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Eritrean Days And Dates

Someone who goes by the name warrior has put it in a rather vivid way: “Even Jesus’ birthday is a controversy among biblical scholars as they argue viciously that his true birthday is not on December 25.” Luckily, we know exactly on what day the Eritrean war of independence ended. It was May 24, 1991. Therefore, for all practical purposes, Eritrea was on its own from that day on. The author of the article, “Our National Hypnosis: April 27 vs May 24” has acted as a good lawyer hairsplitting and raising doubts in the minds of like-minded readers. The issue of assigning a date of independence is a matter of technicality, future generations may change it to April 27, 19993, or May 24, 1993, but the essence will remain the same. The article would have been a good read in free Eritrea and I would be interested to see how free citizens discussed it. I have no problem with resetting dates. Personally, I would prefer May 24, 1993, because that’s when the Eritrean independence was officially announced, and for some years, even the PFDJ, the Eritrean ruling party, has been showing both dates (the dates of de-facto and de-jure independence).

Dates carry significance, and their significance originates from the consensus they enjoy from the interested constituency. In this case, Eritreans believe the war of independence was waged to establish a conducive environment where citizens can have a say on how they will proceed with their collective affairs (the right of self-determination). At the core of the Eritrean struggle had always been a quintessential kernel; it was the right of self-determination. If, in 1961, Eritreans had been left alone to chart their fate according to the federal arrangement, they would not have acted up to endure the years of misery; if they were given that right in 1971, perhaps the war would have ended then; if they were given that right when the Eritrean Peoples’ Liberation Front challenged the Derg, the then Ethiopian ruling party, with its referendum proposal, in 1981, and if the Derg was obligated to keep its promise regarding the result of such an act, the war would have ended then. Therefore, May 24 signifies an end to a war that had been waged to open the possibility for Eritreans to exercise their right to decide on their political fate, and the beginning of that opportunity, an opportunity for which they had been bleeding. The fact that there still exist individuals who dispute September 1, as the start of our armed struggle, does not make it a shaky date; there has already been a consensus and emotional attachments built around that date. The point is: nations choose dates as benchmarks of a journey they map out, dates that signify their aspirations. May 24, carries that symbolism. The rest is academic sactism, to borrow a Facebook slang word meaning vanity.

I did not feel good about the way the topic article wrapped up the journey to Asmara, practically downplaying the process that had led to it. When Nadew Command was decimated, Mengistu Hailemariam asked “What’s Afabet?” skipping his loss of divisions, he wanted to direct the attention of his audience to a small village no body heard of before. Now, the author said, “It was historic alright. After 30 years of a protracted war, and several months of intense fighting to capture major Ethiopian army strongholds in the towns of Afabet, Barentu, Massawa, Decamhare, led to the liberation of the capital, Asmara, on May 24, 1991.” The worst and longest battles took place in the years running up to independence, between 1988 (demise of Nadew) and 1991. Nakfa front was transposed to the South around the vicinity of Keren, there was the battle to capture Keren which ended badly, after that the front stretched from HalHal all the way to the Red Sea linking HalHal-MesHalit-Rora MensaE-Golagul (or the plains of Samhar); a two year grinding battles took place, successive overrunning of garrisons across the highlands continued; the largest tank-tank battle took place east of Afabet where the Derg tried to penetrate (the first of its kind in EPLF mechanized units); the left flank of the front guarding the Asmara-Massawa line was overrun (that was a prelude of the total offensive of Fenkil); kifleserawit 70 (70 infantry division) and support regiments drove hundreds of kilometers and attacked Derg in Assossa; EPRDF/EPLF joint operations were taking place inside Ethiopia; Ethiopian special airborne division was totally annihilated with its commander (either a General or a colonel) killed when the Derg assigned it to mission impossible which was to infiltrate the Eastern flank of the “Semhar front” and attack the nerve-center (EPLF command HQ) of the front IN Afabet from the rear.

Then follows Fenkil Operation, a two-year bloody attrition in the Ginda’e front; a Southern front which liberated the towns of Zalambassa, Senafe, Adi-QeyeH, Degsa, Segeneyti, all the way to the outskirts of Decamhare where another atrocious front was established, lasted more than a year until the final push.

The final Push

The above mentioned article makes it seem as if May 24 was a preordained (fixed) date. But that’s not correct. When the last battle began on Sunday May 19, 1991 at 1000, the mission was to place Asmara airport within an artillery range. No one knew that Asmara would be captured on May 24, 1991. I would argue that even our top commanders were pleasantly surprised when they saw the fast fall of the Derg army in Eritrea. I believe, nobody thought Mengustu would flee. The battle had practically been decided with the fall of the city of Decamhare which corresponded with the flight of Mengistu from Addis Ababa. Therefore, May 24, signifies a date that generations had bled and sweat for. The rest of political and legal measures that followed that date would have been to give that date a sound legal base. Referendum would have meant legitimizing that date and the essence it carried and contained.

On Petros Solomon

The author of the article stated, “Never mind the fact that the commander of the EPLF military unit that actually liberated Asmara was non-other than, Petros Solomon, veteran fighter and Eritrea’s first Defense Minister.”

Firstly, you would not have one man leading such a major war/offensive. That was not the way EPLF conducted war. It would have been several top commanders working on their specific sectors but also coordinating the offensive. Since this issue is sensitive, I have talked with several people, just to make sure I’m saying is correct, and here is how that final offensive was led.

  • The Commander-in-chief of the EPLF was Isaias Afwerki–It is not my habit to kill history in order to kill a person.
  • The Chief of staff the EPLF was Sebhat Efrem.
  • Then there was commander Mesfen Hagos.
  • Then the division commanders (which were reorganized into Corps, but had no time to consolidate); on the Decamhare Front, which was the main and only thrust of the offensive:  Philipos, Omar Tewil, Hanjema, Wedi Libsu were among the prominent division commanders (I might have forgotten some). Remember there were other top-commanders of the same status but they were posted in other fronts.
  • Petros for sure contributed and might have been contributing in other ways but not in a field Commander capacity during that time. Petros and the late Ali Said are known for their Nakfa days (late 1970s to mid-eighties, during this period they also led other battles). After mid-eighties, their visibility was diminishing in field commanding capacities. The flank that pushed all the way to Assab was commanded By Grezgher “wuchu” and Biteweded Abraha. It fought its way to Assab for about a year under unforgiving climate and terrain.

This is just to make the point that we need to be careful in treating dates, events and personalities. We need to treat history kindly; it has already been botched by PFDJ.

There are also questions regarding the referendum: The idea of a referendum was always alive. The Eritrean organizations mentioned and communicated it to the Ethiopian authorities at different time. In 1981 it was put forward by the EPLF as a concrete and comprehensive proposal. Referendum is just a means. The main issue is the materialization of the opportunity to express your right to determine your fate that could be organized in a form of a referendum or a different format. And the question of the right for self-determination had always been at the heart of the Eritrean struggle. I remember it being discussed on the Awate Forum when someone disputed that the Eritrean revolution did not emphasize that fact; I remember linking the actual press release.

Finally, I would like to mention to the author that I read his articles and find them to be thought provoking. I understand this is meant to have us think deeply about the meaning of the date. I agree with his concluding remark that, “… Eritrea awaits another important milestone in its history: The removal of the dictatorial regime and the ushering of a new era. An era where independence and sovereignty will be synonymous with freedom and liberty, and all her citizens will be thrilled to be jubilant.”

For that to happen though, I would remind brilliant minds to focus on what’s most challenging issue. Battling on dates would not be one of them. Last year, there was a debate on whether to celebrate May 24 or not. Such is the condition of the Eritrean Diaspora. The other day I attended a “justice seekers” meeting, 4 hours were wasted on trivial issues of technicalities. I was exhausted. We need to focus.

About Mahmud Saleh

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  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Dear Josef,

    I could agree on three thing with you (a) that we liberate the land but failed to liberate our people (b) we failed to pass the torch to young generation leaders (c) we failed to meet the promise we made that we will not be another African country that succumb to the grip of a dictator. Other than that I do not see any logic in your argument regarding to the literacy of the the ranks and files of the ghedli generation, nor to the social development you equated and attributed us as “feudal lords.” Let me say few things to disprove your argument.

    First, Ghedli was a socialist oriented revolution in its essence and practice during the last two decades of its life span of 30 years. Feudal lords are the antithesis of any socialist doctrine. I am a leaving testimony to tell you as to the nature of the “sociopolitical orientation” of the Eritrean revolution who has been in the forefront to educate about the socialist philosophy and its merits as oppose to the capitalist orientation. You could disagree to it, but you could not accuse ghedli as Feudal revolution led by Feudal lords. Strike-one.

    Second, In a struggle like ours, the cause of the struggle comprises two things (a) to liberate the land (b) to liberate the people. Both goals are interdependent to each other, but set in motion one after the other. While we were fighting to liberate the land (as first priority) , we were educating our fighters and our people at large to own the revolution through “National Democratic political program” to prepare for the second stage to set in motion. It is this natural dialectical relations of “land” and “people” that thrust or propel in continuum to attain the aspiration of our people. Remember, in a country of multi-social groups, there is always “a struggle within the struggle” so was in our revolution. Politics is always about “power” and adjudicating “distribution of power” to maintain the equilibrium of the centripetal and centrifugal social forces. Eritreans failed to observe this candid process to avoid the current sociopolitical fiasco and not of feudal tendency. Strike-two.

    Third, to criticize from your comfort zone is the simplest thing one can do. To be the alternative and rally the people around the needed change, is an insurmountable task one can face as a challenge. So Josef, until you become one of the later who engage to bring change it is all bluffing without a substance (if you are an Eritrean). Strike-three.

    Fourth, I do not know your measurement of “intellectualism” and your own intellectual capacity (leaving aside my own take on you for a moment), it is not the demeanor of an intellectual person to blanketly undermine the intellectuality of the cyber writers as “cyber pseudo-intellectual gibberish”. First get rid of the log in your own eye; then you will see well enough to deal with the speck of other’s eye. Strike-four.

    So in conclusion, one who do not know how to talk politics and the language of persuasion, to influence his colleagues or his country men and women, is a lone chatter who can not find few people to lend their ears. Therefore Josef, you need to change your attitudes and learn how to converse with our people (if you are an Eritrean).

    Amanuel Hidrat

    • Mahmud Saleh

      Ahlan Emma
      Well said brother, and your strikes, four of them landed squarely on spot. Speaking of opponents of the regime, there are those who are informed and using the knowledge they have the right way to agitate and organize our people, without compromising cardinal issues Eritreans care about; then there are those who are informed, yet they use their knowledge in trying to dismantle what makes Eritrea, and then you have those individuals who possess only elemental urge to vent their anger. They lack the very basics of communication, yet they bombast others who try their best to keep the torch burning, reminding us that what we see in Eritrean is not a natural outcome of our struggle to liberate ourselves from any form of oppression but an historic misfortune, and that’s why we are lamenting, and continue the journey.

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Sela. Hope,

    These are your words about me not my words. Hence you are not quoting me. This shows us that you don ‘t know how to quote individuals of your interest. That is why I told you that you don ‘t know what you are talking. Case closed.

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Dear Kaddis,

    Good reading. It is an excellent geopolitical analysis of the horn by the author. Indeed, it is one of its kind.
    Thank you for sharing and I enjoyed it.

    Amanuel Hidrat

  • A.Osman

    Dear Hope,

    I think we agree to some extent. Forget the conspiracies from DIA or outsiders for a moment as it will never end, too much dose of it is just a trap to accept the status quo.

    Soon we will be celebrating 23 or 25 years of independence and we should account PFDJ on its performance. How did Eritrea fare? Even a PFDJ supporter should question at least aspects that are abnormal like wasting ones life as though he belongs to the state….ie indefinite national service, indefinite prison term without trial etc..


  • tes

    Dear Mahmud Saleh,

    My concern is not what date is important to us, but what day will be free of public holidays. PFDJ has so many public holidays, so many, worse than that of Orthodox Church holidays.

    What is more concerning is that justice seekers are also creating another public holidays.

    I hope Eritrea to be among countries with lowest public holidays in the future. If not, we will be early morning lovers generation*.


    Early Morning Lovers Generation stands for those who go out early morning and enjoy sunshine while enjoying their a coffee.

  • Berhe Y

    Dear MS and all,

    Thank you for detailing some history of our history. Just to make a simple comment, I do not see it’s relevant to argue the date of our celebration which ever date we chose. If May 24 is ref day Asmara was liberated, I think that’s a good choice.

    At the same time, since our liberation is hijacked by very few, it does not mean that our independence didn’t happen.

    France still celebrate the French Revolution, even though terror and dictatorship followed after. Americans celebrated 4th of July although they didn’t abolish slavery for 100s years after.

    Ethiopians always celebrated some form of Independence Day, HS may 5, return from exile, Mengistu sept 2nd the removal of the King, EPRDF some day in May, they rolled to Addis.

    So I don’t think we should make much big deal about it and for sure we will celebrate when the PFDJ is removed.


  • Abraham H.

    Selam Hope,
    You said it is a fact, I don’t know what your source is and how you could be very sure. If true, then this must have been the best guarded secret from most of those who fought for Eritrean independence. Even now it must be well guarded secret for the Nsu Nhnas who often harass those who oppose Isayas’ regime as “Agames”, “Woyanes”, etc. ናተን ገዲፈን ‘ስ ናይ ሓማተን. From my own personal view, if I knew he was a “pure” Tigrayan, then I wouldn’t have given him as much trust as I did before he revealed his real monsterous side. You said “most Eritrean Highlanders are form Tigray,one way of another.” But was the Eritrean Highland void of any population before, eventually, these people came, or were there other tribes/ethnic groups who lived there and were driven out by the “new Tigringa settlers”?

    • Dear Abraham H.

      One should go back hundreds, if not thousands of years and imagine how the world used to be, with its vast land area and its few inhabitants. In addition, the push factors which made people leave their homes and move to other places, like the need to occupy other lands, famine and wars, the absence of borders and the free movement of people in all directions, are also important. Kingdoms formed when a large group of people lived in the same area over a long period of time and got strong.

      In the region we are discussing, (today’s Eritrea and Tigray), there were two successive kingdoms, that of D’MT (if I am not mistaken) and that of Axume. These kingdoms fought wars, increased their land area, and of course settled in these areas, intermarried if there were earlier settlers and due to their power and influence they assimilated them. This included the area of today’s Eritrea which is in the immediate vicinity.

      More recently, we know of people who moved to the region of Eritrea from even faraway places in Ethiopia due to wars and famine, etc. Therefore, we should not see countries of today as if they existed the same way for centuries. Many have changed their geography and demography before they acquired their final form. Borders came to existence in the region after the Italians came. Germans live in Germany and Austria, Italians in Italy and Switzerland, the French in Belgium too, and there are very few countries where an ethnic group does not straddle both sides of the border (the sinful legacy of European colonialism in Africa). Therefore, the world has changed a lot and is still changing.

      I have read that DIA’s father was born in Tigray and was Tigrayan, and his family hails from that of Emperor Yohannes. On the contrary, DIA was born in Eritrea, whatever that may make him, Eritrean or Tigrayan. (Just my two Birr worth).

      • Abraham H.

        Dear Horizon,
        Thank you for your elaboration on the historical relationships of various population groups in our region. I think, if we talk about hundreds or thousands of years ago, then it is very probalble that people have been moving and interacting with each other. We can even talk about movements of people from the Arabian Peninsula towards our region. But in my discussion with Hope, we are basically talking about the current generation of highlanders in Eritrea. If we accept that DIA’s parents are from Tigray, and if, according to Hope, “most Eritrean Highlanders are form Tigray, one way of another.”, then is it plausible to say these people are basically one and the same?
        And just like you, I’ve also read that Isayas Afeworki’s father as well as mother are from Tigray. According to the Eritrean Constitution that was discarded by none other than DIA, after its delay of implementation for 17 years; an Eritrean citizen is:
        Article 3:
        1. Any person born of an Eritrean father or mother is an Eritrean by birth.
        2. Any foreign citizen may acquire Eritrean citizenship pursuant to law.
        At least from sub-article 1, we can say Isayas Afeworki is not Eritrean by birth. Therefore, not so strange when he declared the Eritrean Constitution from 1997 was a stillborn document, from his viewpoint, it didn’t accomodate clearly for the citizenship of people like him who are born and grown up in Eritrea from foreign citizens.

    • Amde

      Selam Abraham H.

      Thank you for your commentary where you said “You said “most Eritrean Highlanders are form Tigray,one way of another.” But was the Eritrean Highland void of any population before, eventually, these people came, or were there other tribes/ethnic groups who lived there and were driven out by the “new Tigringa settlers”?”

      This is one of the most bizarre claims often made about Eritrea, and it astonishes me that supposed highlanders even repeat it instead of critically refuting it. It is insidiously delegitimizing a whole people’s history and claim to the land.


  • Mahmud Saleh

    Selam ayneta abi seb
    For one, the best advice I can give you is just don’t waste your time on comments such as mine which don’t interest you. Regarding HIS101, I don’t initiate a history lesson; I don’t pretend to be a historian, nor do I profess to have enough information about it. I respond when I see a clear mangling of a part of history I lived or witnessed. Some find it helpful, others get annoyed. That’s just the nature of open forums dear ayneta. So, another advice would be to help us tell people to say the truth whenever they venture into history. That will save us time. I read your comment about May 24. I would never agree with such a comment. But do I have to blame you for writing it? Absolutely not. My part is to reply or not to reply. I chose not to. So, take it easy. You may not find every comment I write at par with your expectation. Ignore it. Hopefully, you will find few you like.

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Dear All Awatistas,

    Please join me to congratulate Fr. Mussie Zerai who become one of the 100 most influential people in the world by Time Magazine this year, among Pope Francis, Chancellor Angela Markel, and President Barak Obama. For more please read the link below.

    Amanuel Hidrat

    • Kokhob Selam

      ክቡር ኣማኑኤል

      እዚ ዝደረጅኡ ሰብ ኣብ’ዛ ትሕመስ ዘላ ሃገር ምፍጣሩ ካልኦት ሕቶታት የስዕብ እዩ : ቀዳማይ ሕቶ ኣብ ቅድሚ ነዚ ዜና ዝሰመዐ ፍጡር ድማ ኣበይ ኣብ ከመይ ዝበለ ሕብረተሰብ እዩ ተወሊዱን ዓብዩን ዝብል ሕቶ እዩ :: ብርግጽ ኣብዚ ውሑድ ዝቁጽሩ ሕብረተሰብ ኣብ ፯ ቢልዮን ህዝቢ ዝሓቆፈት መሬት ምፍጣሩ ‘ውን ኣዝዩ ዘደንቕ ፍሉይ ተረኽቦ እዩ :: ገና ግዳ ናብ ቃልዕ ክ ወጹ ዘይከኣሉን ኣብ ዚ ኣዝዩ ዝተጠናገገ ወድዕ ዝተሸኽሉን ካለኦት ከምዘለው ‘ውን ዘጠራጥር ኣይኮነን :;

      ኣዚና ክንሕበን ይግባእ:- ተመስገን ፈጣሪ :: እዛ ሃገር ኣብ ዓለም ብርሃን ኮይና- ሰላምን ራህዋን ዓሲሉዋ ከምትቀርብ ኣፋፉነት ዘርኣኻና::

      • tes

        Dear Kokhob Selam,

        I don’t know you will miss it but he became a world influential person and advocate of human rights simply because he came from a country that need such voices dearly.

        On this earth, there are always messengers born from people who need their service, so he Abba Mussie Zerai. I won’t ask therefore from he cam from as his fame is linked with his voice of the voiceless people.

        Abba Mussie Zerai came from the right place and so is doing the right job, “a messenger of the voice of the voiceless people”. For this, he is indeed one of the most influential person.

        I assure you, his qualities are magnifique. I spent some hours with him. Those hours were my exceptional ages on my life. So lucid, humble, passionate, open minded, indomitable, fearless, tireless, lover, and compassionate father.

        Maay God bless his works more and more so that his works as messenger of the voice of the voiceless people reach all over the world and bring an ending to the suffering of the people he fights for.


        • Kokhob Selam

          Thank you tes,

          I didn’t miss it. in fact I am admiring his greatness in this difficult time. and yes great men appear in difficult time – that is how nature supports the victims. those are the men and women tested on fire like gold.

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selam Hope,

    Do not try to cook accusation. If you are honest you could quote me. But hey, Hope is Hope we can’t remake you to be a thoughtful and honest person.

  • Kokhob Selam

    ኣሕዋተይን ኣሃተይን :- ብዙሕ ተሳቒና ኢና ‘ሞ እስከ ይኣክል ይበለና : ኣሜን ::

    ኣነስ እታ ዕለት ክንድዚ ዝኣክል ኣካታዒት ክትከውን ኣይምመረጽኩን :: ዳሓር ከኣ ስውኣት እኮ ብረታዊ ቃልሲ ቅድሚ ምጅማሩ – ሓደ ኢሉ ክቡር ከቢረ ምስ ጀመረሎም – ሰራዊት ደርጊ መውጽእን መእተውን ስኢኑ ኣይንላዕሊ ኣይንታሕቲ ክሳብ ዝኸውን ኣብ ኩሉን መዓልትታት እዮም በጃ ዝወድቁ ዝነበሩ :: ኣብ ነብስ ወከፍ ህይወት ስውእ ዝተቀዝፈትሉ ዕለት ድማ ዕለተ ዓወት እዩ ኢልና ክንገልጾ ንኽእል ኢና :: ግዳ ካብ ኩለን መዓልታት ሓንቲ ወካሊት ኮይና ክትምረጽ ባህርያዊ ስለ ዝኾነ እምበር ካልእ እኮ ፍሉይ ምኽንያት የብሉን :: ዳሕራይ ድማ ነታ ድሮ ትብዕል ዘላ ዕለት – ብሓደ ሸነኽ ጀግንነት ህዝብኻ ምዝካርን – ነቲ ተሪፉ ዘሎ ጉዕዞ ሓርነት ብግብሪ ንምዝዛም ድሕሪ መሬታዊ ናጽነት ዝተሓልፈ ጸገማት ገምጊምካ ምንቃልስን እንታይ ኣበሳ ኣለዎ ?

    ኣይፍል እዚ’ሲ ወላ ኳ ብዙሕ ዘዛርብ ኣይኮነን :: ወረ ኣነስ ሕጂ ነታ ዕለት ብዙሕ ምትንኻፋ ነቲ ናጽነት ዝብል ኣምር ‘ውን ከይተናኽፈለይ እየ ዝሻቐል :: ያኢ ህግደፋውያን ዝያዳ ተሓለቅቲ ኮይኖም ክምዝምዙ ? ያኢ እቶም ቃልስና ዘይተዋሕጠሎም ከም ጠንቂ ውድቀት ናጽነታዊ ቃልሲ ክወራዘዩ ! ኣበደን ኣበደን ::

    ህዝባዊ ግንባር ‘ውን ናትና ታሪኽ ምዃናን ካብ ታሪኽና ክንንጽላ ዘይንኽእል – ጽቡቓን ሕማቓን ንሕና – ዋጋ ዝኸፍልናሉ ምዃኑ ክከሓድ የብሉን :: ኣብ ውሽጢ ገዛና ንቛየቕ :- ዝሓለፈ ገበን ይኹን ጌጋ ብዘይንሓፍነት ንቅልዓዮ : ግን ከኣ ጉዳይናን – ካብ ዝተረኽበ መኽሰባትን ክሳራታትን ነጻ ከምዘይኮና ኣብ ቃልዕ ክንብሎ ዘለና እዩ :: ጉዳይ ህዝባዊ ግንባር እምበኣር ናይ ሓደ ውድብ ጉዳይ ዘይምዃኑ ብሩህን ንጹርን ክኸውን ኣለው :: መሪሕነት ህዝባዊ ግንባር ሓሚቑ እምበር ብዓንተብኡ ምስ ‘ዛ ዕለት እዚ ኣ ኣተሓሒዙ ኮ ቤት ፍርዲ ዘየድልዮ ሃገራዊ ዕርቂ ክግበር ካብ ህዝቢ ክሓትትን ስልጣን ከረክብን እዩ ነይርዎ :: እቲ ምንታይ ሲ ደረኽቲ ሓይልታት ሰውራ ባዕላቶም እቶም ነቲ ኤርትራዊ ቅርጺ ዘትሕዙ ህዝብታት ስለ ዝኾኑ ::

    እቲ ሕጂ ክዛርብ ዝግባእ — ሪፈረንደም እንተገበርና ኣብ ስልጣን ክቅጽሉ ዝመርጽናዮም ዝመሰሎም መራሕቲ ንዝሓለፋ ፪፭ ( 25) ዓመታት ካብ ገዛእቲ ብዝሓለፈ ዘውረድዎ ስቃይ ከመይ መወዳእታ ንገብረሉ እዩ ክኸውን ዘለዎ :: ሎሚ ኣብ ‘ዛ ዕለት ክትዛረበሉ ዘስካሕክሕ – ፍጹም ክኸውን ዘይብሉ መከራ ህዝብና ወዚፍና ብዛዕብ ኣየነተን መዓልቲ ትኹን መዓልቲ ናጽነት ኢልካ ክትዕ ፍጹም ትርጉም የብሉን ::

    ማርክስ ኳ ማርክስ እቲ ኣብ ነገራዊት ዓለም ጥራይ ዝኣምን ፈላስፋ ደረጃ ክብሪ ሰብ ኣይረሰዐን – ” Man’s most precious treasure, his greatest wealth, is man himself )”ወዲ ሰብ እቲ ዝኸበረ ሃብቱ ባዕሉ እቲ ወዲ ስብ እዩ” ክብል እዩ ተዛሪቡ :: ንሕና ኤርትራውያን ናትና ዝኾነ ያታን ባህልን ኣለና : ከብሳ ይኹን ቆላ ብምዕራቡ ምብራቑ ኣብ ህይወት ዘለና ኣኽብሮ ኣዝዩ ዝለዓለ እዩ :: ኩሉ ወዲ ሃገር ከምዝፈልጦ ሞት ሓደ መቅረብና ይኹን ወዲ ዓድና ወረ ውን ሰጥሓዊ ሰላምታ ምስ እንፈልጦ ሰብ ኣብ ጉዳይ ሞት ዝስመዓና ሓዘን ምግላጽ ዘድልዮ ኣይመስልነን :: ወረ እቲ ጥልቀት ሓዘና ካብ መስመር ዝሓለፈ እዩ !! ክንደይ ሰባት እንዲና ርኢና ብጓሂ ሞት መቅርቦም ቶግ እሎም ዝሓሙን – ዝሞቱን ::

    ኣብ ግዜ ገድሊ መስዋእቲ ብጻይካ የትርረካን ናይ’ ቲ ዝተሰወአ ብጻይካ ድርብ ድርብርብ ተጋድሎ ከተካይድ ይገብረካ :: “ህይወት ድሒሪ ጅግና ብጻይ ትርጉም የብሉን” ከኣ ትብል – ንዝበዘሓ ነብስታት እታ ሃገር ድማ ኢኻ ትስንክልን ትስዋእን :: እዚ ድማ ክንደየናይ ህይወት መጻኢ ወሎዶ ከቢሩ ክነብር ከምትደሊ እዩ ዘንጸባርቕ ::

    መሪሕነት ህግደፍ ነቶም ጀጋኑና ዘርኣዩ ተወፋይነት ትርጉሙ ቀይርዎ – ልዕሊ ንሃገራዊ ናጽነት ዝተኽፍለ ዋጋ ድማ ኣኽፊሉና :: ኣይፍል ንዝበለ እናበለዐ – ዘይድልይ ኩናት እናባረዐ ድማ ዕድሚኡ ኣንዊሑ :: ደቂ ሰባት ካን ናብ ቁስ ኣካል ተቀይሮም – ከምዚ ንብረት ትሾጦን ትልውጦን::

    ኣብ’ ዚ እዩ ‘ቲ ጸገም ኣሕዋት!! እታ ናጽነት ንህዝቢ ከተገልግል ሰፍ ዘይብል ዋጋ ተኸፊልዋ ክንሱ :- ኣብ ክንዲ ንሳ ተገልግለና ደጊምና ደጋጊምና ክንከፍለላ ተፈሪድና :: :ንምንታይ ? ንመን ? ወለዶ እናዳጸነተ ኣየናይ መጻኢ እዩ ውሑስ? ዝብሉ ሕቶታት እዮም ከዛርቡና ዘለዎም ::

    ወዲ ስውእ ክጭወ ክእሰር ክቅተል ኣብ ውቅያኖስ ክጠልቕ ሲ ፡ ሃገር ድያ ንሰብ ወይስ ሰብ እዩ ነታ ሃገርን ውሑዳት ኣጫፈርትን ? ኢልካ እዩ ምሕታት ዞም ኣሕዋተይ :: ዜግነት ተሸራሺሩ ኣብ ዘለወሉ መሪር ሰዓት እምበኣር ነቲ ሕሉፍ መስውእትን ስቃይን ዝድብስ ሰላም ራህዋን ምዕባለን እዩ ክፍጠር ነይርዎ :: ዓስቢ እዚ ህዝቢ እዚ ኣይኮነን : እዚ ሓዳግ ሓላልን ምቅሉልን ህዝቢ ረኺብዎ ዘሎ መዓት ኣዝዩ ኣዝዩ ኣስካሕካሒ እዩ ::

    ሎሚ ኣብ ኣሰና እታ ኣብ ሸገራብ ንኡሽቶ ወዳ ዝጠፈኣ ፴ (30) ዓመት ዝዕሚኣ ኣደ ብኣማኑኤ እያሱ ሕቶታት ይቀርበላ ነይሩ :: ከፊትኩም ስምዕዎ :: እዛ ኣደ ሰብኣያ ምስተኣስረን ደቃን ነብሳን ዝበልዕዎ ምስ ስኣኑ ሃጽ ኢላ ካብ ኣስመራ በሪራ : ኣብ ጥቃ ከሰላ ድማ ምስ ደቃ ብራሻይዳ ተጨውየት :: ካብትን ካብትን ገንዘብ ተዋጺኡላ ድማ ካብ ቶም ደም ዘይብሎም ራሻይዳ ድሓነት እሞ ናብ ሸግራብ ኣተወት :: ኣብ ሸገራብ ድማ እንሀልኩም ወዲ ሽዱሽተ ዓመት ወዳ ተንጥቀት :: እሞ እዛ ናጽነት ‘ሲ እዚ ድዩ ትርጉማ ክኸውን ዝነበሮ ? እቲ ስውእ ሲ ሎሚ ንኽልኢት ቅልቅል እንተዝብል እንታይ ምበለ ? ኣንታ ስውእ ሲ ኳ ኣይርኢ ኣይሰምዕ – እቶም ስንኩላትና:- እቲ ካብ ‘ዚ ኩሉ መዓት ዝወጸ ጀግና ኸ እንታይ ይስመዖ ? እታ መበለት ገጻ ብክሬማት ለጣጢፋ ተኸዳዲና “ንሕና ንሱ” ትብለና ዘላ ኤርትራዊት ሲ ደማ እንተዝምርመር እንታይ ዓይነት ደም ኮን ይህልዋ ?

    ካብ ዚ መረረ ዝብገስ ሕርቅሩቆት ኣብ ልዕሊ ‘ዛ መዓልቲ ናጽነት ክወርድ ዝኽእል መጥቃዕትታት ግድን እዩ ክህሉ :: ግዳ ሕጂ ውን እታ ዕለት ትኹን ነታ ዕለት ክውን ዝገበረ ጀግና ተሓተቲ ኣይኮኑን :: የግዳስ ቀዳሞት ሓላፍነት ክንወስድ ዘለና ንሕና ኢና – እቶም ህዝቢ ::

  • Amanuel

    Hi Mahmuday
    I agree with the sprite of your comment and understand it is emotional for this time of the year that after 25 years of that historical day we have been still forced to discuss the affairs of our beloved country from exile. Believe me Mahmuday I am trying to avoid disagreeing with you. However, I have some observation about your comment. If I am not mistaken it gave me the impression that you are inclined to give more weight to the military victory, even thought you would prefer the 1993 dates. It is true that with out the military victory the Eritrean people would not have had the opportunity to self determination through referendum. But the question is, should we give more weight to the military victory or the ballot box? In reality we disregarded the ballot box victory as nonevent and keep beating the drum about the military victory. That set a precedent for the current system in Eritrean says to hell with ballot box and thinks out of the barrel of a gun.

    In other issues (the last push and leaders) you are right IA was the commander in chief as the result being Secretary General that comes with the title. It is well documented IA was not at home during the last battle for Asmara, he was in his way to London conference. A friend told me about a conversation she had with one of the top commanders of the last battle for Asmara during the 1998 border with Ethiopia. She asked him (top commander) why is IA making the war personal and doing every think himself disregarding you guys? His reply was “he (IA) always felt short of something and inferior in front of us as he hasn’t led a major successful battle during the struggle personally, and saw this an opportunity to fulfill that gap in his CV.” Therefore, it is even possible to be a commander in chief with having led any battle as it happens with Obama being commander in chief the US Army. Just it comes with being the leader.

    I want also to say something about the exit of Mengstu that you mentioned. The fact remain that the military strength of the EPLF & TPLF created a condition and put pressure on some forces (mainly US state department) to facilitate the exit of Mengtu from Ethiopia, which has a significant contribution to the way the war ended, mainly in Eritrea. I am sure you agree with me that the size of the Derg army and armed to the teeth, who was fleeing to Sudan was twice the size of the EPLF army at that time and it had a capacity to fight for another two or three more years. I think the due to Mengstu fleeing a lot of bloodshed and destruction was avoided. I think it was a significant incident and we should be a least great full for those who made it happen.

    Kind regards

    • Mahmud Saleh

      Selam Aman
      I almost missed your comment. I scrolled down after reading tes comment. I understand your points. I tried to show that those days and dates have strong relation, each depends on the one preceeding it. As far as choosing a national day, you have already read my personal preference. I’m just against the blanket dismissal which often done for political convinience. To make tes happy, I’m not a fan of political holidays. One day is enough.
      On the other points you raised, since you were there, and I don’t see much of a difference with my take, I can move on saying thanks for the reply.

  • Kokhob Selam

    Dear awate friends, what about having coffee moment,

    ………….ሱር ዶ ጉንዲ?…..

    ሱር ዶ ጉንዲ:-
    …….መኖም ንመን ፈጥረ:-
    ኣጓዱ ዶ ዓዲ:-
    …….መኖም ንመን ዓመረ:-
    መኖም እዩ ቀያዲ:-
    …….መኖም እዩ ዘስመረ::

    ሰራውር ዓትዒቶም :-
    …….መሬት ይሕዙሞ;-
    ማዕድናት ስሒቦም:-
    …….ማይ እንተኣስትዮሞ:-
    ንነብሶም ማዕቢሎም:-
    …….ንሪኢ ኣዕብዮሞ::

    እምበር መዓስ ኮይኑ ብኣንጻሩ :-
    ጉንዲ ንሰራውር ተሰኪሙ ተሓንጊሩ:-

    ወላ ‘ኳ ግደ እንተለዎ ብርሃን ኣብ ምዕዳል: –
    ከድልዮ እዩ ምልዛብ ምስ ኣቑጻል::

    ስለዚ እዚ ጉንዲ ሓድነቱ:-
    …….ካብ ታሕቲ ይፍጠር ካብ ብዙሓት :-
    ካብ እቶም ቀንዲ መገብቱ: –
    …….ሰራውር ርእሲ ብርእሶም መርበባት::

    ምናልባት ‘ኳ:—
    ዝወደቐ ኦም እንተተኺልካዮ:-
    …….ሱር ከውጽእ እዩ ዝቀዳደም :-
    ድሕሪ ግዜ ጸግዩ እንተሪኢኻዮ:-
    …….ፍለጦ ምኽንያት ምልላም:-
    ካብ ሱር እዩ ‘ቲ መግቢ ዝመጸዮ::


    ሓደ ልቢ ኢና እንተኢሎምኻ:-
    …….ብጥዓዑም ቃላት መሰልካ ክሰርቁ:-
    ኣብ ብዙሑነት ዘሎ ቦታኻ:-
    …….…….ኣይትፍቀድ ክፍሕቁ::

  • dawit

    Greetings Rastaman, in the name of the Almighty Jah, Ras Tafari, Sellasie I.
    I don’t know about the people of North Korea and their government. But definitely you can not equate Ugandans under Idi-Amin Dada and Eritrean government under PFDJ. Idi-Amin was a mad man put to rule Ugandans by British and Israelis after overthrowing the legitimate Ugandan government headed by President Milton Obote who was accused being a Socialist. So Rastaman you are comparing Apples and Oranges, after smoking ganja.

  • Dear All,

    However one looks at it, the Eritrean referendum of 1993 did not have any significance. It was contrived to make the birth of Eritrea look like the wish of the Eritrean people and not the wish of an armed group. It was supported by TPLF to give it more legitimacy and show to the world that it was also the wish of the Ethiopian government. The outcome of the referendum was so obvious that nobody would have betted even one dollar against it. It was a political gimmick to give Eritrean independence a humane and civilized face, to get economic and political support from the world community.

    EPLF could have said goodbye to Ethiopia in May 1991 when it won the war and it was the master of the game, and there was nothing one could do about it, and today we would not have been discussing which date is the right date of Eritrean independence. We live in a world where the winner takes all. Therefore, whoever wants a right date to celebrate, it must be the date when real freedom and independence come to Eritrea. That date has yet to come, and justice seekers should work for that day, instead of slicing and dicing possible dates, because however one sees it, all of them lead to the glory of DIA and the PFDJ, and not that of the people of Eritrea.

    • Mahmud Saleh

      Dear Horizon

      Absolutely wrong, you can’t be any further from the truth. Consider the following facts.

      1. 1981 to 1991, for all practical purposes, it was the EPLF that dominated the business of achieving independence. Eritrean heart beat was synchronized towards independence. Even most ex-ELF members put their grievances and worked towards that cause, except some diehards who put their organizational pride ahead of the national goal. Case in point: ELF-RC and other factions ceased military actions against EPLF. Therefore, as records of the Durg would show you, Eritreans rallied around the EPLF, rural dwellers, urbanites, Diaspora, etc. That period signified when Eritrean resources were geared towards one goal, independence. For anyone who was familiar with currents taking place in Eritrea and the fast developing events, it would be clear that there was little, if any, crack between the front and the people.

      2. Therefore, May 24, 1991, signifies a benchmark of an advent Eritreans put as mission number one, the liberating of the land and the people from foreign occupation. That was done. Phase one and the precondition of the issues we are raising today was accomplished. One can’t speak of justice and democracy in Eritrea without having secured the independence of Eritrea. Concepts such as independence and liberation don’t carry a fixed value, they expand for ever. For Eritreans, it’s obvious we have been shortchanged, and it’s good to see people debating it with vigor. Issues of political and economic emancipation never end. Independence is not a panacea or a silver bullet to such a total emancipation but an opportunity for nations to own their agendas and chart their life the way they collectively agree on. If some folks expect that post PFDJ will be smooth and perfect they are wrong. But at least we could expect, if not be sure, that the people will be given the opportunity to own their government and hence blame themselves for any failures thereafter.

      3. Coming to you, you said, ” It was contrived to make the birth of Eritrea look like the wish of the Eritrean people and not the wish of an armed group.” Yes, Horizon, the birth of Eritrea was the wish of its people and not just the wish of an armed group, as you want us to suspect.
      In practice, Eritreans said goodbye to Ethiopia the day they decided it militarily. Referendum was conducted not because Eritreans were not sure of their decision but it was a requirement to settle the long running conflict. It was basically done to show the UN that Eritreans had not rebelled forced by their ” armed group” at gun point, but, in fact, they indeed had been fighting for that opportunity all along. We voted for independence, we got international recognition for the independence that we created on the ground against all expectations. Thanks God, what would things look like with the war of 1988-2000?
      Your comments hold two faulty premises. a/ you believe Eritreans were forced to vote for independence; b/ Since Eritreans have experienced what an independence could mean under PFDJ, once PFDJ is gone, they will most likely fold back in to Ethiopia. Both are just wrong. You are misled by few vocal voices.
      As I have stated many times in this forum, Eritreans won’t repeat the same mistakes. Any future Ethio-Eritrean relation will be strictly built around the notion of two independent states. Under ideal situations, that should be more promising and sound than a relationship built around the false pretext that we are all the same people. If people thought we are the same people, that has been proven to be a wrong assumption. Eritreans and Ethiopians have through history bled each other, under rulers of Abyssinia, HS, Durg and the bitterness still continues. We couldn’t even settle as simple as placing markers along the border.

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Dear Mahmuday,

        At least to this point Eritrea become “the country of the front” to borrow Haile WM ‘s phrase and not the country of its people. The Eritrean people didn ‘t own their country. The Eritrean people have not a say how to govern themselves and determine the fate of their nation. Until then it is the country of PFDJites (the front) though the entire population fought to own it. There is nothing to defend otherwise as we own it.

        Amanuel Hidrat

        • Mahmud Saleh

          Selam Kboor Ato ghedeem tegadalay…
          There is no question that today’s Eritrea is run by the whims of PFDJ. But that was not the point. Horizon said the referendum was conducted to make it appear that it was Eritreans choice and not the choice of what he termed armed group. Do you agree with him? Do you really think Eritreans don’t understand the difference between May 24, 1991, April 27, 1993, or May 24, 1993? Do you really think May 24 was fixed purposely to give PIA the legitimacy, otherwise it could not be a significant date to be celebrated?
          These are the questions I’m responding to. Other than that, I’m not ignoring a glaring fact.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Merhaba kubur Mahmuday,

            What I know is we have liberated the land in 1991. But we have failed to liberate our people so far. I remember to say “ቃልሲ ‘ዩ ህይወተይ ” in the 70s, knowing the nature of our leaders and the pissibilities of the current realities. So Mahmuday, our struggle created new reality in our region and Eritrea is liberated. The day and dates does nor matter either we could stick with those days already established or chose another date when we have a constitutional government. All the debate on days and dates at this time is a waste of time. Second it does not matter how Ethiopians see our history and our realitues, what it matters is how we Eritreans see our history and our realities. So it does not matter what Horizon says, what it matters to me is what my country men and women says regardibg our history and ohr realities. I never debate with Ethiopians on our domestic issues. If I did it is on the future relationship abd peaceful coexistence of the two countries. The struggle continues to liberate our people and to make Eritrea the country of its people.

            Senay MeAlti
            Amanuel Hidrat

          • Mahmud Saleh

            Kboor Ustaz Emma
            I understand you, and I don’t disagree with your take. I wanted to see why my reply to kboor ato Horizon would make you jump in. Threads have their own life, and the thread Horizon started was of its own angle of focus, if you will. Kemey alo Adi?

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Kubhr wedi kubrat Mahmuday,

            I want to divert you from debating about our history and our domestic issue with Ethiopians . I want you to debate with your country men and women about our domestic issue. The Eritrean issue blongs to Eritreans only. We are not going to be told about how our history was evolved by others who are not stakeholders in our history and the statehood of our nation. Again we can only debate with Ethiopians on issues of peaceful coexistence and mutual economic development. So I do not want to debate about our independence and our referendum with our Ethiopian friends.

    • Kim Hanna

      Selam Horizon,
      I agree with you. I will add at least one more element and that is the former U. N secretary general (now deceased) of the time took it up quickly to work very hard to make sure in the eye of the world the i s were dotted and the t s were crossed. That function was to guarantee it will be irreversible and illegal to do anything else. Meles was fully cooperative and branding was easy when the iron was hot.
      Our Eritrean friends mock our recent election of 99% result, rightly so, but are completely comfortable with their 99.XX % referendum and accept it without any question.
      Actually I could respond to the long long hateta of Mahmud Saleh advances in his usual way. I refrain from doing that to avoid antagonizing others. In the final analysis there is no point in it.
      Mr. K.H

      • Mahmud Saleh

        Dear kh
        In the final analysis you have no point, and here is why.
        1. The former UN secretary you are alluding to, Boutros Boutros Ghali of Egypt was an ardent Abyssian in white skin. He was among the figures who had worked tirelessly to ensure Eritrea stayed within Ethiopia. I would say he was reluctant, but it was a matter of fait accompli as far as the independence of Eritrea was concerned. When was it decided? May 24, 1991.
        2. Your 100% is a political gimmick, where you want to tell the world you have a vibrant democracy, where as the results say the opposite. Eritrean referendum was simply to tell the world what Eritreans had embraced all along; it was not a political in a sense between rival parties but of a nation which was ignored for decades. Eritrea made the world stand still, listen to it; and then it spoke and it was the final word. Just to quote myself, “Your government was given the chance in the referendum proposal put forward by the EPLF, in 1981, to campaign peacefully. It forfeited it that chance. Had the Durg allowed that process, it would have had a say in the outcome of the referendum.” That’s part of my reply to Horizon. Why did not Durg allow the referendum in 1981 when it was controlling Eritrea if it believed Eritreans were with him? And why would the EPLF challenge the Durg with that proposal if it didn’t believe Eritreans were with it? Read along and between the lines. Thius is a matter of logic and having the information needed, my friend.

        • Kim Hanna

          Selam Mahmud Saleh,
          ” When was it decided? May 24, 1991.” Of course it was, did I say it wasn’t?
          The quote I want to keep by itself for everyone to see is this:
          ” The former U.N secretary you are alluding to, Boutros Boutros Ghali of Egypt was an ardent Abyssian in white skin.”
          This is such a gem, I want to memorize it as coming from Mahmud Saleh. It is stated so clearly, I want it to stand alone.
          Mr. K.H

  • AMAN

    ( continued…………….)
    All three with difficulty understanding who
    Eritrea is. And what its history is. But only
    trying to define it in their own narrow understanding
    that only resulted from past regimes and colonial
    powers. All there have shortcomings in defining it.
    ( will continue……)

  • AMAN

    Dear Awates ,
    Greetings first ,
    Whenever I log in to your webpage and read the discussions
    and exchanges between prominent Awate opinion writers I
    feel something to say.
    My all time concern is that there is a confusion or misunderstanding
    of the state called Eritrea and/or Ethiopia and the governments and
    opposition parties our people had seen so far. And the whole meaning
    of these political bodies and their objectives and also the history of the
    region and how much it has changed from the original one.
    All these problems ( confusions and misunderstandings ) due to the plans
    and priorities of colonial and neo-colonial powers to serve their plans first
    through the installed regimes who further aggravated the deteriorating
    political and religious system of the country since 125 years ago.
    So there is a problem of putting the right history and the right interpretation
    of the original and the duplicate on of it in the right perspective, sequence
    and meaning on one hand, and the failure of the people and its subsequent
    Liberation organizations on the other.
    So one state or country—ERITREA and three Liberation fronts—-ELF, EPLF
    and TPLF.
    ( I ‘ve got interrupted ——- coming back soon….)

  • AMAN

    Dear Awates
    Greetings ;
    According to the world community of countries especially the UK and the US;
    Eritrea’s independence day is April 27, 1941 declared one month after the
    Allied forces entered Asmara after the final battle of defending the capital
    at Keren by the Italians.
    There is a book published by the BBC here that I read few years ago
    and it is titled
    ===================THE FIRST TO BE FREE, ERITREA=======
    And the day April 27, 1941 makes a lot of sense to me to be the independence
    day of the country. Otherwise, how could one say (or reconcile the fact ) Eritrea
    is/was a country when wages a 30 years war against a usurper regime.
    May 24, 1991 is only a day of the culmination of the struggle against the usurper
    regimes like the May 26, 1991 of the EPRDF or Sept. 2, 1975 of the Dergue.
    while Ethiopia’s independence day is well beyond somewhere 1942 or 1943 the
    day Allied forces entered Addis Ababa.

  • dawit

    Kubur Ayneta,
    Your reply is based on fiction created by those who want a change of Eritrean government and reverse Eritrean Independence. Your per capita refugee count is pure fiction. When you put every African illegal immigrant in one basket you have no proof all are Eritreans. Remember what an honest Ethiopian disclosed ‘In Libya, we are all Eritreans’. You don’t have a proof that young pregnant lady who drawn in sea was an Eritrean. But there is a coordinated campaign to associate every tragedy in the world with Eritrean government. It is now a new journalism profession to write any thing that will put the a bad light with fabricated number that is cut and pasted in various newspapers starting with the Guardian. It is true Eritreans are taking chances to improve their economic status by migrating to richer countries Middle East, Israel, Europe, America. Australia. Unfortunately they cannot do it legally and safely. Most go back to visit their country, family and friends, demystifying the idea “Eritrea the North Korea of Africa” slogan. I just read an article about a young Eritrean Athlete who defected in Scotland several years ago, went to visit his sick mother in Eritrea and thousands like him return to Eritrea, despite the relentless campaign by the opposition groups. If you really want the true picture of the country ask Eritreans who flood to visit their country from all walks of life, or better visit yourself. Celebrating the 25th. year Independence in your country must be great. If there is a military service or not, it is no body’s business except for Eritrean people and their government. As I wrote earlier the Eritrean majority are doing it gladly to protect and preserve their independence facing a coordinated attacks and illegal economic and military sanctions. So what you wrote is based on the wishes who dream a change of regime in Eritrea. Watch Eritv to learn what is going in Eritrea. It is time of celebration Jubilee Celebration, the torch of freedom burning in every village, town and city in the country starting from Nakfa! That could be a lesson to learn and understand the Eritrean Spirit TSNAT. .By the way did you have a chance to follow the Tour of Eritrea continental competition?

    • Semere Andom

      Hi Dawit:
      why do not you go and commit your rapes instead of ditching your filth here. Are you denying the young pregrant lady who perished with her kids, leaving a husband and 2 kids behind in Sudan her Eritrean identity. Becareful because some of us know that young lady, I am not sayin know of her, I am saying know her.
      I advice you go drinking what ever you are drinking and commit those incense acts that you and your PFDJ are know for

      • dawit

        Hi Semere,
        What do you mean “Be careful because some of us know that young lady, I am not sayin know her, I am saying know her”, Your statement is confusing what were you drinking? I didn’t know she was carrying, some of yours unborn child. RIP and tsnat yehabka. But then who recognized your Eritrean identity. just because you claim to be Eritrean does not qualify you or her to be Eritreans. I like to drink Canada Dry!.

  • Mahmud Saleh

    Hello everyone
    Thanks AT for giving my somehow incomplete comment a front space. It was meant to be my response in a reply form and not an article. Again I thank AT for their efforts to give their readers a wider space and for stirring diverse views. I will post a separate post in order to address some of the comments. For now though:
    May 24 is coming. Some have already made it known that they will need a private space for mourning. Awatista are understanding, and thankfully, we have plenty of shrinks and prists available to help members of this group cope with the mourning process.
    The second group contains membets who think this date belong to PFDJ and their idol, IA. They have started the festivities ahead of time. “Nsu nHna” will be their slogan of this year. The third is ready to celebrate it while gearing up to discuss its essence and why it has been exploited to the bone to the extent that it is made to stand bare, deprived of its essence. This group is contemplative, not euphoric. This group refuses to let PFDJ own this date, because it believes it belongs to the people, not to any particular party or front.
    Which group do you belong to?

    • Berhan Beyan

      Hello Saleh,

      I enjoyed reading your article. I sometimes think that should we remember May 24, 1991 or May 24, 1993. Are we suppose to celebrate the day we achieved our objective? then what was the objective of our revolution that took 30 years? If the objective was to liberate Eritrea from Ethiopia or goes beyond that? for example, the objective of the Eritrean deleyti fithi is to replace the current repressive regime of EPLF by democratic system of government. if the opposition are able to get rid of Isseyas regime and for some reason could not establish democratic system, should we to celebrate because we removed the dictator Isseyas from power?

      Again, my question is are we achieved our objective?

      • Mahmud Saleh

        Ahlan Berhan, AH, AH, Haile WM, Aosman…et al;
        I think the question of celebrating and prioritizing dates is personal. May 24, 1991 has its place and meaning. April 27, 1993, May 24, 1993 also do carry their importance. What makes May 24, 1991, is its significance as the date a war that had consumed the nation for thirty years. Basically, referendum was arranged to tell the Ferenji, who owns the license retail shop of who becomes a member of the international community and who gets rejected, that Eritrea was a sovereign nation based on international standards. Otherwise, it was not done to settle competing interests of Eritreans (for instance pro-Union and independence blocs). As far as Eritreans were concerned May24, 1991 sealed the deal. We can also speak with good confidence that the referendum was not made to convince Ethiopia, because the political force that seized power in Addis had supported the independence of Eritrea during its years of struggle to seek its own right to self-determination. That’s why April 27, 1993, is remembered simply as “referendum.” Personally, I would choose May 24, 1993, because that’s when the independence of Eritrea was officially declared. As far as celebrating it is concerned, I have no concern what so ever, because it’s a personal and private choice. I know there are some Eritreans who won’t celebrate it on religious grounds. I respect their choice.
        For those who celebrate it, though, you asked a good Question. Have the objectives of May 24 been achieved? Not at all. Do we then simply drop it off the radar, or let it be owned by PFDJ? No. So, then what? Well, let’s focus on the essence of that date and contemplate, think really deeply as to why we are talking about its objectives 25 years later. Apart from the few who are consumed with the notion of actively rejecting it and erasing it from memory, most of us will settle on the fact that MAY 24 belongs to all of us, to the people; the strength of the heat and brightness it radiates from its torch will depend on how people rally around it; on how people digest its meaning. Frankly, the point of contention or debate, and the motivation for a critical research should be why PFDJ is ruling Eritrea for the last 25 years despite its obvious brutality and lawlessness, and why despite the fact that Eritreans noticed the direction PFDJ was leading the country early on and began opposing it, and campaigned against it, for the last 25 years, and yet, despite all the efforts, PFDJ continues to set the talking points? Is it the culpability of May 24, or the weakness of Eritreans not to seize the opportunity and expand the possibilities May 24 opened? It May 24 the culprit for today’s situation or the result of a collective failure from our part, the Eritrean people? I believe the date has nothing to do with what we are witnessing. Some tried to erase that date simply because IA was the leader of the organization that had led Eritreans to materialization of that date. This is wrong. While IA was negotiating in London hundreds were falling in those days leading to May 24. Up to now some opposition elements have tried actively to erase that date, belittle the sacrifices of Eritreans, because they thought by negating everything EPLF they thought they would rally Eritreans. It turns out that has not worked because almost all Eritreans had participated in that epic journey, and, therefore, owned the sacrifices. They can’t give the credit to one man or one organization.
        The best we can do is to use the upcoming May 24 as a date that we should renew our resolve to make sure the rightful owners of that date gives its right place. Dismissing it, discarding it, belittling it, letting PFDJ own it, or insinuating as if it belongs to a certain political organization won’t help our cause. It belongs to all Eritreans, and if there is any shortfall in making it complete, only focus, unity of purpose and resolution will help us to reclaim its essence.

  • Semere Andom

    Hi Ayneta:
    Well said! There is nothing you should celebrate, 4 years ago Salah Ibrahim, an Eritrean from Australia wondered if we should celebrate. May 24. I said we should mourn it

    • dawit

      Yes you should mourn it, because that was the day Eritrea liberated itself and that was time for many Eritrean enemies lost their power from ruling over the Eritrean people. I think that is why you are bitter about Eritrean Independence and its vanguard the EPLF. It fully explain why you hate PFDJ and PIA.

      • Semere Andom

        The reason I mourn is because it was a day that gave us PFDJ, the most brutal regime in the history of our country and also it gave us the likes of you, rapists, swindlers, those of you who never knew Eritrea until Ethiopia humiliated you for stealing her resources and in the way innocent ppl were also wronged. I mourn cus I share Eritrea with your ilk. But I know that your kind, the raping, murdering, lying in decent kind is part of humanity. What we need to do when Eritrea truly becomes liberated is to make you impotent, in other words caged you guys in the dungeons by proving your crimes beyond reasonable doubt in places where you are allowed to worship the ghost of IA

    • hope

      Sem and Ayneta:
      Men kelkilukum?
      Go emabh bel–enehe feres enehe medda.
      Apply for an Ethiopian Citizenship…

  • dawit

    Dear Mahmud and all.

    Nice summary of Eritrean recent history. At present May 24
    is the Day Eritreans are celebrating as the Independence Day. If it was 1991 or
    1993 it does not matter, the good thing it is still May 24. If other want a
    different date, that is their business and in fact those who do not like May
    24, may not even recognize the Independence of Eritrea, just because it was
    delivered by EPLF fighters lead by their Commander-in-Chief Tegadali Isaias Afwerki.
    PFDJ is a continuation of Eritrean struggle for Economic Independence still
    under the leadership of President Isaias, composed of EPLF fighters and
    Eritrean Masses or Hafash. Eritreans are mobilized to build Democracy from
    bottom-up, they are building check dams, planting trees, water and soil
    conservation program. Do we know any country in Africa that can mobilized its
    people like PFDJ does?

    • Ayneta

      Do you know any other African country that subjects its people to unimaginable suffering in the name of planting trees and erecting small scale dams?

      • dawit

        No because their people do not trust their government. Eritreans do it gladly to follow their leaders, because they trust them, and whatever they do it is for their benefit and their generation. That is why Eritrean Fighter sacrificed their sweat and lives to liberate their country and the present generation is following their footsteps of sacrifices. The few that complain and run away from their historical responsibilities do not count. There were always such people throughout Eritrea’s history. The Eritrean government is by the people, for the people and from the people, the only one on the planet!

  • Kokhob Selam

    ኣንቱም ዓይነታ :-

    እዚኣ ድኣ እሞ ከምዚ ናይ እንጽርጽሮት እንድያ ኮይና – ” ተሓሳሚ ጓሳስ ምስሑ ዝበልካዮ ድራሩ ይኸውን ” ድዩ ዝበሃል ! ብሕሩቅሩቆት ሲ ነቲ መወዳድርቲ ኣልቦ ቃልሲ ዘመዝገቦ ዕለት ዓወታትና ንወኻሩ ክንድርብየሎም :: ጽልኢ ናይ ህግደፍ ሲ ነቲ ሓላል መስዋእትና ክደናደኖ !ኣይፋልካን- ዝዓርኩ መን ድዩ ሰንኪሉን ተሰዊኡን?

    ብቀንዱ ኮ እዚ ጠላም ጉጅለን – ሃገራውነት ኤርትራን ዘይተዋሕጠሎምን – ከምነስካሕክሕን ሓጽ ኢልና ክንጠፍእን እዮም ዝደልዩና ዘለው :: ስለዚ ንዓ ከምቀደምካ ድኣ ትረር :: ሕጂ እሞ ድማ ሕልኮ በርቲዕዎም ፈርፈር እዮም ዝብሉ ዘለው:ቁርብ እዩ ተሪፉ ዘሎ ኣጆና!

  • Eyob Medhane

    Hi All

    I just read the bizarre headlines from Shabiya’s press arm “Tesfanews”.

    Here it is… “….President Isaias Fought for the Existence of a United Ethiopia: Dr. Kassa Kebede…”

    Should we be happy now that Isayas is Ethiopian? Oooooooooh God forbid!!!!!!

    Abi, min tilaleh.. 😀

    • Dear Eyob M.,

      It may be true; because it is much easier to exploit a united Ethiopia than a fragmented and chaotic Ethiopia. It is not farfetched to say that at a certain stage those who accused Ethiopia for colonialism wanted to be the colonizers, and they behaved as such.

      • Eyob Medhane


        Hummm..You know how we say.. “..YeItypya Amlak?..” I guess he really does exist… He kept us away from this devil incarnate and his likes… (Smh)

      • Abi

        Selam Horizon, Eyobe
        I agree on the news 100%. I also believe His Excellency PIA fought for the independence of Ethiopia. He also put those enemies of Ethiopia the likes of Bitweded and the G15 in jail to secure the peaceful existence of his two people.
        Eyobe, you should be proud and happy that PIA worked day and night for us while Eritreans are sleepwalking . He is a genius. No wonder Gashiye dawit loves him. It took me a long time to understand this genius approach to lasting peace. Soon, he will deliver Bahrenegash back to where it belongs. In the mean time the depopulation and sleepwalking continues flawlessly.

        Mogn sigegn
        Esun ayargegn! Yilal cholew Isu chisu.

        • Kokhob Selam


          ኣረ ይቅርባችሁ ወጎኖቼ – ከኛ ተማሩ!

      • Kim Hanna

        Selam Horizon,
        Another theory might be, PIA was looking at Ethiopia’s unity from his and his group’s point of view in a different light. It can be ruled out that it is because of love of Ethiopia or the lack of encouragement of our neighbors.
        An independent new country of Eritrea would feel less important, if at the same time an independent country of Tigray, an independent new country of Oromo and an independent new nation of Amhara was established. Each of these nations being a little bigger in their own right. The whole narrative would be spoiled. Just another theory. If they really wanted to be a colonizer, they had the means to do it for short while anyway.
        Mr. K.H

        • Dear K.H.,

          Here is another one. DIA is a very ambitious person. I do not think that any ordinary person has the tenacity to become a dictator, unless one is born very ambitious, stubborn and ruthless. As he was getting nearer to his goal, his appetite grew even more, and he wanted to become the emperor of Ethiopia (It is said that he hails from imperial ancestors). When he ended up with the smaller portion of Ethiopia, he became angry and irrational, and he resorted to what he knew best, i.e. bullying and war, and little Eritrea that could not satisfy his big ego, became his victim.

    • Fanti Ghana

      Hello Eyoba,

      unrelated, but I cannot miss this chance.

      This past Saturday, As soon as I got in my car, there was an interview-like discussion between a reporter and a young man. From the context of their conversation I gathered that he is or was terribly ill or he is recovering from some mental illness teenager. The following was the only part I caught:

      teen: …here it is very hard
      reporter: what is
      teen: making friends
      reporter: why
      teen: because in kindergarten everything is simple; you just run to any kid and ask them “do you want to be my friend” but here it is really hard (making friends).

      The interview ended, and almost immediately after that, I thought about what to say to you next time I see you.

      metarek tifeligaleh?

      • Eyob Medhane


        Wuuuuy, tetalten neber ende? Ere ene negn endewum yiqirta meteyeq yalebign… Ebakih ebakih wundime..entareq..

        • Fanti Ghana

          Hello Eyoba,

          ታድያ ሁላችንም ዓረቦች ነን ብየ ጉዴ ሲፈላ የት ነበርክ?
          በዛ ተቀይመህ የዘጋኸኝ መስሎኝ ስሰቃይ ነው የከረምኩት፤፤

          Oh my! Are you telling me I was just the mosquito in “the Elephant and the mosquito” story?

          An elephant and his casual friend, mosquito sitting on his earlobes, were traveling quietly together. They reached a bridge and as soon as the elephant stepped on the bridge, the bridge swayed a little. The mosquito amazed and excited shouted “wow, we really moved the bridge.” The elephant, somewhat startled goes: oh! you’re still here?

          I love you man!

          • Eyob Medhane


            I will never EVER be mad at you. Honestly. I respect you a lot. You are one if very few people that I enjoy reading…Yiliq, yihenen ligabzih. tana forum discussion when Hailemariam Desalegn heavily unloads on African Union. Please watch it starting 43:59


          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Fanti Ghana,
            Ende’, mindnew negeru? Kene’ gar eko new yeteTalahew. (Mosquito and elephant indeed!)
            I wont repeat what you said but I told you what you said was offensive. I even tried to bring you back to your old self. I knew you were very busy busy at that time and could make a mistake like that as you did like this one. But, of course occasional quarrel among family is normal and healthy.
            BTW, our neighbor lady, Hayat, might be very busy too. I haven’t seen her here for weeks. I always get concerned when she stops coming to Awate university to shine on all the dark areas. Do you have any ideas? in case I missed something.
            Mr. K.H

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Brother Kim,

            No, I didn’t confuse you and Eyob. Yours and mine was in the open already and I was confident that we would eventually work it out, and of course Abi is Abi, I was sure that he may shoot me, but he won’t abandon me. Horizon, the diplomat that he is, was perfect as usual. Eyob’s silence was the unbearable one. I respect him too much to live with the thought of having injured him.

            Ye Hayat guday: I think she is just busy with life’s demands. She hinted a little about being busy last time she checked in. I can’t wait to ‘see’ her too.

    • dawit

      Hi Eyob,
      You like it or not he is more ‘Ethiopian’ than you do and has contributed more to its unity than you or PMMZ did. Soon history will reveal all that and Eritrean masses would know the contribution of PIA.

    • A.Osman

      Dear Eyob,

      I guess Dr Kassa by United Ethiopia he means Eritrea included. I don’t know why his point is bizarre, if you forget the post 1998 relationship, then you will understand his point…I will drop few points to consider.

      1. EPLF was negotiating within the Federation framework prior to 1991 (MS covered n his latest article)
      2. EPLF was not comfortable with the secessionist stand of TPLF, it was closer to EPRP….(Fanti will catch me here)
      3. DIA openly discussed Confederation with Ethiopia (there is a video from early 90s)
      4. Was it Melles or a US diplomat that claimed DIA believed the two countries will unite one day.. I might have mixed it with Melles’ statement
      5. 1991 London Conference – not sure if true but read the following;

      “Some delegates who were at the conference revealed later that the EPLF leader, Isayas Afewerki, agonized over secession as he believed it would be to Eritrea’s interest to remain with Ethiopia in a federal relationship. It is said that for fear of creating dissention within EPLF and the Eritrean diaspora, ….” Ethiopia and the United States: History, Diplomacy, and Analysis By Getachew Metaferia (page 77-78)

      Side issue (Hayat would be interested); The author mentions an unpublished paper in the reference section (pg78) by a certain Dima Noggo Serbo (I think he was an attendee to the conference). In any case he makes an interesting point that when two homogeneous groups with closer cultural link go to war it tends to be more violent that the opposite. He attributes this to good assumptions and lack of properly negotiated relationship. Not sure about its validity, but he presents two cases – the Somali and Eritro-Ethiopian (under Tigrigna group). The paper has also useful historical detail.


      • Fanti Ghana

        Hello Ustaz AOsman,

        Welcome back!

        You are okay on #2. EPLF reasoned:

        a) EPRP, as the well recognized and all-inclusive Ethiopian organization at the time had a better chance of becoming the next government.

        b) Eritrean independence would have a better legitimacy when a widely accepted Ethiopian government endorsing it than a young cousin next door.

        The “Isayas worked for Ethiopian unity” topic is a very interesting one.

        If Eritrea decides to split, it wanted a legitimate government to sign up the agreement and rule out any future legal entanglements.

        If Eritrea decides to federate with Ethiopia EPLF, of course, would want Ethiopia to stay as is.

        So, the official answer is: however self-serving, YES President Isayas preferred, at least in those days, that Ethiopia stay in one piece.


      • Berhe Y

        Dear AOsman,

        Wasn’t EPLF declared unilateral ceasefire when there was a coup attempt of Mengistu. Dawit Wikdeghergis revealed that he was in discussion with Isayas and they were planning how to stay together after the fall of Mengistu.

        I think this and the negotiation attempt with DERG strained their relationship with TPLF.

        One thing that I agree with, I don’t know if he cared to the Ethiopian people more than Melles but for sure he cared MORE the well being of the Ethiopian people than the Eritrean people.

        He always talked about their rights, democratic rights, this or that. May be for political gain but I actually believe he does care a lot.


        • A.Osman

          Dear Berhe,

          One of the disagreements between EPLF and TPLF was on how EPLF was accommodating Russian demand.

          I remember reading a document posted by Mohammed Kheir on regarding negotiations between EPLF and DERG either in Russia or East Germany. EPLF may have been requested to give the Ehio revolution a chance, there was hope something good to come out of DERG. For Russians Eritrea could not secede and they had a strategy to strengthen Ethiopia by arming it, consequently give it an upper hand in future negotiations. Will post the link if I find the document.


          • Berhe Y

            Hi AOsman,

            I think it was early in 1980 or so I think, East Germany was facilitated a meeting between EPLF and the Derg. The reason being, there is no need two eastern block followers to fight each other. I have read those declassified documents between general secretary. One of the question asked by the East Germany was what about ELF..and he said we will take care of them.

            Well the DERG was buying time at the time, while preparing for the 6th offensive…while EPLF took care of ELF. Then the DERG said, all bets are off and you either surrender or you will be wiped out..

            I don’t know TPLF was in a stronger position at that time but looking for it’s own survival and it played a vital role with EPLF in both the elimination of ELF and the 6th offense.

            I think the fight started way after, Melles talked about in one of his interview in Tigrina..that the EPLF were entertaining talks with former DERG officials (the Dawit Ghebregergious) for the DERG to collapse internally and for them to take over and negotiate a deal.

            Well from TPFL point of view, this makes real sense because they will be either left out or they will have a small role to play in future Ethiopia if the DERG in different form remains in tact.


          • A.Osman

            Dear Berhe,

            I must have misunderstood your earlier question.

            As you said the Eastern block wanted Union, Castro had even a better proposal of adding Somalia too..solving the Greater Ethiopia and Greater Somalia dialemma with one Greater East African Union.

            Since you bought the issue of “we will take care of ELF” not sure if around the same time M.Kheir in a review of a book by Abdella Idris, there is a claim that “Moscow proposed that the ELF join the Derg to eliminate the EPLF and how the ELF rejected the offer”.
            As both organizations were secretly negotiating with Russia and East Germany, it was to their detriment as both countries were in favor of Ethiopia.



          • Berhe Y

            Dear A. Osman,

            I found the link the the declassified documents that I was talking about from East Germany / Soviet.


            With regards to the reference that I was making, it’s was a meeting that took place between the East German leader Honecker and Isayas Afeworki, where they wanted to resolve the conflict peacefully by giving Eritrea autonomy and remain within Ethiopia.

            Comrade Erich Honecker:
            I am interested in the question if you, Comrade Aforki, in the case one might come to an agreement, will have the strength to implement it. Besides you, there are two other movements in Eritrea. In case of an agreement one would have to carefully plan all steps.

            Comrade S. Aforki
            Eritrea has many enemies within and without. If they all find out about it, we will have many difficulties. But we are preparing for it. It is true that we are not the only organization. That, however, does not worry us. Because of our great influence and military strength we can succeed. The other two organizations in Eritrea have allied themselves with the imperialists and the reaction in the Arabic region.

            Similiarly I ELF-RC (Ahmed Nasser) was in discussion with Soviet Union in how to achieve peace and negotiate with Ethiopia.


            It’s interesting in both cases, may be a political ploy but it appears to me, that the bigger picture of these two organization was, how they are more socialist than the other and how they wanted to fight the imperialists, and in EPLF case the arabs as well.


          • Kokhob Selam

            Dear Berhe,

            you have noted it correctly. But note that IA was not really against Imperialism. IA don’t care about all that what he cared was how to be the king of Horn if possible or at least Eritrea. the problem he has with US today is only one and one – he want them to accept him as the leader of both nations which he fail even to administrate his own small party. he played inside and outside the nation with religion, and ideology. He attracted a lot of narrow minded but a bit educated men and women by calling them directly and indirectly through their religion and region. I know a lot of Eritrean teachers who joined EPLF as they have been told ELF is working for Arabs. but today they all know what IA is. he has no problem of any tendency and he cares nothing expect his position. I think this experience is good for future Eritrean people.

      • Hope

        Ahlen AOsman:
        Other than the remark he made in Addis about possible Ethio-Eritrean “Confederation” in the future, I have never known about the above remark!
        If that is true, then we have to worry a lot.
        I know about an interview he made with a Western Journalist in 1970a that PIA was talking about bringing back the Axumite Empire(Tigray Tigrigni Agenda) but he was talking against the Ethiopians though—Amharas..
        I am also fully aware about the Tigray-Tigrigni rumor based on the reports form top EPLF Officials-(Highlanders, of course) but PMMZ messed up things for good.
        Tewelde Ghebremariam’s Conspiracy Theories at work!
        Here is the most interesting thing:
        Some of the EPLF Elites, aka Menkae,had that approach(a United Struggle for Liberation of Ethiopia- vs the Isayas Group(“Selfi-Netsanet”).
        Things are contradictory but I would tend buying your statement.
        I also read the Controversial Prof Tesfatsion Medhanie’s(or vice versa) Discussion Paper and it is consistent with what you reported above that PIA,in fact,has been working since zemene ennini for a United Ethiopia that included Eritrea.The Kagnew Station/CIA Conspiracy is well documented as well.
        The conspiracy of “Amma Kithakik alewa” might have a meaning/motive at least to get rid of the Pro-Arab mentality of the ELF–per the CIA and Mossad agenda,which seems to be the case..
        he mentioned a controversial issue of exclusively decimating original Eritrean EPLFites and keeping safe those with Tigrayan origin,which I have no idea about as to who is an Original Eritrean and the ” secondary ” Eritrean.
        Very stupid topic indeed….
        Here is one of the latest dirty Conspiracy Theory coming out through the Anti-PIA Group:
        “The very reason why PIA is making the Eritrean people to suffer and make the Youth to flee is to make them change their mentality of Eritreanism and make them to join Ethiopia..”…kind of “mis mamma Ethiopia yihishenna”……towards another referendum to join mama estopia but the more than 50% Eritreans–the Lowlanders specially, would not allow that.
        Another dirty argument is by the same anti-PIA Group is:
        “The reason PIA does not want to exploit the huge Natural Resources is due to his hatred of Eritreans…etc”.
        This is hashewiye and this topic should be dropped..
        But let us focus on reclaiming what belongs to us, and one way or another, PIA has NO right to decide on our fate…

        • A.Osman

          Dear Hope,

          The views and positions have been shaped by time and events, once we accept that fixity is not the norm then it is easier to understand DIA shifting position. If his father was an ardent Unionist (Fanti had hinted the reason once), that is at least his starting position, but overtime he may have shifted position.

          Usually our Ethiopian awatista are quick to blame Arabs or external influence, the reality is that Ethiopia was not in the shape and the failure to change 😉 totally falls on HS and Menge. Abi – time for introspection.

          Rather than judging DIA on his pro-union or pro-independence position, we should judge him on his performance as Head of State in Eritrea for 25 years.


          • Abraham H.

            Selam AOsman,
            There have been and still exist some rumours that Isayas Afeworki actually hails from the Tigray region of Ethiopia. First, how far is this claim true, and if it happens to be true, then could we say that his biological relationship with Ethiopia might have played a role in his purported inclination towards finding a solution to the Eritrean question within the Ethiopian context-in the form of federation, for example. This reason could perhaps be in addition to his insatiable appetite for power, and the dream of one day presiding over “Greater Ethiopia”.

          • A.Osman

            Dear Abraham,

            Fanti is the expert on this one. He hinted it last time and promised to explain if some detail is revealed. There is a website that shows DIA genealogy to Atse Yohannes.


            Provided it is true, then you have a prominent players in Ethiopia’s recent history from an emperor, followed by a hero of Adwa, then another during HS reign fighting the Italians.

            You say presiding over “Greater Ethiopia”; that must have been a deal too good to refuse (ask Mizan), can you imagine Melles (TPLF) were accused that the quick recognition of Eritrea’s independence was just to push DIA away…lol.


  • Abraham H.

    Selamat Mahmud S.,
    Thank you for this excellent commentary of yours, and for the historical summary as well. In my opinion the Eritrean referendum was just a formality held to give a legal and formal conclusion to the bitter journey of the Eritrean people towards independence. The Eritrean independence was sealed and secured through the blood and sweat of its people. And in my opinion there is no date that carries an equal significance as the day when the occupying 2nd command of the Derg was defeated and the Eritrean capital Asmara liberated on May 24 1991. However, I’m confident this day will have a major challenger, namely, the day when Eritreans free themselves of dictatorship and gain true freedom.

  • Semere Andom

    Hi Ayneta:
    You do not get it buddy. The stones, rivers,mountains, emba Metera, emba-Serra, barka river, rubba Ansebba. the Arkokobay, the Gabba tree, QolamiTos are all Independent, ruled by Eritreans, sehayom meliA beriqa. We are all stones, and mountains and rivers, it is is better to be murdered and raped by your own than by Ethiopian.

    • Asmerom

      Dear Semere
      OMG, There you have it live with an evil dictator if that is what you wish
      A murderer and a killer is as bad and evil to our people weather it’s from our nation or an ouster . I couldn’t believe what you said may the people forgive you

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Hi Asmerom,

        Semere is always sarcastic. He threw you to the woods as he did to many of us. He is telling us, that to the regime the land is important than its people, akin to the believe of the emperor HS.


    • Kokhob Selam

      Semere hawey, kemey d’ala ezi’A,

      ሃ ሃ ሃ ሞይተ ! ሰጋጥ እምበር ኣውሒጥካና!

  • Haile WM

    Dear Mahmud Saleh,

    academic sactism, that was funny. But what is democracy at the end of the day ? isn’t it and academic sacitism ? what is freedom, justice, liberty, equality ? aren’t all of them abstract concepts originating from academic sactism produced by great thinkers in their free times ?
    Likewise the article might be a form of “sactism” but it has a deep message. A nation of the people vs a nation of the front and a subservient people.
    Just imagine if our EPLF left the power to the people as soon as it accomplished its goal. Instead what happened then, gave us the current quagmire. teagadaly vs gebar, yikealo vs warsay, warsay vs YPFDJ etc… each of them asking the other “what did you do for Eritrea” when ever there is a need for discussion.. our collective failure begun when we stopped to question,
    So I say it’s time that we question even our dates and symbols if we want to bring change.

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Haw Haile WM,

      It is precisely true that we have “a nation of the front ” rather than a nation of its people. You coined a phrase that fits snugly to our nation as we speak.

      Amanuel Hidrat

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Dear Mahmuday,

    Despite Eritrean history was and is so controversial (very trivial issue indeed), that to have a common understanding, arguing on our history at this critical time is not relevant comparing to the suffocation of our people under the grip of brute dictator. Hence your reminders to avoid trivial issues and to focus on the urgent matter – the removal of the despot is a point well taken. I wish AT could prod our debate and to let us focus on how to tackle the despot and to solutions aftermath of the regime. I am saying this knowing that I was told by AT, that the forumers can debate any issue they want a couple years ago. Anyway, I am commenting to show that I also share your qualms and your concern.

    Senay MeAlti
    Amanuel Hidrat

    • Hope

      Selam Wed Memhir:

      I second you on that and I have tried my best to address the same issue but–as usual,that is our culture-…and we are being hijacked by external forces and intruders ..

      “Hence your reminders to avoid trivial issues and to focus on the urgent matter – the removal of the despot is a point well taken”.
      Courtesy of Amanuel Hidrat,Clinical Pharmacist and Industrial Chemist.

  • josef

    I don’t know the relevance of this stuff anymore. Rehashing of time when Eritrea wasn’t free.. After 20 years of independence, what has been achieved except worst misery than during independence years.. I know Milton said “it is better to rein in hell than serve in Heaven” I didn’t know he was talking about Eritrea and its future.
    Who cares about these dates and time except for Eritrean Dinosaurs? You know the folks that will be dying in a few years so that the youth can have a normal life. You know the same idiots that turned Eritrean people from modern, intelligent, and hard-working folks ready to participate in the new century into refugees and beggars.
    Where are the lions? have they become sheeps that die in sea, sip starbucks coffee in berkeley yepping about dates and times, waiting for some miracle to save them from the worst dictatorship ran by semi-literate retards…
    How many libraries in Eritrea? How many bookstore in Eritrea? Can you really call a Eritrea a literate society at…
    What happened to lions? You know the gobez that used to face tank and risk their life to stop a tank.
    You find them nowadays hiding behind a computer and involved in cyber pseudo-intellectual gibberish..

    We need to see Israel and South Korea as example… I am not talking about their treatment of Eritrea or technical know-how…
    5 Million Eritreans future in Jeopardy by one man and his Entourage…

    What happened to Yitzhak Rabin or Park Chung-hee … both of their countries are doing well now…
    All these Gedli dinosaurs are useless now in social change or any form of leadership… but the best thing they could for us is roar and take out the garbage in Asmara… because they played a role in Eritrea’s Independence but failed to give its people freedom.

    The best thing the Gedli dinosaurs can do for Eritrea is take their former comrade to extinction and finally bring freedom to the 5 million eritreans… for that they can be remembered… otherwise no matter the date or days.. you went from one hell to another hell.. what is their to remember…

    • Saleh Johar

      Hello Josef,
      And your role was what, when the “gobez that used to face tank and risk the9ir life to stop a tank” who you are belittling so much, yet, you assign to them a task! And what would you be doing when they accomplish the task you assigned to them?

      My dear, please do not lambast the thousands who dedicated and sacrificed their lives with the few brutes now terrorizing the nation, including you, the youth who still expect the “gobez” of yesteryears to deliver you! Please have mercy for your elders because they have not know and repose from suffering for decades. Please have mercy, they are not Isaias’ clones. A little respect goes a long way.

      I hope you read this message for what it is intended, no malice.

    • Peace!


      See… You can’t even reveal your real name because you know you are talking trash. What’s even funny is that you are trashing those who died and accusing others for not dying for you. መን ይብሉኻ ወደይ


    • Lamek

      Excellent comment Joe. Someone has to set the record straight. Euphoria and romanticism will get us nowhere. I, for one, have taken back all the credit I had given to what you are calling the Ghedli dinosaurs.

      • Kokhob Selam

        Dear Lamek,
        you can get back the credit you give since the crime has more weight than the good deeds but remember our struggle was accomplished by the mass struggle and individuals will not affect the meaning. if you agree with me show me by up voting as I am confused a bit.

        • Abi

          I’m also confused specially by this comment of yours
          “…since the crime has more weight than the good deeds…”
          In business lingo ” trfu kisara new”.
          Please accept my up vote.
          BTW, how do you appreciate someone if his crimes outweighs the good deeds?
          Really confusing.

          • Kokhob Selam

            ኣቡየ !
            ኣንተ ደሞ ! ትርፍና ኪሳራ የሚባል ነገር ኣለ ያለው ማነው ? ይልቅ ኣጫውተን ! መንጌ ደብድቦሽ ያውቃል ?

      • josef

        Yes.. they old, uneducated, no civil society skills or talent… I see all these meeting with 60+ old fools who haven’t realized time passed them by… how can the mentality and culture that created the PDJF solve our current predicament. All you need is one bullet and take out dictator.. and 5 million people in Eritrea and diaspora can be proud… do you know that we still have 60,000 plus refugees in Sudan who have been there since 80s… we have Eritrean young adults with their brain rotten…
        What are we celebrating.. the opposition are just the same… Two cheeks of the same backside..
        it is almost like WWF… All they do organize events in some city with their alphabet soup of organization and go to their home in Diaspora to be janitors or cab drivers.. and we have to give them props just because they fought in battle 30+… and created a monster and it is machine.. to eat the eritrean people.. And their stupid mentality of division has prevented any viable community center for diaspora in America at least..
        What do third world uneducated guerillas produce? Pol pot Cambodian or South Sudan? Eritrea deserves better.

        Independence without freedom is definition of Hell… But those dinosaurs are really scared to do right thing.. take out the garbage in Asmara just like Forto brave folks… who wants to listen to their gibberish about what happened 30+ ago..

        Backward never Forward Ever..

    • Kokhob Selam

      Dear Josef,

      we Eritrean people are facing PFDJ and those of you who try to tell us Gedli is not worth. The truth is our national struggle was just a must and it is natural to have ups and downs in the journey which we went through. in the journey we all wish we had advanced leadership which in fact we fail and this is the result. Yet this will not change the reason we fight for – that was for freedom of people and it remains the same.

      the” Gedli dinosaurs” you mentioned were also part of the struggle. Mahmuday has put above what their role was and no one can deny that if you like it or not. The one man you mentioned (IA) was there also risking his life to be the dictator after liberated Eritrea. Mesfin was leading right on the battle field. No single person can deny they were heroes. Yes, they have done a lot of mistakes and that is what someone in the field will do, it is not easy to be a fighter. they didn’t only lead the struggle against Derg but also they won over the democratic and progressive forces during Gedli .

      Now by reading the situation you can’t tell us to go back – we Eritrean people will remove them and replace them with democratic leadership as we were the people who brought them to power as liberating the nation from highly armed Derg was priority – we know how to do it.

      • Abi

        Kokobe jeganu
        According to your comment, Eritrean struggle has at least two phases.
        1 -Removing derg
        This took 30 years of fighting to accomplish.
        2- Removing PFDJ /IA
        This you said is the easiest part.
        Kokobe, from what I see and hear This will take another 30 dog years to accomplish because what you are doing is just barking at each other.
        Let me be honest with you here my friend, in the last 25 years of struggle you are not able to remove IA’s pictures from the walls of diaspora living rooms.
        Happy 25th anniversary of the accomplishment of PHASE ONE of your struggle.
        COMING SOON!!!! Phase two…

        • Abraham H.

          Selam Abi,
          Please save us from your barrage of condescending attitude towards the Eritrean Ghedli and the Eritrean people in general. Eritreans, together with Tigriyans have played a major role to liberate Ethiopia from the claws of the brutal Derg regime. Do you think Ethiopia would have been rid of Mengistu if it were not for EPLF and TPLF/later EPRDF? Do you think Ethiopia would continue to be united in the absence of EPRDF?

        • Kokhob Selam

          Dear abi,

          ግድ የለም ኣንድ ቀን የናት ጡት ያስታርቀናል :: ያኔ ኣንተም ኤስያስም ታርፋላችሁ ::

  • A.Osman

    Dear Mahmud,

    Well said, I had a similar feeling on the topic on which of the 3 or 4 dates should be regarded as the Independence day. For me it would not make much difference, but if there is strong feeling about it then like that of flag it should be dealt with when change comes.

    Daniel ‘s article makes me wonder on other more critical decisions that were made by one man and we will be stack with them as their reversal will not be an easy task.

    Also thanks for the history lesson, such input is essential to give us balanced view.