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Book Review: The Dynamics of an Unfinished African Revolution

UNDERSTANDING ERITREA: A REVIEW ARTICLE ON
The dynamics of an Unfinished African Revolution.
Eritrea Ancient History to 1968, volume
1, Bloomington, IN: Lulu publishing, 2020.
242 pages list of references and index.
By Mohamed Kheir Omer.

By Tekeste Negash
Emeritus professor
March 20, 2020

The Dynamics of an unfinished African revolution is a very ambitious book. The text under review is the first volume and we are promised a second volume treating the history of Eritrea from 1968 up to the present. In the foreword to this volume, Kjetil Tronvoll wrote with great confidence that the book presents “an interpretation of Eritrean history, diverse cultures, the liberation struggle, and contemporary society that challenges the EPLF/PFDJ narrative head on.” …. “Mohamed has harvested a diverse set of sources to reinterpret the history of his homeland, and by that he breaks down the hegemonic narrative of EPLF/PFDJ”.

This volume is made up of five chapters sequenced in the following: Ancient history of Eritrea is covered in the first chapter.  In few pages (about forty double spaced pages) the author sketched the histories of cultures and societies in present day Eritrea. The Aksumite kingdom is presented as an important component of Eritrean history as well as the history of the Afar and that of the Tigre-Beja belt. And neither the Kunama and the Baria [Nara is the correct name] are left out.

The description of Eritrea as an amalgam of parts and pieces where the Eritrean highland regions of Hamassien, Akele Guzay and Seraye are described as part of the “Aksumite kingdom, considered to be the cradle of Ethiopian civilization (p.6)” is an interpretation that was pursued by the Eritrean Liberation Front in the early 1960s and probably up to the middle of the 1970s.

The Aksumite kingdom declined and eventually disappeared by the tenth century AD. Aksum ceased to be the centre of power for many centuries indeed and it was nearly one thousand years after its demise that it emerged as a centre of power during the reign of emperor Yohannes, 1872-1889. To describe the Eritrean highlands as parts of a kingdom that had long ceased to exist raise a question as to how much Mohamed Kehir Omer (henceforth MKO) had grasped of the historical trajectories of the region outside of Eritrea.

On the basis of a single source in Arabic, (MKO) wrote that (p.9) the Geez script is essentially a script from southern Arabia (al-Masnad script), imported by the Aksumites. Volumes have been written (mostly in English, Italian and French) on the complex relations between Aksum and southern Arabia. The argument that the Aksumites imported the Geez scrip has been challenged ever since the 1970s. According the latest sate of our knowledge (Stuart Munro-Hay, 2005), not only is the Geez scrip developed on the African side of the Red Sea but it was exported from the 4th century Before the Christian era to southern Arabia by migrants from the region around Adulis.

MKO might be right that Geez was indeed imported from southern Arabia but he has the obligation to explain why he chose to privilege just one source and ignore other sources on the subject. The question of whether Geez script is imported from southern Arabia or not is not a question of an alternative view of reading/understanding the past. Neither is it a question of political ideology. The issue is an empirical one and it can be answered one way or the other depending on the empirical sources that one is able to assemble.

The description of the history of the Afar, once again on the basis of a single source (Al-Shami, 1997) leaves a great deal to be desired. The identity of Ahmed el Ghazi (Ahmed Gran) who from his base in Harar defeated the Ethiopian armed forces and ruled over Ethiopia from 1528 until 1543 is assumed to be that of an Afar. The army of Ahmed el Ghazi described as an Afar army (p.19) got its supplies and replacements of military equipment from the Afar area. The Portuguese military support to Ethiopia is quite correctly mentioned but nothing is said about the massive support that Ahmed el-Ghazi (Ahmed Gran) received from the Ottoman Empire both in terms of latest weapons and Turkish men of arms. The Turkish role in Ethiopian history in the 16th century is quite well documented by Spencer Trimingham, who is mentioned and sometimes cited but in a very arbitrary manner.

The occupation of Massawa is presented as an affair between Italy and the Egyptian government without taking into account the massive research on the role of Great Britain and Ethiopia´s reaction to the creeping Italian expansion.

The problem with chapter one has to do with the ambition of the author to squeeze too much information into few pages. The attempt to outline the ancient history of the Eritrean region (made up of four cultural and linguistic sub regions) requires much more space than the author anticipated as well as much more extensive and critical reading than what the author was able to demonstrate in his footnote apparatus.

The second chapter presents highlights from the Italian, the British and the Federation periods of Eritrean history. It is indeed a very long chapter covering three quite distinct periods. A considerable amount of the material is based on secondary sources with notable distortions. The chapter stressed the demographic changes that Eritrea underwent during the colonial period. An aspect that the author mentions is the dramatic increase of the Tigrinya speaking peoples of Eritrea from 40 per cent in 1905 to 54 per cent in 1939 (p.49). The author dose not dispute the increase but attributed it to Ethiopian migration into Eritrea. The argument is plausible but there is very little evidence to support it. According to the census of 1931, (as reported by Alberto Pollera in 1935) , the migrant population from Ethiopia (that includes Tigrai as well) was about 6000 souls.

Another highlight discussed in chapter two is the role of Eritrean ascaris (colonial soldiers) and most of the material is based on the research I carried out (Tekeste Negash, 1987).  Apart from the statement that Eritreans of different ethnic and religious backgrounds lived and fought together, the section does not draw any other conclusion. The building of rail and cableway infrastructure is given due space in this chapter and is concluded by a table from my book of 1987 on the breakdown of Industrial firms in Eritrea in 1940. MKO does not mention that these were Italian firms and the contribution of the Eritreans was their labour. A few paragraphs accompanied by pictures describe the state of education during the Italian colonial period. The chapter also presented very briefly indeed the issues of land ownership, the judiciary and the prison system.

The way this chapter is concluded, I suppose, sets the tenor of the entire study and what would follow in the second volume. It is important to provide a full citation in order to do justice to the views of MKO and to introduce the reader more fully to the main substance of the book. I quote:

Eritreans (except very few individuals, like Bahta Hagos from Akele Guzai, who first allied with the Italians but later revolted against them) embraced Italian occupation almost whole-heartedly. We did not resist like the Ethiopians and Libyans or the Sudanese who resisted both Turko-Egyptian and British colonialism. We served in the Italian army loyally and fought their colonial wars in Ethiopia and Libya, but we resisted Ethiopian occupation for thirty years and defeated it. The Italians also treated the Eritrean better the other colonial subjects.

Why did we embrace Italian occupation? Many questions come to mind. Was it because we were pragmatic (we were not in a position to resist the Italians; therefore, we saved our new entity from destruction)? Was it because they created our country and introduced us to modernism, to limited education, to roads and railways, and to modern architecture? They even introduced us to the Catholic faith. They protected us from the raids of our southern neighbours. They made us feel superior to our neighbours and to other Africans, a mindset that we maintain even today and that was reinforced by the liberation movements.

An issue for discussion that poses several questions is how we more or less embraced Italian colonialism from 1890 to 1941, but we strongly resisted Ethiopian occupation for thirty years, 1961-91. Was it because we felt we were superior to the Ethiopians? Was it because they were black? Our Ethiopian neighbours take pride in being the first African army that defeated a colonial army at Adwa. They called us banda though Ethiopians were also recruited in the Italian army. I think resistance to Ethiopia was more forceful because the Ethiopians embraced one group and mistreated the others and because they were unjust and more brutal than the Italians. In addition to that, they dismantled what the Italians had built.

The Italians were instrumental in creating Eritrea as a social, political, and economic entity. They laid down the institutional and economic framework of the colony. Economically, they introduced the new colony to capitalist economy and developed small industrial firms and agricultural schemes. Socially, they enabled different sections of Eritreans to know each other in the colonial army and through the network of roads and railways. Administratively, they created new provincial and district structures, at the same time as they kept the traditional rule nearly intact. Educationally, they made limited basic opportunities. Militarily, they used Eritreans in their colonial expansion in Libya and Ethiopia, which among other issues resulted in a large immigration from Tigray which upset the population dynamics. They brought peace and stability. Overall, living within a defined entity and having been connected to a single economy under Italian occupation, Eritreans started to develop a sense of a common national identity (pp 67-68).  

Italian colonialism and its impact on Eritrean society is a subject that I studied in great detail at the end of the 1980s (Tekeste Negash, 1987). I do not have the intention to cross-examine chapter two because it differs so much from my work and neither is it fair to do so in this format.  I leave it to the reader to draw her/his conclusion on the impact of Italian colonialism with a note that not all Eritrean communities accepted Italian occupation wholeheartedly. I wish that MKO had been aware of two important parameters. The first is a sensitivity as to how Italian colonialism impacted the various ethnic and social groups in Eritrea.  The second is a more critical appraisal of the legacy of Italian colonialism.

The Eritrean economy that MKO talked highly about rested on Italian personnel and capital. This meant that it was only under the continued presence of Italian capital and knowhow that Eritreans could enjoy a better standard of living. Independence would unsettle the balance unless the Eritreans found ways of keeping the Italians and their independence at the same time. The latter solution was rather inconceivable given the opposing views as to the role and impact of Italian colonialism among a significant section of the Eritrean population. The Eritreans of the Orthodox faith would accept nothing less than union with Ethiopia.

In the section under the highlights from 1941 to 1958, the author echoes the views of scholars that he feels comfortable with at the expense of more recent interpretations.  The British Military Administration is treated in a very disorganised manner. The formation of the Eritrean Muslim League is given a prominent place, but with very little concrete information. The pioneering study of Joseph Venosa (Paths toward the nation: Islam, community and early nationalist mobilization in Eritrea, 1941-1961, Athens: Ohio State University, 2014) is used in a quite haphazard manner. Venosa´s conclusion that the Muslim League´s (ML) significant role was the protection of Muslim rights and hence the political and cultural autonomy of the Muslim communities in Eritrea is neither fully appreciated nor sufficiently discussed. The presentation of the various political Parties, namely, the Eritrea for Eritreans and the Pro-Italia- New Eritrea Party is a re-hash of what is already known. The section on the Eritrean Political Party that advocated union with Ethiopia (also known as the Unionist Party) is essentially based on Kennedy Trevaskis and Jordan Gebre Medhin. The Unionist Party is accused of being handsomely subsidized by the Ethiopian government, while (p.94) the non-unionist parties were largely financed by their membership. The question of external interference through financial support is indeed an important question. However, in addition to what the British authorities wrote on the negative impact of Italian funding of pro-independence political parties, there is also some research on the subject that the author could have taken into account.

MKO misses the politics of the Unionist Party when he writes on p. 100, that the “Unionist Party sabotaged Eritrean independence in the 1950s with the Orthodox Church at the time …playing a crucial role in mobilizing followers”. In treating the Unionist Party the way he did MKO revealed a profound bias on the non-Muslim regions and cultures of Eritrea.  Lloyd Ellingson, Joseph Venosa and Tekeste Negash, all authors that MKO cites, do not describe the Unionist party in the way he did.

The United Nations Resolution federating Eritrea to Ethiopia in 1950 and the politics of federation from 1952 to 1962 is presented in broad terms accompanied with hitherto unknown photos of politicians of the period. The conclusion of this long is quite interesting as it reveals some notable contradiction of thought expressed earlier. He writes on p. 130 that “most Muslim elites were for the independence of Eritrea and against the partition of the country between Sudan and Ethiopia”. Further on, MKO wrote that, “most Christian elites and the masses they were able to mobilize were for union with Ethiopia”. “Ethiopia annexed Eritrea gradually… because almost half of the population at the time wanted it” (p.130). On the basis of the above summation of the political dynamism of the 1950s, the author raised the perennial question as to why the Muslims and Christians lacked trust in each other. Are the interests of Eritrean Muslims and Christians wide apart even to day? Answering the questions in the affirmative, the author puts forward his understanding that, “culturally speaking, Eritrea has two main components, the Islamic Arabic and the Christian Abyssinian, related to their historical links. Thus, the author concluded this long chapter as follows: 

We continue to see its manifestations [cultural struggle) even today. The varied political statements of those early days, represented by the call for Eritrea´s independence, union with Ethiopia, and the Tigray-Tigrinya unity, are still present today in varying degrees. What I want to say in summing up all this (at the risk of simplifying a complex reality) is that we need to recognize our diversity, the two main cultures to begin with, embrace them, and through them embrace all other aspects of our diversity: ethnic, religious, and cultural. This is imperative for the realization of a future Eritrea that is democratic and just. Defeating the current dictatorship is the first step towards that goal but not an end in itself (p.131).

The Eritrean Liberation Movement (ELM), established at Port Sudan in November 1958 and ceased to exist in 1964, is treated in chapter 3. Based on the accounts of its founder Mohamed Saeed Nawad, the Eritrean Liberation Movement held its first secret congress in Asmara in 1959 and decided to carry out a coup d´etat and declare the independence of Eritrea. The ELM was known in Tigrinya as Mahber Shewate (an association of seven members) and was led by Muslim Eritreans. It did some mobilizing in all the major cities of the Ethiopian empire including Addis Ababa. While the leaders of the ELM were planning for a short and rather easy victory, a group of Eritrean students (all Muslims) in Cairo established the Eritrean Liberation Front on July 1960. The newly organized ELF soon succeeded to recruit Eritreans serving in the Sudanese army.

The story of the ELF is fully treated in chapter 4. The major difference between the ELM and the ELF was that the ELF believed in war as a means for achieving independence whereas the ELM argued that it could bring the attention of the world by persuading Eritreans to stand up for their independence.

The ELF was led by Idris Mohamed Adem (the former president of the Eritrean Assembly who was expelled from his position in 1956).   In and around August 1961, Idris Awate rebelled against the Eritrean/Ethiopian state supported by the Eritrean Liberation Front, that was formed a year ago in Cairo. Apart from the fact that he was promised support from the Eritrean Liberation Front, Idris Awate had his own reasons. First, he had a very long career as a shifta (Bandit) fighting against the Kunama (A small ethnic group that straddles on the Eritrean-Tigrean border in and around present day Badme). Idris Awate was half Beni Amer and half Nara)

MKO does a wonderful job in documenting as well as in allowing the primary sources of the ELF to come out clearly. Idirs Awate was a disgruntled local leader. His enemies, the Kunama were armed by the state, whereas, his people the Beni Amer  and Nara were not. His decision to rebel against the government for what he considered was an unjust policy (that of arming the Kunama at the expense of the Beni Amer and Nara) was the main reason that was soon exploited by the Eritreans in Cairo and in the Sudan.

Barely a year after its formation, the ELF carried out what it called the Agordat city operation – a bomb detonated killing four high politicians and wounding more than thirty. This took place on July 12, 1962. The Agordat operation brought the ELF to the attention of the outside world. The independence of the Sudan in 1964 and the first Ethiopian- Somalia war in 1964/5 increased the value and importance of the ELF. The leaders of the ELF could, since then move freely with Somali passports.

The actual operations of the ELF is treated in Chapter five.

Led by Idris Mohamed Adem and Osman Saleh Sabbe, the ELF became a familiar figure in the Middle East. Syria provided military training for hundreds of ELF fighters. Twenty-six fighters were trained in China where Isaias Afwerki, the current president of Eritrea was one of them. From its establishment in 1961 until the end of 1966, the ELF was led by Eritrean Muslims. The highest organ of the ELF, known as the Supreme Council, was led entirely by Muslims. The Revolutionary council had ten members, nine of whom were Muslims.

The chapter provides important insights into the working of the ELF up to 1968 and the internal challenges it faced. The ruthless military offensive carried out by the Ethiopian state from 1964 to 1968 is quite well documented. The role of Isaias Afewerki, first as a member of the ELF and later as a leader of his own organization, the TPLF is told mostly on the basis of Erlich Haggai and Dan Connell. Bu the question remains as to whether the ELF fought for the liberation of the whole of Eritrea or for some parts of it given the fact that it was established and led by Eritrean Muslims? Indeed, the author mentions the root cause of the organizational and political crisis of the ELF but he simply reports how others described the problems. I think he could have taken issue with the concluding thoughts of Joseph Venosa who wrote (p. 360) that the Cairo based ELF leadership dramatically shifted the debate concerning both Eritrean identity and Islam´s place in the nationalist struggle. The “ELF reinvented itself as a Muslim nationalist movement pitted against Ethiopian Christian domination” (Venosa, p. 361).

The Dynamics of an unfinished African dream: Eritrea: Ancient History to 1968 is the first volume of two. The subject matter of the second volume, that is the history of Eritrea from 1968 until 2020, is I believe much more complex than the history of the earlier period. Many would argue, in the same vein as MKO that independence brought the domination of one ethnic group (the Tigrinya/Christian) over the other three cultures, namely the Afar, the Tigre-Beja and the Kunama and Nara. Others such as Tesfaye Gebreab, (2017) would argue that the independence of Eritrea was a dream fulfilled and that there is no unfinished dream left.

The demographic changes that took place since the last thirty years have created huge imbalance in power relations among the various Ethnic/cultural communities in Eritrea. This is obviously a very sensitive subject but the fact that 80 per cent of all students in post primary schools are Tigrinya speaking Eritreans tells a great deal of who is ruling Eritrea. Although the issues that MKO would confront in writing the second volume are very complex I admire his determination and I hope that he would succeed to produce a narrative that would enrich the conversation among all Eritreans in search for an all inclusive system of governance.

About Tekeste Negash (Prof)

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መሰል ንኽትሓትት ነጢፍካ ግቡእ ንምትግባር…

(እዚ ጽሑፍ ዕላማኡ ንኣስተንትኖ’ዩ’ሞ መዓዲ፡ ገሳጺ፡ ምናልባት’ውን ከም ገለ ክብል መሃሪ እንተ መሲሉ ሰኣን ኣኻእሎ …

  • Germay Berhane

    What kind of people you are? Instead talking to the point the renegade remnant of the Dergue , Tekeste rises why you are going to the bush. This person will not learn from history. He will continue to fight against the Eritrean people until hid death, Eritrean history is written by the blood and bone of our mar tries. What ever you said history is written by the winner and not by the losers. Our history is like the river which never ends with continues flow. And will be based on facts and truth. Mr. DO we know you Eritreans are united as one people, what ever you want to make division there is no chance for your bad intentions .

  • said

    Greeting,
    I am very much against all form of communism Ideology system and Communist Party of Chinese government are asserting the superiority of its authoritarian system, the brutal Chinese Communist party are one of the most human rights abuser in world and Chinese treating of their minority is well known and recently we have seen the deplorable treatment of African citizens in southern China . Washington and elsewhere are rapidly decoupling from Chinese supply chains. Tokyo has set aside $2.2bn explicitly to help Japanese companies move their supply chains out of China.
    and my opinion below is not to praising China’s, by any means ,but the economical and advancement and realty of new china it speak for itself.

    China has won financially and in technology. The top banks in the world are Chinese and not American. The Chinese are ahead of the world in AI, face recognition, G5 and now working on G6 with a new internet to have the capacity for the future for self-drive electric cars etc. They have just called it the NEW IP.
    Their Baidu, started 2011, searches are about 2 billion searches a day catching up with Google, 5 billion searches, in size. Google is blocked in China.
    With Trump anti-China campaign against Huawei, that used the Google Android system, Huawei now has developed its own system to replace the Google Android.

    China with 4000 years old culture is not going to follow but to lead.
    Empires rise and other Empires disappear throughout.
    It took WW1 and 2 to complete the demise of the British Empire.
    The USA is the leader in military power as we know it. I shall be very surprised if China
    is not very close on their tail.
    China is very well established in Africa controlling the minerals and future markets.
    They have established better relations with the Russians. They are penetrating the European countries starting with Silk Road and Italy.

    The USA is withdrawing from the ME and building up forces in the far East.
    Taiwan could ignite such an adventure. The 20 USA aircraft carriers and the hundreds of the USA military bases could be sitting ducks. China is the future and the USA is the past. At the same time, the USA economy is still 18% of the world economy being nearly 20 trillion dollars. China’s GDP is about 14 trillion $ and growing fast.
    It took 200 hundred years and many wars for the USA to lead the world and it is taking China less than 40 years without any wars. The new world control would be technological and not by military hardware.

    • Simon Kaleab

      Selam said,

      If China is a leader in high-tech innovation and NOT a copier [legally or illegally], can you explain the following in one short paragraph?

      Investment from China in Israeli technology reached an aggregate of $15 billion from 2011 to 2017 with the surplus of Chinese investment capital finding its way through Israel’s high technology sector, including agriculture, pharmaceutical, medical devices, artificial intelligence and autonomous driving.

      • said

        Selam Simon
        For years I wrote about my distaste and hate about china communism and the same goes for western nation and raciest white supremacist and supper nationalist have major problem with the Other – blacks, Muslims, the poor –migrant and refugees were let them sink in Mediterranean sea and not to be saved and they were considered viruses, and only merited confinement and immobilization .
        In regard china investment in technology is worldwide where there is an opportunity . As reported . Alibaba Cloud Computing Co Ltd said it would invest 200 billion yuan in the research and development of core technologies such as cloud operating system, servers, chips and networks within three years. China will continue to support scientific research related to these technologies, which will be applied in the country’s energy, transport and industrial sectors, Total infrastructure investment in China would reach between 22 trillion and 26 trillion yuan (US$3.11 trillion and US$3.67 trillion) in 2020. According to the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). China will invest in information, integration and innovation infrastructure projects and promote technologies related to 5G, Internet of Things, satellite internet, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, blockchain, data centers and smart computing centers, the NDRC said.
        In 2018, Trump labeled trade wars as “good, and easy to win.” The Trump administration has no interest in arms control, particularly with China, About Fifty years ago, President Richard M. Nixon and national security adviser Henry A. Kissinger crafted an opening toward China that eight American presidents used to engage Beijing. Both nations worked successfully to create the largest bilateral trade relationship in the world. And today Tens of thousands of American companies do business in China; Microsoft’s biggest lab outside of the United States is in Beijing. Chinese students became the largest group of foreign undergraduates in the United States.

        • Simon Kaleab

          Selam said,

          My point is that China is buying up [gazumping], like a vacuum cleaner, any new technology company and trade marks around the World.

  • Nitricc

    Hi All; there is a good news that Africans are waking up from their deep slummer. Africa is the future and there is nothing more danger that the Chinese. but the good news is Africans are starting to fight back. of course the great Eritreans and their government never involved to this Chinese occupation.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=566&v=GnknaqowPyQ&feature=emb_logo

    • Ismail AA

      Selam Nitricc,

      A point drew my attention from what you wrote. About China and its role in Africa or relation with African sovereign states, anyone can form whatever views he/she may have in accordance to many things. But the point you stated – “the great Eritreans and their government never involved to this Chinese occupation” – seems to be not well thought statement. An Eritrean who follows his country’s affair thoroughly knows Isayas Afework’s relation with China has not been political only, but transcended to the realm of ideology. This began with his training sojourn in China in late 60s. His party in its clandestine period and later as PFDJ now, has more to do with China’s system, especially before its opening to the West, than any other system. Control in every aspect of life, from state organs to the economy, has modelled on China under Mao. How would you explain the origin of the idea of Sawa as youth and student damping place? Can’t you smell something? After all, I have not heard anything about China occupying any country in Africa yet. I am afraid, some people form opinions on the basis of the perspectives and public relation diplomacy that emanate from the West as the audio you shared about the Chinese from Taiwan depicts.

      • Simon Kaleab

        Selam Ismail,

        Isaias was in China during Mao’s Cultural Revolution. He was infected by it deeply.

        You said: ” I have not heard anything about China occupying any country in Africa yet.”

        China is slowly but surely starting to build military bases around the world, starting with Sri Lanka and Djibouti…Next could be the Philippines. It is just a question of time before they move to Eritrea.

        Also, many African governments have joined China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), the Communist Party’s plan to dominate the world’s most important shipping and transport routes. As part of the plan, China offers predatory loans to African leaders in exchange for offering to build high-tech infrastructure in underdeveloped areas. The countries use the predatory loans to pay Chinese workers to build these projects, meaning China gets paid with the original money and then again with debt payments.

        • Ismail AA

          Selam Simon Kaleab,

          No clue about “predatory loan”. China is an emerging economic powerhouse of the world. It has demographic as well as resourcefulness of its citizens. It is going to be China Century.

          Nations will be obliged by their interest to have relation of kind or another with China. Even its powerful competitors won’t do without doing business with China. One thing you have raised regarding how China manages its relation with poor developing countries is challenging option to policy makers in those countries. It is choosing between countries of the West who want to invest in developing economies and getting 95% of the profits and China offering 50% with providing durable infrastructure like railways and highways. Consider that China gave Addis Ababa with first metro service. Americans and the British were there many decades before. Of course nation do not do business with their counterparts for free except providing aid for purpose. But, the departure point is how greed are they in relation to poor and developing economies.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Ismail,

            You did not comment on China’s start to build up military bases at strategic locations in the World. Is that fine with you?

            The predatory loans come in context, when you see China’s next move on the Chess board: control of Africa’s raw materials to supply China’s resource desperate economy.

            I do not know where got your 95% to 50% profit comparison from, it is simplistic. What I know is that Chinese companies are heavily subsidized by the totalitarian State, giving them a competitive advantage, but most Western companies are privately owned.

            Most people [in particular, ex-guerrillas] on this website paint a romantic picture of China as full of love and kisses, full of technology prowess and honesty, ignoring its serious blemishes: tech theft directly or through hacking, currency manipulation, unfair tariffs and subsidies, predatory loans.

          • Ismail AA

            Selam SK,

            I will be brief, and state that the % figures you read were meant to make rhetorical statement. Take them as simple as that, and do not read much in to them.

            About bases at strategic locations, I should not bother and worry whether I am comfortable with them or not. Powers do embark on that ventures, and it is up to the host countries to make decisions that suit their national interests.

            One more point, if I may. I think it should not need to be a former or current guerrilla fighter to form views or voice opinions about China or other countries. Unless obsessed by some residues from the past, why would you slide to state what you have written in your last paragraph?

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Ismail,

            Not “obsessed by some residues from the past”, but concerned about the effects on the present generation.

            Conclusion based on anecdotal observation.

        • Saleh Johar

          Hi Simon,
          I think all loans are predatory The whole financial system is predatory. I am sure you have a credit card as most of us. We use it knowingly it’s a predatory loan we will have to honor.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Saleh G.,

            I agree with you. They are like Piranhas [flesh eating fish in the Amazon river].

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Selam Simon,
            Now you remind me something I used to compare. Do you know what Eritreans and Amazon river have in common?

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam MM,

            I have no idea.

        • Selam Simon Kaleab,

          Why are you blind to what the West has done and is doing to Africa? Do you forget that african countries were forced to devalue their currency by at least 50% before they got loans from the IMF and WB? Africans were obliged to accept experts from the West together with the loans. Guess who these experts were – university graduates with no experience, who were paid by the loan recipient at least five times their salaries and they were provided with the air conditioned 4x4s and mobile houses. Moreover, when the loan reached third world countries and was put into use, it was no more than 10-20% of its debt value.

          It is of no importance how the Chinese acquired their technology, as long as they have acquired it for their development. Complaining and whining about that it was illegal is of no use. All world powers do it. Most importantly, the Chinese could add value to the technology and come up with a more sophisticated one. It takes a strong brain power. Can Ethiopians and Eritreans do it? Of course not.

          China is giving Africa infrastructures and technology. You are accusing it for that. Unless you want that Africa should remain always backward and underdeveloped, otherwise, you should have no complaint about it. Just imagine where Africa would have been if the west had a similar plan for Africa like China. The west exploited Africa without giving back anything, and you don’t seem to have any problem with that.

          Why do you complain so much about the only Chinese military base in Djibouti, and you say nothing about the tens of military bases the West has all over the world? The US attacked Iraq from its base in Turkey as well, Libya was bombed from an American base in Britain, there are many examples. China is protecting its economic interests, and it is not about hegemony as the West, at least for the time being.

          The BRI will join together Asia and Africa and even Europe, and it is part of the future trend of the world economy. Africa being part of this economic web has to gain and not to lose. If Africans will be masters of their resources, it depends on their leader, whether they have to work with the West or China. The DRC has not known peace since its inception, because the West has its eyes on the country’s 2 trillion dollars worth in natural resources, which includes Uranium and Cobalt.

          What you say about China day and night looks like more of a propaganda for the West than anything else. It doesn’t mean of course that the Chinese are saints and they are not there for their interest. Nevertheless, we shouldn’t demonize them to day by saying that they could be different tomorrow. It is up to Africans to defend their interest as much as possible, and kick them out if they misbehave. Hope Africans achieve patriotic leaders.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Horizon,

            A waste of space and time.

  • said

    Greeting,
    Neoliberal Predators at the Helm of Power in a US turned Dysfunctional, Broken right at the Seams
    The Trump Phenomenon, the election to the highest seat of power to the world superpower, the USA, of an ignorant and immoral White Supremacist psychologically imbalanced narcissist who continues, despite his dangerous policies, to enjoy significant followings and a good showing in the polls; this stands as the indelible sign of a broken political system requiring profound review and a bold initiative to fix the American System; this, as in my humble view, the American System is broken at the seams hopelessly lying beyond simple fixing.

    As some American nationalists and pro-American advocates tend, in their exaggerated enthusiasm, to praise the US as the beacon of a functioning democracy and as the light on nations – that for sure calls for a pause as the US for the World, as Israel in the Middle Eastern neighborhood, the United States in its consistent wrong foreign policies is becoming the source of instability and the continuous aggravation of the security problems in the world.

    The US, as in the words of savvy political analysts and very learned humanists, very much leading American scholars and intellectuals in the examples of the world leading linguist Noam Chomsky and the World foremost expert on development, Professor Jeffrey Sachs, is a country that very much sits at the very source of the world problems that are increasingly being magnified by the US’ continuing reckless and dangerous policies. This, as best reflected by a nation freely electing to the highest seat of power of a President of the caliber and flawed character of Donald Trump as the president of the most powerful nation of the world. This most phenomenon, undoubtedly, points to a seriously broken American political and socioeconomic system.
    Besides a rather very blemished start as a nation based on violence, usurpation and free grab of territories that only became accentuated with the current American official political discourse coming to focus belatedly under the Neoliberal Oligarchy’s “Trojan Horse” at the White House, Donald Trump; the US is becoming increasingly a bellicose nation, behaving consistently and supporting other corrupt client states in the international arena in a stark violation of the International Law and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    This conclusion has for long been lingering, for decades, in my mind for someone who has most intently been closely following the US politics and the behavior of the US decision makers for many decades. As in the words of the exceptional Scholar-Doer Scholar Columbia University Professor Jeffrey Sachs, the General Good of the World, General Good of Humanity, the current US’ political posture and behavior in International Relations is disastrous and must come to an end
    (https://youtu.be/hs4Odu0X4Uw).

    I have long shared Professor Sachs’ opinion, a view that I have held ever since I first became exposed to the American Capitalist System long time ago; a view that was only compounded with the US’ consistent double-standard and blind-siding with the forces of injustice and oppression in the World, foremost the Apartheid Settler Colonialist State of south Africa and and the corrupt oppressive regimes of the US client states in Africa ,the Middle East and Latin America.

    This, most obviously, puts the US on a course of an irreversible decline as measured by the criteria of a supposedly responsible world superpower that is required to meet and abide by certain standards of universal values and mending objectively and justly world disputes and crises as they arise.
    Adding to this litany of testimonies in his huge wisdom, is the great relentless human rights advocate, the world foremost Linguist Scholar Noam Chomsky, a prodigious writer and a steadfast advocate of justice and human rights, publisher among so many books Noam Chomsky has for long been exposing the dark side of the American Wild Capitalist System as a Dysfunctional System as it could face its major existential challenge at the first major nature-loaded challenge, a crisis like the one that the entire world is mired in at present, the Coronavirus Pandemic, and the serious ones that are still pending as the consequence of the horrific defiance of the rules of nature, foremost, the ominous Climate Change that is brought about by insatiably avaricious Neoliberal Oligarchs in charge of America’s destiny (https://youtu.be/zRvqkUoiKJo).
    As the French, world foremost Social Anthropologist Emmanuel Todd long predicted on sound scientific analysis basis 20 years ago in his epic book, “Après l’Empire,” 2001, America is on the Decline that should, by and within itself not necessarily be the great cause of an alarm. One only wonders how disruptive, destabilizing and violent the US’ reckoning to submitting to the change of fortunes (reference my article, “Western Dogma & Ideology Render Third World War with China Inevitable,”
    As in the words of a learned scholar Professor Jeffrey Sacks and as in the words of highly accomplished movie producer, Oliver Stone who pointed the finger at the wound declaring, “America is a Dysfunctional System,” i.e., America is the system as a whole requiring a major revamp; requires a deep fixing, as one wonders if this can practically and consensually could be ever achieved!

  • Simon Kaleab

    Selam all,

    Last week, Chinese police raided the homes of members of the Early Rain Covenant Church on Easter Sunday, arresting six church leaders for participating in an online religious service via Zoom.

    https://www.persecution.org/2020/04/13/sichuan-church-members-detained-easter-service/

    On a different note, ousted pro-democracy legislator “Long Hair” Leung Kwok-hung was stabbed as he protested outside Beijing’s liaison office in Hong Kong on Thursday, the South China Morning Post (SCMP) reported.

    The assailant said he was “trying to help the police to kill Leung,” according to Leung’s political party, the League of Social Democrats.

  • Simon Kaleab
  • Paulos

    Selam My Good People,

    Happy Easter Everyone!

  • Simon Kaleab

    Selam all,

    How can a guerrilla revolution be unfinished?

    This type of revolution is driven by its dynamics that drives it from its START to its END.

    Revolutions end either in SUCCESS or in FAILURE, depending on their objectives.

    The Eritrean revolution, that started in 1961, ended in 1991.

    • Paulos

      Selam Simon,

      Italians may have carved out their own version of a colony in 1890 and equally Isaias created his own version of Eritrea in 1991 but the true nation—people’s Eritrea is not realised yet and hence the title of the book.

      • Teodros Alem

        paulos
        What is that mean ” Italian and isaias created thier on version of eritrea in 1890 and 1991″? r u saying eritrea will not be realised untill the eritrean people and gov baptized and surrender to ur ideology? untill they become to ur level?
        here is the thing, u r mixing and twisting ” undemocratic gov”, colonization and sovereignty together.
        What ever u do, i don’t think eri will become to ur level, besides there is a big chance pia can win democratic elections in eri, 50% approval, if there is election, still he has a big support which u don’t admit it.

        • Paulos

          What the heck dude? Why are you following me everywhere? This is getting funny. If you’re bored, pick up a hobby not tailing people though, say, ኣሻኻኻት ዓለም. Ask ኢንጂኔረ and he will explain it to you the rules of the game.

          • Teodros Alem

            paulos
            He is busy saying “sele mariam” to eritreans and they didn’t gave him a penny. So i can’t ask him.

          • Abi

            Paul
            Have you been following Saay lately? I checked his website and nothing new is happening. I left him a message on the comments section 24 days ago with no response.

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            His Twitter feed is active though.

          • Abi

            Paul
            That is good news. Thanks.
            As the self appointed attendance supervisor at Awatenation, I was checking the list of the regular addicts. I missed three awatistas who didn’t come to congratulate Ato Amanuel . Abrehet has been absent for a while.
            Saay , Peace and iSem. My guess is they used the back door to get in the patient’s room.
            ቀሪዎቹን ጠያቂዎች ግን ዘበኛው ከበር መለሱን::

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            True, they may have reached out to him in private. God bless!

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            ዶተረ
            ፍሊት ምንፋሕ ከድልየካ ዩ ነዚ ሃመማ። ካልእ ኣማራጺ ነገር የለን።

          • Paulos

            ኢንጂኔረ,

            እዚ ከምገለ ዓይነት’ዩ፣ ነቲ ፍሊት ከደንዝዞ’ዩ።

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            ስሓቕ ሞይተ ዶተረ
            እዝሲ ኣይገድፍን። እሞ ሃየ ዕድል ረኺብካ ሕጂ።
            ጸገም ‘ተሎ: መፍትሒ ተናዲ። ሓደ ዓይነት ፈውሲ ክትምህዝ ዕድል ረኺብካ።

          • Paulos

            ኢንጂኔረ,

            The good old classic Asmarino እዩ ዘድልዮ—ካሶቲ፣ ቴስታ፣ ‘ዞጋምቤቲ!

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Doterre,
            I am not sure how I forgot that we already have that low tech solution 🙂
            You just remind me something btw, do you know what the difference between Africans and Europeans/North Americans reaction when they see a problem?

          • Paulos

            ኢንጂኔረ,

            No tell me.

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Doterre,
            Africans get used to the problem while the others try to find a solution for it.
            Few years ago, a smart Eritrean lady told me this and the more I think about it, unfortunately, the more it makes sense.

          • Paulos

            ኢንጂኔረ,

            Good one! True, we should learn to be part of a solution not part of a problem.

            We all have differences of opinions on many issues but we should learn to respect our differences and solve them through civility.

            Do you remember መምህር ማዓዳይ? He taught at Model School around ጣባ and later on at ኣግኣዝያን፣ እታ ሰብኣይ ሙሉእ ዓመት ብማዕዳ ሕለትካ’ያ ተጥፋኣልካ፣ ብኸምኡ’ያ መምህር ማዓዳይ ተባሂላ።

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Doterre,
            I believe he was my cousins’ teacher at Agazian. One of them she used to complain about him because she thought he was so damn serious. She has very low threshold for any kind of stress 🙂

          • Paulos

            ኢንጂኔረ,

            He was a teacher of my older sisters and that’s how I knew of him. Yea he was cold serious. In fact, he looked more like from from India or Sri Lanka. He could have been Yemane Gebreab’s close relative. He looked a lot like him. Sorry I am shifting gears–ንዘረባ ዘረባ የምጽኦ እዩ ዝመስል ዘሎ ት’ነገር።

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Doterre,
            That’s him 🙂

          • Paulos

            ኢንጂኔረ,

            How about ሽሕኛው? Do you remember him? He taught and later on became a supervisor at ኣግኣዝያን.

            The reason they called him ሽሕኛው is funny. He used to teach Math and as it happened, he was explaining the power of ten and he went on to say in Amharic—ኣስረኛው [ten to the power of one]፣ ሞተኛው [ten to the power of two] and he said, ሽሕኛው instead of saying, ሽያኛው [ten to the power of three.] And the moniker got stuck with him where his real name was forgotten.

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Thanks for the laugh, Doterre!
            You should see me laughing so loud 🙂
            I have to ask my cousin on this!

          • Paulos

            ኢንጂኔረ,

            ከምትፈልጦ ደቂ’ስመራ ገለነገር ኣይርከቡልካ እዩ ዝባሃል.

            We had a lot of fun growing up though. Even if school for most of us was a torture including the political climate we lived under.

          • Teodros Alem

            Paulos
            do u know ” amed be duket yesekal ” means? there is no such thing even now , aseregnwa or mettognwa at school , u ursel is wrong. Wa is all over the media for the last 5 -6 years because of the South, if u know what i mran, other than that there is no such thing at school even today.
            and i think, i have seen u 2 ag comedians used the harshest words to insult me,
            i need translation though, i don’t fully get it.

          • Sultan M.G.

            Doc:
            IGNORE!

          • Paulos

            Capo,

            Thing is, sometimes he says really interesting stuff then he switches back into something I can not make sense of. No patronizing intended.

      • Simon Kaleab

        Selam Paulos,

        But the people supported both major fronts with their wealth and manpower, encouraging their children to join- an undeniable fact.

        A guerrilla movement will not succeed without popular support [stage 2 of guerrilla dynamics].

        • Paulos

          Selam Simon,

          The people believed both the Italians and the Front. In the end, Italians delivered—Modernity. On the other hand, the Front cheated and deceived.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Paulos,

            The Eritrean people knew what the guerrilla Fronts were up to: double crossing, betrayal, incarceration, murder, assassination [of course, the criminal Derg was doing the same in broad daylight].

            The Fronts did not promise anything, other than kicking Ethiopia out. The people, including myself, were eulogizing them.

          • Sultan M.G.

            Simon:
            Your fixated and narrow mind is causing trouble to understand your vague few worded comments!
            Please clarify as to what the goal of the front was .
            Just kicking out Ethiopia?
            U sound like a Robot talking only with preprogrammed words!

          • Simon Kaleab

            Sultan,

            Clarification? I thought you said you were there.
            I will pass your request to Isaias for a face-to-face chat. Be ready with a one-way ticket to Asmara.

          • Selam Paulos,

            First of all, Happy Easter.
            When you say that the Italians delivered modernity, it sounds as if that was their mission, i.e. to modernize Eritrea. It is somehow difficult to accept.

            The apartheid system of SA, although the result of centuries old domination and exploitation, created a rich and strong country, and yet the plight of the indigenous people in that rich and developed country was horrible, to say the least. They didn’t share the wealth, nor were they participants of the country’s modernity. In the same way, Eritreans were not allowed to live in the modern city of Asmara, from what i have heard and read, although they served during the day time, and that of course doesn’t mean that they enjoyed the modernity brought by Italians. Similarly, there were some indigenous South Africans who tried to survive within the system without being part of it, by serving the whiteman.

            How could Italian colonialism be any different from other European colonialism? All over Africa, the British, the French, etc, had given low level training so that the indigenous people could help them to control the country and people, but not to make them equals or prepare them for independence. The same was true in India, where the British built government buildings, which still survive, Indians worked in the British colonial system, but that did not change their opinion about the British colonizer.
            Eritrean women were trained to serve in the colonizer’s household, etc. The same happened in other colonies as well. Nevertheless, none of the other colonies called it modernity.

            Why would Italian colonization of Eritrea be a modernizing mission, while it was horrible in Libya, and the 5 years occupation of Ethiopia, was even worse? Shouldn’t one call it by its name, colonization that brought misfortune and not modernity, unless Eritrea is considered an exception?

            Eritreans may have accepted wholeheartedly the Italian colonizer, but modernizing Eritrea and Eritreans was not part of it. After all, little Eritrea, poor in resources, was only the first step towards colonizing Ethiopia, which was richer in resources. On the contrary, Eritreans were used on two occasions for the Italian unholy purpose of colonizing and exploring Ethiopia. I am sure modernity wouldn’t have come to Ethiopia as an Italian colony.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Horizon,

            The British set up an extensive network of road and railway systems in India, which are still used. They gave India a democratic constitution.

            Raman [Spectroscopy], Nath Bose [Bose-Einstein statistics] and Ramanujan [Analysis, Number Theory, Infinite series] made their great discoveries while India was still a British colony.

          • Selam Simon Kaleab,

            The railways and roads built in India were meant to siphon off about 2 trillions dollars in resources over the 2 or 4 centuries they ruled India. This wealth, in addition to that plundered from African and South American nations, made possible Britain’s industrial revolution.
            India was an ancient civilization that the British did not create. Indians could have succeeded in many ways by themselves, if their country was not plundered by the British. I don’t understand how one could adopt democracy from a colonizer that didn’t acknowledge the democratic rights of the colonized people.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Horizon,

            You are too slow. Think of the positive legacy the Indians inherited from the British.

            Modern Physics and modern Mathematics are relatively recent and not ancient. The Indians could not have leaped from the ancient to the modern by miracle. I hope you grasp this quickly.

          • Selam Simon Kaleab,
            O.K., clever guy. I see that you are taking the discussion low to your level. For you, human beings are divided in to the superior and the interior, the strong and the weak, the white supremacists and the hopeless, the successful and the failures, etc. In your opinion, the first group are white and Western, and the second group all the rest. Maybe you think that by worshipping the first group, you may become one of them. Try to be yourself. Learn to accept that Trump is not the Alpha male (who cares what he is), the future belongs to the new empire, which is China, whether you like it or not, the west has no future unless it changes is ways. Be sure the future world is not going to belong to the white supremacists, on which you continue to bet, as if you are one of them.
            You might tell us that knowledge is in the whiteman’s genes, and it is hereditary and not acquired. It took China three decades to reach where she is now. By 2030 China’s economy could be bigger than that of the USA, and India will fare much better than you think. Well, Britain may become the victim of its controversies

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Horizon,

            You are replying with irrelevant nonsense. What I wrote is about the positive legacy [aspect] of British colonialism in India.

            Stay on topic.

          • Sultan M.G.

            Selam Simon and Paulos:
            :
            If you believe that the Front was a popular movement, I don’t think the Popular Front deceived the people but the few in the Front Leadership did so .
            The way you are accusing the Front as the Popular Movement as a deceiver and cheater does not hold water and sounds a fallacious logic.
            I know we debated on this technical issue about the EPLF Secret party being the same as the EPLF,since it was the sole decision maker,when in fact the real EPLF was the 99.9% of the innocent and the fighters and their ideology to liberate Eritrea.
            Keep wasting your time debating on Metaphysics!
            The fact that a single man messed up and chattered the noble cause and the dream does not make the legit Eritrean political and armed struggle void and null.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Sultan,

            Your “a single man messed up” is too shallow an excuse to provide you with a credible escape route. Keep on fantasizing, for feel-good effect!

          • Sultan M.G.

            Simon:
            Ab quinat zeiweAle Jighna!
            Keep barking !
            Those of us,who were born and grew up witnessing during and with the legit struggle against the horrendous atrocities on us, our families,including our pregnant sisters and Moms , homes, villages … etc… will never and cannot forget “ fantasizing” day and night those unmatched crimes against humanity!

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Sultan,

            Your “a single man messed up” assertion is mental laziness.

            Also, don’t jump around with your scatter brain. Stay on topic.

          • Abi

            King Sulta
            If you grew up witnessing atrocities during the Ethiopian administration, why did not you join the fronts instead of coming south to Gonder?
            You are chocking as you chew on both sides of your mouth.

          • Sultan M.G.

            Guaddu:
            How did the “date “with Aunti and my Biochemistry Professor go?
            I was little to join the struggle at that time but was definitely doing everything possible with my entire family …
            After the EPLF captured Keren in June 1977( correct me Ustaz SGJ even though u were in the Field with the ELF that year, I believe), I had no chance but grab the golden opportunity to join the Catholic Seminary and continue my education.
            I escaped being recruited either by the EPLF or the ELF but was under 14 at that time..
            After I completed my high school/ ESLCE with super distinction while I was preparing to join the six-year intensive program in Philosophy and Theology as a preparation for a Priesthood, I was in a big dilemma as to which way to go.
            It took me months to decide before September 18, the deadline to join the GCMS.
            My Senior X-Seminarian Chap from the AU( Asmera Univ)came to my rescue telling me that “ You will never get this Scholarship again but you will have plenty of opportunities to be a Priest at any time of your life”!
            I listened to him and got to Gonder a week after the Admission deadline.
            Call me a lucky one or a coward one, I “failed” to join the armed struggle!
            But here is a more fascinating story:
            When I went to my village during my Summer Vacation from Gonder, a famous Jemahir / an EPLF Cadre guy called Bichir came to our house after he spotted me as a stranger .
            He questioned me and interrogated me like hell.
            He knew my family well as my father was the Head of the Local EPLF Shimaghile /Quadere)of the Village.
            I told him that I came from Gonder College for a summer vacation and that I was studying xxxxxxx !
            He encouraged and admired me and insisted that I should finish my studies since future Eritrea needs well trained Health Professionals!

            Under normal conditions, I was supposed to be taken to Sahel immediately but he rather escorted me at night along with his well armed Team of three EPLF Fighters to the gates of Keren, which was under a heavy guard of the Derghi ( Huletegna Abiotawi Serawit-The 2nd Revolutionary Army-the most disciplined, well armed, and the toughest Ethiopian Army).
            I flew to Gonder the next day!

            We became good friends and I used to meet him every summer I went to my village but he was martyred at a place called Adirba /Anseba, few miles away from Keren city just a week before the total liberation of Eritrea!!!!
            This is an unfiltered and an unadulterated real story!

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Simon,

            What is the map of your avatar represents?

            Is that Aksum kingdom?

            Berhe

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Berhe,

            Yes it is.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Sultan,

            Here is a reminder of how our people felt the day and month of liberation.

            They are trying to vaporize from our memories, but their continued assault.

            Do they look like a people begging for the Derg to return?

            https://youtu.be/vK0GmKJiDyc

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            What is interesting is that all these people turned around and run for their lives. Have you seen the stampede of people trying to cross to Ethiopia when the border first opened?
            Of course, derg was much better.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Abi,

            You said: “Of course, derg was much better.”

            May be for you.

          • Abi

            Simon
            Definitely for you. Have you noticed the number of liberated young people greeting the liberators?
            Nowadays, you don’t find them in the cities except in the refugee camps and sawa boot camp.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Abi,

            It is you who said Derg was better. I said Derg was criminal.

          • Abi

            Simon
            Again, I said DERG was BETTER for Eritrea and Eritreans than the liberators.
            Are we clear?

          • Nitricc

            hey Abiy please stop this nonsense. some times know your limits. you got your country and sleep sound. whatever Eritrea problems are leave it to Eritreans. Derg is gone and that is history. I know you are emboldened by the half and wanna be Eritrean Tigryans but you should stay away from making those kinds BS. you are an Ethiopian and worry about your Ethiopia and don;t get fooled by those digital weyane’s who are embedded on this forum pretending to be Eritreans.

          • Abi

            General
            This is a discussion forum not a YPFDJ boot camp where you order robotic people what to say or think.
            Since you don’t know anything about Eritrea before or after the derg time, you are dismissed from discussing the issue effective immediately.
            You can apply for readmission upon returning from Eritrea.

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Nitricc,

            I empathize with your anger. I think you should have a heart to heart talk with your buddy in the following way.
            Go back in time as a kid>

            If your Dad applies a stick to your behind, it is painful. You cope and show up for dinner. After dinner for the most part the pain is gone. You look forward to reconcile.

            If your neighbor’s Dad beat you with that stick, your pain will hurt more with each passing day. The animal instinct of survival comes to the surface.
            I hope it makes sense.

            Mr. K.H

          • Simon Kaleab

            Abi,

            Your reasoning is circular, which is a logical fallacy.

            Derg was the kidnapper, while Eritrea was the hostage. In his spare time, the kidnapper Derg, between rapes and murders, provides bare minimum rations to the town folks of Eritrea [the hostage], and you expect the hostage to be thankful.

            It seems that they did not teach you to think logically at University, only to repeat dogmas.

          • Abi

            Simon
            We are comparing two systems.
            I chose the lesser evil between the two. You are lacking the courage to choose one.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Abi,

            To start with, Derg had no business to be in Eritrea. You must accept this premise.

            Let alone for Eritrea, even for Ethiopia Derg was an unmitigated disaster. It had no popular mandate, opened a reign of terror, allowed mass starvation, economy was in shambles, corruption, nepotism and regionalism were rife, it opened war all round and couldn’t win a single one.

            At least, the Eritrean liberation fronts had popular support. Try to think logically.

          • Abi

            Simon
            You remain on the drive about circling nonstop. Pick an exit and get off.
            In other words, choose one of the two. No explanation needed.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Abi,

            I told you that Derg had no business to be in Eritrea in the first place. If you fail to grasp this, I can’t help you.

          • Abi

            Simon
            Looks like you are getting dizzy from circling nonstop.
            The question is not whether derg should have been there or not.
            ምነው ያለወትሮህ ግራ ገባህ?

          • Simon Kaleab

            Abi,

            You have allergy to logic. It is highly likely that you profited from the Derg’s mayhem.

          • Abi

            Simon
            Now you are falling apart.
            Again, the question is not whether I benefited or not.
            Looks like you had a little bit too much to eat yesterday. Take a walk.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Abi,

            You said Derg was better.

            An Ethiopian who had family members or relatives that were gunned down in cold blood on the streets or starved to death during the Derg famine would not say that.

          • Abi

            Simon
            I said derg was better for Eritrea and Eritreans. I stand by it. You are aimlessly circling nonstop. Find a bench and sit down. Collect your breath before you faint.
            I don’t want to be held responsible.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Abi,

            The unavoidable conclusion is that you are a shameless Derg associate.

          • Abi

            Simon
            You are a lonely wanderer drifting aimlessly.
            I’m out.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Abi,

            Some Eritreans support while others oppose the current regime.

            But, what is your aim?

          • Abi

            Simon
            Thanks for the German lesson.
            You are still wandering aimlessly. That makes you መሃል ሰፋሪ , ወላዋይ,
            በሌላ አርእስት እስክንገናኝ ማረፍያ ፈልግና አረፍ በል::

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            I can tell you the misery of Eritrean find themselves today will end one. A lot of people go through this sometimes but they rebuild and recover.

            I can tell you, those Eritreans flocking to Ethiopia is because they love Ethiopia better than they love Eritrea. They are running from the PFDJ, and Ethiopia happens to be where they can exit.

            In the 60s and 70s and 80s, we did that via Sudan running away from HS and Derg.

            The point is, we are going forward and we will not go backwards.

            Why are so many Ethiopians running to Yemen today? Is it because Yemen is better ?

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            You are wrong again. I’m not surprised at all.
            During the 60s 70s and 80s Eritreans used to flock to different parts of Ethiopia. While those Eritreans who flocked to Sudan remain in refugee camps ( 3 generations according to the Awate article some years ago), those who flocked to Ethiopia prospered and achieved higher.
            I’m not saying Eritreans in Ethiopia like Ethiopia. That is impossible. I’m not saying that the misery doesn’t end either.
            What I am telling you is HS and Derg were much better for Eritreans than the liberators.
            Of course, you are going forward.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            I think I may have made the same argument before, I have called them, liberators turned oppressors.

            But that’s not because is nice, but by even the worst standard (ask Ethiopians how brutal Derg was), that PFDJ are worst than them. This does not mean, that we are looking to go back to Derg times, as some tell us that’s what we are looking to do.

            I think we are on the same page. I don’t want to disturb your Fasika.

            How about I invite you this song, ab lubna sefirkum, you are in our hearts, part of the covid-19 campaign.

            https://youtu.be/QAItINcy7Fw

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            Thanks. It is ወቅታዊና ትምህርታዊ ሙዚቃ:: ከደርግ ጊዜ ይሻላል::
            ፈረንጆች የተማሩበት ዶሮ ወጥ በልቼልህ ዋልኩ:: ሽንኩርት ሲከትፉ ብታያቸው በሳቅ ነው የምትሞተው:: ዋና ወይም scuba diving 🤿 የሚሄዱነው የሚመስሉት::

          • Aron

            Hi Berhe,
            Where did those days go man? How could Issayas go from god on earth hero to such complete zero. How can we salvage what we had? Aron

          • Abi

            Hello Aron
            I don’t want any confusion here. I’m an Ethiopian.
            Now that is out of the way, I really don’t know what you can do to salvage what you had.
            May be reforming the current administration is the safest and fastest way of salvaging whatever is left specially the youth.
            I have to quietly leave before the snipers tell me to mind my own business.

          • Aron

            Hi Abi,
            As good as your answer was the question was meant for Berhe. I don’t want the government destroyed and definitely don’t want eplf to be weeded out but I want Issayas and his Minions out because they are beyond repair. I would not ask you that question knowing full well how you feel about Eritrea’s independence. I would never snipe at you when I could disagree. After all I value your advice and I appreciate your experience about college kids. My son is accepted to UF and I am learning few things from your exchange with forumers. Aron

          • Selam Aron,

            I think that it was Amanuel H. (Fortunately, he has covered 99% of the way towards his recovery, and God willing, he will be soon with us), who gave us the idea that it is not only the people at the helm of power, but the System as a whole, that Eritreans should fight and destroy. Your problem seems to be only the leader and his minions, as you say, and not the system.

            You may know the story of the Roman Officer who lay wounded on the battlefield. His wound was covered with hundreds of flies, and they were torturing him by feasting on his flesh and blood. When one of his soldiers saw him, he ran across towards him and started to drive away the flies. The officer turned to the soldier and begged him not to do so. Those flies were feeding on his wound and torturing him, and now they are almost full, and they cause him less pain. If new and hungry flies come to replace them, it will be the same suffering all over again, and the officer told the soldier not to drive the flies away.

            What is the reason when you say that you want to see only Issayas and his Minions out, and the system to remain in place? Is it due to a similar scenario as above, that the old system will be less painful when compared with the new one, whatever the new system might be, or the system may not change but the leaders of the system can change, something controversial, or is it because those at the helm of power are an impediment to different scenarios like the formation of agaziland and all the rest, and they should be removed first.

            The right thing to do is not to separate the leaders from the system they created, and if they go, they should go together. The Arab Spring in Egypt was overturned, because they didn’t change the bureaucracy, the heads of the Institutions and all the rest, and left them as they were. It didn’t take long for al Sisi to bring back a worse dictatorship to Egypt.

          • Aron

            Hi horizon,
            I knew the story above associated with street beggar. I did not know it was a Roman soldier. The reason, all of the above scenarios are factors. The main reason is stability however. Except Egypt the revolution infected countries are all unstable. Besides eplf was very successful front and effective in mobilizing the whole of Eritrea that sacrificed a lot to bring about Eritrea as independent country. It represents pride and sense of fulfilment. No man is perfect and Issayas with some blemishes along with others achieved what they set out to do in 1993.

            Whatever he had to do as freedom fighter until that point, people would have forgiven whatever he did and they would have venerated him forever. He chose to hijack this great front and made himself a dictator abusing the system. With him and his enablers gone the system can be reformed with out the country becoming Somalia.

            You had to be Eritrean in 1991 to know how we felt about the man. Aron

          • Abi

            Hello Aron
            Thanks for the explanation. I was wondering when did we establish diplomatic relationships for you to ask me a question that is not only above my pay grade but should only involve Eritreans?
            Congratulations on your son’s acceptance at UF.

          • Aron

            Hi Abi,
            Thanks. aron

          • Selam Aron,
            IA was never god on earth. He is today what he used to be always. When people think that they are persecuted, they want to organise themselves and stand behind a person who presented himself as a strong man. IA had that posture, dream, and the psychological make up to become a leader. Moreover luck was on his side.
            He was made an earthly god by the people themselves without being one. Worse, he was made to believe it and adopt it. That is why he doesn’t give value to human beings, because he believes that everybody is below him.
            When his dream was finally accomplished, he saw no reason to hide his true nature. Add to that the fact that such people are psychopathic personalities

          • Sultan M.G.

            Ustaz Berhe Yeman:
            Prepare for the BEST EUPHORIA and party to come soon , way better than the May 1991,the day the Beast / the devil is….,

        • Aron

          Hi Simon,
          Are you saying Eritreans should not have supported the struggle for independence. I am trying to understand honestly what you are trying to say. Aron

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Aron,

            I did not say that. What I am saying is that the Eritrean people knew what they were getting into.

            Think of Eritrea as a hostage. The hostage was caught between a criminal kidnapper [Derg] and a violent family member who is the rescuer [the guerrilla Fronts].

        • Nitricc

          Sinom you are one coward and a digital weyane crook. what do i have this fleeing you are nothing but a loser. where ever you are just mange your cholesterol and worry about your miserable life.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Nitricc,

            Go back to sleep. This topic is above your pay grade.

  • Paulos

    Selam My Good People,

    This is truly Ontological in Tigrinya. And the classic version of ኣቤ ጉበኛ [ኣልወለድም] if you will. If you’re a Philosophy junky like me, you will love it not only it is deep but it is done in Tigrinya as well. If you find it dry and stale, my apologies for wasting your time.

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=rTBjZzLH45o&t=158s

  • Nitricc

    Hi All; sorry to bring you the bad news to the haters; you never learn.

    https://twitter.com/i/status/1251463461420371968

    • Sultan M.G.

      Nittric:
      As I told you before, he was expected to declare an unconditional Amnesty to the 99% of the INNOCENT Prisoners like most countries are doing.
      Did u watch CNN /as we speak that the Prisons and the rural USA are being hit hard by ZCOVID-19?

  • said

    Greetings
    Thank You SJ
    Good news Amanuel Hidrat! you have being missed . Wishing you a speedy and complete recovery from the coronavirus. The contagious bug, which is officially known as COVID-19, can be particularly severe for the elderly population and those with pre-existing health conditions. The vast majority of people who catch COVID-19 will make a complete recovery.
    As the Coronavirus Epidemic Leaves us older generation guessing if one survives the unexpected visit of this ravaging invisible creature one is resigning to the thought that one’s ephemeral passage in this life might very well be reaching the end of it is term, a none too far-fetched eventuality. This truth inspired the philosophical” Conversation with the Deity” comfortable with the thought, “Que Sera, Sera, What Will Be, Will Be taking advantage of the occasion to bring out long harbored philosophical inquisitions to pose at a very close reaching Deity and wishing humanity well to all .
    Now, as experts in the drug industry and the decision makers in the pharmaceutical field reckon no breakthrough in view is impending of a discovery of a curing vaccine to the Coronavirus in the foreseeable future signaling that the virus could still has its toll on many innocent souls before it is restrained, I travelled in my thoughts to past episodes of the proven strong power of spirituality in withstanding trying times of confusions and uncertainty as currently prevailing trying to cope with the spreading uncontrollable of the Coronavirus.

  • sara

    hello awtistas..
    i heard from my friend who read in awate ,, Ato Amanuel is fine etc…
    today i came to the net specially to say alhamdililah … one of us has bitten these awful disease.
    btw, its also Easter in our country and wants to say happy eater to all///

  • Samuel

    Hi All,
    This is regarding COVID-19, I will use the Cuomo family as example because they are on TV all day long, which is good. My core message isn’t about the family, I will use them as example to explain my question and my concern how the virus transmits.

    I hope most of you know CNN anchor Chris Cuomo, he has been diagnosed with COVID-19 since Mar 31, 2020, it has been 18 days since he had the virus, he is still recovering. His wife tested positive with the virus on Wednesday (17 days after her husband isolated himself in his basement).

    We have been told that the incubation period of the virus is 14 days, which means you will show symptoms of the virus during these period if you already contracted it.

    Just FYI, I got the following info from annals.org … “The median incubation period was estimated to be 5.1 days (95% CI, 4.5 to 5.8 days), and 97.5% of those who develop symptoms will do so within 11.5 days (CI, 8.2 to 15.6 days) of infection. These estimates imply that, under conservative assumptions, 101 out of every 10 000 cases (99th percentile, 482) will develop symptoms after 14 days of active monitoring or quarantine.”

    His wife tested positive 17 days after her husband tested positive. I know there are many unknown things about their life style and the virus, but considering what we know about the virus and considering their family awareness to the virus (media and political family), well-to-do family, educated family, etc. What could be the reasons how she contracted the virus 17 days after her husband tested positive? Just shade some light it could help most of us.
    My concern is there could be some unknown reasons how the virus is being transmitted, may be AC is playing a big role?

    1. Could it because the incubation period is more than 14 days? May be she was asymptomatic for a while?
    2. Could it be because there was some kind of negligence in his/her part once he got into his basement? She was sneaking in… just kidding.
    3. May be she got it from outside doing grocery? Does it mean she failed to take precaution even after her husband tested positive?
    4. May be the virus was able to escape from his basement and she was the unlucky one to get the escaped virus? Is that even possible? May be air conditioning (AC) causing the virus to circulate in the house?

    It has been more than a month since some States has taken lock-down and other measures (social distancing, wash your hand, and wear mask, etc), but the new-cases are still increasing, so I start to think maybe there are other reasons for the transmission.

    Please chime in Any other plausible reasons….

    Thanks,

  • bardavidi

    Hi all……Why the choice of the title……..The Unfinished African revolution……….It is strictly an Eritrean Revolution that belongs to the specific 9 Nationalities within its border………..Not a generic revolution that is either claimed by the continent or any other Ethnic group outside of the borders that mark today,s Eritrea………..It would help to be very specific without a Mass appeal of Political Correctness………..About Geez being Imported from Southern Arabia of Al-Masnad…………Languages can not be Imported without the Population that speaks them………Translation………A good portion of the population had to come with it in order to keep it alive across the Sea………..Thus we are not just related but Inter-related to the south of the Arabian Penninsula in languages, Ethnicity, Culture and Faith alike………I hope you say Amen to that…………Selah

    • Paulos

      Selam Bar-Davidi,

      One of the advantages of the “Stay-Home” orders is not only you get to spend more time with your family, you get to do a lot of reading at home if reading is your thing that is. And to that end, I finished reading “MKO’s book.

      Surprisingly, it is the kind of book you can’t put down where it is engaging, well narrated, well argued and I must say well researched as well. What I found more interesting is that, the formation of the political parties in the late 40s during the British Military Administration and the dynamics that came out there after. More over, the author would walk you through demographics of the different regions and ethnic groups in Eritrea in the 40s and 50s which had a major implications for the then rising political dynamics.

      And the formation of ELM and later on ELF when the later took over and the former eventually disappeared into oblivion where the author narrates the factors for its demise with clarity and facts backed by evidences. That said, here is a quote from the book where the author rhetorically asks and challenges the reader to ponder on particularly the Ethiopian audience.

      “….Eritrea as an entity, with its current borders, was an artificial creation of Italian colonialism, as were the majority of African countries. Eritreans [except very few individuals, like Bahta Hagos from Akeke Guzai, who was first allied with the Italians but later revolted against them] embraced Italian occupation almost wholeheartedly. We did not resist like the Ethiopians and Libyans or the Sudanese, who resisted both Turko-Egyptian and British colonialism.

      We served in the Italian army loyally and fought their colonial wars in Ethiopia and in Libya, but we resisted Ethiopian occupation for thirty years and defeated it. The Italians also treated the Eritreans better than the other colonial subjects.

      The Eritrean President has recently stated there was no Italian colonialism, that it was Eritreans who colonized Ethiopia, Libya, and Somalia.

      Why did we embrace Italian occupation? Many questions come to the mind. Was it because we were pragmatic [we were not in a position to resist the Italians; therefore, we saved our entity from destruction]? Was it because they created our country and introduced us to modernism, to limited education, to roads and railways, and to modern architecture?

      They even introduced us to the Catholic faith. They protected us from the raids of our southern neighbors. They made us feel superior to our neighbors and to other Africans, a mindset that we maintain even today and that was reinforced by the liberation movements.

      Before Fascist Italy introduced an apartheid system in 1937, the Italians were popular. Some of the Tigrait speakers referred to them as “Beit Ali Tzaada”, meaning the “House of Ali the white” or the “nice white men”—-and one of the folk songs in Asmara [after the Italians were defeated by the British] runs like this: “ጥልያን ኣቦድኻ’የ ሕጂዶ ‘ሓይሽ ከማን ምስ በሉኻየ”, meaning “Oh! Italian, the caretaker of the poor, you are now being told by the British, Come on.”

      An issue for discussion that poses several questions is how we more or less embraced Italian colonialism from 1890 to 1941, but we strongly resisted Ethiopian occupation for thirty years, 1961-1991. Was it because we felt we were superior to the Ethiopians? Was it because they were black? Our Ethiopian neighbors take pride in being the first African army that defeated a colonial army at Adwa. They called us Banda though Ethiopians were also recruited in the Italian army. I think resistance to Ethiopia was more forceful because the Ethiopians embraced one group and mistreated the others and because they were unjust and more brutal than the Italians. In addition to that, they dismantled what the Italians had built.

      The Italians were instrumental in creating Eritrea as a social, political and economic entity. They laid down the institutional and economic framework of the colony. Economically, they introduced the new colony to capitalist economy and developed small industrial firms and agricultural schemes. Socially, they enabled different sections of Eritreans to know each other better in the colonial army and through the network of roads and railways. Administratively, they created new provincial and district structures, at the same time as they kept the traditional rule nearly intact. Educationally, they made limited basic opportunities. Militarily, they used Eritreans in their colonial expansion in Libya and Ethiopia, which among other issues resulted in a large immigration from Tigrai which upset the population dynamics.

      They brought peace and stability. Overall, living with in a defined entity and having been connected to a single economy under Italian occupation, Eritreans started to develop a sense of common national identity…….” End of quote.

      • Ismail AA

        Selam Dr. Paulos,

        Thanh you for sharing with us your impression supported by quick assessment of the book. I have not read the book yet. But from Prof. Tekeste review and your brief views, one can form fairly good idea about the narrative as set in the book. From this, one may presume the value or contribution of the book resides in its author’s success to collect hitherto scattered Eriyrea’s pre and post colonial history and constructing coherent narrative. Since I know the author’s field of education, l should admire his courage to shift and commit to such a challenging project.

        • Paulos

          Selam Kbur Haw Ismail AA,

          He did a fantastic job. The book is unique in the sense that it is a synthesis of a narrative and a scholarly work as well. Moreover, it is well written. There are rare glimpses if you will where he would walk you through the nuanced and yet profound differences between say, the trio—Idris Mohammed Adem, Idris Gelawdios and Usman Saleh Sabbe who presided over the “Supreme Council” which ultimately had an impact on the weakening of ELF.

          The other thing is that, MKO tabulated brilliantly who was where with respect to the five military zones including the names of the notable personalities in each zone. Again, I encourage everyone including our Ethiopian brothers and sisters to get a copy. It is a must read book if one is really interested why Eritreans not only picked up arms to fight for independence but why Eritrea is a nation of unfinished dream as well.

          • Ismail AA

            Dear Dr. Paulos,

            An astute observation indeed. What we get in this book is broader glimpse of the sparsely narrated initial to middle phase of the Eritrean struggle for national independence. It is anticipated the second volume will give us a complete picture of the story that produced Eritrea as geopolitical entity. Young generation of historians and researchers would get opportunities to pick departure areas for further studies to expand and deepen understanding of hitherto under-resourced aspects of Eritrea’s modern history.

      • Selam Paulos,
        Without being a historian my opinion is like this. Eritreans lived all the time under the white man’s rule, the ottoman Turks, Egyptians and finally the Italians. Unlike Ethiopians they did not live within an entity they called their country until the Italians created one for them (for themself, rather), and were not ruled by their own king or leader under which they came together as one people encompassing all the region somehow similar to today’s Eritrea. They were ready to accept and serve any foreign white power that came to occupy them. The Italians were better than the previous two and they were better accepted and served.
        When the black man (the Ethiopian) came, he was the type they could not accept, because he was black. Moreover, religion and geopolitics played a major role as well.
        Of course the development brought by the Italians was meant for the Italians themselves, who came to stay for a thousand years, and not for the indigenous people who were required for the free human labor either in constructions and industries and of course in the army as Askaris. In actual fact Eritrea was s stepping stone for the Italian East African colony. The devotion of Eritreans towards Italians was such that the latter had circulated even a stamp and a tree was planted (i don’t remember when and where) in a park for Awate.
        No wander eritreans wouldn’t see Ethiopians on equal terms with themselves, let alone on the same level with Italians. That in my opinion is the difference in the way how Eritreans handled the white man and the black man. A year or so ago somebody had said in this forum that even today they are ready to accept them with open arms if the Italian colonizers come back. The relationship was different and unusual when compared with other African colonies.

        • Paulos

          Selam Horizon,

          Well, not sure where you got your facts because Eritreans never lived under the Turks or Egyptians except that, Turks were on the coastal region starting in the 16th Century and Egypt in the 19th Century. And they tried to penetrate into the mainland particularly the Egyptians and as you know Alula’s army defeated them in Gundet and GuraE in the 1870s.

          In its true sense, it was only under the Italians [for 60 years] and the British [for 10 years] that the Eritreans had been under.

          Consider this: Eritreans who came of age in the 1930s were born and grew up in an Italian colony where they didn’t have any memory or recollection when Eritrea was part of Ethiopia. And you can only imagine the kind of identity and mindset that particular generation had fostered. And that is precisely the reason, Ethiopian leaders couldn’t come to terms with that harsh reality and took a fatal strategy in dealing with the Eritrean question.

          More over, it was not about discriminating between Black and White where Eritreans felt at ease in dealing with Italians as opposed to Ethiopians, simply because they equally abhorred living under the British who were obviously Whites when life turned to the worst [rampant unemployment for instance] under the British when thousands of Eritreans from the Lowlands flocked to Sudan for a better life and skilled Eritreans from the Highlands to Ethiopia.

          As a side note, most of the Eritreans who left for Sudan during the British administration enlisted with the Sudanese army and in the 1960s became one of the founders of the emerging liberation Fronts [ELF].

        • Brhan

          Hello Horizon,
          The picture that you depicted about Eritrea and Eritreans above has some merits but the problems lies on two aspects:
          1) Ethiopia by it self was not created in good terms: how it subjugated the Oromos, Guraghe, Somalis and other nationalities is bad history that a true person can’t be proud of. Of course the poor Amahara were the tools of the ruling class. Don’t you see now the comparison between the Italians and the Ethiopians ( the Amhara ruling class ) in front of the Eritreans that you said could not accept: do you want them accept brutal feudalism , racism and subjugation. The Eritreans know the misery of Ethiopians.
          2) The other problem is that there were Eritreans who accepted that Ethiopia of 1940s 50s and the word ኣንድነት says a lot.
          I have not read Dr. Mohamed Keir book but from Prof. Tekeste analysis and Dr, Paulos comment , the book is true about history but it is also about reconciliation. We need to reconcile with the history that we learned which told us everything was rosy. Because it was not.

        • Sultan M.G.

          Selam Horizon:

          Sir, do u have any idea what u r talking about?
          Or saying things deliberately to annoy Eritreans ?
          Why would u even compare Eritrea with Ethiopia rather than with Libya, Somalia, Djibouti or other African Countries?
          Plus, Eritra and Eritreans have been a colony and a separate entity from the so called Abyssinia since there was no such thing called Ethiopia before the 19th century.
          70 yrs of being a separate entity or colony cannot make Eritrea to be part of Abyssinia or “ Ethiopia”!

          It cannot be the sin or mistake of Eritreans under any circumstance!
          You can’t blame them for NOT fighting against their powerful Colonizers and try to boast with an empty bravado that they should have fought like Ethiopians! I thought Ethiopia was an Italian Colony for 5 yrs!
          Why didn’t your Abyssinia/“Ethiopia” or Ethiopians fight to keep Eritrea rather than giving it up to the Italians?

          Why wouldn’t you blame other African nations and peoples in the same way you are doing to Eritreans?

          Plus, FINALLY,either way , Eritrea is an Independent and a SOVEREIGN UN Member State with crystal clear borders !
          Can we move on?
          With all due respect ,Sir, as Simon KakeAb would tell you,I regret to tell you that your most of arguments are biased,weak and/or with minimum substance minus your English Articulation!
          There were SERIOUS and LEGIT reasons for Eritreans to fight against Ethiopia and its powerful sponsors for 30 yrs .

          It was the serious mistakes and failures of your own successive regimes and deadly atrocities on Eritreans by your same dumb rulers,which made Eritreans to FIGHT to death, not coz they were Ye Areb buchiloch!

          We got we deserve through our heavy sacrifice and NO one or power shall take away that from us.
          Case closed…., hence, let us move on to the next level to live peacefully and integrate economically in a respectful and
          mutual way !!!!
          As Ustaz Berhe Yeman would say it, no need of further
          Inkililo for NOTHING!

        • Ismail AA

          Selam Horizon,

          With due respect dear, if you are not a historian why would you intrude into a terrain you do not have a clue about how you would find a way out of it before the authorized trapped you wandering right and left. Though I, and many here in this forum respect your views to which you are entitled, it does not help you or anyone when you mix facts with assumptions or unverified views.

          • Selam Ismail AA,

            If knowledge is divided into strict domains where nobody unless an expert in the field should have an opinion, otherwise, it will be taken as transgression, then, i don’t think that there will be progress. There will be the world of doctors, historians, mathematicians, etc, similar to ethnic, linguistic, and other divides. Everybody will lose interest in things that are out of one’s domain of expertise, which will lead to stagnation. Experts, on the contrary, should be ready to educate instead of telling not to intrude into other people’s field, because nothing is insulated and exists by itself in today’s world. In this situation, making a mistake will not be a crime, as long as there are educators. This is how knowledge is acquired, and human beings progress.

          • Ismail AA

            Selam Horizon,

            You bet! What you have stated is true. Search for knowledge knows no circumscribed domain or limitation. Perhaps I did not make the point clear. What I meant was that when we deal with particular area of a discipline that require us to tell, or write about, something with established facts in hand, it is prudent to conduct ourselves with caution. Otherwise, I was not trying to be absolute and shut the door and limit domains of knowledge to experts only. For instance, if this was the case, we would not be discussing and enjoying the book of MKO whose field of education was not to write history with such competence. Forgive me for may be not been clear in my earlier comment.

  • Saleh Johar

    Good news
    Dear friends. At long last, I can now tell you the news I have been keeping for a while. Finally, Emma defeated the corona virus and is recuperating at his residence. In two days he will be back to normal.

    Emma Was being hospitalized and fighting for his life. I had no doubt he will defeat the virus and he did.

    Congratulation Emma

    • Paulos

      Selam Aya Saleh,

      Thank God! And thank you for sharing the good news. I wish him all the best!

    • Kokhob Selam

      Dear Saleh,

      What? Was he hospitalized? corona virus?

      Thank God!

      Thank you my dear Saleh.

      Congratulation Emma join us please,,

      KS,,

    • Ismail AA

      Selam Saleh,
      Thank you so much for the long awaited brief about Amanuel. Let us all celebrate his victory against this terrifying scourge. I hope he will come strong soon. Let us pray for every victim of the killer virus to defeat it as our dear friend Amanuel did. May every breathing being, and animals as well, be safe from this terrible aggressor.

    • Sultan M.G.

      Thank you SGJ for the good news about Prof Amanuel Hidrat!
      Even though I saw a-93- yrs old lady walking out in a stable condition by defeating the COVID-19, Aman is lucky to do so!

      This is a “no none-sense virus”!

      As we speak,some of us are mourning the loss of our young family members and young Health Workers to this deadly virus!

      On a separate note,I am watching Simon KakeAb’s “fav Tv Network“, the Fox News,airing about and supporting some defiant citizens of WI and Michigan States protesting on the streets against the Democratic Governor’s “Stay at home order”, claiming their Constitutional Rights!!!

    • Aron

      Hi dear Emma,
      I wish you speedy recovery and rHus Fasika
      Aron

    • Abi

      Selam Ato Saleh
      Hallelujah!!!!
      The best news ever in Awatenation!!
      Now he will be with his family celebrating ፋሲካ .
      💐💐💐💐💐💐💐💐💐💐💐💐💐💐

      • Berhe Y

        Dear Abi,

        I am sorry I couldn’t tell you for what you have asked me. Thank you for keep reminding me. I had passed your messages to Emma.

        Much respect for you as well. No matter how much we disagree sometimes, you are a gentle heart and a good person.

        One more thing I wanted to ask you, when we were talking about education last time. I know you mentioned you volunteered on IB school and that’s great to know. My daughter is going to high school next year and she is accepted to the IB school here. It was a hard decision for us, because she is going to this school where she has to take public transit but a little bit out of our area and there were equally very great school were we live. I am sold and I think it’s a great decision but was wondering if your kids attended the IB school and if you have some experiences and if you can share some tips.

        Happy ፋሲካ to you and your family. And keep feeding habesha food to your guests, they will be hooked for the rest of their lives.

        Berhe

        • Abi

          Hawna Berhe
          It is a great news that Ato Amanuel is getting better. I was really worried.

          Congratulations on your daughter’s achievement. It is a great opportunity and responsibility to attend an IB school.
          My children attended IB and AP classes and benefited greatly.
          1) it is a challenging curriculum in depth and coverage
          2) it is international curriculum
          3) if your daughter scored higher in the final exams , she might be able to skip college course. ( not all colleges accept the grades)
          4) applying for college is much easier with IB courses on her grades. Elite schools prefer to accept students with strong academic standards. Colleges call it “ colleges ready students “ . Colleges prefer students who challenged themselves throughout their high school.
          5) helps to secure merit scholarships
          6) satisfaction is priceless
          7) it requires getting used to the work load
          8) expect to study late nights, weekends and holidays
          What is expected of you?
          1) tolerance ( it is ok if she doesn’t make her bed everyday
          2) high speed internet is a MUST
          3) encourage her by sitting up with her when she study late nights
          4) encourage her to make friends who are in the same standards.
          5) arrange a place where she can study comfortably where there is no tv around. ( avoid watching tv while she is studying.)
          Good Luck.
          Tell her Uncle Ras Abi is proud of her!
          መልካም ፋሲካ
          ፈረንጆቹ ወጥ ቤቱን ተቆጣጥረውታል::

          • Saleh Johar

            Ras Abi,
            I cannot help but say it. These days I am loving your comments, proving you deserve the Ras title.

            In this crazy times we have so many things we can say but tradition teaches us to be decent not to offend innocent people while trying to score points against individual who lack Lebona. Unfortunately, that is lost on a few reckless people.

            That is why we need to tread the road carefully for the sake of civility. And your comments are giving hope that all is not lost. Maybe we and you can forge a piece of land and call it Peacnia 🙂
            Thank you Ras

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Saleh Johar
            Poisoning a person to death and than crying is not a decent tradition, i know it is a “ras” tradition but not decent tradition, it is not a decent by any normal human beings standard .am just saying.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Tedros,
            You will not understand me unless you realize this forum is not a battleground because whatever we do here we are not waging wars. The goal of this forum is to promote sane discussions and exchange of ideas to teach and inform each other. But that’s always hundred by partisan people and nationalist zealots. Who cannot stay away from fighting for a single day. Always in arms to inflict the most pain on each other thinking they are serving whatever narrow agenda they have. People can have any view and they can debate to their hearts’ content. I do not think anything can be achieved by being mean, disruptive and a hindrance to the exchange of ideas, freely. And ideas can only be confronted by ideas not by insults, chauvinist bragging and mean spirit. So, whatever I write here, please see it in the light of the above. Thank you for helping us maintain a sane forum

          • Teodros Alem

            Selam Saleh Johar
            i agree with u and forgive me for saying this but sane discussion and lying , diversion , promoting pathetic ideology and so on r 2 different things.

          • Saleh Johar

            Tedros,
            True, but there are many ways to skin… is it the goat?

            We can advance our views in a civilized manner or a street manner. The choice is ours. But if one cannot debate without being foul mouthed, it’s a sign of a weak argument and lack of confidence in one’s views. Civility is all I am asking for. I have strongly held views and I would like to convince and explain my views without being disrespectful. At the end, everyone is a ghost I. Their own right. Please read Don Quixote and you will understand fighting the windmill is useless. Forget the messenger hit at the argument convincingly. Because no thread is a make or break debate. Life goes on and do not expect all to agree on one view point. Here, partisanship is waste of time and so is extreme nationalism and supremacist attitudes.

          • Paulos

            Selam Aya Saleh,

            “….Read Don Quixote and you will understand fighting the windmill is useless….” That is really funny and I think that should be included into Awate’s motto as in “Inspire and Embolden.”

            Many of us certainly do not know each other and some of us could be an AI or a program software [I suspect Tedros is an AI gone rogue 😂] for that matter but we hammer one with insults as if we know that person. As you have aptly put it, at the end of the day, we are all ghosts.

            P.S. Did you know that, Tigrinya is one of the very few languages Don Quixote is not translated into? It is translated into 145 languages instead. Maybe, that should be your next project, say when you retire in Keren. What say you Ayay?

          • Saleh Johar

            Paulos,
            Check again. It must have been translated into Tigrinya. If not, it must have been originally in Tigrinya. We can borrow Qillu Mamu instead:-)
            I wish we would be left alone as a people…there will be more able persons who could do it. But I have added it to my list if I get to live as long as Methuselah.

          • Paulos

            Ayay,

            You’re looking good these days. “It must have been originally in Tigrinya”? That is really funny. If that is true, it must had been my-great-great—–great grand father. Because I remember when I was a kid, my great-grand mother telling me–ወሎዶና ካብ ዛንታ ነገርትን ጻሓፍትን ከም ዝመጻና.

            As for ቂሉ ማሞ፣ ለማና ዘመዶቹ፣ ተንኮለኛ ከበደ. They are all translated into Tigrinya—ማሞ ዓንጃል፣ ለማን ኣዝማዱን፣ ተንኮለኛ ኢሳያስ respectively.

            And if you are going to translate Don Quixote when you turn 700 years old, ይትረፈና ምኽንያቱ Don Quixote ይትርጉም ኣለኹ ኢልካ Pocahontas ከይትትርጉም.

          • Abi

            Paul
            You missed ለማ በገበያ ለማ በትምህርት ቤት
            ለማና ዘመዶቹ ተጉለትና ቡልጋ አውራጃ ቅንብቢት ወረዳ ነበር የሚኖሩት:: አማራ ክልል መሆኑ ነው? አይ ጊዜ!

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            Excuse our ignorance. Blame it on the adults when we were kids. We actually thought the rest of Ethiopia was ኣማራ!

          • Abi

            Paul
            It is a crime to brainwash children
            Look where we are now. Sad.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            All I can say is, there isn’t any systematic or purposeful plan to brainwash or create hate against Amhara or any other Ethiopian.

            As far as the Ethiopian administration, HS or the Derg, what we know is they wanted everyone to learn Amharic and made Amharic national language in Eritrea.

            For example, the older people can attest to this, from 1942 (British Admin) to the end of the federation, Tigrinya and Amharic was the languages thought in primary school. Thus changed with HS, and at some point they made it a mandatory, to admission to university along within English and Math. Thus has created a huge disadvantage for higher education in Eritrea, particularly to those Eritreans from the lowlands, where they used Arabic as main language fir education.

            All I am trying to tell you, the brain washing was coming from other way around, that us amharanization of Eritrea. In my case, except during the bible class where I attended in catholic school, I have never learned anything in Tigrinya from grade 1 all the way until I finished high school, except in Amharic.

            So Ethiopia referred as Amhara, is because every Ethiopian we encountered in Eritrea, except from Tigray, they all spoke Amhara or acted Amhara and w didn’t know the difference (I didn’t), except during every Saturday music program they had in TV (Hibret TirEit) dancing / singing in different culture. I didn’t know the words of Grage weren’t Amharic, I am telling you the truth but I enjoyed all the songs and the shows. When it comes to Eritrean songs, it’s usually Tigrina that you see and occasionally Kunama. I don’t remember any other songs from other Eritrean language such as Tigre .

            Speaking of Hibret TirEit, Kenny Rogers passed away, a couple of weeks ago. They use to broadcast his songs with Dolly Patron often, during those times.

            Berhe

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Berhe Y,

            Just to add to the “brainwashing” concept, I thought growing up in grade and high school that all Eritreans were Tigrinya with exception of the coast. As a youngster you were made aware that the coastal residents don’t like Amahara or Tigrinya encroachment by using their famous side machete to inflict pain and life long misery on the highland male intruders.

            Mr. K.H

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            I remember an awatista ( her name was Selam) a typical Asmarino told us in one of the patriotic holidays there was a parade of donkeys with the word አምሃሩ written on them.

            There was a systematic and deliberate brainwashing against Ethiopians in general and the Amharas in particular.

          • Teodros Alem

            abi
            q if u remember berhe already told u in tigrai and some part of eritrea, u r known as adgi because u guys r stu and dam. It is not my words , berhe already told u like 20 something days ago, but since u r what u r , didn’t remember it. or u want to hear berhe say it again, if not for Moderator , i will love to say it for u.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            Are you talking during the PFDJ time or during the Derg.

            I never lived under PFDJ so I can’t say much.

            But knowing Isayas how much he loves Ethiopia, I doubt it’s the case.

            But such parade happens, it’s shameful, and I know 99% of Eritreans wouldn’t approve of it.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            You are blaming everything on PFDJ 99% of the time except the result of the referendum.
            You don’t need to live in a certain place to know a little bit about it.
            Pay attention!

          • Berhe Y

            Ras Abi,

            I am not blaming PFDJ, I was telling you it’s something that I don’t know about what you are alleging happened, because I never lived Nader the PFDJ Eritrea. I don’t know what this has to do with referendum. I know the referendum is real because I was part of it and I have voted and do dies everyone that I know off.

            I don’t know who this Selam is and I don’t know what she said and what evidence she gave to believe what she says.

            I know a lot of Eritreans who grew up in PFDJ times, my nephew and nieces and none of them learned “hate” of Amhara that I witnessed.

            I have young brothers and sisters who were young at Eritrea’s independence, who do not speak Amharic and that’s expected I suppose. Is this hate, no.

            Berhe

          • Teodros Alem

            selam berhe
            happy Easter , how u doing, r u gonna celebrate Easter or u already did last week? I heard in tigrai the only people brought sheeps and goats r deber ste , aboy sebehat and a few others for easter holiday , they say it is so expensive, is that true?

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Teodros,

            Happy Easter to you as well. Yes i am celebrating tomorrow.

            I don’t know who can afford goats in Tigray. I don’t know why do you think I would know that?

            Berhe

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            I personally didn’t know Amharic much. In my Matriculation, Amharic was my lowest grade precisely because I didn’t bother to study for it and it messed my GPA up. Moreover, the only Amharic names we knew and were familiar with were Lemma, Bekele, and Getachew. I am not kidding you. In fact there was a song which goes ምስ ባዓል በቀለ
            ምስ ባዓል ጌታቸው
            ቅሩብ ተሪፉና ክንፋላለ.

            You can only imagine the kind of hate and spite we grew up with that had to do anything Ethiopian. And I must say, the Dergue in particular didn’t do much to assuage the hate but exacerbated it when it chose violence instead of statesmanship. And the Front[s] took advantage of it to mobilize the people to their cause till we found out that, the Front was never better than the Dergue but even worse. As you put it, look at us now.

          • Teodros Alem

            paulos
            this hate ideology of ur tplf , will come and haunt u down for sure, it already started but at the end of the day, it is u the one will pay the at most price. the likes of abi most of them r invisible.
            there is a saying “ye besebese zenab ayeferam” now u r just doing that.

          • Paulos

            Tedros,

            Man, why are you reading that is not there? Wait, there is a word for it—-hallucination. Why are you bringing TPLF up? Did you see any word of TPLF in my above comment to Abination? You got a serious problem. Really!

          • Teodros Alem

            paulos
            because tplf is inside every words of urs, including denying.

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            ዶተረ
            እዚ ሰብ ወትሃደር ደርጊ ዝነበረ ‘ሞ ወያነ ዘጠላቐይዎ ‘ዩ ዝመስል።
            ክግረመካ ኤረትራዊ ኣይኮንኩን ይብል ኣሎ ግን ብኩልንትንኡ ሓደ-ገጽ ናይ ሚሊሻ ኒትሪክ ‘ዩ።

          • Teodros Alem

            mm
            “sele mariam” When was derg time ? 30 years ago and to be a soldier one at least has to be 18,
            Sele marian and rejected, u r talking about urself, ag derg spay in asmera.

          • Paulos

            ኢንጂኔረ,

            ኣነ’ኻኣ ኩሉ ነገሩ ነተን ኣባት ጦር ኣብ እንዳ ኽሻ እንዳ ሜሎቲ ወይካኣ ኣብ እንዳ ባራቶሎ ዝሕልዋ ዝነበራን ክልቲኡ ናይ ጸጋም ሳእኒ ዝገብራ ዝነበራ ንዐዐን ኮይኑ እዩ ዝስማዓኒ::

          • Teodros Alem

            paulos
            Ok , isn’t it topical z heart logic? Or woyane logic? so i really don’t know why , when i said tplf , u r offended? denying is also z heart character.

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Very funny, Doterre!

          • Teodros Alem

            mm
            Yea , not funny but ag funny, there is a different

          • Abi

            Paul
            ይህ ቂጥ ላይ የተጣበቀ መዥገር ( tick) ካዳመጥከው ብዙ ያወራል::

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            Yea the guy has serious issues. Sometimes, I don’t even understand what he talks about.

          • Teodros Alem

            paulos
            no, u have serious issues, u have baptized by hate mongering ideology, that is big massed up equivalent to being zombie.

          • Abi

            Paul
            It is because you and I don’t speak ሊስትሮ slang. Difficult to understand him.

          • Teodros Alem

            abi
            q, i make it small just because “faseka”, r u gonna wear that 1 hand cultural dress for the holiday? hilarious.
            u guys r mad because?……
            tella + 1 birr who mo + lestro kid = #abi( holiday), that is a formula who u r.
            Now wear ur one hand traditional clothe and have fun, q fun.

          • Teodros Alem

            abi
            she is a women and u r q ad.

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            ዶተረ
            ትገማጥል ጀሚርካ 🙂
            It should be
            ምስ ባዓል ጌታቸው
            ምስ ባዓል በቀለ
            ቅሩብ ተሪፉና ክንፋላለ

          • Paulos

            ኢንጂኔረ,

            እርጋን ትጀማምር ኣላ መስልኒ: እንተሓሲብካዮ ጳውሎስ ካብ ዝባሃል ኣይዋሓደን::

          • Abi

            Paul
            May be you didn’t read the warning before you took the medicine. Some medicines have fatal side effects.
            Kind of the cure worse than the disease.

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Abi,

            What do you mean by “AY GIZE”
            Tegulet and Bulga are the “Kuncho” of Amhara cultural contribution. There are a lot of individuals coming from those regions that made impacts on the whole country. Just because they lived in Addis and other regions does not negate their contribution.
            Did you know Mengistu and Germame Neway were from Bulga?

            Mr. K.H

          • Abi

            Hello Mr Kim
            Sorry for the confusing comment.
            እንደው የድሮ ሥሙ እየናፈቀኝ ነው:: አሁን ይህ ክልል ያ ክልል ይህ ዞን ያ ዞን ዝባዝንኬ ሆኗል::
            እንደው ማ ይሙት አንጎለላ ጠራ አንኮበር ምንጃር በጌምድር ወዘተረፈ የሚባሉት ሥሞች አይናፍቁህም?

          • Saleh Johar

            That is funny Paulos,,

            I don’t remember Lemma Kezemedochu Gata, could that be another version of Lemma Ke mohammed gara?

            pochahontus? She ended up with n Keren and I know her great great ,,,, grandchild

          • Teodros Alem

            paulos
            am not even eritrean and i hate to be a gone rogue like u , any gone rogue and u r a tplf hate monger gone rogue, i rather die than to be like u, i really mean it.
            And i don’t want to associate myself with ethiopia either anymore, where ur ideology gone rogue has the upper hand,

          • Paulos

            Tedros,

            Chill dude. It was a joke. መልካም ‘ፋሲካ!

          • Teodros Alem

            paulos
            Yea , i have hard time to differentiate a joke with a gone rogue ag joke.

          • Abi

            Selam Ato Saleh
            Thank you for the kind words. I think I’m learning a thing or two from the Great people of Awatenation.
            Your Honor, May I approach the bench?
            I like to register my opposition to the creation of the new land, “Peacenia”. We already have Awatenation!
            የቀንየለይ

          • Saleh Johar

            No new territory Ras Abi,
            That suits me perfectly. Now that the only snug is squashed, sane contribution should be encouraged by all stakeholders. I hope the Arsonists will take note and re-examine their roles.

            Thank you

          • Abi

            Ato Saleh
            ክብሪት መጀመርያ የሚያቃጥለው እራሱን ነው::
            Arsonists and logorrheic people beware!

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            Thank you so much. Education is really your passion, and like you said, makes you a series guy.

            I will take all your advice. I will let her know that you are proud of her.

            I meant to say, pre-IB, not there as yet. I have heard about the collage credit they give, but honestly I don’t know if it’s good idea, I see no reason to rush to finish school and go to work:). We are leaving it all up to her and either way we are to support her.

            She is fairly active and involves in a lot of extra activities, plays rep soccer, dance and in her school drama / and arts program, as well as with the Eritrean community soccer. I think she gets that all from her mom, not slow at all, like the old fart..but she is very, very close with me, at least for now.

            She thinks she can still manage with at least playing soccer (for sure we will stay with Eritreans) but I don’t know with the workload she will be able to keep up, hopefully she does.

            As to what is expected of me, I am pretty much there doing most of that, but will require a bit of adjusting.

            How did you manage watching soccer / sports?

            Thanks again.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            I forgot to mention the importance of extracurricular activities in forming an all rounded person.
            There is no substitute for a strong First Lady in the house!!
            You make several adjustments throughout the years. It is doable and satisfying at the end of the day.

            I watch games over the weekends. We watch football together.
            ስማ እንጂ ጌታው! ገዳም የገባሁ መሰለህ እንዴ?

    • Nitricc

      Hey SJ; thanks for the good news. I didn’t want say it but it was no brainier. I was the first one to inquire about his absence. I am just glad he survived. Now, where is Tsatse and Kubrom? Thanks for the great news, SJ.

      • Berhe Y

        Hi Nitricc,

        I know you did and it prompted me to reach out to him. I found out later and kept it it quite as per his wish. But I did let him know that you and Abi were the people first asking about him.

        Much respect for you Nitricc. I will never get mad at you again, no matter how much I disagree. May be this is what awate team see in you and tolerate you all these years:), it’s a joke.

        And I am going to have a series talk with my friend iSem and will try to get to mend your differences:).

        I am glad to hear that you are planning to visit Eritrea soon. May you find “white” in your journey. ጻዕዳ ይጽናሕካ

        Berhe

        • Nitricc

          Hi Berhe; I am just happy Aman made out of this global nightmare. Did you get the chance the video I post under I am going to Eritrea? I posted that for Abiy to see but the eager to delete Mediator, delete it. I don’t mind if the rules to apply for everyone equally. there was a video posted few ours before main, still stands but main gone in an hour. anyway the white in quotation tells me you watched it. did you?

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Niticc,

            I saw your note, but I don’t recall seeing the video. May be you can post it y tomorrow.

            I am hoping you mean it.

            Berhe

          • Nitricc

            Hey Berhe; you know how Abiy is in my case not visiting Eritrea and playfully; I was trying to respond to him so, I can get rid of him from my back. I find the link out of box. I don’t know what this dude is thinking and why Eritrea is interesting. he seems to do a little homework about Eritrea though. Anyway this was a prank I was trying to play on Abiy but the moda deleted it before Abiy can see it, however; by the end of 2021 is the year for me to visit Eritrea. At least that is the plan, we shall see;
            https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zuVMhGC6e6M

    • Haile S.

      Congratulations Emma!
      Welcome from the nightmare!

      በል COVID ካብ ኩላትና መሪጻ ንኣኻ
      ተበገስ መሪጻ መከራ ክንገር ብኣኻ
      ክትጽሕፎ ስለዝደት ብዝርዝር ታሪኻ
      ንሕና ምንባብ ኣይንሓምቕ በል ምጽሓፉ ንስኻ

    • Samuel

      Thank you Saleh Johar for the Good news.

      Congratulations Amanuel Hidrat!
      In the midst of the COVID-19 crisis to hear the word “Recovered” is a great feeling. God be with you.

      Thanks,

    • Berhe Y

      Thank you Saleh for sharing the good news. I also had known but kept it quite as per his wishes.

      Emma, congratulations. Wish you speedy recovery.

      Berhe

    • A.Osman

      Thank you Saleh for the good news and wishing our Emma a speedy recovery.

      A.Osman

      • Nitricc

        Hi A. Osman? glad to see you and your ugly frog. How are you? long time.

        • A.Osman

          Selam Nitricc,

          Lol….U know that is your fault….u probably wont remember, but you told me how to do it, after that test (frog) I never tried it again…

          I hear you had enough of being a general, you are looking for promotion…..I know in Eritrea you get stuck in one place for long time, hopefully the old man is readying to move on.

      • Abi

        A. Osman
        Long time no talk.
        Glad to see you back.
        ይህ እንደ ዻጉሜ ስድስት በአራት አመት አንዴ ብቅ ማለትን የት ተማርከው?

        • A.Osman

          Selam Abi,

          Am around, I always follow the discussions and learn.

          I did not know you did a leap year in Ethio calender (Pagume Lukas). Also the Gregorian calender predates Julian calender. So Ethiopia has more things to claim it is special…always something to learn here.

          • Abi

            Hello A.Osman
            ይህን በደፈጣ መማሩን ትተህ በግልፅ ማስተማሩን ብትቀጥል ይበጅሃል:: You were Awate’s head of Archives along with your IT expertise.

    • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

      Thanks Saleh for this great news!
      Welcome back Prof. Emma!
      Covid-19 ምስ መን ከምዝገጠመት ኣፈለጠትን: ከተንገርግረካ ዝሓሰበት ኣይቀነዓን።

    • Haile WM

      thank you Saleh,

      this is good news, i wish Amanuel a complete and speedy recover

      • Nitricc

        Hey Haile; where the hack have you been? Glad to see you and you are safe. once in a while just say hi.

        • Haile WM

          Nitricc Nebsi,

          alena, just busy and struggling but we survive 🙂

          happy Easter and stay safe.

  • Paulos

    Selam All,

    Eritrea’s First Lady and the First Son have donated 50,000 Nakfa which is roughly $3,333.33 USD in an effort to contain the spread of the Corona Virus. How generous of them! Wouldn’t you agree?

    • Selam Paulos,
      It is a good idea when the first lady becomes the good Samaritan and a good example to help the people in this difficult situation. The Ethiopian PM and the first lady are doing the same thing. Unfortunately, the problem is so big. I hope the help will continue and others will follow their example.

      Our people have to earn their daily dabo, and social and physical distancing and lockdown are not easy to implement in Africa.
      Alula Pankhurst seems to have said that Ethiopia may not face the whole brunt of the pandemic, drawing his conclusion from the Spanish flu in Ethiopia in1918, the climate, the way of life and others. The same may hold true for the rest of Africa.
      I am not sure if he spoke of herd immunity as well. Somewhere else i read that Africa may not face the number of deaths as, for example, Italy, because in the Italian population the percentage of elderly people, which are the most vulnerable and those above the age of 65, are more than 23%, while in Africa it is only 2%. Otherwise, Africa is a young continent as opposed to Europe and USA, which are supposed to be old.
      As to the herd immunity, it looks like it has not worked in Sweden and other North European countries that seem to be supporting it. It looks like that they have started to implement similar methods of fighting the pandemic as others.
      The so called herd immunity seems to be a double edged knife if it is meant to be achieved through physical infection, thus putting in grave danger the susceptible group of people, which are in their millions who could die from the infection they are exposed to. Herd immunity is achieved much more through vaccination. Unfortunately, they seem to be a year or more away for vaccination. Let’s hope it is shorter than that, as different people tell us different things
      As to gradually ending the restrictions, in my opinion, governments are facing the dilemma of feeling dammed if they do and equally dammed if they don’t. The health of the people and the economy being in the balance. What one can make of Trump’s idea that the economic crisis will kill more people than the pandemic, i leave it to everyone to decide by him/herself

      • Paulos

        Selam Horizon,

        The First Lady and her son donated $1500 US dollars each. That as it may, people remained curious not so much about the small amount of money but the continued absence of Isaias when he is needed the most to address the Corona Virus and its impact on Eritrea. But as you know, almost everything is strange in Eritrea.

        Back to the issue you raised…….Here is an anecdote of sorts: The ancients believed that, diseases including pandemics were influenced by heavenly bodies and hence the name of the Virus—Influenza [Latin for Influence.] That said however, the 1918 Influenza was paradoxical so to speak when it infected and subsequently killed the young and the strong instead when it was expected to kill more of the elderly including those with underlying medical conditions—but it didn’t. One of the reasons for the paradox is given with the theory that, the elderly or the older people had been immunized by a similar pandemic that had broke out in 1889—classic case of Herd Immunity if you will.

        As you have aptly put it, Africa has more younger generation as opposed to Europe and Japan in particular and it is hoped that, the impact of the pandemic might not be as severe. That said however, it is prudent the people in Africa listen and practice to what Science has to say on how to keep the Virus at bay. May God protects us all!

        • Selam Paulos,

          If IA has isolated himself for fear of Covid-19 that doesn’t make any distinction between ordinary people, PMs and Presidents, then he has broken for the nth time the golden rule of, do to others what you would have liked others to do to you, or you would have done to yourself. Keeping tens of thousands of prisoners packed in prisons and dungeons, thus exposing them to the pandemic, while he protects himself remaining in isolation is a crime, if that is indeed the reason for his absence.

      • Sultan M.G.

        Selam Horizon!
        Few things:
        -Your Alula’s( the son of my former “ Prof” Pankhurst of Ethiopian History?) comment reminds me about the fake or hoax social media narration that “ Blacks cannot catch COVID-19 “!

        Please!

        -Conspiracy Theorists from the other aisle claim that Trump :
        A)might be pushing indirectly for another pandemic/ epidemic in the USA in the name of recovering the economy so that the November Presidential Election shall be extended indefinitely so that he can stay in power

        B) Started an aggressive campaign blaming and finger-pointing at and unleashing a toxic propaganda against China and the WHO including holding financing the WHO,as if he didn’t appreciated them a month ago !

        • Selam Sultan MG,

          What the Professor pointed out is his opinion and not as facts, nor is what you are saying are facts but your opinion. Only retrospectively and from scientific studies can one speak of facts. As long as the Spanish flu in Ethiopia is concerned, he can speak from the point of view of knowledge he collected from his research on the topic.

          Statistics show that young people may contract the disease and may die, but not at the rate similar to the elderly, and the percentage of clinically severe disease and fatal outcomes are different between the two age groups. The elderly who usually suffer from other diseases, are supposed to have worse outcomes than a young individual without previous health problem. I don’t think that you can disprove that. Have in mind what happened at old people’s home, where seventeen people were found dead due to Covid-19. Nevertheless, no one is saying that what should be done shouldn’t, because they are young.

          As much as the climate is concerned, it is entertained by many that it may have a positive effect on the outcome of the pandemic. How Africa will fare and if the pandemic subsides or not in the northern hemisphere, will show within the coming months, and if high temperature and humidity will have an effect on the survival of the virus. Therefore, don’t be in a hurry to dump the hypothesis before the summer is over.

          The Trump Administration might be pushing indirectly for another pandemic/ epidemic is similar to Trump saying that the virus escaped from a Chinese laboratory.

          Everybody is talking on assumptions, on a theoretical basis for the time being, and if what others and you say is true or not, only time will show, except the facts that are on the ground, like young people fare better than old people. It is expected.

          • Sultan M.G.

            Selam Horizon:
            Thanks for your feedback!
            My opinion is based on Scientific studies and hands-on objective experience, not like the 2000 years old Ethiopian History myth crafted by the likes of Prof Pankrust( still alive?)style of opinions, which could be dangerous like the fake and hoax social media narration that blacks cannot catch the virus, when in fact, they are the primary victims for whatever reason or factors!!!

            A) Young “healthy” people are not only the major sources of infection but are getting sick and dying.

            B)Did not deny the fact about the difference in rate and magnitude of the infection but trying to caution the myth that the young people are FREE from the COVID-19.

            C) On the same token, am trying to caution on the argument that warm climate in the tropics can prevent the COVID-19 spread. To that effect, I mentioned to you a recent study with a preliminary result hinting that the COVID-19 might be resistant to high/ hot temp.

          • Selam Sultan MG,

            I don’t understand what connection the 3000 yrs history has with the pandemic. I don ‘t see why you should be dragged into it as long as the topic under discussion has no relations with it whatsoever.

            There is this simple fact that if we can say that 75% of the population in Europe and the US are below 60yrs old, and 70% of the population in Africa are below 30 yrs old, it doesn’t need any scientific proof to understand that most of the carriers will be young healthy people. This holds true for any virus. It is not the same with degenerative diseases as the result of old age.

            I don’t know where you heard blacks do not catch the virus and young people are free of the coronavirus. The color of the skin cannot be a factor, and as long as one lives in the same environment it is not possible to be free of the virus.

            As to the survival of the virus in the environment outside the body, it has been shown that at 22C, it lives for 72 hours. There are a lot of things we don’t know, than things we are sure of about the virus. Nobody is against the measures taken, only that if they work or not in the African socio-economic situation.

          • Sultan M.G.

            Selam Horizon:
            Did u really read me fully?
            I doubt it!
            The analogy I tried to bring up is related to “ Prof” Pankrust’s opinion or claim or to be PRECISE ,a fallacious logic, that since Ethiopia had low rate of the Spanish flu , it will have a lower rate of COVID-19 infection rate .
            Hence, my analogy with his Version of the Ethiopian History that if he comes up with such unfounded and biased opinions, this can make him to be perceived that his narration about the 3000 yrs old history of Ethiopia is subject to scrutiny ….
            Such kind of dangerous and unscientific opinions on serious health matters from such “Public Figures and Professors “ can persuade and convince the naive and make them victims of such pandemics.

          • Sultan M.G.

            Selam Abi,the Self-declared Detective and Mr “I know it All”Guregnaw !

            So u believe that what only Abi knows about the “ Prof” is enough or true?

            Am sure that you were/are my Junior!

            Yes indeed,Prof Pankrust visited the then GCMS both as a Visiting Prof and as a “Lecturer” on the Ethiopian History and I can tell you exactly what his physique was from head to toe.

            Even Dr Getachew Boledia gave us a Lecture on Biochemistry .

            Yes,Prof BiEdemariaM also lectured us on Gastroenterology!

            All those Good Professors and Good Doctors were stationed at the AAU but they were not stationary and monumental statues …. but mobile Scientists and Professors!

            King Sultan NEVER said that Professor Alula Pankrust was stationed in Gonder!

            U sound very naive albeit deliberately … as if u don’t know that “ Anghet Yetefetrew azzurro lemayet mehonun”!

            They were not only our External Examiners but visiting Professors…. as well as Lecturers!

            The fact that your your Prof Alula P. was at the IES could not have precluded him from visiting our famous GCMS, now The Gonder Univ…

            You are so childish and immature to dig out and pick up some inconsistency about /on King Sultan.
            I don’t blame U since you have no clue who King Sultan might be!!

            Temahirka alekha( Consult Ustaz SGJ)!

            Do not sound like a LOSER Akatari!

            I see that the boss upvoted for you for stating about some basics and the ABCs of parenting .
            Good for you “And THANK YOU “,late better than never!
            You are slowly progressing .

          • Abi

            ጤና ይስጥልኝ ንጉሥ ሱልጣን
            ከመንበርዎ ወድቄ ይቅርታ እጠይቃለሁ
            Those professors at AAU Medical school give lectures to Jimma and Gonder Medical schools. They also serve as external examiners . You are absolutely right.
            I remember Dr Dehab from Gonder Medical school giving lectures at AAU pharmacy school.

            When it comes to history 101, a common course that is given at freshman year, and it is almost always taught by junior lecturers.
            My question is why a senior professor with a responsibility of leading an institute (IES) , went to Gonder to teach a freshman course? A historian visiting a medical school for a semester is kind of odd. Don’t you agree?
            Here we are talking about Professor Richard Pankhurst the father, not Alula Pankrust the son.
            I will send Alula to teach you a thing or two.
            Anyway, ever since you lied to me the first time ( of course you admitted but never apologized ) I read your comments የጎሪጥ.

          • Sultan M.G.

            Abi:

            “Be-ij yeyazut werk ende medab yiqueteral”.

            It is so sad to witness that as an intellectual,U are degrading and belittling your own brothers and Fathers and adoring frwv blood sucking Neo-colonialists and “foreigners and “professors”,who specialize in “making up and turning myths to histories for some diggoma and fame, the classic case scenario of your famous “professor”,who was apparently or allegedly,awarded and rewarded with villas,land and $ by the janhoys,etc..???.

            My point is that, if you think the other top and renowned Ethiopian Professors and Scientists were giving us lectures on top topics, why would not your “top and unique ‘Genius’ Prof” would not give us some basics on Ethiopian History as a Visiting Professor….?

            To your DISMAY, he did give us few lectures, irrespective of his unique status or the number of hrs he contributed to.

            Dude,The GCMS/The Gonder Univ was not and is not a High School not to host your ‘unique and genius professor”….but one of the top and the oldest respected Institutions Ethiopia has ever built and has produced hundreds of top Health Professionals, Public Servants,Intellectuals and Scientists.

            As a matter of fact,I remember the big” Intellectual Conferences” organized for the likes of your famous “Prof” Pankhurst among others , unless you believe that those Scientific Fora/forums and lectures are not lectures., organized by the GCMS “CME”/Educational Team”.

            Or may be I should NOT have called him ” My Ethiopian History Prof”?
            Ah,that would make a sense then.But apparently, you sound as if he was a too big shot for the likes of me to be his students?

            And do I care?
            FYI, we are talking about about 3 6 yrs ago!
            I have had way more prestigious and renowned and way better and top notch professors and scientists than him –NOT only in Ethiopia but also at Tel Aviv Univ,Howard Univ,The Mayo Clinic,the NIH,the Cleveland Clinic,the Tulane Univ,etc…

            This is just to give you some home work to verify the ” Integrity, Honesty and Truthfulness” of your King Sultan.

            After all, for God’s sake, who the heck are you to question the King’s honesty and integrity?

            Ye Awakiwoch Dedeb akatari,who do you think you are,Mr. ” I know it all”?

            “Begorit”?
            Why would you even cate reading my comments at all!?

            Dude, I am not coming here,writing or commenting for your sake and to go thru your approval, unless the AT assigned you to do so…

            Apologies for what ?And to you?About my dreams and wishes to visit the GCMS??

            Well, I did it and enjoyed it but was disappointed by/about how your people are messing up the prestigious College…just Gurra bicha–kum negher albo.
            I can see that in you.Just talk,gurra.

            Very corrupted and embarrassing system.

          • Abi

            King Sultan
            I noticed The logorrheic symptoms are getting worse . I hope a history professor visiting a medical school will find you a cure.

            I never doubted the “ integrity Honesty and truthfulness “of King Sultan except the occasional confusing remarks every time you change your coats.
            መልካም የፋሲካ በዓል ይሁንልዎ ንጉሥ ሱልጣን ::

          • Sultan M.G.

            Guaddu:

            Yan yakkil deddeb neh endie?
            U don’t even know that Medical Schools provide basic courses including history,political science and Philosophy courses during the PreMed year?
            FYI:
            U seem to be excited with your dirty and filthy word “ Logorrhea” as if you discovered a new science !
            The word is as old as Latin.

          • Abi

            King Sultan
            ምነው በፋሲካ ትጨቀጭቀኛለህ?
            One day I will tell you what I did to Dr Gebresilassie and his wife. ( I’m sure you know her).

            In the mean time let me tell you what Dr Getachew Bolodia said at Jimma medical school. He was an external examiner in Biochemistry .
            He asked this 2nd year student to discuss how fat is processed in our body. The student really struggled answering the question to the professor’s satisfaction.
            So Dr Getachew asked the student “who is your teacher?”
            The student told him the name of the his teacher.
            Dr Getachew: እሱማ መቼ ፋት ፕሮሰስ ማድረግ ያውቃል:: እሱ የሚያውቀው ፋት ስቶር ማድረግ ብቻ ነው የሚያውቀው::
            (አስተማሪው ቦርጫም ነበር)

        • Abi

          Hello Sultan
          Did Professor Pankhurst ever teach Hist 101 at Gonder? How did you get a chance to be his student? Wasn’t he based at IES ( ኢትዮጵያ ጥናትና ምርምር ተቋም ) located in መኮንን አዳራሽ?
          You need to do some explanation.

    • Ismail AA

      Selam Dr. Paulos,
      At face value, it may look as good gesture people expect from their rulers. But, those of us who have been watching for decades how the despot and his machinery operate in collecting funds from unsuspecting patriotic citizens, this could be a bait to fish more from pockets of innocent people.

      • Paulos

        Selam Kbur Haw Ismail AA,

        Of course, as you said it. It is a bait. As for his absence, a certain Opposition website [the name escapes me] has put out a news item claiming that it has a credible info where Isaias is receiving medical treatment in Saudi. The news item says, he has DVT [Deep Vein Thrombosis.] It could be serious if the thrombus turns into emboli as in if the thrombus is dislodged and moves to the brain where it can cause a stroke. But if they catch it before it dislodges, they can dissolve it so to speak. In any case, normal countries would update citizens about the whereabouts of their respective leaders but in Eritrea.

        • Ismail AA

          Dear Dr. Paulos,
          These past couple of days the news (rumour!) has been going around. But, past experiences of similar news have taught us to be extremely cautious. Some ouflets fail to discriminate rumours from verifiable events. Some authoritarian rulers concoct deceptive maneuvers of such type.

        • Sultan M.G.

          Selam Doc:
          Interesting that the “Intelligence Services” of the Opposition Media tracked down the specific Dx of DVT( Deep Vein Thrombosis), which can lead to PE(Pulmonary Embolism),not Arterial Thrombo-embolism( like in severe PAD( peripheral arterial disease) or AFib( Atrial Fibrillation) or intra-Cardiac Thrombus, which can lead to Stroke!
          Moreover, it less likely that PIA would be shipped to SA but most likely to the UAE, unless vicinity mattered depending on the seriousness of the illness!
          Am just saying!

          • Paulos

            Capo,

            There is no reason to go into detail as in A-Fib or PE unless you’re addressing to a specific audience or presenting a case to residents or consultants if you’re a Brit, that is—-remember, this is a general and lay audience. But of course, you’re absolutely right and you know your stuff well.

            If that is the case with Isaias, I hope he recovers for he has loved ones who care for him–he is a father, a husband and a son of someone. And where we came from, we don’t wish bad to no one regardless. That said, I hope he reflects back on the pain and suffering of others with the same empathy and sympathy others show and give him in his darkest hours. That cuts deep into the core of humanity.

          • Sultan M.G.

            Doc:
            Sorry for the confusion!
            I forgot where I am . A Wrong spot for Clinical Medicine!

            As far as the devil or the beast and his sadism is concerned, well, if we believe that all the atrocities, kidnappings, killings, miseries, refugees, migrations, the horrors and what not are due to the same devil and his executors , well, a swift action should have been taken to minimize those endless horrors.
            Father ,his kids,etc… oh yeah,u r right but hey, think about the innocent Ciham’s and the poor 13 yrs old Islamic School kid…and their likes…. the victims of Adi Abeito and the fate of 400 young innocent Eritreans at Tio…., that of the Keren Islamic School Teachers, the victims of the Shoot and Kill policy at the border, the more than 10 k estimated victims of the Sahara and the Sinai Deserts and the killer Mediterranean Sea and the victims of the Rapists and the organ harvesters….our Tender Teen girls – the victims of sexual abuse by the ruthless Officers…, the victims of PTSDs of the Sawa Teens …. the destruction of the Eri Family Values…., the Biblical scale EXODUS of our more than half a million strong productive force of Eritrea ,etc…the losses of our top Ministers, journalists, the teachers, the priests, the pastors, the Generals , the Colonels, the doctors, the mother’s, the fathers,the elderly , the politicians…
            Does it even sound true or possible to see and to have such inhumane and insane deeds in front of our eyes on a day light??
            Something must have gone WRONG!

            Eeew…. it is horrifying!

            Oh poor and defenseless Eritrea and Eritreans to be such perpetual victims of their own Higdef mendef, WeyAne, CIA, Mossad, UNHCR….from all fronts..
            And yet, nothing concrete has been done yet???

            For sure something is wrong with Eritrea and among Eritreans!

    • bardavidi

      Hi Selam…… I Would thank them from the bottom of my Heart………..How much was it that came up missing from Bisha and Dibarwa Minings………..It is really generous of them to give us back a Penny on the Dollar……..I am sure God is watching and about to get Pissed-off……….Selah

  • Brhan

    Hi Awate,

    I think we have to find a solution to the virus that is in this forum

    The professor wrote his view of a book written by Dr. Mohamed Keir and the comments below are not relevant to it.
    So before speaking about COVID 19, we have to clean the COVID here ; it is easy follow three guild lens
    Stay with the article above
    Distance from negativity
    If you have fever do not come to comment.

    • Paulos

      Selam Brhan,

      That is really funny. How about you read what interests you and respond to it if you feel like it and don’t read the ones that are not to your likings. It shouldn’t be that complicated. It is that simple.

  • Selam All,

    He seems to have done what he said he would do. Trump has blocked funds from the USA for the WHO. He is being condemned from all directions, but he doesn’t seem to care. The world is in the middle of the Covid-19 crisis and no one knows yet which direction it will go.
    He seems hell bent to use the WHO and its Director General as scapegoats so that he doesn’t take responsibilities, and the Covid-19 crisis in the USA wouldn’t negatively affect his performance in the coming elections.
    Some are saying that the EU and China should cover the funds blocked by Trump. Let’s hope they will.
    Scientists, politicians and people such as Bill Gates have characterized it as inhuman and against world solidarity, to block funds at times of such a grave danger the world is facing. They say that this is not the right time to ask for responsibilities, which could be done later on.
    Even though the WHO was late in calling it a pandemic and wrong to believe China, the question is, as some journalists are asking, who has the intelligence service to know what was exactly happening in China, the WHO or the greatest nation in the world? Moreover, Trump was congratulating Xi for the good job he said the Chinese president was doing starting January 22, and some say Trump might have known about the pandemic from the end of December.
    No one knows if Africa is at the beginning of the pandemic or not, and one can easily understand how badly she will fare without the help of the WHO. It will be a disaster if the pandemic goes the wrong way for Africa. God save Africa.

    • Nitricc

      Horizon Trump got a point. the US donates between 350 to 400 million dollars while China donates 40 million dollars. and then China have the control of the organization. Although; the president is never wrong and needs someone to be hold accountable, so there is no any better time and person in attacking. Yes, Tedros had played the world just to protect China, no question about it but also the president was told the severity of this pandemic. So, Tedros tricked the world and the president failed to act earlier.

      • Teodros Alem

        Selam Nitricc
        Am sure the will keep to donate the 400 million once this incompetent corrupted mind person leave the position and go back to ethiopia or adigrate or wherever.
        This Qs don’t want to discuss why the world(-african dictators and China) rejected this corrupted mind person called tedros and why the US blocked the donation but they just want to discuss the impact of blocking the donation by the US.

        • no one

          Selam Director of WHO by Name
          Do not be to emotional you will lose your immunity. Covid 19 and immunity goes parallel.

          • Teodros Alem

            selam no one
            U r right covid 19 and immunity goes parallel so do malnutrition and immunity goes parallel too but what makes u think am emotional? am not.
            remember ” corrupted mind is always corrupted” ,

  • Nitricc

    Oh-oh; some evil and ignorant people are wishing for someone to die. Every time the Weyane and their supporters said PIA is dead, some one from Weyane will die. Last time they said that the midget was dead. I wonder witch weyane will go this time around?

  • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

    ሰላማት

    ሊሎ ሊሎ ማሸላ ኹላሎ
    ‘ንዳ ገብረ ኣዳል ከ ‘ታይ ይውረሎ
    ውዑይ-ወረ ሕጂ ዝወጸ ካብ ሞቕሎ
    ኣምብሬዛ ስትሮክ ዓጠም ኣቢላቶ ይበሃል ኣሎ

    ብፍሊቲ ነፋሪት ናብ ስዑዲ
    ካብ ዋርድያ ስጋዕ ዶካትር ናይ ባዕዲ
    ይከተታተልዎ ኣለዉ ኢሎም ግዲ
    ጠፋእና!

    ኣምብሬዛ ደኣ ዘይብሉ ‘ኳ ሚናዋለ
    መን ‘ዩ ዝወርሳ ዓራቱ ኢሱ ክምብል ምስ በለ
    ኣነ ‘ሞ ‘ንታይ ኢለ?
    ——-‘ሞ ‘ዚዩ ውዑይ ዜና
    ——-ዝመጸና
    ቃልቃል ናበለ

    N.B. ምውራድ ተኣቢኩም [ለመነድ] ጌርኩም ኣዝልልዎ

    • Paulos

      ኢንጂኔረ,

      This is a typical ባዶ ሰለስተ rumour mill churning out its typical deceit to keep every one’s hope high till it is dashed when Isaias comes out of his hiding place. We shouldn’t let them fool us. The old man is probably in ዓዲ ሃሎ or in Asmara for that matter. Stay safe.

      • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

        Doterre,
        I had that in mind as well. To get me out of trouble, I have inserted the last sentence 🙂

        • Paulos

          ኢንጂኔረ,

          Unless PFDJ is going to pull Menilik on us when he had died of a massive stroke caused by a chronic Syphilis he contracted in his younger years and kept his death a secret for almost a year. In PFDJ land, any bizarre thing is possible.

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Doterre,
            A lot of people have been expecting that. If this time’s rumor is true, I don’t expect us to know the really story for the next few months. His handlers need time to set up another stooge.

  • Paulos

    Selam My Good People,

    As the debate in the Forum rages on ባኒ’ዶ [ዳቦ] ወይስ ዲሞክራስያ? Perhaps, ኣልኣሚን ዓብደል-ለጢፍ had it all figured out when a young artist—ተወልደ ካሳ with a brilliant voice gives us the remix [ሰብ ንኸብዱ ጥራይ ኣይኮነን ዝነብር……]. Hope ኣያ ሳልሕ will let it pass. Enjoy!

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=y23qANf2eS4

  • Nitricc

    Hi all; I am a little confused and discombobulated. I was listening to this Eritrean’s organized call event for coronavirus contribution. I couldn’t help but listen to the three hours program and people were contributing from 100 dollars to 5000 us dollars. It is not new for Eritreans, they been doing for long time, so it is not surprising. What is surprising is the timing. People are out work right and left and they are living in fear and uncertainty let alone to help others thousands miles away. I am speech-less. Wow. My confusion is that there such Eritrea who loves their people and will do whatever, whenever to their country and people. On the same token, there some wanna be Eritreans, all they do trash the country and they don’t give foot about the people. All they do is talk and trash. I am assuming they trash talk the country and the people then must live in a trashy life. One can conclude simply there are two kinds of Eritreans. One the true Eritreans who deeply they care and the second once are hybrid, half cast and simply who grow up in Eritrea and they think they are Eritreans. You know like some people on this forum.
    For those Eritrean who you love your country and people;God-bless you! I am proud to have your DNA Long live Eritrea!
    Awate Nihafsh.

    • Abi

      Hello General
      I agree that there are two kinds of Eritreans.
      Those who are quietly supporting their people and those noisy ones who refused to visit their country.
      Those who pay for their own air ticket and those waiting for a free ticket.
      There are also acidic ones.
      Don’t get me started on those who want to rule Eritrea the country that they can’t locate on the world map.

      • Nitricc

        Hi Ras Abiy; don’t tell any one but I know and understand about Eritrea than Eritreans who was born and growing up there. You see, once they come here they forget about the situation and the challenges of their country. They watch to much TV and they started to shout Democracy and human rights and all that garbage. I am here and I can feel the and understand better than most. I will say you are the only one didn’t forget the situation of your people. How do I know that? “Dabo before Democracy”

        • Abi

          Hello General
          You know I don’t like fancy foods and concepts.
          Just give me my dabo and talk to me later. በችግር ለሚገረፍ ህዝብ ዲሞክራሲ ምኑ ነው?
          ሜዳ ላይ እየተፀዳዱ ዲሞክራሲ መዝፈን አይገባኝም
          በልመና በልቶ ዲሞክራሲ ማግሳት አይገባኝም
          እባክህ በተራበ አንጀቴ አታስለፍልፈኝ

          • Teodros Alem

            Qabi
            What an ad gari(with out a car),
            Q logic 1, the way out of poverty is dictatorships.
            Q logic 2, in democratic system no country can fight poverty.
            They r right when they call u ..adi
            Zem bel enda saw lemehun atemoker.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Abi,
            Just for the fun of it, Dabo lover 🙂
            The Nazis came had a slogan that rallied the beleaguered German people behind them: Brot und Arbeit.
            Brot fills the belly and Arbeit Macht Frei.
            I suggest you find another slogan and I will join your party. Do you have one yet 🙂

          • Abi

            Selam Ato Saleh
            እርስዎ ደግሞ ከደሞዜ በላይ ነው የሚጠይቁኝ:)
            ዳቦ ለተራበ ዲሞክራሲ ለጠገበ!!
            I’m working on a better slogan that potentially get us closer and closer.
            We are aiming to achieve the “self actualization” need (democracy) on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs while unable to feed ( basic needs) ourselves.

            Where is Saay?
            Any news from Ato Amanuel?

          • Paulos

            Abination,

            Will have to worry about President Isaias Afwerki instead. He has gone AWOL for a month or so now. A lot of wild speculations are going around about his extended absence. Perhaps Gedab News should fill us in.

          • Abi

            Paul
            Isu has been roaming the streets of Asmara without being seen due to the lockdown. He locked everyone in the house. I don’t know how you missed the pictures his permanent representative posted on this website. Isu doesn’t need to send people to jail anymore. My worry is he might extend this lockdown for a year or so.

          • Saleh Johar

            ራስ ዓቢ
            Maslow ፈረንጅ ኣይደለም ወይ?
            ታድያ ስለ ዳቦ ማጣት ምን ‘ኣባቱ ኣሳዉቀው?

          • Abi

            Selam Ato Saleh
            ምን ኣባቱ ጥራይልካ!!
            አምባሻ መስሎት ይሆናላ ግራ የገባው ፈረንጅ:)

          • Ismail AA

            Ahlen Saleh,
            The irony is, through centuries, neither did imperial or other undemocratic rulers
            had provided bread to those who have been preached to pray for “dabo” before democracy -just soul comforting schemes to justify oppressive systems. The question is why couldn’t both of them be done!!.

          • Abi

            Hello IIsmail AA
            As expected you got it upside down. We are praying for democracy after we secured our dabo, health care,clean water, transportation,electricity, education, shelter, and all those nice things you have at your disposal. Then, only then, we listen you preaching about fancy concepts like democracy or going to the Mars or Jupiter. For the time being come down to earth and stop belittling those people who are deprived of the basic things in life. You are showing your unmatched arrogance when you say that those people who are searching for their daily breads have been preached by their imperial or undemocratic rulers. According to you. Mr know it all, people can not make up their minds unless preached by their rulers. Well, I didn’t expect any better from the known racist in this forum.
            In my opinion, all those people who preach democracy before dabo are totally detached from their people.
            They lived in the west or Arab countries all their lives they totally forgot what life looks like back home.

          • Ismail AA

            Dear know-it- on behalf of “dabo firsters” folks,

            I thought you are an educated reader and read what people write entirely. I wrote why the two cannot be done side by side. As who ails from the disease of entrenched syndrome of racism, I would tell you who that is straight on your face were you not one of the decent people’s culture I always care to respect. Brother, please keep away from me. I have decided long ago not to waste time with individuals who come here to provoke and contribute nothing worthwhile save empty and stale rhetoric meant to pose as “humour”.

          • Abi

            Hello Ismail AA
            The feeling is mutual. I decided long ago not to read your comments after you told me that Ethiopia will disintegrate into pieces without Tigray . Keep dreaming…

          • Simon Kaleab

            Abi,

            Ismail has a point on Ethiopia without Tigray. It is plain common sense. Ignore it at your peril.

          • Ismail AA

            Selam Kaleab,
            Only people with common sense, and knowledge of history acquired from Ethiopian History 101 appreciate and understand the point; not individuals who exist in the present saturated by legends of imperial grandeur bequeathed by oral fables.

          • Abi

            Simon
            He can keep hallucinating the disintegration of Ethiopia without Tigray. In case you haven’t followed our debate some time ago, He is not talking about history. He is saying Ethiopia will disintegrate without Tigray at the top of the food channel.
            He has already tried and miserably failed to slither his way out of his racist remarks.

          • Admassie

            Selam Ismail AA,

            I hope you are doing well.
            Your question “why couldn’t both of them be done!!.” is very valid and I would love to see that happens in my country, a place of a great tragedy in both the bread and democracy. And it is not untested. We have already tried it for the last a quarter of a century and we saw how dangerously it failed.

            Some may say, yes it failed, because EPRDF was undemocratic. For the sake of argument let me agree with the stated assertion. However, would it be different if the government was a “sworn democrat”? I believe no. Because, in my opinion democracy is not a declaration in a constitution and the formation of some institutions alone. Democracy is a culture of a majority, a constituency that guards the democratic values and institutions a democratic state standing for. With out a democratic culture instilled in a majority, democracy is just a slogan. That is what it was in Ethiopia, that is what it is now and that is what it will be in the coming many years.

            The reason why democratic values are distant from our culture is because we are POOR and for that reason our main focus is in just getting the basic elements for survival. The majority of the people in Ethiopia, as you know, are living in the rural area far from the life of a modern society, deprived of the basic life entails. The majority of the people living in urban areas are also under huge pressure to migrate to developed countries in order to meet their basic need for themselves and their families.

            Our poverty entails the lack of basic necessities for life, but it also includes:
            1. backwardness
            2. lack of basic education
            3. lack of basic healthcare
            4. lack of jobs
            5. scarcity of infrastructure
            6. vulnerable to international political & economic pressure; international restrictions and regulations and so on.

            It will not be a cliche if I say we need to be careful when we talk about political solutions as if there is a clear cut road map for every country. Though the final goal could be similar, countries need to find a way how to curb their problem based on their reality.

            Again, I would love to have both democracy and bread! But if the process of bringing democracy is a hamper to our stability and delays our way out from poverty, I would prefer bread first and some ኩርኩም to democracy. But I am not suggesting a brutal system.

            Admassie A.

          • Abi

            Hello Admassie
            Long time ago I asked T Kifle why eprdf just drop the fake democracy and fake election and focus on development and fighting corruption and nepotism? As you guessed it, he said eprdf is working hard on both fronts. Look where we are! None.

          • Ismail AA

            Selam Admassie,

            How are dear. Fair view. That is the point I intended to offer. I remember writing many years back when the despot in my country came out to sell the slogan of bread before democracy. I remember I had argued at that time why introducing democracy to the society and providing for its necessities could not go hand in hand under fair and legitimate governing system. Do we need authoritarian rule in order to improve material life of people? Couldn’t we provide people with elements of democratic rule upon which they can build on to enjoy matrial gains along with their endowed rights to liberties and basic freedoms? Greedy rulers who want to dominate and oppress peddle such subterfuge of ‘let us reign upon you according our will and ambition!! so that we can provide for your needs. It false promise that delude the people.

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Selam Ismail AA,
            The irony is that the “D” stands for Democracy on those 4 fake letters PFDJ To make it worse, the J stands for Justice. They seem to forget their own name.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Mehandis,

            That is called ‘theft in the open air’. ገመል ሰሪቕካ፡ ካይተጎምባሕካ!

          • Ismail AA

            Dear mehandis,

            It’s pleasure to engage you, I think, for the first time. By the way, I enjoy your poems as I do those of Haile S and kokhob selam.

            What you wrote tells the paradox behind which the regime and the supremo at its helm conceal themselves. They think the decor hides the ugly reality of their rule.

          • Haile S.

            ሰላም ሰብ ዓወተ፡

            እስማዒል፡ ወነይ ኣላዒልካዮ

            ንሰርሕ ኣለና ዝብል ወግሐ ጸብሐ
            ነቶም ሰሪሖም ክበልዑ ዝኽእሉ ካየስርሐ
            ከም ዕዉራት በትሪ ሓዙ እናለ እናመርሐ
            ዘይንሱ ካልእ ዘየለ ዝመስሎ ዝነቑሐ
            ሃገሩ እናውሓደ ከሎ ዝመስሎ ዝተባዝሐ
            እናሓጸረ እንከሎ ዝመስሎ ዘሎ ዝነውሐ
            ብጽፍርና ክብል ኣሕቢጡና፡ እንዳ ቐድሐ
            ካብ ጁባና እንተዘይኮይኑ ይብል እንዳ ተለቅሐ
            መቓልሕ ስለዝሰምዕ ናይ ዝተሰደ ንደገ ዘምርሐ
            ሰብ ኣብ ሃገሩ 2% – 30% ካይከፍል እናሰርሐ
            ዘለኣለማዊ 2% መሪጹ ኣብ ስደት ሰብ እንዳስርሐ
            እንሃለኩም በሉ ገመል ሰሪቑ ዝኸይድ ካይተጎምብሐ

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            ሃይላት!

            ስርዓት-ህግደፍ ብግምጥልሽ
            ንንጹሃት እስር ንሰረቕቲ ግን ዕሽሽ

            ደሞክራሲ ይብሉ ብ ኣፎም
            ንደሞክራሲ ግን ኣብ መኽዘኑ የእቲዋ ወዲ ኣፎም
            ——–ሰዓብቱ ደሞክራሲ ትብል
            ——–‘ንተውጺኦም ሓንቲ ቃል
            ዋእ! ኣበይ ክንሕፎም

            ወረ ሕጊ ‘ሎ ይብሉ ኣብ ኤርትራ
            ሕጊ ነየረኤና ብጀካ ናይ ዓመጽቲ ሽጣራ

            ኣንታ ‘ታይ ገበርኩኻ ተሀውትተኒ
            ኣደራዕ ናብራ ህዝበይ ተዘክረኒ
            በል ክሓተካ
            ግዝኣት ህግደፍ ዶ ግዝኣት ሙሶሊኒ?
            ናይ ጭካነ inflation adjustment ጌርካ ንገረኒ

          • Haile S.

            ሰላም መሃንድሻ፡

            ወይ ወጥሪ!

            እቲ ሙሶሊኒ ከምትፈልጦ እዩ ጓና
            እዚ ዘሎ ኣብ ሃገርና፡ ክኣ ናይና

            እቲ ብላንኮ-በዚ ኔሮ-በቲ ኔሩ ዝብለና
            እዚ ክኣ ኣብ ብሎኮ መተሓላለፊ ይሓተና

            እቲ ብካራሜለ ሓለዋት ኔሩ ዝጥብረና
            እዚ ጠሚና ኢና ተጋዲልና ልመድዎ ይብለና

            እቲ ኣጉዶ ኣብ ሓዝሓዝ ኣኽርያ ይሰርሓልና ምስ ኣገልገልና
            እዚ ምስ ቤተሰብኩም ተቓቒርኩም ጽንሑ ይብለና

            እቲ ቦርኮ ሚዘርያ፡ እናለ 4ይ ክፍሊ የምህረና
            እዚ ዲግሪ እንተሓዝና ተንብቡ ትጽሑፉ’ዶ ይሓተና

            እቲ እዚ ዝምከሓላ ከተማ መስሪቱልና
            እዚ እቲ ዝሰርሐን ህንጻታት ይሕልወልና

            በል ይኣኽለኒ ካየጉርዕ ሐይ ካይብል እንተቐጺለ
            ኣብ ጊዜ COVID ዘለፋልፍ እኳ ዘየለ
            ሓርኢ ደርሆ ከልምጽ እንተተኣዘዘለይ
            ኣበይ ክኸድ ድርሁ ኣብ ገዛ ዘይብለይ

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Selamat Ismail AA,
            If I have to find a term to describe you, I would say you are the Glue of Awate!
            Thank you!

          • Ismail AA

            Dear mehandis,
            Thank you; I am humbled though there are brothers and sisters who educate us in this forum do more than the very modest than I randomly do. I swear you are, and scores of others as well, make up the unshakable core of this wonderful forum.

          • Nitricc

            Hey Ismail; good to see you, please stay safe on this difficult times. I strongly believe that democracy cannot be achieved without social justice, therefore you need DABO, I am fully in agreement with Ras Abiy.

          • Ismail AA

            Selam Nitricc,

            Thanks. You bet! Did I say or write bread is not important? Forget about what individuals who come here to divert attention from serious debate on important and relevant topics for known sinister intention post. My point remains that pragmatic and fair rulers should have no problem with catering for bread and welfare of society under democratic governance guaranteeing basic freedoms and endowed liberties of citizens. Providing bread does not or should not negate fairness and justice, which should not be postponed just because it suits the egos of authoritarian rulers.

          • Nitricc

            Hey Ismail; I didn’t say you did, I was just commenting and saying hi on my way

          • Teodros Alem

            adamsie
            u simply are “kekam”, i hope Saleh Johar don’t know what”keke” means, eprdf itself preach the “geda” system is democratic system, which means almost over 1/2 ethiopian population practiced it and used to ruled by it ,oromo, sedamo and so on..
            Just because u r “keke” not everyone is kekam”.

          • Paulos

            Selam Admassie,

            I think the question we need to ask is that, what factors should a government prioritize first in order to provide the people with Dabo before Democracy or vise versa. In other words, is it a highly centralized or strong State that can provide the people Dabo or a weak State with Democratic Institutions—-Classic comparisons in Pol-Sci 101 are the case of China and India, for instance.

            In his 1968 classic paper, “Political Order In Changing Societies” Samuel Huntington argued that, economic development without prioritizing to create a strong State leads not only to a political decay but to economic decay as well. Certainly, he wrote the paper on the heels of the end of colonization of many Third World countries as they tried to sketch a road–map on how to proceed from there.

            Certainly, there after, Tiger Nations adhered to Huntington’s grander policy advice if you will when they prioritized a strong State focusing on Development by enforcing strict Law and Order at the expense of civil liberties. In a sense, the Tiger Nations prioritized Dabo first but again in order to provide Dabo, they had to create a strong State first not the right to vote or to say what you will as the perks of Democracy dispense.

          • Selam Paulos,

            In my opinion the aim of developmental state is to create a strong middle class. The middle class in its turn due to its nature will demand for democracy, and the strong state must relax its grip on power gradually so that there is a smooth transition from an authoritarian to a democratic state. Therefore, both are intertwined, with priority given to “Dabo” at the first stage.

          • Paulos

            Selam Horizon,

            True, the Middle-Class is the economic engine of any society but again, how do you create the Middle-Class? In the case of State led Capitalism, the State first enforces a total ownership of the major infrastructures as in Transportation, Electric-Power, Heavy Industries including major Financial Institutions. Then it gradually opens up by encouraging the people to have a share where eventually the said institutions become open to the public. And that is exactly what the Tiger-Nations did as they liberalized their economies incrementally. And thus a powerful Middle-Class was created as a result.

            As you said it, the Middle Class not only revitalizes the economy but it becomes deciding force in the political process as well as the case is with China where pretty much, it is the Middle Class that offers a legitimacy to the governing Party. The challenge is however, what the experts call, “The Middle Income Trap” where nations get stuck after they attain a Middle-Income status where it is incredibly difficult to move up to “Upper Income” as the case is with Brazil, for instance where it is harder for Brazil and others than coming out of poverty in the first place.

          • Selam Paulos,

            Never heard of the “Middle Income Trap”. Thanks for the information.

          • Abi

            Hello Horizon
            I see you are opening your eyes.
            Without a formidable middle class, I see no democracy flourishing. It is the middle class that promotes and protects democracy.
            I’ve seen university lectures skipping lunches because they can’t afford to pay for lunch month to month. I’ve seen university lectures share a meal because they can’t afford to pay for it month to month.
            You can imagine how bad it can be among the majority of the society.
            Democracy is such a luxury item only for those in the higher social strata.

          • Selam Abi,

            Sorry, I could open only one eye.

            The dilemma lies in that the middle class, although a Must for democracy to come to a country, it doesn’t mean that it is always the magic stick. Good examples are the so-called BRICS countries, a term which is not heard so much these days. All of them, i.e., China, Russia, India, and Brasil, despite the fact that they have a large middle class, they remain under authoritarian/dictatorial regimes.

            On the flip side, all developed countries are democratic, despite the glitches we see lately since the economic crisis, when right wing groups are tainting their good picture. Nevertheless, these countries still resist authoritarianism, because they have a strong, educated and sophisticated middle class.

            This brings us to the question, is ‘dabo’ an end by itself for the third world countries, or a step, no matter what, to democracy and human rights? One shouldn’t be complacent only with ‘dabo’ on the table, and the middle class should always be vigilant that democracy is fulfilled.

            In our case, in the past, development (dabo) was promised and never delivered in a clean from corruption and equitable way, the middle class was attacked and demonized, and democracy was put in the freezer and people were told to forget about it. Now, when both ‘dabo’ and an educated middle class are still absent or in shortage, we don’t know what is happening in Ethiopia, whether what we see is the sign of flagellating democracy, or anarchy, or both. It is an uphill battle for the middle class to win democracy when peace and stability are absent, and the majority are uneducated. Nevertheless, we should still hope for development (dabo) – middle class – democracy, in that order.

          • Ismail AA

            Selam Horizon,

            Thanks for sparing time to come with robust and extended posts. Few of us can afford the time.

            Having said that, however, the role of the middle class in demanding and promoting democracy (in evolving situations like in developing countries i. e.) is in my humble opinion mediated by the nature of the system and the interest of the power at the centre. I mean to say how far those in power would be patriotic in committing themselves to adopting schemes and policies geared to transforming their countries. In conditions of developing countries, this is crucial because introducing and nourishing democracy and streamlined material and spiritual development do not negate one another. In fact, they supplement and complement one another.

            It is in this situation that coherent middle class or conglomerate of elite groups can emerge in society. And, the thread that tie them is the material gain they book. At a certain phase of development, the middle class would want to expand its role and demand more liberalization in order to maximise material gain on both internal and external realms. So, experiences in countries you mentioned indicate the point I am trying to state. To put it a nutshell, the nature and intention of governing and in power is crucial.

            And, one minor point in passing if I may. In regard to BRICS nations, we used to be informed that India is the largest ballot box democracy. Brazil and Soth South Africa count as democracies.

          • Selam Ismail AA,

            Things that come to my mind like:
            1) How much democracy has regressed in Gandhi’s India, in the so-called the largest democracy in the world (as you aptly put it the largest ballot box democracy), is becoming hell for Muslims who are discriminated against under Modi’s new citizenship law, which considers them as illegal immigrants and not people of other religions. Women are mistreated and Hindu nationalism is showing its ugly face, as we read in the news.
            2) The dictatorship in Brazil is targeting the Amazon forest and the indigenous tribes who live in it. We remember how long the forest was burning during the past summer months. Indigenous tribes were murdered. The aim being to clear land for cattle rearing and agriculture, thus contributing to climate change.
            3) How president Putin manipulated the constitution to remain in power, and if i am not mistaken president Xi has also done the same thing. It seems that we will be seeing these two men for years to come.

            As you said, the nature and intention of the governing bodies and those who are in power is indeed crucial on top of the wish of the middle class, if democracy is to flourish in a country or not.

          • Ismail AA

            Dear Horizon,

            I fully concur with the points you raised in regard to regress democracy has suffered in the countries you mentioned. In India and Brazil it was through the ballot box the slide back was actualized. Things could be regained in future the same way. This means the system is still there. Things can go wrong but the bottom line is when the nations do not lose fundaments of democracy irretrievably. Anyway, our discussion focused on whether democracy and material development could operate hand in hand under benevolent, patriotic and enlightened leaderships.

          • Ismail AA

            Selam Dr. Paulos,

            Fine you joined in. These couple of days we got something worthwhile to talk about, despite some rude detractors who try to spoil sober discssion.

            To be in position to rationalize governing and initiate prioritization of tasks and programs, those in power who accede to it in one way or another should acquire some degree of legitimacy emanating from the source of legality which in principle is the governed. Despots like the one we have in our country never even entertain such elementary ethos of fairly ruling the people. Their interest is domination and control for the sake of satiation of power egos. So they endeavor to built and entrench a police state; never a strong state confident and capable to combine state building and laying down economic base for improving the life of the citizen.

            I think the late Huntington had in mind the post colonial state with structural weaknesses that needed to adopt graded and guided program of political and economic transformation. The developmental state fits in this scheme. The EPRDF and the Asian tiger politico-economic developmental states before it had adopted that system, and were successful in introducing graded democracies on the side of measured economic developments. That is why the ERDF, despite shortcomings, was able to achieve what long reigns before them did not in span of two decades. I think no objective observer can deny this fact. The ERDF had put more bread on the table and laid down elements of democratic governance unseen before. I am arguing the process was flawless. A base that would not degenerate back to ancient systems has been established.

          • Paulos

            Selam Kbur Haw Ismail AA,

            Glad to see you back. Hope you stick around to chip in your usual great contributions to the Forum. I absolutely agree with what you said. Stay safe!

          • Admassie

            Selam Paulos,

            I think Horizon has put rightly that both quests are intertwined. Again my take is I would like to see both. But both can not take the priority, for democracy is not a walk in the park. It is much complicated, especially for us a poor, backward and multi-ethnic society. There will be a stumble every time which undermines our stability and economy. To avoid such happening and not to hurt the economy, we need to allow the state to curtail some of the rights. It is the economy that allow us to create a transformed (to middle class) majority who can defend and stand for the democratic value and institutions.

            Yes, I want the “strong State focusing on Development [State led Capitalism al’a latter-day Zenawism in Ethiopia] by enforcing strict Law and Order at the expense of civil liberties.”!!!

          • Sultan M.G.

            Hahahah Dottore.
            Besides admiring your multitalented genius ,I noticed that u,inadvertently, are admiring and appreciating the likes of PIA and Col MoAmer Ghedafi and the Rwandan Guy,a more benign and popular one than most of the African Dictators!

      • Nitricc

        Hey Abiy, this is for you to get off of my back. I am going to Eritrea. No what do you have to say?
        https://youtu.be/zuVMhGC6e6M

  • Brhan

    Hello Prof, Tekeste Negash
    Thank you for your review and though, any comment on your review won’t be complete without the reading the book written by Dr. M. Keir, there is a point that you mentioned that we can argue with or without reading the book. In this feedback of mine I will mention three:
    To describe the Eritrean highlands as parts of a kingdom that had long ceased to exist raise a question as to how much Mohamed Kehir Omer (henceforth MKO) had grasped of the historical trajectories of the region outside of Eritrea.
    I believe the Dr. is not missing the historical courses of the region outside of Eritrea, he is just making a simple point to the origins of this part of Eritrea. In plain English as they say, the Dr. is saying that someone must belong to someone. The majority of Americans , say we belong to England (history) but the historical trajectories, have made them different ( politics)
    The other issues to be well discussed need the reading not only the book but also your book.
    Thanks

  • Ismail AA

    Selam dear Awate forum friends,

    Hope every one of you is safe and well in this trying times the world is passing through. It has been quite a while since I showed up here; but has occasionally been following some worthy debates. It has been noticeable that several critical readers and robust debaters have kept aloof from this forum.

    Reviewers have from time graced us with useful assessments on newly published books. Such contributions are useful because those reviewers added much needed insights from their own works and acquired knowledge, which make reading of the reviewed books easier or even benefit people who do not get access to the books. This review by Prof. Tekeste Negash could be valued from that perspective. He has served the reader by walking him/her through the substance of each chapter allusions to his own research of the subject the new book by Dr. Mohammed Keir Omar’s newly published book. The reader of the review notes salient variations of findings of each of them on areas both had covered. In my view, this quite natural and expected because each have approached the subject (or parts of it) from own specific perspective, methodology and source materials.

    When reading the review, it should be appropriate to keep in mind, especially concerning works done on the history of modern Eritrea since its emergence as separate geo-political entity; the researches have been dealing with recent history which has still been rampantly affected by politics involving yet unsettled national issues. The point here is about a multi-cultural and religious polity still evolving through merging diverse social and cultural components striving to find place within the framework of a statehood that has been achieved much more through common sacrifices than common pursuit within the framework of an evolved nation-state that provide peace and space to durable economic integration. Any study or research in such conditions would face problems because the researchers tend to approach the subjects from specific perspective which may not be free from human propensities towards own affiliations and interests this could engender.

    The important thing here is that any study by Eritrean researchers on any area or field should be welcomed, irrespective of any loophole or lacking when appraised in terms of pure researches that deal with fields with less controversies of any kind – politics or socio-cultural issues. The purpose of Eritrean historiography should focus on coverage of the general subject matter to accumulate information and to enrich the shelf of stores of knowledge in national libraries. Variations or conflict of interests could be sifted out later on by coming generations of intellectuals. Politics could then be cleansed from pure history.

    Thus, Dr. Mohammed Keir Omar’s book is a welcome addition. He has boldly covered a difficult subject rampantly interspersed, as I already noted, by still pending political and social issues. Regarding the phase that encompasses the national liberation movement – peaceful as well as armed – I think he had the advantage of personally been contemporary to development from his youthful age as a student to begin with. I have not read the book yet, but I could gather from this review by Prof. Tekeste that much could be learned from it. I have noted a few things Prof. Tekeste has raised on which one cannot dare to comment without reading the book itself and contexts of the issues raised.

    The book under review is volume one and the anticipated second volume could complete the picture from Dr. Mohammed Keir’s perspective. The point, I wished the review could have elaborated the date (1968) set to end the first volume and begin the next. Works are usually divided into volumes at a kind of clear watershed. Since I know this date had witnessed at least two events – the end of the leadership role of the Supreme Council and emergence of the ELF General Command from the military conference of August 1968 on the one hand, and on the other, the devastation of communities and properties by the murderous Israeli trained indigenous Ethiopian proxy commando forces – I do not know which of them has been taken as separation date for the two volumes or maybe there is some other rationale.

    • Haile S.

      Selam Ismail,

      I hope you are doing well and keeping yourself safe. You are one of the missing Tenors leaving the choir sing in dissonance. Not an accusation, but just a hook to keep you around. As an original student and scholar of history, you provided yourself an acute perspective with narrowed pupil, a squeezed out fragrance of what we should get from writers:

      “The important thing here is that any study by Eritrean researchers on any area or field should be welcomed, irrespective of any loophole or lacking when appraised in terms of pure researches that deal with fields with less controversies of any kind – politics or socio-cultural issues. The purpose of Eritrean historiography should focus on coverage of the general subject matter to accumulate information and to enrich the shelf of stores of knowledge in national libraries.”

      In a similar tone to yours, here is what Kjetil Tronvoll says in his Forward on the book.

      “It must be stressed, however, that it is not a matter of which narrative is correct or not; the point is that the history, cultures, and politics of Eritrea—as with those of any other country—deserve to be perceived, analysed, and interpreted in the plural! There is not one correct narrative—there are multiple understandings, experiences, and positions as to where Eritrea comes from, what its society contains, and towards which direction it is headed. The sooner a diverse set of actors are allowed to research, analyse, and contribute to the interpretation of the rich Eritrean history and cultures inside the country, the better it will be for Eritrean knowledge production and ultimately the social, economic, and political development of Eritrean society and people.”

      Finally, here is a link to a Pen-Eritrea review of Dr Kheir Omer’s book by Timnet Gedar, a young PhD candidate in African history at the University of Michigan
      https://peneritrea.com/blog/book-review-the-dynamics-of-an-unfinished-african-dream-eritrea

      • Ismail AA

        Selam Haile,

        Thank you for your kind words. I am fine, and I wish the same for humanity and every creature walking and breathing to stay safe from the assault of the terrifying scourge. Thanks, moreover, for the link.

        As you have noted and as the accomplished scholar, K. Tronvoll, did, historians in our area where geo-political entities (relatively recent creations) are still in process of evolution, face great challenges of separating socio-cultural interest driven politics of conflict from bona fide research of subject matters. There will be different perspectives that could affect neutrality, which could generate variations.

        I think this the point Tronvoll wanted to drive home, which I concur with humility. Young historians should be encouraged to engage without being obstructed by limitations conflicting politics could pose. The bottom line should be accessing source materials and resultant collection of bibliographies.

        • Ismail AA

          Selam Haile,

          First, let me thank you again for the link to Timnet Gedar’s review. Interestingly, I read it twice and returned back to Prof. Tekeste’s review and read it once more. Comparing the two with focus on what considered review of academic works (produced by methodically measured research) entail or purport, I understood why you cared to alert me to it after you read the random modest comments I noted in regard to Prof. Tekeste’s contribution. I thought that feading the two reviews side by side (to me at least) elaborate the plausibility of the remarks of Prof. Tronvoll, as well as what you and me, had tried to suggest. In my view, Gedar’s aproach seemed to me more neutral and fits in the framework of the purpose reviews of such type and standard intend to fulfil.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Ismail,

            Absolutely and in-synch with everything you said.
            Best

    • Brhan

      Hi Ismail,
      I believe the events will be included in part two because they impacted specially the 70s, and 80s and even now.

  • Paulos

    Selam Professor Tekeste Negash,

    As it happens, I am re-reading your book, “Eritrea and Ethiopia. The Federal Experience” as I am staying at home due to the Corona Virus. You are one of the very few scholars I respect and admire where you sailed against the tide so to speak when you spoke and wrote with courage about issues which were not only unpopular but when the “herd” unfairly mistook you for a “Leper Colony.” You stood your ground instead when you told the truth, the whole truth nothing but the truth as it was and as it is. And that is what I call a character and stellar-intellectual integrity. And your critique of MKO’s book should be seen with in that light as well. Stay safe.

    • Abi

      Paul
      ተከስተ ነጋሽ
      ድግሪ አስመላሽ!
      ( that is how students used to call him back in the day)
      I heard he was tough and stingy on grades.

      • Paulos

        Abination,

        That shows on his critique as well. I wonder if he had passed MKO, probably barely.

        • Abi

          Paul
          I haven’t read the book review yet. I have two ፈረንጅ እንግዶች ( refugees) at home. Kind of busy celebrating Easter with them.
          ኩሽና ቤት እየተንደፋደፍኩልህ ነው::

          What I heard from his former students is he is a no nonsense professor.

    • Desbele

      Hi Paulos,
      I read this book in Asmara British council before it was closed in 2011. It was an eye opener. Pro. Tekeste is indeed a courageous historian. He even advised EPLF in this particular book to outsource the chief of justice and attorney general office to expats-preferably Europeans. He suggested 20yrs until EPLF are sufficiently socialized to the advantages of democratically running political affairs.
      Looking how EPLF/pfdj/ = Isaias runs the country for the past 28yrs even 200yrs is not enough for them to socialize with democracy and justice.

      • Paulos

        Selam Desbele,

        I agree. Imagine in the early 90s when every one was crazed for independence, the guy stuck to his guns and refused to be pushed with the flow precisely because, he was absolutely convinced that it was all lies! I am not talking about the imperatives of independence for it was the right course of action but he debunked the fallacy of history heaped left and right by the subsequent Fronts in a bid to legitimize the struggle. The Struggle was legit not because Eritrea had always been a separate nation but because the incompetent Ethiopian leaders left the Eritrean people with no choice but to pick up arms and fight to define their own fate and destiny.

        Remember, they [The Front] pushed to the extent of using Gregorian calendar instead in a bid to dissociate anything Ethiopian—maintaining Identity by Subtraction [IBS] if you will. And Professor Tekeste Negash refused to turn when other scholars caved in instead of speaking up the truth.

  • Teodros Alem

    Selam
    I really don’t understand the need to debate this kind of topic after 30 years of eritrea independence, after so many things passed.

    • NewDawn

      Selam Teodros, what is this ‘topic’?

      • Teodros Alem

        selam newdawn
        The topic is about a man asking, nagging day in and day out, abusing a women to marry him, the problem is she doesn’t like him , most of her family don’t like him, they even blame him for the suffering of the family, they think he is the worst twisted heart person ever but the man keep asking and nagging the women to marry him.
        And why Qabi is Q and a loyal adgi car( gare)