the local people. Moreover, the territories contiguous to the sea were possessions of the tribes under chieftains such Somalis, the Afar and the Saho further north up to Zula. The same was true in the interior of historic Abyssinia. The dominions were based on reigning king to his subjects relationship which fluctuated in accordance with the strength and weakness of the monarch. I am talk about pre-modern state system that the tpTreaty of Westphalia defined nation-state. Add to what I have already jotted notes that the Turks from 1514, and the Egyptians later on, had control on the western Eritrean sea coast. Occasional passage of goods and persons in and out with agreements with local ruling authorities of the time in Massawa, or for that matter a king of Aksum like Kaleb had sent troops to Yemen from Zula in ancient times would not legitimize aspired aggression in modern state-to- relations under the currently working international system.

      Therefore, the two sovereign peoples in the two states will be better served if they can weed out chauvinists from their ranks and look forward to establish democratic governments that shall cooperate and prosper. The same will be true with the other neighbouring nations in the region.

      • Kokhob Selam

        Dear brother Ismail AA,

        What a nice approach and explanation man!!!

        “Your way you express you views is commendable – civil and composed. I have to thank you for that. But, the issue her is not something like ዛሬ አሸነፍከኝ ነገ አሸነፍሃለሁኝ.”

        I like it..”,,,,,,their ranks and look forward to establish democratic governments that shall cooperate and prosper. ”

        That was fantastic…


  • Hameed Al-Arabi

    Ahlan Awates,

    The majority of Eritrean elites are POOR HISTORY READERS, but NOT HISTORY MAKERS. Do you agree with this claim? Browse Awate articles, you will get the answer.

    Is Isaias escape from Eritrea? Yes, he has escaped from Eritrea to watch events from outside Eritrea. This is a golden sign and opportunity for the people of Eritrea to demonstrate and make an end to his regime. Since Al-Diyaa school has an experience, I hope they trigger the demonstration.


    • Hameed Al-Arabi

      Ahlan again Awates,

      As all of us know, when there is a critical situation inside Eritrea, Isaias escapes and follow events from outside Eritrea. This time will follow his demise and collapse of his empire. for sure, they will attempt to portray him as if he is inside the country. The news he is outside the country already circulated, and it will never be hidden. It is better for the people of Eritrea to face them, but he is a coward to do that. He knows well that his end inside Eritrea will be a tragic one, therefore, he has escaped early. I hope to be courageous enough and go back to Eritrea.


  • said

    Ethiopia is at a dangerous crossroads.
    YZ Rarely one truly sees al-Haqqah, ‘The Reality.’” The politics that allows this is, of course, a well-meaning one. A kind a liberal person like you , committed to what you see and doing the right thing, and this is evident both in your oeuvre as your writing above and the impressive work you have done.

    Ethiopian demonetization of Eritrean is mega industry by itself for very long time, Exhortation ignores everything about the history of the Ethiopian colonization,subjugation,oppression and exploitation of Eritrea is well known fact Ethiopian elite , including its relation to most Ethiopian ethnic people , that is dealt with subjugation,oppression and some kind racism.
    You are narrating Ethiopian elite , and not the life experiences of marginal characters, often the vast majority poor marginalized, this tiny Ethiopian elite radical group ,the language functioned in a somewhat different manner. Often one ends up seeing only what he wants to see and showing only what he wants to show. When one sees his choosing this particular way of representation, But style, and aesthetic choice, is also an expression of worldview, of politics, and there is a certain kind of Ethiopian imperialism in extending this late-hipster mode, alternating between lack of affect and irony, to characters who have had life trajectories very different from what we mostly experience and in order for our humanity to be of significance. We do not need be reassured of our own humanity and our independent nation by Ethiopian elite radical imperial set of mind group.
    All wars end with winners and losers, the only real losers are the people. while almost all the states in the horn of Africa “ Eritrea ,Somalia, Sudan and south Sudan ” have been weakened or completely wrecked, Ethiopia to certain degree is not standing in its shaky leg . Ethiopia has not fully turned the page of Marxism and Leninism of by gone era of Bolshevism ideology and the policies Ethiopia implemented had long term consequences. In a pendulum movement, Ethiopia for century was awfully feudal state,very backward Ethiopia of 1960th and 70th – was part of favored USA and by most “western free world” event those Ethiopian remained feudal state and self-adoration of the Of late king Haile Selassie and cohort feudal Tiny super-rich feudalistic mostly Amharic speaking , – 50 years later after the demise of king Haile Selassie, they were all decimated by sick Derege regime , The sad truth of the two decade-and-a-half,1991 a new face and class appeared ,it is they turn to cashing , a similar cabal of the new tiny super-rich emerged “new ruling class”, a powerful forces, deadly former Marxist group turned capitalist and ethnically homogenies and intimately tied to one another in controlling the Ethiopian state . Some of the by gone now Ethiopian deep state are not yet satisfied with its efforts to further expropriate the wealth of Ethiopia, too bad time is not mercy to them, their time is up . The vast Ethiopian working class and majority poor Ethiopian .they want to see real change and improve and enrich themselves more . The Ethiopian ruling class controls not only the Ethiopian parliament , but the higher apparatus of state power, An ever-growing number of ordinary Ethiopian are coming to realize that they are being had for century after centuries long tyranny of Ethiopian ruling-class and wealth expropriation of the poor peasant and landless peasant suffered the most . the recent Ethiopian history repeat it self solely by one ethnic group in name of Ethiopian political forces entity of the greatest con-men PMZ of last two decades and half . Today Ethiopia has morphed into a set of coercive and falsely consensual societies. Ethiopia is endowed with a bigger and more oppressive bureaucracy than that of China and former Soviet Union in term of percentage . True existence of human civilisation is based on justices and free society .one hopes Ethiopia will respect International Law and leave Eritrea and respect it boarder once and for all . The fact remain horn of Africa countries economic are stagnant economic truth of Ethiopia as deepening socio-economic inequality is obvious to all who choose to see, to know, what’s going on interior of Ethiopia. This condition exacerbates such ongoing conditions as deepening poverty, failing health and overall social malaise. Ethiopian should stir Away from wars and imperial ambition. Ethiopia need to focuses to its internally need reform economic progress shifting from an agricultural to manufacturing nation. One can only wonder if a series of catastrophes similar to those that took place in the feudal state of past 1900s-1970s is the only social force that redress the tendencies to ever-greater inequality? The great challenge facing Ethiopian progressives groups and Ethiopian Dr. Aiby in the upcoming years is to acknowledge economic inequality and the need for a radical redistribution of social wealth through out Ethiopia .

    Ethiopian , were extremely tired and disillusioned for century by the backward traditional royalty kings and their feudal system and the traditional backward monopoly of land ownership and servitude of the people , in time Ethiopian rejected deadly bloody Dereg communist. Ethiopian desired something else which is moderate, middle of the road and enough of the war . What has disillusioned Ethiopian people is not just the TPLF left and Derg, the new elite Ethiopia ruling class opposed the values of public freedom and tolerance of divers difference, who have more similarities than differences with narrow ethnic oriented and Ethiopia neo elite politics . Ethiopian elite are pushing cloture of war

    experience political expression of hateful violence , a political system deaf to their needs and interests. The ruling class past and present they hadn’t realised that a large proportion and majority of poor people were at the end of their tether, people who have nothing . they did not recognise the anger and suffering of the people that went strangely unheeded. indifference to ordinary Ethiopian people. Almost endangering the unity of the country. in the 70th 80s ,90th Ethiopian from the top to the bottom knew that feudal system and communist it wasn’t working, Ethiopian revolted in masses against political system that did not represent the people. A sense of doom that people feel. Ethiopian disillusion with established politics. The fearless Ethiopian protest movement. started with structureless and leaderless nature that made them very potent and brought some change .
    Here comes like a gift from heaven PM Abiy Ahmed with his patrician attitude, with well established party system and political reform policies, realty will soon kick in with exacerbate this crisis of false representation. Dressed in reformer cloth with the sole bearer of optimistic values PM AAA who came out of the blue with his party and political base. Without been laden with an original sin of his political base.

    which has its roots in Ethiopia ugly colonial history to ward south of Ethiopia and this will constitutes an obvious obstacle and impediment to the Dialogue of real human Civilizations with Eritrea for most Eritrean people, since they were the victim , they part of culture of peace which is universal and It is shared by people and nations every where
    culture of war” is not new for Ethiopia ,is same old Ethiopia of hegemonic project predicated on the creation of conflict and divisions within their own people and between Eritrean people and Ethiopia at large . It is this Ethiopia elite unilateral imperial project of warfare which is intent upon destroying our neighbourly civilization. Eritrean people Ethiopia should be confronting and dismantling “the culture of war” which has a pervasive impact on the Ethiopian mindset historically wise. Ethiopian elite culture of war”, which is in blatant violation of the UN Charter.
    For those who that believe in the culture of peace should not let Ethiopian elite highjack their country.
    It requires good will and real action . The real need for a cohesive anti-war movement at the grassroots of society nationally and across Ethiopia
    Translating the “culture of peace of the people ” into concrete actions no more war and translated the geopolitical and diplomatic levels Ethiopian elite their lies should be confronted media disinformation and war propaganda .
    The cultural dimension is crucial. The Neo Ethiopian elite policy-makers believe in their own propaganda. The “ ugly and distractive culture of war” often combined with twisted ideological and/imperial undertones, influences Ethiopian elite government officials involved in acts of war to prevail .

  • Hayat Adem

    Hi Yohannes,
    I usually enjoy your article. They are carefully written mostly. They are forward looking mostly. They are very well considered with facts and sensibilities. This one too is fine on the most part but I see few errors of emphasis, few errors of factual misrepresentation and few errors of judgement.
    On Emphasis: there are two partners to this new peace agreement (Jeddah Agreement, JA) and to the new narrative of “we are two but one people” sorts. One of them happens to be representing Eritrea and Eritreans. And the same one happens to be the party who is in a monopolized power control in Eritrea lording over all aspects of life from within. It is like you are being represented by a hostile lawyer and you are blaming the lawyer representing your opponent. Why would anyone go after the other partner? Hence the misplaced emphasis!

    On Judgement: Let me refer to one interview Amanuel Eyassu did with the late MZ some years back. Amanuel then reminded Meles of the deportation of Eritreans by the Ethiopian government and that Eritreans deported are allowed to return and live in Ethiopia and reclaim their properties. He also told him that it was good the Ethiopian government admitted to making a mistake and apologized to all Eritreans wronged. Amanuel followed up that statement with a question: Eritreans still think Ethiopian leaders are untrust worthy and what the leaders are doing is not good enough for the damage they suffered. Do you think it is fair for Eritreans to still be angry or ask for more redress than is already done by your government?
    The answer Meles gave to that question opened my eyes forever and I started thinking and acting differently,as a result. This was the answer he gave (allow me to bring in a long quote, not verbatim):
    “well, we realized we made mistakes in deporting many non-risk Eritreans. We regret it. We have come out with our apologies. And we don’t shy from apologising over and over for our shame and miatake. And we are trying to redress it as well by our own ways including those you mentioned. We are also trying to accomodiate few young Eritreans with free college scholarships for those who fled their country while at school age. We would like to do more on that front.
    Is it fair for Eritreans to still blame us and ask us for more? I say NO. It makes more sense if Ethiopians ask us to do more to redress our mistakes over our brothers on the other side of the Mereb. Eritreans should do the same and press their leaders to apologise for what they did to Ethiopians. Deportation, they did it in greater numbers and in more horrible ways; they did it in 1998, they did it in 1991. They never apologised; they never corrected it. It is not fair for Eritreans to still demand from us while we are doing what we can; where their government wronged Ethiopians in worst ways including armed aggression and not even admitting of any mistakes to date…” Still Yohannes is accusing Meles of doing evildoer to Eritreans. Do enough number of people really think about what were done against Ethiopians? Do we really believe as people that a deportation southbound is equally painful as a deportation northbound?

    On facts: Yohannes must be reminded of the fact that IA started the aggression and confiscation of Erhiopian public and private properties that were transiting through the Assab and Massawa port before Ethiopia decided to 100% switch of port use. Particularly, private loads continued to go to Ethiopia through Assab until IA confiscated them. I wouldn’t blame Ethiopia for abandoning Assab afterwards. The other factual error the claim that Meles was on ports services shop hunting to hurt Eritrea. This is unfair. You can’t accuse tbe Ethiopian leaders of expansionism when they are interested in Eritrean ports and bad wishers when they diversify their wntey and exit ports depending on destination proximity. Would you put all your eggs in one basketand pray for your crazy neighbor to remain sane for the day or minimize risk?
    Think of yourself being a leader of a landlocked nation of 100 million people and tour next door neifhbor is a mad man and consider if you would act in any better way. As to the UN teying to use Assab as humanitarian window for drought victims, there was a Rechard Hallbruk politics with it. I am sure Yohannes would also know this. Portraying as if he qas boycotting Assab because he was not caring for his starving people, and Isayas as if he qas allowing Assab because he cared for the drought victim Ethiopians is mind boggling.

    • Yohannes Zerai

      Dear Hayat,

      Thank you for your critical review of the article. Before attempting to respond to the key issues you raised in your comments, let me first address a couple of points of clarification that will hopefully help in facilitating the exchange:

      (i) You opened your comment by stating that the article contains “ … few errors of factual misrepresentation and few errors of judgement.” Misrepresentation happens when a person’s statement proves to be partially or wholly untrue. I wish you had pointed to a specific statement in the text that you felt misrepresented facts. But, the fact that I did not raise issues that you would have liked to see raised in the article does not mean the statements regarding the issues I did raise have misrepresented facts.

      (ii) I must draw your attention to the timeframe and the scope that the title of the article has set for the contents of the piece. The title “ Ethio-Eritrea Rapprochement ….” defines the timeframe for the article as being the one-year period that elapsed since the peace agreement was signed in July 2018. The territorial claim made by some Ethiopians, and the sentiments expressed and actions displayed in the country in support thereof (and within the specified timeframe) are the thread/theme of the article.

      (iii) As I tried to identify the main points of your comment that I must respond to, I could see that some of your comments are outside the timeframe and scope of the article as defined in Item (ii) above.

      Having made those clarifications, I will now try to respond to the issues you have raised:

      1. ON EMPHASIS: I was truly taken aback by the statement in your comment that “there are two partners to this new peace agreement. …. One of them happens to be representing Eritrea and Eritreans.” Wow! But leaving that aside for the moment, let me address an assertion you made in the same paragraph where you stated, “ … and you are blaming the lawyer representing your opponent.” For your information, I did not blame anyone. What I tried to do in the article is, in fact, the following: I reject claims that some Ethiopians made about Eritrea, and I set out to argue against that claim and refute the points that they presented in support of their claim. That is all!

      2. ON JUDGEMENT: You dwelt at length on the two countries’ deportation of each others citizens. You did so because you chose to write about it; but you perfectly know that I dd not write a word about it and that it is, in fact, outside the scope of the article. Despite these obvious facts, you claimed that, “Still Yohannes is accusing Meles of doing evildoer to Eritreans.” That is absolutely untrue! The only mention of Meles’s action/statement in the article was made in connection with the issue of use/ownership of the port Assab — an issue which is at the CORE of the territorial claim by some Ethiopians, hence is CENTRAL to the theme of the article.

      What the article states is “The hatred and ill will that Ethiopia’s vindictive late prime minister … harboured towards Eritrea …” I stand by that statement and I will explain in a separate post the basis for that statement.

      3. ON FACTS: (a) The question of “who is to blame for the Ethio-Eritrea war” is something that is totally and completely extraneous to the the title, substance, theme and content of the article. I never even considered the cause of the war, much less put blame for it on anyone. (b) I stand by what I have written regarding Ethiopia’s rejection of the UN and US proposals regarding humanitarian use of the Eritrean ports. It is not me claiming that; you have been provided references in the article. Read them and they will refer you to additional sources of more documented facts on the matter. Or do you believe that all the sources of that report like Allafrica, BBC, etc. were part of the conspiracy of what you called the “Richard Holbrooke Politics”? (c) Everything I wrote about Ethiopia’s post-war use of other ports in the region is there to show that Ethiopia had never ever had restrictions/problems of access to the sea; and, that, on the contrary, she has and will always have a wide range of choices for accessing the sea. I did not complain about (or accuse anyone for) Ethiopia not using Eritrean ports after the war. Re-read the article, please.

      Hayat, much of your comment lost relevance and a sense of objectivity as you got carried away on your emotions, and as you relied too much on your “reading” of what has not been written in the article. All the same, thank you for engaging.

  • Paulos

    Selam Simon Kaleab,

    I am not entirely sure if you are simply playing “Devil’s Advocate” or showing off stupidity by peddling a leader’s st*t-h*le remarks about the continent we all call home. Malcolm “X” once remarked about a House N***er when he said, he would pray for his master to live a long life lest he gets kicked out to the harsh life of the field. And you are wishing for the Colonizers to come back to Africa. That is pretty amazing.

    I am sure you have read Chinua Achebe’s notable novel, “Things Fall Apart” but I seriously doubt if you have read his 1988 famous article or essay titled, “The Image Of Africa.” Before we say a thing or two about the essay, let’s first see the plot of another novel by Joseph Conrad otherwise known as, “Heart Of Darkness” where Achebe’ essay is based on including of interest Edward Said’s “Orientalism.”

    Arguably, “Heart Of Darkness” is the most commented on novel in literary circles through Post-Colonial discourses. The novel was published in the early 20th Century where the setting is present day Congo and the two main protagonists in it are Marlow and Kurtz.

    Marlow travels on a boat through the Congo river in search of a famed Ivory trader—Kurtz. Along the way, the story of the indigenous people is narrated by Marlow where he finds himself in a series of contradictions and disillusionment. Marlow’s contradiction reflects the author’s—Joseph Conrad’s convoluted view of the specter Colonialism and in the meantime it’s “imperatives” in a bid to enlighten” the “savages.” When Marlow finally met Kurtz at his huge mansion on the other part of the river bank, he was appalled by the inhumane treatment of the servants who worked at the mansion. Kurtz not only physically abused the people but destroyed their sense of pride, dignity most of all the millennia old well structured social fabric. Achebe, in his essay added something else in addition to the abuse after he read Conrad’s novel. He said, the Colonizers stole a gem. Not a gem from ground under but Africa’s artistic mastery.

    Enter Cubism: Cubism was artistic movement which was popularized in the early 20th Century which was later on became synonymous with the High-Priests of the art world as in Picasso and Braque among others where it’s influence later on became more palpable in music and literature as well.

    Marlow during his voyage, noticed artistic crafts of human image made out of woods. And Achebe had noticed the same artistic mastery when he was growing up in the villages of Nigeria—which was essentially Cubism. Picasso or Barque never acknowledged the origins of Cubism when they made a fortune out of it as they never wanted to acknowledge the origins of humanity which is Africa. Perhaps, when Achebe wrote his essay, “The Image Of Africa” he had people like you–Simon in mind who knew Africa through Kurtz when it’s true image is the opposite. The difference is however, you trace your roots to the continent when Kurtz doesn’t.

  • Gerogee

    Hi YZ

    I have to give you credit for calling out the Evil deeds of Meles Zenawi. He was not only Evil, he was shortsighted. Unable to see the bigger picture he dragged whole horn Africa to the bottom.

    You made 3 major wrong assertions.

    1. Ethiopias so called economic growth is a net loss for the whole Ethiopia. It was not development. Borrowed money being spent by the hyena Woyane is not development. It is just robbery. Stop reguegrateing false narrative.

    2. Few old timer and some young Ethiopians may have made some inflammatory, headline grabbing statements, BUT, BUT…the main treat and one you NEGLECTED to mention is WOYANE that is sitting on our land and refusing to leave. You never mentioned that. I wonder why? And don’t forget they still have the dream of Abye Tigray. How can you forget that?

    3. It is the wicked Menkorios who discussed our internal affairs in a country, Ethiopia that have yet to fully accept our independence. This kind of shortsighted move that is giving oxygen to our potential enemies who are hoping for some kind of crack in our unity.


  • Paulos

    Selam Yohannes Zerai,

    Many thanks for the excellent and well argued article.

    As the brilliant Historian Kbur Haw Ismail AA put it, your article is a further enriching complimentary to Ato Burhan Ali’s recent take on the Eritrean historiography with respect to Ethiopia’s passive aggressive gesture toward Eritrea.

    That said however, Ethiopia’s obsession with the Red Sea is not going to let up any time soon if not ever and not only on “Irredentists” justifications which you have rebutted brilliantly but Ethiopian elites will resort to force if need be as long as Eritrea remains politically, economically and military weak. More over, the danger is not only limited to Ethiopia’s aggression but certain elements from with in can weaken Eritrea’s justification for independence through polemics and sophism where Yosief Gebrehiwet among others comes to mind. The challenge is two pronged.

    The practical question we need to ask is: How do we face the relentless danger? The straightforward answer is we need to remain politically, economically and militarily strong! And to do that, we have a lot of work a head of us. If a step becomes thousand steps, the first step is to root out Isaias and his regime and then we march on with a steeled determination to build a formidable Eritrea!

  • Ismail AA

    Selam Yohannes and all,

    1. This well-written article and Burhan Ali’s equally excellent one do uniquely supplement one another. As if the two were products of close consultation and division of roles, much of the matters Yohannes has discussed have expanded and elaborated points Burhan had dealt with. This is clearly discernible in the case of Abyssinia-centered Ethiopia, and its history in relations to its neighbors as read in the backdrop of West European colonial acquisitions in Africa with pertinent focus on the post WWII USA as inheritor and guarantor of shared post colonial strategic interests in Africa under the shadow of leadership of the so called free world that victimized many peoples among which was the Eritrean people.

    2. After it emerged in 1855 under Emperor Teodros from an interregnum of absence of centralized seat of power that was caused by the descent of the monarchy in Gonder to chaotic period of existence known as the Era of the Princes (Zemene Messafint), Ethiopia’s destiny had linked with contemporary colonial expansionist developments in the Continent of Africa. Until much later, when Italy and Germany recovered from the effects of their defeat in WW I, and Italy had projected its late comer colonialist ambitions, the land of the Christian king “Prester John of the East” was seen more with sympathetic eyes rather than land open for conquest by the principal post-1884 Vienna colonialist powers. Britain could have stayed on and colonized Ethiopia after the Napier Expedition in 1886.

    So, Emperor Yohannes IV, and Menelik II after him, had benefited from the apparent disinterest of France and Britain to expand their possessions to inland Ethiopia from territories they had occupied, and each of them opted to seek alliances and cooperation that could check one another as rivals in dividing Africa for themselves. Emperor Yohannes acquired modern weapons from the British for his collaboration with the Napier Expedition due to his rebellious relation with Emperor Teodros in the first place, and later to serve his ambition to the throne. On his side, Menelik II was building relations with the French in Tajura and getting weapons that helped him to launch his military campaigns to the south. But Emperor Yohannes did not live long, and killed in 1889 by the forces of Al Mahdi of Sudan. This had left the field wide open before Menelik II with an only requirement to fulfil in relation to his contemporary colonial expansionists recognition and acceptance of the politics of the time – accept the fate of colonially acquired territories. Thus, historically, Eritrea’s relation with Ethiopian was sealed off in the framework of the norms and modus operandi of the international relations of the time. Accordingly, Emperor Menelik II was supported and allowed to expand his dominions as far as he could.

    3. It’s this background history which the Ethiopian elites, and any government that rules the country, should understand and assimilate so that they can move on to build internal peace and peace with their neighbors. This is the point Burhan Ali and Yohannes, each from own perspective,s wanted to drive home to our Ethiopian friends. Mind sets frozen in past imagined grandeur of empires would be suitable for running the interest of modern nation-states generally, and the way post colonial states in Africa organize mutual relations.

    4. All said and done, however, it should not be lost to enlightened and forward looking statesmen in Eritrea and Ethiopia that enduring peace and tranquility will not have full reign before the peoples of the two nations emerge as democratic states in which their peoples would have unhampered say in their affairs. Until then, elites with jingoists and nostalgic attitudes that are entrenched in past “imperial grandeur” would not desist from showing up on the political and propaganda stages when opportunities to do so obrtain.

    • Haile S.

      Selam Ismail and all

      Ismail, you are the perfect zipper bringing together the two sides of the same jacket. You also added some interesting insightful background from the time that preceded the events of the late 19th century. You talked of the apparently defunct ዘመነ መሳፍንት. In fact, is ዘመነ መሳፍንት over? I don’t think so, it is still alive revived and institutionalized. Time have evolved, mentality not. TPLF, with the objective of consolidating a territory for people it says it represents (Tigray) in a renewed Tigray territory from ዘመነ መሳፍንት that disrespects & largely infringes the sacrosanct colonial treaties, pushed for its (ዘመነ መሳፍንት) institutionalization and constitutionalization in the form of delimited territory and ethnic federalism. Before, ዘመነ መሳፍንት was represented by the መስፍን and his alliances that frequently goes beyond his ethnic acquaintances. Now it was consolidated by physically delimited and tailored territory, in addition to the personalities who arise and act as modern ‘መሳፍንት’. This upgraded ዘመነ-ethnic-federalism resulted in the ugly and intricate problems that we are seeing now and erupted following the removal of the lid of dominance. This heavy lid of dominance that covered its subjects was maintained and anchored, among many others, by the undeclared hope and “common gain” in bringing Eritrea back on its knees through the various strategies followed including making the red sea a trough for Camels. The hope, in whatever way, of bringing Eritrea was not forgotten yesterday (during TPLF-mania), it was just hidden deceitfully. It just changed its form like we see now back in another form/strategy as three of you (Burhan, Yohannes and Ismail) touched upon. In Eritrea, like during the times preceding the late 19th century, we now also have our own ዘመነ መስፍን and ‘semi-sleeping’ መሳፍንት. They play their centuries old alliances for short gain forgetting they have a country called Eritrea thanks to the scramble for Africa. Any instrument is good to weaken their compatriot, while realizing or not realizing their country is getting weakened too. Lets hope, as you (Ismail) said in your point No 4, reason will prevail and democratic practice will dictate.

      • Ismail AA

        Selam Haw Haile,

        Right, you have added a better perspective than – laten Era of the Princes in its modern garb. In the past, regional chiefs rebelled when the monarch at the center weakened through palace intrigues that were akin to Byzantine plots and counter plots. Claims an coveting to throne that found foothold in the royalties with roots in marriages of convenience, mostly. Rebels pitted against one another with the poor peasants as cannon fodder until one emerge winner, and latter concocted coaersed cooperation with the clergy and the Echege (resident viceroy of the Alexandera Orthodox monophysite Synod) to weave a legend that connected the new claimant to the throne through Solomonic line. This was the case since the so called restoration in 1270.

        When all done, the throne passed to the new claimant. Teddoes’ story tells it all. So, you are right the modern garb for rebellion against the center by the periphery is not a noble or commoner; it the concerned elite group under the rationale called self-determination. The is the source of the menacing era of group rebellion Ethiopia is facing. Trouble start in the peripheries when weakness gets detected at the center. By the way, Ethiopia (Abyssinia) has never enjoyed voluntary coherent internal strength; its strength has been its image outside as surrounded Christian island. You can get what this meant if you read the historian Edward Gibon.
        Sorry, for typo possible typo mistakes and incoherent notes; I have to rush for fast break.

      • Teodros Alem

        Selam haile s
        at the time of ” zemen mesfinet” tigrai and highland eritrea and semen gonder was most of the time under one rule from semen gonder, one of the influential ruler was ras webe of ” deresega mriam” . south gonder(bege meder) and wello was under “tileku ras ali family” under one rule. Gojam under one rule and shawa under one rule.