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The Second Era of The Princes

This is part 1 of a series of four episodes of summarized history of the era in which Atzie Tedros, Queen Victoria, King Yohannes IV, Ambassador Hurmuz Rassam, General Napier, Ras Alula, King Menelik II, and King Umberto of Italy were the main actors.

Part 1 is about King Tedros, and Napier and Rassam, the Discoverer of the clay tablets of the Epic of the Gilgamesh; the second part will be about The Expedition of General Napier and his alliance with Degiat Kassa; the third part will be about Degiat Kassa who became King Yohannes IV; and the final fourth part will be a summary of the Epic of Gilgamesh and its relation to biblical stories.

It will not delve into the story of the Mythological King Menelik I, (a corruption of Ibn Al Malik, Arabic, or Ben Melech, Hebrew, both meaning ‘the son of the king’ (Solomon). The mythology claims Menelik’s mother is the Queen of Sheba who gave birth to him at Mai-Bela, a creek that has become a sewerage canal in Asmara, Eritrea.

Here is a summary of the 704-year rule of the Solomonic kings:

In 1270, Tesfayesus (Yekuno Amlak) overthrew the Zagwe Dynasty and became king establishing the 2nd Solomonic Dynasty which continued until the reign of Ras Tefferi (Haile Selassie) whom the Derg overthrew in 1974—that is the 704 years of Solomonic misery in Abyssinia and its environs.

King Tedros Of Qwara

Tedros was a born from a humble background in the village of Qwara and he was neglected for too long in the Ethiopian history particularly during the reign of Haile Selassie. The English were not fond of Tedros who took English envoys and missionaries, hostage. His action was triggered when the queen ignored a letter that he sent her soliciting her support to quell the many internal rebellions he faced and to ward off invasion from across Abyssinian borders. He took revenge on her subjects and other Europeans and took them hostage.  However, there is another version of the story that claim Tedros’ letter was a marriage proposal to Victoria and she didn’t respond to it.

Thus, Tedros unknowingly provoked the invasion of his country; Queen Victoria ordered a military expedition to free the hostages under the command of General Napier. Soon, hundreds of vessels arrived at the ancient Red Sea port of Adulis carrying tens of thousands of laborers, soldiers, pack animals, provisions and even elephants to transport good and arms to the Abyssinian highlands.

At the time, the strongman of Tigrai was Degiat Kassa who was eager to defeat Tedros and become a king. He allied himself with Napier and helped the expedition to reach Meqdela. In a matter of days Napier defeated Tedros who committed suicide to avoid arrest. Napier’s army went into a looting spree and emptied the region’s churches of any historical artifact they found.

Tedros’ three-hut seat of government were in Meqdela, his capital village named after the Palestinian village near Galilee. Magdala is popularized by Mary Magdalene, a disciple of Jesus who hailed from Magdala and she is called Mary of Magdala just like Tedros of Qwara. Some stories indicate that after the battle of Magdala, some British soldiers named their daughters Magdalene and the name caught on.

Tedros was considered a usurper because he didn’t have Solomonic blood in his veins. But once he became powerful, he forcefully claimed a Solomonic pedigree. An Egyptian bishop, Abba Salam, confirmed the claim and crowned Tedros a king. Thereafter, Tedros dropped his real name, Kassa, and adopted Tedros as his crown name. He chose the name because the Kebre Negest, a 13th century book of fables, prophesied that a mighty king named Tedros will rule Abyssinia and he will defeat the Roman Empire that will be eclipsed by Tedros’ kingdom. Never mind that the Roman empire was long gone, Tedros was infatuated by the name. However, the nobility derogatorily referred to him as “Ye Kosso Shach Lij”, the son of the Kosso seller. Apparently, his poor mother raised him by selling a local herbal medicine that supposedly cured stomach infections.

Haile Selassie and his predecessors had that negative image of Tedros and they kept him out of the history textbooks. But in the early 1960s, when officers under the command of General Mengistu Neway attempted a coup against Haile Selassie while he was visiting Brazil, his advisors convinced him to use Tedros as a propaganda to promote the glories of past kings. That is when Tedros started to appear in imperial Ethiopian literature. And a couplet I remember from the school days goes:

A thousand horses in his rear and a thousand horses leading ahead

It’s sad his Kosso seller mother didn’t witness that since she was dead.
(Shi feres bhwalaw shi feres befitu  –  Yihn’ sattay motech Kosso shach ennatu)

Zemene Mesafint – The Era of The Princes

Tedros came to power after defeating several of the princes who have been engaged in endless wars. History books say that the Era of the Princes started in 1769 and ended in 1855. But that is a lie; it has not yet stopped, to this day. Still there are princes and warlords in the region: Abdullahi Formajo in Somalia (I hear he was restrained a few days ago); Abiy Ahmed who has been ruling Ethiopia since 2018; and Isaias Afwerki who has been ruling Eritrea since 1991. They are replaying the mayhem of the old Zemene Mesafint. Therefore, if one knows the history of the first era of the princes, it’s easy to predict how the era of the current crude princes and warlords will end.

Hurmuz Rassam

The Queen of England had dispatched Hurmuz Rassam, a British subject of Iraqi origin, to negotiate the release of the hostages, but he was also taken hostage.

Hurmuz Rassam born in Mosul, Iraq, emigrated to the UK as an adult, lived in Brighton, and became a British citizen. He is known for unearthing the clay tablet containing the epic of Gilgamesh, claimed to be the world’s oldest recorded literature (Part four of this series will be the epic of Gilgamesh).

Rassam was hired by Layard, a British archeologist to work at an excavation site in Iraq and accompanied Layard on several expeditions to Iraq. Rassam made a few notable discoveries but the main discovery was the clay tablets on which the Epic of Gilgamesh was engraved.

Later, Rassam became a diplomat and was stationed in British consulate at Aden. When Tedros took the British envoys hostage, in 1866, England appointed Rassam as an ambassador to meet Tedros resolve the hostage crisis.

He stayed in Massawa for a year waiting for Tedros to allow him to enter his domain. When he finally allowed him to proceed the era of the princes was still raging and, Rassam had to travel from Massawa west to Kassala, and south through Metemma and entered Abyssinia close to Lake Tana and finally met Tedros in Gojjam. At first Tedros received him nicely and sent him some gifts. But then a certain British envoy came carrying letters from the families of the hostages to Tedros appealing for the release of the hostages. The paranoid Tedros suspected a conspiracy and chained Rassam and took him hostage as well. In reaction, the British government ordered General Napier to invade Abyssinia and free the hostages

General Napier

Unknowingly, Tedros had called for an invasion of his country by the British army—probably the first military invasion in modern times by a country to free hostages. General Napier’s forces attacked Magdala and defeated Tedros and thus in 1868, they freed the hostages who stayed in prison for two years.

General Napier is known as “Baron Napier of Magdala.” His statue stands in the roadway at North End next to Kensington Road.

*This is the translation/script from Negarit 128, presented in Tigrinya on my YouTube channel.

About Saleh "Gadi" Johar

Born and raised in Keren, Eritrea, now a US citizen residing in California, Mr. Saleh “Gadi” Johar is founder and publisher of Author of Miriam was Here, Of Kings and Bandits, and Simply Echoes. Saleh is acclaimed for his wealth of experience and knowledge in the history and politics of the Horn of Africa. A prominent public speaker and a researcher specializing on the Horn of Africa, he has given many distinguished lectures and participated in numerous seminars and conferences around the world. Activism was founded by Saleh “Gadi” Johar and is administered by the Awate Team and a group of volunteers who serve as the website’s advisory committee. The mission of is to provide Eritreans and friends of Eritrea with information that is hidden by the Eritrean regime and its surrogates; to provide a platform for information dissemination and opinion sharing; to inspire Eritreans, to embolden them into taking action, and finally, to lay the groundwork for reconciliation whose pillars are the truth. Miriam Was Here This book that was launched on August 16, 2013, is based on true stories; in writing it, Saleh has interviewed dozens of victims and eye-witnesses of Human trafficking, Eritrea, human rights, forced labor.and researched hundreds of pages of materials. The novel describes the ordeal of a nation, its youth, women and parents. It focuses on violation of human rights of the citizens and a country whose youth have become victims of slave labor, human trafficking, hostage taking, and human organ harvesting--all a result of bad governance. The main character of the story is Miriam, a young Eritrean woman; her father Zerom Bahta Hadgembes, a veteran of the struggle who resides in America and her childhood friend Senay who wanted to marry her but ended up being conscripted. Kings and Bandits Saleh “Gadi” Johar tells a powerful story that is never told: that many "child warriors" to whom we are asked to offer sympathies befitting helpless victims and hostages are actually premature adults who have made a conscious decision to stand up against brutality and oppression, and actually deserve our admiration. And that many of those whom we instinctively feel sympathetic towards, like the Ethiopian king Emperor Haile Sellassie, were actually world-class tyrants whose transgressions would normally be cases in the World Court. Simply Echoes A collection of romantic, political observations and travel poems; a reflection of the euphoric years that followed Eritrean Independence in 1991.

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  • said


    The alleged atrocities in Tigray risk tearing Ethiopia apart
    Balanced Article in UK Guardian news paper by Mr. William Davison ,a senior analyst for Ethiopia at the International Crisis Group,
    Inflicting suffering on millions in the region won’t solve the wider dispute between ethnic nationalism. Pls see the link

  • Haile S.

    Selam Awate people

    If you have seen EriTV news yesterday, you might have noticed an unmissable Isayas’s body language during his meeting with the American envoye, the right hand for the greeting, the left in his left pocket gesture. The highly stretched right hand with the rest of the body withdrawing back speaks a lot. I hope the 4 hrs talk didn’t end similarly to the gesture.

    The fascinating Atse Tewodros was said to be much more physically confrontational, but this meeting between IA and the envoye reminds me of the meetings between Tewodros and Aba Salama, the then Abuna of Abyssinia. For Tewodros Aba Salama was the Satan who keeps the key to heaven and Aba Salama knew it so welll that he used it as a “life guard”, i.e his prerogative to excommunicate. He used it everytime his life was in danger. “እወግዝወታለሁኝ” was his ultimate defense. I don’t know how he said it in arabic. Saleh, can you help!

    • Berhe Y

      Hi Haile,

      I didn’t watch the video but I saw the pictures. What I was thinking was since then does IA meet a with the US envoy of any kind and EriTV makes it public. The last time was with Donald Rumsfeld if I recall, other the the Yomamoto unpublicized meetings.


      • Haile S.

        Selam Berhe,

        Here you go a link to the english news. It was also mentioned in the tigrigna and arabic news.

    • Abi

      ወያኔ ሲሞት ተነሳ ኢሱ
      ደረቱን ነፍቶ እጁ ከኪሱ!!!
      ኢሱን ሲያስገዝቱ የከረሙት
      በቆፈሩት ጉድጓድ ተቀበሩበት!!
      ኢሱ ሳተናው ቀብራራው ጆቢራ
      ንግግሩ ቁጥብ ግንባሩ ኮስታራ
      አያጎበድድም ለፈረንጅ ኩታራ!!!

      • saay7


        Oh boy. This reads like most of the prose of የEthiopia ታሪክ that we were subjected to all our young lives: a hyperbole SAnDwich with extra serving of lies and special Abyssinian secret sauce of All-emperors-are-God-appointed. We thought it was absurd, but uproariously funny then, but it just sounds sad now: a prosperity gospel of “say it, and it shall be” about a man who spent his entire life in the service of the CIA and Mossad.

        And it’s ወያነ not ወያኔ….


        • Abi

          Don’t miss City vs Chelsea .
          I will be back.

        • Brhan

          Hello Abi,
          He can’t say the name of his beloved prime minster correctly , no surprise if he misspelled his foe.

      • Haile S.

        Selam Abi,

        Had Isayas read this, he would receive you at Asmara Palace. As Saay said, Denden is for complaining.

        The ጆቢራ caught my attention. It is a bird, but what Kind? Can you help? At least describe. Is it a Ground Hornbill (ኣባጉምባሕ in tigrigna) or a Bustard (haven’t yet found the tigrigna name)?

    • saay7

      Selamat Hailat & all:

      Ah, the 4 hour conversation where all we were told after the meeting was how each side gave its perspective on regional peace with no further details. Because, after all, the Government in Power has no duty to inform the public.

      Until we hear further, we can only do what we are doing: trying to glean info from the body language—the Sudanese media had some fun comparing Isaias body language in Sudan when he was meeting with a Sudanese official (legs stretched, relaxed) and his body language with the American envoy (uncomfortable, defensive)— or what the precedent is when people tell him we have a list of issues for which he has no good answers.

      And the precedent is the G-13 meeting. A G13 (and an Awate Team) member Dawit Mesfin wrote about it here at Awate in 2001. Until I share the link, here’s what happened: the G-13 never got to discuss the issues they brought to discuss, Isaias pulled out his own list of grievances and answering it consumed it most of their time. Is it difficult to imagine that Isaias, who has been, for 20 long years, complaining about US policy even if you asked him about the weather, would try to do the same in the meeting? Particularly when he is hosting the meeting at the exact same place he met the G13, Denden?


    • Brhan

      Selam Haile S.
      A.Ahmed Ali, the PM of Ethiopia did put his hand in his pocket when received by Isaya at Asmara Airport during the later’s last visit to Eritrea:

      Any thoughts whey Abiy did that to Isayas?

      • Haile S.

        Selam Brhan,

        Here, they are walking, not greeting. It is different. In addition, there is always a smile on Abiy face that neutralizes any other unexpected gesture. I doubt there is one behind IA’s mask in front of such an envoye.

        • Brhan

          Selam Brhan,
          To me ኣቢይ ንኢሳያስ ይብጥረነሉ ነይሩ። The question is what message he wanted to tell : We ( Ethiopians) still stronger regardless of your troops. But Dr. Berhanu Nega thinks the opposite.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Brhan,

            I think you are reading to much into it. Either didn’t get it or he has really trying very hard to cover it, but he looks very happy to see.

            The one with US envoy is showing that he was not looking forward to this meeting and he must be forced to do so or he has not option.

            Remember, when Cofi Aman arrived in Asmara, on his way to some other country, he would not receive or meet him. He waited at the airport for two hours and finally he sent Askalu Menkorios and left without meeting him.

            When Clinton was Secretary of State, she called him and he would not take her calls, which lead to the whole sanction thing that followed after.

            He would not accept Jandye Frazer and worst they called her officially “junior diplomat”.

            When Cofi Annan assigned special envoy, Lloyd Axworthy, they would not issue him to travel to Asmara.

            I am trying to think when was the last time he actually met and become public any high lever US delegate, since Rumsfeld?

            This is more reason we have to speed up the GiE thing so the same envoy can speak and listen the other side.

            Saay: Can you please put moratorium or any other discussion with regards to GiE. It’s wonderful idea and I specially like the way Kaddis explained it, but we need focus in the formation of the government, as time is not in our side.

            There are too many unknown that can throw us off the rail (Ethiopia election and its outcome, Sudan / Ethiopia, Egypt/ Ethiopia, TPLF /Abiy)


          • Brhan

            Hi Berhe,
            The topic , in my understanding is , about cultures. Cultures are different as you know and what appropriate to someone can be normal to another one. But also you have the universal human body communication which is mainly on face and body. To sit by crossing your legs in an office in the West , like US can be normal ( in job interviews you are advised to sit straight) but if you do that in the Middle East, such as Egypt ,it is not. As the Turk officers (during Ottoman empire) were doing that and were not allowing natives to do that. It was a show of authority and power.
            So I do not know what the American will think about Isayas putting his hand.
            What I know is that during out youth times , among many acts, the act that we did to show that we are better than the other was putting our hands in our pockets. ክንፍሳሕ!

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Berhan,

            I am not disagreeing with you, but I think the point is what can we learn from the body language of IA on his meeting with the American Envoy and what it means.

            Let me stick to what I know. In Eritrean culture as far as I know, it’s not appropriate to greet an elder of someone of importance. It’s common to shake hands and even use your second hand to reaffirm. In Ethiopia I think it’s the same, they even go further and bow down. I have seen Abiy many occasions using that kind of greet.

            To me, the question is, did he wanted this meeting or is he forced to meet and he has no option but comply because of consequence.

            Now that he is forced to meet, then what happens next.


          • Brhan

            Hi Berhe,
            I wanted to continue in the discussion but I felt this sentence above is incomplete.
            “In Eritrean culture as far as I know, it’s not appropriate to greet an elder of someone of importance”
            If you can elaborate or rephrase, I will appreciate.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Berhan,

            You are correct. What I was saying “In Eritrean culture as far as I know, it’s not appropriate to greet an elder of someone of importance, with your hand in your pocket

            For example ንሰበይትኻ አቡአ (ሓሙኻ) ክበጽሕኻ እንተመጽዮም: ሓደ ኢድካ አብ ጁባኻ አእቲኻ ሰላም እንተኢልካዮም እንታይ ይመስሎም”. And what will be the price you will pay for it later:).

            So what’s the US / Ambassador will take IA hand in pocket greeting? If this was common in Eritrea (and the US embassy and their stuff knows this abs study this), it would mean nothing. “Oh it’s how they greet, it’s their culture” and moves on, yes harm done. But if it’s interpreted as, being “disrespectful”, you know where the discussion would head to.

            So what do you think ?

  • Abi

    Hello Residents and Visitors
    “The Second Era of the Princess” will not be achieved until the presenter of the article/ ነጋሪት matching his hairstyle with the former Princess. Of course, he is almost there. What is left is a ሹሩባ and a ponytail.
    Folks, it is time to search for an appropriate የፈረስ ሥም::
    የቀድሞ ንጉሦች በነጋሪት ነበር አዋጅ የሚያውጁት::

    “ይህ አዋጅ በነጋሪት ጋዜጣ ታትሞ ካልወጣ ተፈፃሚነት አይኖረውም” (የንጉሥ ዘመን አዋጅ)

    Some things never change…

    • Saleh Johar

      Hi About,
      Our Negarit announces childbirth, wedding, death and the like. It has other use s than ክተት::

      And the good intentioned focus on the message, not as if they are grooming consultants.

      Time changes and Haile would tell you the age of ሹርባ in this context , is Démodé:: those who live in that age better jump out of that age before they do more damages. Besides, the new princes at least can’t do it: the first can’t do ሹርባ even if he wanted, the other, the modern Rainman, is interested in copying the old princes’ modus operandi and not their looks.

      But I am sure neither a pony tail or ሹርባ will satisfy you since your goal will remain your goal no matter what.

      The age of princes on horses and mules are gone but if the presenter wished to have a mule, he would shop for one from the place where mules are in abundance.

      Indeed, somethings never change in places where mules lead dumber mules.

      Keep it up, just try hard to visit the 21st century every now and then.

      • Haile S.

        Selam Saleh and Abi

        እንዲመጣ ቢጠራ ሹርባ ተሰርቶ
        ኣቢን ኣሻፈረኝ ኣለ ሳሊሑ ሳይሰራ ቀርቶ
        እንግሊዝ ቢመጣ እራሱን ተላጭቶ
        እምቢ ኣለ ቴድሮስ ሹርባ ተሰርቶ

        • Saleh Johar

          See HaileS?
          I have a problem with cultures that extol leaders not on their contribution to their people but based on mundane traits like ሹርባ! I complied with culture and didn’t shave like the “low life English” but instead the culture would still not be happy until I groom like His imperial majesty seyume egzabher Tedros of Qwara nguse negest zetiopia (I am sure his title is more than that). ሹርባ it is, the best sign of peasant leadership —never mind enlightenment. Merci beaucoup!

  • Brhan

    Hello Awatistas

    Isayas Afeworki, the dictator (DIA), has just completed his two-day visit to Sudan ( Tuesday and Wednesday, May 4th and 5th, 2021). There is only one journalist Yemane Gebremeskel in Eritrea. We get only three or 4 line sentences about the visit in his Twitter reflected in Shabite. But in Sudan, thanks to its relatively remaining space of freedom of expression, the analysis of the visit primarily written in Arabic is abundant. Upon reading some of them, I would like to share with you these:

    The one who initiates the visit ( in our case DIA) says all about the visit: he has done it for his interest. As we say in Tigrinya, the visit came in what we say (ሞሾንቀቓ እናጸበበት ኢያ) or during the growing pressure of the international community against DIA not only due to his dictatorial rule in Eritrea but also his interference in Ethiopia. The visit is seen as DIA’s demonstration to show his relevance in the world politics.

    Most of the analysts said DIA would hardly provide a solution to the issue of GERD. The same with the case of Al-Fashaga. He wants Sudan and, of course, Egypt not to escalate the problem with Ethiopia when it comes to GERD.

    Escalation by Sudan means weakening A. Ahmed Ali and weakening the later means, destroying DIA’s attempt to get gains in his gamble in Tigray.

    So, DIA will deliver to A.Ahmed Ali Sudan’s precondition to keep things cool, and this, of course, can be that the latter’s step to the issue of filling of the water in June in a way satisfies Sudan. Will A. Ahmed Ali accept that? For DIA, it doesn’t matter. He is ok if the latter takes it. The most important thing is his interest.

    Back to the escalation issue: With or without Sudan, the situation in Tigray is already escalated, and all signs indicate, the resistance there will stay longer and stronger to give headaches to the Ethiopian government. But DIA understands that the Sudan and Egypt component will add hardships for the already weak Ethiopian government, which will negatively affect him. In my opinion, DIA, who has hardly any interest in GERD, will convince A. Ahmed Ali to do something to calm down Sudan. The latter will do it. He has been doing what DIA tells him to do since the start of the war in Tigray.

    If things escalate, DIA will find it hard to decide who he will support. With Ethiopia because of TPLF? Or with Sudan, and here not because of Eastern Sudan/ Western Eritrea hot issues, but because of his belief that his weighting in the Sudan and Ethiopia equation shows him the former is in a heavier position than the latter.

    Eritrean troops are close to Ethiopia- Sudan border( Oum Hajer side). God forbid if war erupts between the two countries, it won’t be only in the Al-Fashaga area but also can spread north and south. DIA will choose one thing. He will side with the stronger.

    A man who is not in harmony in his own house can’t help create peace among the neighbors. As simple as that one analyst put it.

    DIA knows GERD is a severe issue that the three countries have to find a win-win solution. In this, he is not different than the AU, USA, and EU

    All that DIA wants is Ethiopia and Sudan to calm down and not become a liability to his power.

    • Abi

      All I have to say is Thank you for your unwavering support .( I’m talking about ኢሱዬ: የቁርጥ ቀን ወዳጅ!!!)

      • Brhan

        Dictators go, what remains is people. Look at the wound he created and here I am not talking about Tigray ( as you don’t like it )but the Oromos killing the Amharas,your own people. I know now. You don’t care about your own people how can you care about Eritreans.

        • Abi

          My concern and priority is about my country before everything else. You can call me selfish. I accept it . I don’t pretend to care more about Eritrea before Ethiopia. I leave pretending for you. You can have it all. Just like what you are doing right now. Pretending to care for Amharas and Oromos or Tigreans. You are just using them for your wicked motives. Don’t fake it!
          I don’t mind supporting a devil itself if it is protecting and defending my country.

          • Brhan

            “I don’t mind supporting a devil itself …..” at least you acknowledged he is a devil. That is what we have been telling you for years.

          • Abi

            You have successfully demonstrated that you never pay attention!!!
            I didn’t say ኢሱዬ is a devil. Besides, your devil is not my devil. He has shown us ( only those who paid attention) that he can be a trusted ally and የቁርጥ ቀን ደራሽ!!!

          • Brhan

            By የቁርጥ ቀን ደራሽ you mean his troops to Oromia? I got it.

          • Abi

            His troops all over Ethiopia. What can I say? “The more the merrier “ .

          • Brhan

            ኢትዮጲያ ውስጥ ወንድ የሚባል የለም እንዴ? Shame on you!

          • Abi

            ትክክል ብለሃል ጌታው! እንዴት ተገለፀልህ? መቼም ልበ ብርሃን እኮ ነህ!! ለሌላው የተሰወረ ላንተ ይገለፅልሃል:: መታደል ነው አንተዬ!
            በትክክል እንዳስተዋልከው ኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ወንድ የለም:: ወንዶቹ ሁሉ ተሰደው አልቀዋል:: አሁን የጎረቤት አገር ወንዶች እየተበደርን ነው አገር የምናስጠብቀው:: እንዲህ ነው መልካም ጉርብትና:: አንዱ የተረፈውን ለሌለው እያካፈሉ ተረዳድቶ መተዳደር!
            እንዲህ ነው እንጂ ጉርብትና…

          • Brhan


            You said, ” There are no young men in Ethiopia. All of them fled Ethiopia and vanished. Now we are borrowing young men from a neighboring country (Eritrea) to protect Ethiopia.”

            You do not have to be sarcastic to end the discussion. Forget about me but find out why the Ethiopian government cannot stop OLF fighters from reaching A.Ababa and have to invite Eritrean troops to do the business. Ask yourself, what will happen if the Eritrean forces leave Ethiopia?

          • Abi

            As per your request I asked myself, “ what will happen if the Eritrean forces leave Ethiopia “?
            እንደ ክፉ ሰው ጥለውን ሊሄዱ? እንዲህማ አያደርጉም!! ነውር አይደለም እንዴ?
            አንደኛ ዙር ዘማቾች ሲመለሱ ሁለተኛ ዙር በቦታቸው ይተካሉ:: ሶስተኛ : አራተኛ…..
            በቃ ምን ልበልህ የኤርትራ ወታደር ኢትዮጵያን ለመጠበቅ ነው የተፈጠረው:: ረጅም እድሜና የተሟላ ጤና ለወዲ አፎም እንዲሰጥልን ፈጣሪን ጠዋትና ማታ መለመን ነው::
            የኢትዮጵያ የቁርጥ ቀን ወዳጅ አያንቀላፋም::
            የቕንየለይ ጀጋኑ!!

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            😂 😁😁
            Lol, @mohamedahmededris:disqus that’s true. Imagine ወያኔ ተመልሶ ቢመጣ አዲስባ:
            አቤት የሚኖሮው መራወጥ. It will be a never ending war for Eritrea, but there is an alternate. If you take away pride. Is pride one of the seven-sin?

          • Brhan

            Your wishes and deep prayers indicate that you do not agree with your PM የኣሕመድ ዓሊ ልጅ saying that the troops in Tigray are there to fight “scattered flour”.

          • Abi

            ምነው የጠቅላዩን ሥም መጥራት ፈራህ? አይዞህ ደፈር በል:: ወንድ ልጅ ታሞ እንጂ ፈርቶ አይሞትም!

          • Brhan

            You can’t even pronounce your PM’s full name correctly. Can you say and ? Lol

  • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ


    ፋሕ ጭንግራሕ ከም ተቓዋሚ
    ተበቲኑ ን’ከሉ ኣይፋል በሃሊ

    ዘየድምዕ ዘይጥርኑፍ
    ኣሉታዊ ጸቒጡ ኣዎንታዊ ዘጉልሕ
    ብዘይ መጠን

    ኣብ ክንዲ ሓበራዊ
    ኣብ ፍልልይ ዘዘንብል
    ናተይ ተዘይኴኑ ናትና ዘይብል
    ኣብ መውዳእትኡ ይርዕም
    ኣብ ናይ ህግደፍ ዘንቢል
    ንህግደፍ ከዕንግል
    ናብራ ንጹሃት ከመዛብል
    ብጽፍርና ይብል
    ደላዪ ፍትሒ ዶ መስታህብል?
    Well, it is easy ንዝተስተውዕል

    ብድኳነይ ክሽቅጥ ዝሓስብ መፍትሕ ማዕጾይ ስለዝመረተ: ንዘለኣለም ርጉጥ ‘ዩ።
    ዓማዊለይ: ኣብ ሕልና ዘጉደሉ መሳርሕተይ ክትውከሱ የማሕጽን።

  • Aman Y.

    Selam Saleh,

    Thank you for the history lesson of King Tewodros. I wonder why the Amhara people talk more of Tedros than Menilik. Menilik is the one who started to modernize the country. And did King Tewodros and Hatse Yohanness both have the same name Kassa? I

    You wrote, “thus in 1968, they freed the hostages who stayed in prison for two years” is date right.

    • Saleh Johar

      Hi Aman.
      No it’s a typo. Sorry, it is 1868.
      The tradition of Abyssinia is not about good or bad leaders, its other things that I will talk about in the next episodes

  • Bayan Negash

    Selam Memhir SGJ,

    Critically important undertaking. Please keep teaching. What this history lesson will call to question is that TPLF’s ascendancy to power was not for anything else but to become the ruler of the country, where, whoever wields the power owns the country and the people. At long last what you are teaching will help many see that ምቁንጃው ህውሓት will stop in its tracks, right here and right now. In the cemetery of ህውሓት, its epitaph now can read, it lived by the sword, died by the sword.

    Similarly, the other thing the history lesson you are offering will call to question is that Isaias’s aim of fighting for independence of Eritrea was nothing more than to own a territory. Thus, he too, fought to become a ruler, an atrocious ruler, indeed, he has been. So, as he has been living by the sword, he shall perish by it just asl his counterpart ህውሓት did.

    Looking forward to the next three installments, hopefully, more. Deeply indebted to your capacity to teach us all. What you have unleashed in 20 minutes to awaken our sensibilities is beyond compare. Now, what you have given us is a starting point so we may forge forth to do the region’s history on our own, thereby understanding it at a deeper level. The current situation of The Horn of Africa needs this kind of historical context that you kindly have started giving your audience, in earnest. Many thanks for that.

    • Haile S.

      Selam Beyan,

      ምቁንጃው ህውሓት is Epic! I can see the links you are making in history. It deserves an input. Because of workload, I will come back on it later in the day. I am also impatient to hear the 3 remaining parts. Saleh is tantalizing us like the Eritrean ministry of information (the top movie manufacturer in Ertrea) dividing every movie into 32 minutes every week, ማጨሎ for example will stay for another year.

      • Saleh Johar

        Now you irritated me, I will now present the parts every two months— you think the PFDJ are better 🙂

        • Reclaim Abyssinia

          Hi Saleh,
          This taken out from Tedros Theater. You and the lady agree in a lot of things, its online @disqus_OpSl7Ee8sN:disqus who is this lady?
          ያንድነት መቅሰፍት
          የኣገር ውርደት
          እናንተ ናችሁ
          የኢትዮጲያ የታሪክ ውርደት

          የቱን እውነት
          የቱን አንድንት
          ይሄ ትንቢት አለህ የሚሉት
          ይጎንደር ደብተራና የጠንቃዮች ሁከት

          ቴድሮስ የተባለ ይወለዳል
          የተከፋፈለች ኢትዮጵያ አንድ ያደረጋል

          የኣፍ ትምክተኞች አንድንት
          የኣፍ ትምክተኞች እውነት

        • Haile S.

          ሰላም ሳልሕ፡

          “” I will now present the parts every two months, ካብ ህግደፍ ኣይሓምቅን እየ “”

          ናይ ሓቂ እምበር ጌርካዮ 😁
          ካልኣይ ፈነወ ንዓ’ባ ኣምጽኣዮ!

          ብዙሕ እኮ ኣሎ ዝተደናገረ
          ዝመስሎ ቅድሚ 150 ዓመት ናይ ሰብ ኣንበጣ ከምዘይነበረ

          ሎሚ ንግሆ ዩቱብ ከፊተልካ
          ሓድሽ(?) ኣኽሱም መዲያ ርእየልካ

          ሓደ ኤርትራዊ ዕዱም ክብል ሰማዕክዎ
          ዝመስል ኤርትራ ዝብል ስም ጸላዕላዕ ኢልዎ
          ክብል “እንተ-ንምለስ ናብ ናይ ኣቦታትና እንታይ ኣለዎ”

          ዶኾን ስለዘይፈለጦ ከመይ ከምዝነበሩ ኣቦሓጎታቱ
          ዓመት ዓመት ከምዝነበሩ ብሰበ’ንበጣ ከምዝጉቦጡ
          መሲልዎ ዝነበረ ናብርኦም ዝሓሸ ካብዚ ናቱ

          እዚ “ዘለዓለማዊ” ሓበሻዊ ም’ፍላስ ንዓ ኣዘንትዎ ዳሕዳሓዮ
          ካባ-ተራኺ ተኸዲንካ ኣለኻ ብጽቡቕ ውደዮ

          • Saleh Johar

            ካልኣይ ክፋል አበ’ሎ ኢልካ ክትሓምየኒ ጭሩ ነጊራትኒ ተሃዊኸ ኣውጺአያ’ለኹ 🙂

            ኣንታ ሃይለ ምስ’ዞም ኣበዋትናን እመዋትናን እንታይ ድዩ ሽግረይ?
            ከምዛ utopia ገሮም እንድዯም ዝፍክሩላ! የብቅዓዯ ኢልካጸሊ እንተኽኢልካ:: ግደብልካን ክሱግም’የ::

          • Haile S.


            I just listned. Superb! I hope many will listen and read. መቐነይና ረኺብና. I will comment when the chapter come here.

    • Haile S.

      Selam Beyan,

      With your epic ምቁንጃው ህውሓት I guess I know where you are going! In other word ምቁንጃው-warlordism of a group that has been working day and night to expand its ethnic purity by transgressing territories and administrative zone. Based on what we hear on the media from some alliances that are being formed to bring change in Eritrea, the number of tigrigna speaking population is beating like an accordion: ትግራዎት 6 ሚልዮን ይኾኑ፡ ልዕሊ10 ሚልዮን ኸኣ ይኾኑ። It is becoming like trinity, ሥላሴ ሓደ ይኾኑ፡ ሰለስተ ይኾኑ, meaning they are interchangeable. The objective is to use language as a road to go back to Zemene Mesafnt (ዘመነ መሳፍንት) period when Tigray warlords claimed rule through invasion and forced taxation by the barrel of the gun. Devastation was their modus operandi.

      Saleh said Zemene Mesafnt still exists. Saleh is right, though for me in a different form. As a proof, as you reminded, we have our own warlord who uses the same instrument on his own people now at the time of modernity. Warlordism was and is being used as an instrument of war by these warlords. Even in 1868, the British warlordism was ignited to its epic proportion vandalizing the spiritual representations of the people it invaded. “After finishing Tewodros II, they went into a looting spree and emptied the region’s churches of artifacts and historical they found”, as Saleh said.

      But the real boundary-less Zemene Mesafnt ended on the ground, when the Scramble for Africa resulted in the formation of two distinct nations, a new Eritrea and a modern Ethiopia. Point à la ligne!

      If GiE is challenging GiP, it is precisely to maintain the internationally recognized two nations status. Then why would Eritreans work to bring into existence a protuberance inbetween something that never existed as a country, from a territory through ምቁንጃው ህውሓት and every lord that preceeded it in its fief?

  • Reclaim Abyssinia

    Thanks, Saleh, This story certainly has relevance to Eritrea.

    I think Napier was in the Gulf of Zula, not Adulis. “Colonel Mockler was in charge of relations with the Chiefs of the local tribes at Zula (a port on the coast in Eritrea) to keep communication and supply lines open.”
    The most expedition was through the Gulf of Zula, trade with the local was convenient and cheaper than using port Massawa, while Massawa was under the Ottoman-Turk/Egypt. The old name ‘Arkiko’ was a key place for the supply of drinking water to both, controlled by the local tribes, they never handed their resource to a foreign power, now it’s under the administration of Massawa by Asmerex.
    Locals stopped benefitting from their historic city, port and trade for more than half a century. Arkiko, is probably one of the oldest city and also the city that brutally attacked the most, by Abyssinian war-lords, Ethiopia (Haile Selassie), Ethiopia(Mengistu) Airforce, then by Ethiopia (Meles) Airforce.

    • Saleh Johar

      Hi Reclaim,
      Maybe it is, but Adulis and Gulf of zula are used interchangeably in most books I read. However, did you know that Zula is Adulis and the Gulf is named after it. I think 🙂

      NB: the local pet name for Adulis is Adzuli (Zula), research that if you are interested in further details. Also check the pier that Napier build and the start of the railway to Segeneiti.

      • Reclaim Abyssinia

        Hi Saleh,
        I think most of the journal by expeditions specifically distinguish between Messewa, Foro, Adulis, Zula, Arkiko, Irafelea,etc . I think most of the local books such as by some Ethiopian, and the TPxx elites like to associate all history with Adulis & Axum misleading a contemptible campaign on the wiki, to advance their own agenda. I am in the view that associating all events to Adulis possibly be misleading, but at the same time, I don’t know exactly where the pier was built, may need to dig into some journal.

        Some facts, Tewdros, killed brutally up to 50% of the Amhara people.
        Tewdros does not like the people hiding in the mountains, and caves like ገዳም & አለም በቃኝ & Churches.
        He was ambitious and visionary? but failed badly by not getting the support/collaboration he want it.
        Where would that book be that you showed us in a glance? Myst of the book, I hear that very rich in resource there is a secret of treasure. I heard that it’s now with IA. :😁

        I am still searching the Taranta,
        Ferret et Galinier. Journey from Massowah by the Taranta Pass to Adowa

        • Haile S.

          Selam Reclaim,

          Thank you for continuing looking Taranta. It looks it is written that way by everyone. Ferret and Galinier call it Tarenta, I believe. If you have read their book, have you noticed how they describe their first ገዓት dinner? It was hilarious. I will try to find and translate, if you haven’t.

          On the British railroad, I will leave the homework Saleh gave you, i.e to find the name of the place where the Pier was constructed. On the other end, the rail went up to Komayle river. Not sure if there is a village of same name there, but they went upto a little more than 100 meters above see level.

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            Bingo @salehjohar:disqus and Haile S

            A Matter of Prestige

            LIEUT-COLONEL R. S. HAWKINS, RE (Retd), MA, MIMechE

            ON the western shore of the Red Sea, 1,200 miles south of Suez, is the small trading port of Massawah. A further thirty miles south is Annesley Bay; a large-scale atlas might show the River Haddas and the unimportant town of Zula on the west.

            A century ago Zula was a miserable mud village on the river, but for a fantastic year in its history it gave its name to the base for an unbelievably modern military expedition.

            From time immemorial the Haddas had carved its way through barren country,
            and discharged its seasonal waters over a gently sloping beach into the Bay.

            The mean tide rose and fell 2½ ft, leaving 200 yds of filthy mud between high and low
            water marks on the dismal deserted shore; in the civilized world, nothing much else
            was known.

            In July 1867, Her Majesty’s Government enquired of the Government of Bombay how soon, if an invasion of Abyssinia were determined upon, a fully equipped and provisioned force could start from India.
            This request came as no surprise, because previous diplomatic negotiations were well known. The slightly mad and intransigent
            King Theodore, a Coptic Christian, held under duress a number of European prisoners, in the vicinity of Gondar and Magdala. The British Consul, Mr Cameron, had been held since January 1864; the others were HM Envoy Mr Rassam, his assistant Dr Blanc, four German missionaries, six “scripture-readers” and an assortment of wives, women and hangers-on.
            They were held as hostages at the whim of Theodore, sometimes free and well treated, sometimes incarcerated and
            even tortured!

            It was clear that, with British prestige at stake, a military force from India would inevitably be committed to effect the prisoners’ release. The C-in-C of the Bombay Army was the Engineer Officer, Sir Robert Napier, and he planned a force to consist basically of fourteen battalions of Infantry, four regiments of Cavalry, seven batteries
            of Artillery and seven companies of Sappers and Miners.
            The main body of this force was required to traverse 400 miles of mountainous, rocky, trackless and unmapped country to Magdala.

            Even before any practical landing place on the shore of Africa had been reconnoitred, and before any plans whatsoever for an Army base could be formulated, Sir Robert Napier, in August 1867, was instructed to launch and command an expedition from India.

            The chaos and bungling of the landing in the Crimea in 1854 had not
            been forgotten; Sir Robert had two great assets, his own personal brilliance, and the almost abject co-operation of HM Government in meeting his military demands in abundance.

            One result of this was the construction of the port and military base at Zula; another was the formation of the unique 10th Company, Royal Engineers.


          • Berhe Y

            Dear Reclaim,

            Sir Robert had two great assets, his own personal brilliance, and the almost abject co-operation of HM Government in meeting his military demands in abundance.

            This is the story that puzzles me when, people like you 🙂 (joking) make a claim that Abisinian from the land of Habesha (the highlands, starting from Eritrean highlands, Tigray and Amhara qey bahrachin) claim that they ruled the coast and the Red Sea.

            It was an engineering miracle to be able to travel through the mountains conduct meaningful trade.

            Haile S. said, most of the trade they claim were slaves, and some goods they can manage to carry on a mule or donkey.

            For the most part we were relegated in our mountains with little or no o dealings with outside world.

            As to Yohannes and his general Alula, now it’s clear to me why he become strong all the sudden after the fall of Tedros and they were making havoc in our region.

            Because he inherited the arms and supply of the British General, as he was betraying another emperor of his “country”.

            When Menlik in turn betrayed him to also become a ruler that the Tigray elite cry about.

            If you ask me, none of this “empire” ever existed in such degree that they brag about it. It was a mare village here and there.

            Now I believe when someone says, the first king ever to set a foot in the Redsea was Haile Selassie.


          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            Hi Berhe,
            Abyssinia, is full of juicy stories. We used to watch Theodros in Addis ‘Mazegaja’ Balach abanefeso Hager fiker.
            ቃል የእምነት እዳ እንጂ
            የእናት ያባት ኣይደለም
            እማማ ኢትዮጲ……..


            “The wife and child of Zalalu fared even worse than the Wadela people. This poor woman and her child were wrapped up in wax clothes and burned like candles.

            Their cries were heard for many miles around, and increased, if possible, the hatred and desire of vengeance of the already exasperated peasantry.
            6 In the history of the world there is no parallel case.

            It is true tyrants and despots have wantonly spilt human blood, great conquerors have overrun large tracts of country: out of 3,000,000 inhabitants he has destroyed more than a third by war, famine, and murder. Nero, Attila, Tamerlane, were lambs when compared to Theodorus. No man was ever so false, so treacherous-no man held fiiendly

            “I do not believe there is a more cowardly race
            than these Abyssinian rebels, who allow themselves to be butchered and
            plundered and have no pluck to attack their common enemy, against whom they
            might take a force of not less than 100,000 men (that is to say, if all join), and I
            am certain with the handful of men His Majesty has now, and the disgust every
            one has for him, he would not be able to hold his ground one day. The rebel chiefs
            talk very big, but do very little. We have not heard of the movements of Wakhum
            Gobaze since I last wrote to you in the beginning of this month; all his big talk
            about attacking the Emperor -and releasing the Bishop and myself and party has
            dwindled to nothing. One day we heard that he had made fiiends with the Walloo
            Gallas upon their promising to pay him tribute, and the next, it is reported that he
            had to retreat to Lasta for fear of the Gallas, who had gone to Yago to tu’n him out
            of it.”
            – Dr. Blanc writing of the same chief on the 18th July, 1867, says”

          • Abi

            Hello Reclaim
            “ቃል የእምነት እዳ እንጂ የእናት አባት ውርስ አይደለም”
            I watched that theater four Sundays in a row.

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            Thank you Abi,
            The good old day, ‘
            ባልቻ ኣባ ነብሶ’ was the first drama I watched. My uncle took me there, and I was sitting in the front row, and I still feel the spirit, the wind, the sound, the Italian soldier ‘አብራር?’, that was my hero.

            I think people misunderstand the importance of the making of a hero such as ‘አርበኞች’, ‘ቴድሮስ’. It’s important to twist the history a bit in order to make a role model for the children of the country. አበበ በቂላ፣ ምሩጽ ይፍጠር: ባንዲራችን አለም ላይ ሲውለበለብ and suddenly someone comes along ከገጠር and tells you, it’s ጨርቅ ነው: what the heck, አጥምቴም ይከስከስ ይተባለለት😱

          • Abi

            You are right the Italian soldier was አብራር አብዶ :: My favorite theater was “ጴጥሮስ ያቺን ሰዓት”::
            Fun fact
            የጀግናው ምሩጽ ይፍጠር ነጭ ፔጆ 305 ታርጋ ቁጥር አአ 00001 ነበር:: መኪናውን የሸለመው አቤሰሎም ነበር::

            We used to yell “ምሩጴ” every time we see him. የጉግማንጉግ ዘመን ሳይመጣ በፊት …

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            Hi Abi,
            I remember the car and his house. I used to think it was his house, but I heard that it is Kebele house. and The last time I heard that he was in Canada in government housing, doing it tough, i’m not sure what happened to the golden shoes. “የጉግማንጉግ “Lol.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Reclaim,

            Sad to say but he passed away couple of years ago. I think he was doing ok like everyone else, very friendly and enjoyed his time talking to everyone. He use to live in Asmara and he running started there before he made it to big.

            I think the Ethiopian community did a good farewell (it was during Abiy honeymoon) and send his remains hone in honor, which he deserved.


          • Abi

            ጀግኖቻችንን ሁልጊዜ እናስባቸዋለን!!

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            I hope so. He spent all his life in exile. I don’t know exactly what his problem was, but I suspect something to do with TPLF.


          • Berhe Y

            Dear Reclaim,

            I remember the advertisement on Saturday nights of those times. Theodros, Theodros… theatre. There was another one, የቨኒሱ ነጋዴ (merchant of Venus) We use to wonder, how long the show must be repeating every weekend.., it went on and. I did not know how big Addis population is or that people kept on watching it again and again. In Asmara theatre was not like that (it’s usually 2 shows or may be 4 if there is big demands) but nothing that one can brag about the story or the quality.

            When I see US (Hollywood) and India (Bollywood), I think it has contributed greatly for stability, nationalism and sense of pride, with a message of good (underdog) always wins against evil, in case of America and different cast or religion ended up United in India (where they use to be enemies).

            I think Ethiopian would have benefited a lot if such plan would have been worked at national level with clear purpose of unity, tolerance, respect and equality. But it can only happen by those who are in power and they wanted to see the best in their country and their people.

            Today I saw interview on France 24 where the guests were one women from Tigray, another man from Amhara and the third is from Oromo.

            What I can see is all of them were on the side of their own side and there is no regrets for the lives of the other side but blaming the other side for s the wrong doing. The women from Tigray was blaming the Aboy government and Eritrea, the guy from Amhara was blaming the TPLF, the guy from Oromo was blaming the Abiy government for the arrest of Jewar and others.

            I don’t know what is the long term solution, it seems nothing has changed.


          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            Hi Berhe,
            India movie also made a great deal of a contribution to the Entertainment of our era. Mother India, I am a disco dancer, etc USA ሳንቾና ቺስታው Drama how about Othello? @A@disqus_OpSl7Ee8sN:disqus Abi ‘ጴጥሮስ ያቺን ሰዓት’ I don’t know that, I probably left Ethiopia/Addis by then.
            I think the war and poverty, killed the country Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia. There was a good intention though (With Eritrea matter, Ethiopia attempt to bite off more than it can chew).
            It was beyond the capacity of the people especially during communism and all that. They don’t know how to deal with the circumstance they got caught up with. There was several elite Eritrean who could turn this around that were in high authority with Haile Sellasie, if there was peace.

            I believe they all got caught up with propaganda, and name-calling one another. We see some similarity now with Eritrea, they don’t know how to deal with the circumstance they got caught up with, they doing it the Mengistu way, and they don’t know how to get help, they are stuck.

            All this ethnic war of word you hear in Ethiopia is nothing, it will not go any further. Remember all the cream of the society (መረቁ ህዝብ) is out of the way since Woyanne took overpower. The Ethiopian የክፍለ ሃገር ልጆች are pushing it too much (መቆንጠጥ የድልዮም). It will be easy for the Ethiopian force to shape them up, but I don’t know for how long they have gone tolerate these kinds of disrespecting one another in a public arena. I got carried away..

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            Hi Haile @sa@salehjohar:disqus
            Can’t wait to post this till weekend, please see plan of port Zula 1868 from amazing royal engineering journal.
            ibb dot co/JFLhq9X

          • Haile S.

            Selam Reclaimicus abyssinicus,

            Thank you for the link to Royal Ingeneer Journal. I saw the images and the sketch of the plan on page 144. It is indeed amazing. It looks like a British UFO descended there, did something amazing, incomprehensible to the locals, then packed back taking eveything leaving the scratches on the soil.

            As the result, the ghost of the whole Zula base is still visible. If you go to google map or google earth and zoom at the dry river delta (labeled Alighede river on Google map) and surf along the shore, you will see a part of the northern pier still remaining. A little south of it, you can imagine where the second pier was. There is a doted regular symmetrical structure that apparently fell into the sea, probably part of the pier.

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            Yes Haile,
            Yeaaaa, I can see it clearly now. Wow, this is exciting. Need zooming all the way.


          • Haile S.


            And the exact place is known as Ras Malkato or Malkoto or Mankoto or something like that depending on the author, like Ras Kasar, Ras Dumeira and the many Rases that exist along the coast of the red sea. እዚኣ ወደሓንካ!

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            It looks like the expedition forces camping area still visible, or is that a farm? i’m i imagining it?

          • Haile S.


            It looks like a farm. But again needs investigation on site. Several thesis subjects can be produced there, when Eritreas administrators and politicians come out of their warlordism, understand the meaning of life, education and generation and sharing of knowledge. Can you imagine how many books and papers were written on the abyssinian campaign of 1868? The one you mentioned was published in 1970 and the subject is still of interest.

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            True, I think you can still publish a paper on it. Something that crosses my mind is with my recent visit to Addis, people say that Italy ደብሮት ነው የወጣው Now I can see that Napier ደብሮት ነው የወጣው ከዙላ
            They haven’t paid a penny for the use of the port, and probably underpaid the local that assisted, and the shame on Napier is that he left the area with nothing for the locals, he didn’t even build them a school, or fishery industry or anything valuable, I would call it ‘use and throw of ‘ The expedition of Napier’. amazingly his Engineering work is very much admired by all red-white-blue nations. I turndown PhD offer long ago, I’ll leave the publishing of the paper for you. May beeeeeee I should contact my palaeontology professor friend to seek some direction. However, It looks like there is a need to send some ሰደቃ money for the mosque in the area, ‘Eid mebruke’. It looks like a devastated little town.

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            Hi Haile,
            I had to quickly comment on the wikipage about Zula, look at what the ተጋሩ’s are claiming on the wiki. “an agreement was entered into by Dejazmach of Tigray,” ሙጃሊያም ደጅ አዝማች entering agreement about Zula.😁😱 እዋይ ክንደይ ይሕስው እዚዮም ምሁራት!!

            “In 1857, an agreement was entered into by Dejazmach of Tigray, in revolt against Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia, to cede Zula to the French. Agew Niguse was defeated by Emperor Tewodros, and the commander of a French cruiser sent to Annesley Bay in 1859 found the country in a state of anarchy.”

          • Haile S.

            Selam Reclaim,

            Yes ኣገው ንጉሴ aka ደጃች ንጉሴ Dejach Wubie’s nephew wrote letters to Napoleon III calling for the attention of France through the intermediary and collaboration of the catholic mission lead by Abba Di Jacobis. Negussie’s interest like all warlords was to obtain arms, the missions interest was creating a colony and converting the people to Catholicism or enlarging their followers. Rome/Vatican never slept from its plan for conversion by converting the king after the Portugese were chased away from Abyssinia by king Fassiledes. Almost all who came after him, especially the Mesafnt of Zemene Mesafnt were approached for conversion at different levels. The tantalizing plan was always I will help obtaining arms for you and you do this for me or ልፍንቲ or ምልፋን in tigrigna, donnant donnant in french.

            The french envoy Comandant Russel was not able to come in contact with Negussie for the agreement because Negussie was hiding from place to place chased by Tewodros II. Negussie was claiming authority that he was not able to establish. He controlled no land. He had the backing of the mission. At the end he was chased and killed by Tewodros. The plan of ceasing land to France never materialized. I don’t recall by whom (may be the same mission or not), even Ras Woldenkeal was approach for the same thing, but didn’t accept or materialize.

            Had the plan materialized your name would have been “Récupérer l’Abyssinie”.

            BTW, you might not have been following the site like you do now, but I had talked about this in comments 2 or 3 times in the past 4 years. I am becoming a fixture😊.

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            Selamat Haile

            A couple of points here

            1. Dejach Webi nephew wrote a letter to Napolieon III. Was the village Zula under the control of the warlords? I don’t want to refer to it as Abyssinia, as each warlord were not able to control beyond a couple of villages. I think they were too busy fighting each other. If there was any letter then I don’t believe it will have anything to do with the village Zula.

            2. Abba Di Jacobis, I think I read about him a while back, especially about the converted Saho ‘Irob’ and Bademe. I think at a time it was my finding that Bademe belongs to the Vatican, not Eritrea, nor Ethiopia. I think they both need to stay out of it and hand it over to the rightful owner of the Vatican.

            3. I like the name Récupérer l’Abyssinie! I was recommended to change my name to make it more relevant to Eritrea, I think I should take this to make it more rousseauistic.


          • Haile S.


            1 – Negussie could have been in the area as an outlaw feeling like he was controlling something, but he was hiding from Tewodros and moving from place to place.

            2 – I don’t understand the connection of Vatican and Badme. Yes, Abba di Jacobis resided first in Adwa, then in Alitena converting the Irob, then didn’t feel safe from Tewodros and run away to Halay and Hebo from where he was in communication with France and corresponded with Negussie.

            3 – you are baptized😁

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            1. Sounds like history repeating itself, with mechanised armament. @disqus_OpSl7Ee8sN:disqus chasing TP** Archaic war of Re-Claim-ation
            2. I think there was an agreement for the catholic priest to settle in the area the now Irob people lives. I think the intention was since all the other people are Christian and the lord of wars was not allowing him his teaching. But he endup signing an agreement to administer and take his teaching up North, which is the now ‘Bademe’
            3. The word babtise doesn’t fit well with my believes, may be I will pass on that.😁

          • Haile S.

            Good morning Reclaim,

            3 – I apologize for the transgression. I am one of the “Not afraid to burn in hell” to use Ron Reagan’s expression.

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            G’morning to you,
            1- አልሸሹም ዞር አሉ
            የአቅም ማጣት ሆኖበት ይሆን እንጂ: ድባቅ ነበር የሚያስገባቸው
            2-I think with your skill you can find out easily. That would liberate the people from being the meat in the sandwich.
            3- No need for an apology. Make that two, I have been there. Remember, if you live in the East Africa Heaven & Hell is on earth.

          • Abi

            I kind of missed the Heaven part. Where is it?

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            Hahaha Abi, Nice try, I won’t tell. 😜
            My heaven is full, If I tell you, you probably attempt to break in with the warlords, but I can tell you where your heaven is.
            It is right under your nose. Hard to see but it’s there. Best to ask your miss, she can tell you right there & then.

          • Saleh Johar

            Can you spare a space for me in your heaven? I am sure you can find one who sneaked in and expel him to make a space for me. If need be we can ask militia from the messaging to do the expulsion.

            Long live the prince (or prince) of war !

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            Absolutely Saleh,
            I will definitely make a room for you 🤫, but not the same way you proposed. You see as the proverb goes, ‘if you want to tell me about yourself tell me about your friend’ my dearest mum used to say that. I can see it’s already rubbing off 😢 from @Abi, በለው, አሳደው, ግደለው, አጥፋው፣ አርክብ ሳሓብ ክተት. you have been hanging around with naughty naughty boy, 👦 I will tell on you to mama Eritrea, her heaven is next door from my heaven. She sent you a message, she said you are doing a good job for her resurrection.👌

            BTW, here’s the link for the Zula port design work by team Napier.

          • Saleh Johar

            In Eritrea, the proverb is popular in its Italian version, “Dimmi con chi vai e ti dirò chi sei”. Many cultures have a version of it in their local languages. I would like to replace your version with its opposite which I believe is more appropriate: “if you want to tell me about yourself, tell me who hates you”.

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            Hello SJ, The only Italian I learnt in Asmara is ‘ቴስታ ዲካሶ’
            My granduncle used to say it a lot, I thought it was someone else firstname.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Reclaim,

            It is a very bad word. ጾም ምድሪ ሰብ ኣይተሕጥእ! Let me give you a hint. But by saying it “firstname”, it looks like you had an idea. It can be. It was the nickname for Richard before Rick replaced it.

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            Selam Haile,
            I hope you having a nice weekend. I know what it mean. It was very standard for AsmerX in Asmara, like Harar & Dire እናትህ this እናትህ that, but it doesn’t mean offence to anyone or anything to that effect.
            Lol, it’s even edited, I found it to be funny, My upbringing is from the socialist era, and I don’t think I will be refrained by “ጾም ምድሪ”

            Its ok, may be ብጰጋምካ ተሲእኻ ዲኻ ®
            Have you seen the version 3 flowchart?

          • Haile S.

            Selam Reclaim,

            No worries😊, left and right is the same here. The socialist era is a large chunk of my upbringing too. It looks we share the same era. But, I was conscious & well built thought wise to swallow that ideology. More importantly, we both seem to be shock resistants to the same degree.

            Your flowchart looks good. I didn’t understand the purpose of the yellow lines and arrows.

          • Reclaim Abyssinia

            Hi Haile,
            I think there are a lot of professionals who probably interested in participation but wouldn’t attend a meeting.
            Maybe they will send a friend, a representative, etc. So the yellow line intention is to allow a back and forth process, but it need some improvements, it’s getting crowded.

          • Abi

            አሁንማ ቀዝቅዘን Abi Light ሆነናል:)

          • Abi

            You have always been a light fixture.
            Always shading light!!!
            አብሪ ኮኮብ!

  • Brhan

    Thanks Saleh for the episode
    THave you come across the story of Tedros’s final hours. It is fascinating, and it is like this:

    The gun used by Napier was new to Tedros. He has never known that there will be such a gun, so powerful. At that time, for him, it was like the Atomic bomb that made Japan surrender in World War 2. Upon hearing its blast, he said, “ዛሬ ከኣምላክ ጋር ነው የተጣላሁት.”