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David and Goliath Not a Myth

As a reaction to what appeared on Negarit yesterday under the title,  “Eritrea, the not-so-tiny-Tiny Country, Haile S., an active awate forum member made the comments below that we found worthy of more exposure. Haile built on what appeared on Negarit and expounded on it with additional, and new, explanations regarding what ails Eritrea. His addendum will certainly enrich the original article and invigorates the debate.

The most pleasing thing for a writer is when a reader provides feedback, or input, that surpasses the importance of the original article. Haile’s comments are far superior to the original article and the author thanks him. We have provided links to the Negarit article because we believe, as a commentator suggested, both should are complimentary of each other and should be read as one–Haile’s post provides an added value to the topic.

We are hereby presenting Haile’s post with minor edits. We appreciate Haile’s rejoinder and we are thankful to him. The following are Haile’s thoughts on the topic///Awatestaff
____________________

Saleh, you are in your elements of justified sublime pride of Eritrea and your Keren, and you have all the reasons to spell the grandeur of both. I am here not to challenge you, but rather to expand and add some of the reasons that glued this adjective to Eritrea.

Our regime and ourselves are the first culpable.

A) we made Ethiopia a Goliath to win big, but we discontinued becoming David.

B) we said we never kneel down, but we stopped rising up.

C) we said we are proud, but just inflated our chest, but forgot Eritrea’s chest.

D) we said we have over 1000 kilometers of the sea coast, but functionally we downsized it a swimming pool.

  1. E) we let our young migrate and be exiled in-masse as if their country doesn’t have land that produces a single grain to sustain them.F) we have hundreds of specialized exiled Doctors and nurses but the Eritrean regime IS NOT capable of attracting them, instead it distances the little it produces, and it borrows fresh graduates from yesterday’s Goliath of our country.G) we feel proud to show our colonizers Art-deco in Asmara & recently in Keren, but we never built our own symbols of independence, pride, and labor. We rehabilitate railways, wagons and steam engine that deserve to be displayed in a museum, not to ride on.

H) we complain about being the victims of everybody, but we never came together to first reflect on our self-victimization and to own our failures and build upon them.

I) we haven’t truly embraced our diversity. What made Eritrea what it is, is its diverse population, but we constantly undo the little cohesion that starts to grow, by looking to other transborder kinships. So, the outsider sees our tiny fragmentations. Why would they consider us big when we fragment and want to adhere to the big neighborhood?

J) our regime is the tiniest in the world, with no ambition for itself, for the country, for its people and most importantly, for its youth. It prides itself in making its citizens labor for nothing till the nails crack, instead of letting them labor for their own and for their country’s good. The Eritrean regime has ministers who are still learning to be ministers, for the last 27 years. Responsibility is parenthood, yet, our ministries and administrations look like sterile parents.

K) Many of our citizens are shy (putting it nicely) to say they are from Eritrea. I know acquaintances who systematically answer, “I am from East Africa” when asked where they are from, instead of answering proudly that they’re from Eritrea. Instead of googling it on their cellphone to show anyone who asks them doesn’t know about Eritrea–which is mostly the case. Needless to mention, the use of ‘tiny’ by those who wanted us to disappear as a country.

Finally, Eritrea is considered tiny because it is in a standstill tiny-economy since it was a province of Ethiopia. Instead of growing it is suffering from citizen and youth-pyrosis.

Yes, Saleh, I agree with you Eritrea is the 99th biggest country in the world had it not been for the regime’s and our own fault.

Here’s the link to the original Negarit post: “Eritrea, the not-so-tiny-Tiny Country,

About Haile S.

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  • Kokhob Selam

    Dear Haile S,

    Thank you for this nice article..Late, but perfectly I read this article today,,how nice!! Keep it up please,

    KS,,

  • Paulos

    ሰላም ብሩኻት ህዝበይ,

    ሓዳስ ኤርትራ ከምዚ ዝስዕብ ኣርእስቲ ዘለዎ ዜና ዘርጊሓ: “ሽኮር ከም ማዓር ኣምሲሎም ከታልሉ ዝጸንሑ ሰባት ኣብ ትሕቲ ቐይዲ ኣትዮም.”

    In the picture, six of them look very young—probably in their 20s. As much as the scam they pulled sounds funny and ridiculous, one can’t help it but wonder if the regime could be held accountable for the same reason not of course for selling honey when it is not but for cheating and lying to the people for the last two decades about things one can’t even begin counting.

  • Nitricc

    Hi All: There is a perfect storm brewing All: There is a perfect storm brewing, a storm of change for Eritrea. I know some people are frustrated from lack of information and what you are experiencing out of Eritrea is the calm before the storm. It will be interesting how you people handling it. I hope it will be better than the peace process with Ethiopia. Some of you will be depressed because the change is made by the very government you hate is made but be happy for the people and the country.

    • Haile S.

      Dear Moderator,
      Allow me to break the rules, because I don’t have WORDS for the waiting f Nitricc’s prediction.
      https://youtu.be/BMz1-Kgz_DI
      Thank you for allowing this.

    • Hashela

      Nitricc

      The sunflowers are bending toward the Palace. The wind is unusually warm and
      pleasant. Even those damn with a permanent deafness are regaining their hearing
      and joyously harking the mystical and distant chants of young choirboys, heralding the eminent change. Our dependence on the weak luminosity
      and ridiculously short longevity of our celestial star and the diurnal cycle,
      to which our home planet is subjected, will be soon history! Soon we, the noisy
      and ungrateful, will be blessed with our own luminous and eternal Star. For our
      well-being and defying fundamental laws of physics, our star is pleasantly cold
      and protectively dark in the inside and illuminates the periphery that we are
      myopically trying to define.

  • Paulos

    Selam My Good People,

    Anybody watching Super-Bowl? Ram’s Quarterback sucks! Defence are superb though. I wish Saints played Patriots instead.

  • Hameed Al-Arabi

    Hi Awates,

    As all of us perceive, the Eritrean people are passing through a very critical situation, by all measures it is a testing period. The pressing indigence, that is required urgently from all Eritreans around the world, is to detach themselves being passives acted upon them. There are many alternatives with expansive grounds that could give them broad spaces that could enable them to play the game smartly and effectively. A lot of opportunities that could make them initiators who could outstrip their enemies by performing their homework in time. It is not only a must, but compulsory for Eritreans to knock international doors that Dr. Meddamar already head-away from them and started, in his tours to Europe, to set a bedrock to execute his dubious agendas. There are a lot of examples that underpin Eritrean worries. Those critical concerns should activate them to take action promptly before the Ethiopian guy, Dr. Meddamar, and his friend, Isaias, go far and make them victims by their destructive conspiracies against the Eritrean sovereignty. The Eritrean people should swiftly act on two levels, the international and national level.

    On the international level various activities could be undertaken by Diaspora Eritreans, it would be very effective if it is in unison. The top-priority and immediate action should be holding rallies and presenting messages of refusal to UN, AU, EU, Arab League, Non-Aligned Countries Organization, Somali, Djibouti, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emarets, Ethiopia and key countries in the world, regarding the suspicious schemes Isaias and Dr. Meddamar are weaving in the dark. The people of Eritrea have no information about the secret pacts, integrations, Ethiopian naval bases in Red Sea, and Ethiopian Custom Offices in Massawa and Asseb. It is feasible to remind the governments of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emarets and Somali about their stand with the just cause of the Eritrean people struggle during the liberation period. They should draw their attention about the questionable activities and upshot that is on cook without knowledge and consent of the Eritrean people.

    The Eritrean people fears are not baseless and without reason. Their concerns are substantiated by a lot of self-explanatory indications that do not require any more explanation. Here below are some examples:

    1) In a live transmitted dinner occasion held in honor of Dr. Meddamar visit to Asmara, Ethiopian Prime Minister requested from Isaias to be the foreign minister of Eritrea.

    2) In Awassa, Ethiopia, Isaias relinquished all his responsibilities to Dr. Meddamar. Eritreans who witnessed that horrible scene were shocked from what they watch and hear. It is incredible to hear this from the president of a sovereign country. I think, gifting of presidency and nation to another country leadership never occurred in the history of mankind.

    3) Dr. Meddamar – who came to Eritrea with the intention of border demarcation arrangements in accordance to his admittance for the Eritrean-Ethiopian Boundary Commission ruling without terms – at least to many observers, has declared that love has no border, that plainly imply no border demarcation.

    4) The undisclosed pact convened in Jeddah between Isaias and Dr. Meddamar.

    5) The founding of Ethiopian Naval Base in Eritrea.

    6) Opening Ethiopian Custom Offices in Massawa and Asseb.

    7) Somali Parliament members accused their leader, Fermajo, for national betrayal after his meeting with Isias and Dr. Meddamar in Gonder without awareness of Somali parliament about agendas discussed. Since that date, Dr. Abi Meddamar has outset to employ Djibouti name as a mask to his crooked plan.

    8) Dr. Meddamar said in a press conference with the Italian Prime Minister, without the presence of any Eritrean representative, that he plans to spread a railway from Massawa to Addis Ababa.

    9) In his meeting with his diplomats around the world, Dr. Meddamar has spoken about one country and two states where he stuffed Djibouti to cover his dubious project.

    10) Dr. Meddamar and Isaias activities and equivocal signals intelligibly reflected upon the people of Ethiopia and his diplomats around the world. For instance, Dr. Meddamar embassy in London posted in its blog a photo of a solid-map of Eritrea and Ethiopia covered by the Ethiopian flag, in a clear transgression to the Eritrean sovereignty. Eritreans around the world condemned this behavior by commenting on the blog, but the embassy didn’t remove its disgraceful photo for 24 hours. On the second day they removed the photo and comments, because Eritreans’ reaction was very strong that displays Ethiopian plan didn’t pass smoothly. They closed the comments section to continue witch-hunt and propagate that the people of Eritrea embraced integration with great joy and love, depending on videos they have accumulated under threat of gun during visits of Dr. Meddamar to Eritrea.

    Eritreans could employ the above and many more instances and knock on all doors around the world. They could also show their protest by standing and submitting memoranda to international organizations and embassies. They should highlight that all pacts and agreements convened with Isiaias are null and void. Isaias doesn’t represent the people of Eritrea. He is ruling the country without constitution and rule of law for twenty-seven years. It is irrational for a notorious refugee producer to be a peace-maker in the region. We have also to remind, he is condemned for his atrocities against humanity by the United Nations Human Rights Commission.

    On the national level, Eritreans should coin a new slogan that great majority of Eritreans could rally behind. The old names could keep them for history and endeavor to go along with timely new challenges. I think, it is time to move on. Historical names and slogans could make us hostages of the past periods of our history and hamper us from being abreast with present challenges and envision the future clearly. The new slogan I propose, which I think goes with our present national call, is: ERITREAN SOVEREIGNTY SAFEGUARD REVOLUTION (ASSER). I have made some changes in the abbreviation to fit Eritrean languages and to be with strong connotation for mobilization, ASSER Martyrs.

    The second very important issue and timely requirement is formation of TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT IN EXILE and this is due to many rational reasons:
    A) In the near past, we were saying Eritrea is without constitution, parliament, the rule of law, freedom of speech and wide spread injustices. Now, after Isaias has gifted his presidency to Dr. Meddamar (ብዘይ ቃልዓለም), Eritrea has become without a president and government. As all of us know, Isaias has passed all his responsibilities to Dr. Meddamar. This guy, Dr. Meddamar, has come to leadership position in Ethiopia through parliament assignment, but the people of Eritrea don’t know on what bases he speaks about Eritrea and Eritreans.

    B) The name transitional government in exile is much important and functional at the present than Council, Front or Party.

    C) It will be more effective if the head of the transitional government in exile is a well-polished charismatic female who infatuates team work. For sure, she will get sympathy and ear from the international community than a male leader. Furthermore, in order to manifest for the cadger that we care more than him for females by putting one of our females in an executive position. It is also a new experience for Eritreans that would assist them gather under one umbrella. Verily, any change in the mindset of Eritreans is very helpful for our present struggle.

    D) There is one crucial point all Eritreans to remember, it is very important to differentiate between revolution and party periods. In the former period all should struggle in unison, and in the later period competition of parties is allowed and encouraged by all. The Eritrean people should learn from the grave mistakes that occurred during the struggle era, where fronts mixed revolution and party periods, that mistaken mixing resulted in our severe sufferance of today.

    E) Regarding roadmap, present revolution could apply the Eritrean National Democratic Council roadmap. All parties and Fronts could join the Transitional National council where they could elect, counsel and rectify the transitional government in exile. I suggest the executive body to be composed from our youth who are raised and educated in Diaspora and the transitional council to be constituted from all fronts, parties and youth. I hope, the Eritrean National Democratic Council to be in the lead of formation the transitional government and council in exile.

    If Awate had waited until the influence of all, he wouldn’t have ignited the revolution to the present day. This is an encouraging signal that drives all of us to act promptly on the international level, and take massive steps towards rectifying the national level. There is a vacuum of government and presidency in Eritrea that should be filled quickly in order to safeguard Eritrean Sovereignty.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pm0TgwQfxso
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZS7Om3CkbWQ
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gLnK9ePzZ4
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pvxolU8atis

    Al-Arabi

    • Mez

      Good day Alarabi,

      Interesting observations.

      The only problem I see is in the solution package: “… the executive body to be composed from our youth who are raised and educated in Diaspora….”

      This seems like parachuting of “miracle solutions ” from outside.

      I assume political dynamics is fluid and alludes the participation of everyone. The key solution would have to come from within; and likely from the independent era generatuon.

      Thsnks

      • Hameed Al-Arabi

        Good Morning Mez,

        I have preferred these section of our people: 1- They will be well educated and less influenced by conflicts of the past. 2- They know how to approach the world they brought up in more than others. 3- They probably don’t have deep rooted grudge against others in fronts or parties, free of old ailments.

        I think I have mentioned regarding competition and participation dynamics. This is not a competition period; it is a period where we should push forward the smartest ones to lead this critical period. Our dynamics should be employed to come off our dilemma. All could participate actively in the transitional council and make policies for the present and future, and at the same time direct and control the executive body.

        It is just an opinion, and it is open for all to present their opinions where at the end of the day the people of Eritrea could choose the best opinions and employ them for their interests.

        Al-Arabi

  • Saleh Johar

    Hi Haile,
    Yousif shaheed is a reknowned producer but his works on history are all sanitized and over dramatized. They look nothing like the real history. The problem in the Arab world is to inability to break the lie that Arab customs, traditions, and imperial escapades are not religious doctrines but human. In that they have been very smart and made the two appear as an inseparable parcel. That is my problem with Destiny and Salahadim, both successful and impressive cinematic Works of shaheen. The only mperislusts were just like any other brute, including Napoleon, Stalin, minelik, , etc.

  • Paulos

    Selam Professor A Hidrat and All,

    I just saw your added comment about Fats, Proteins, Isulin and ATP. My apologies. And further apologies if this is too much for Awatistas taste.

    If we start with Insulin, we see that it is one odd man out with in a sea of Hormones where everything it does stands in a sharp contrast to what all the other Hormones do. For instance, when the main role and mandate of the rest of hormones, as in Cortisone, Glucagone is for catabolism [They break down sort of a building if you will as opposed to constructing a building], the role of Insulin on the other hand is building or constructing instead. And from a strategic point of view, Cortison, Adrinaline and Glucagon see Insuline as an enemy and they try to suppress it all the time.

    Consider this: When we are hungry, it is the Glucagon that gets invoked by the body to come out and demolish all the stored energy mostly Glycogen [It is a polymer of Glucose–as in when we had excess Glucose, the body would connect all the extra Glucose like a chain and stores them, say, in muscles where their name is changed from Glucose to Glycogen] and in the meantime, it would suppress Insulin for what the body needs is not to store energy but to utilise the stored energy. The Glucagon would go to the muscles and brings out the Glucagon and breaks it down into Glucose and the body uses the Glucose the same way that we saw in the previous thread.

    But the thing is, what if the hunger is extended, say, to a day or two and all the stored Glycogen are used up? Well, the body would shift to using Fats! As you know Fats are a series of Hydrogen and Carbon attached together in a long chain. And as you can see if there are over 50 or more Hydrogen bound to Carbon, this means the body can harvest more energy, again by the same mechanism we discussed before. That is the reason, we say, Fats have more energy and help us survive during extended starvation.

    The body certainly prioritise its strategic usage of all the sources of energy. Particularly, its number one goal is to keep the brain alive and the fact that, the brain can only use Glucose for energy, the body has to convert everything and anything to Glucose including all the Fats and Proteins. Now, the next obvious question is, what if all the Fats are used up? Well, the last resort is to use the stored Protein. When we say the stored Protein, what it means is that, the Hormones as in Cortisone in particular starts breaking down the muscles themselves—that is the reason, people who are starved for a long time look like with no muscles what so ever–emaciated.

    Protein is unique in the sense that, not only it is made up of Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Carbon but it has Nitrogen in it as well. And as you know, Nitrogen is not a fun stuff, it is toxic. But again, when the body breaks down the muscles [Protein in this case as a last resort], the Liver in particular converts the accumulated Nitrogen which is in the form of Ammonia [which is extremely toxic] to Urea which is harmless [And imagine what happens to people with a Liver failure and unable to convert Ammonia to Urea—that is the reason they die of toxicity.]

    Whether it is Glucose [Carbs], Fats or Protein, the purpose of the body is the same–to use all the Hydrogen in each of them and use it for energy!

    How the Hydrogen is converted to ATP is a bit complicated but as you know the Mitochondria within the cell is where all the energy harvesting takes place. ATP stands for Adenosine Tri-Phosphate and as you can see, three Phospates are bound to Oxygen and an Adenosine is there sort of as an anchor. But the fact that Oxygen is highly reactive and unstable, the bond between the Oxygen and the three Phospates is extremely tense. This means that, every time any of the three Phospates breaks free from the Oxygen, a huge energy is released and that is the reason, ATP is called the energy currency of the body.

    But the question is, what triggers the Phosphate to snap out of the bond? Well, the Hormones do that, when they sense that, the body is in a starving mode. We said however that, it is the harvesting of the Hydrogen that drives the system to get more energy and how is ATP and Hydrogen harvesting are related, one might ask. Well, when ATP loses a single Phosphate [It becomes ADP–Adenosine di-Phosphate–only two Phosphates], it has to replenish otherwise the body would not survive and the way it does is through a process called, “Oxidative Phosphorylation.” As you can see, it is “Oxidative” and “Phosphorylation.” This means that, if you remember from the previous thread we said that, the ever hungry Oxygen happily grabs the falling Hydrogen, and that process is called “Oxidative” and in the meantime, when the Oxygen grabs the falling Hydrogen, one Phosphate is added to the ADP and becomes ATP—and hence “Oxidative Phosphorylation.” And the process goes on in a circle again and again as long as the person is alive.

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Merhaba Dr Paulos,

      Well done Doctore, and thank you. I wish you have done this in the colleges and universities of Eritrea, for our young generation. With all this kind of brain drain of human resource, our country is always at disadvantage to compete in the region. Very sad story.

  • Hayat Adem

    Dear Awatistas,
    I am in my moment of generousness so I want to share this so so totally funny and perfect impersonation with you. You are welcome!
    https://youtu.be/xIBiq09WoeY

  • Paulos

    Selam Hailat,

    Yea heard great deal about that guy. I haven’t read his book but there was some sort of heated debate about the veracity of the book between him and another Historian [Ethiopian] dude to the extent of the author accusing of the latter of jealousy. Talk about conflict of personality and egos.

    The interesting is that the book came out when the ethnic tension in Ethiopia was flaring up so much so that, the theme of the book is that, the Amharas and the Oromo trace their origin from the same mother. That is where the critics started breathing on his neck when they dismissed the whole thing as a nutty mythology. But the guy is tough and held his ground.

  • said

    Greetings
    EXCELLENT ARTICLE: Trump’s Brilliant Strategy to Dismember U.S. Dollar.
    An Excellent Sweeping Article by Michael Hudson, a very-well informed author that Must be Thoroughly and Painstakingly read. Quite Frightening the US’ hold on the countries of the World’s economic and financial fate made possible by the Supranational Institutions of the IMF and the World Bank beside the US Dollar made the World’s sole reserve currency and the dominance of the American Financial System. It is all politicized and as is well elaborated in this Excellent Most Revealing Article, what you have in Washington is out of order-like polity never shy of twisting and breaking the rules to suit Washington Polity’s ideological and political whims with impunity. This explains China and European are in urgency for the world to seek an alternative Financial System and the creation of alternate method of payments and new reserve currencies. Link to the article
    https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/02/01/trumps-brilliant-strategy-to-dismember-u-s-dollar-hegemony/

  • Paulos

    Selam My Good People,

    I am trying to figure out the Tigrinya equivalent for “Water Chemistry” as I try to comment on it. Would you say it is too convoluted for a translation if I say, ናይ ማይ ስነ-ቅመማዊ ፍጥረት ወይ’ካኣ መጽናዕቲ? More over, one of the difficulties in commenting on something is that, you sort of not sure where to start for the issue at hand could as well be pretty broad and comprehensive but will give it a try and start with the French Revolution.

    ማይን ሰውራ ፈረንሳን እንታይ ኣራኸቦም you might ask, well, not much to be honest, but a guy who was a victim of the Revolution was the very person with in the annals of Science who first clearly understood not only the nature of water but gave us its exact composition as well—Antoine Lavoisier.

    “It took them only a moment to cut off his head, and one hundred years might not be enough to produce a person like him” famously lamented Lagrange the mathematician, when Lavoisier headed to the Guillotine in the company of another victim who gave us the idea of “Human Progress”—Marquis de Condorcet who wrote his Magnum Opus while he was in prison. It is one of the ironies of history when the Revolution was the product of the Enlightenment where Reason replaced religious dogmas and the Divine Rights of Kings, the Revolution turned on the very people who rode on the mantle of Enlightenment and gave us the Modern Science as we know it today.

    But of course we are getting ahead of ourselves. If Lavoisier set in motion the very foundations of Modern Chemistry, it is because he had stood on the shoulders of giants. Before we go into that though, what is it about water so much so that not only it takes the center stage of the natural world, the planet we live in is known or called “Water Planet” as well, for it is the only planet that we know of so far, with in the solar system with huge chunk of it is water.

    70% percent of Earth’s surface is covered with oceans and seas. Here is the rub though: only 2.5% of it is fresh water where we rely on to live and function. It gets even more strange when 2/3 of the 2.5% is locked in ice caps and glaciers. More over, the remaining 1/3 is more often inaccessible for it lies in underground aquifers.

    The 70% water-surface has had an impact on the disparity in landscapes and vegetation with distinct identity when, for instance, the heat dispersal from the oceans creates gradients as it goes from the Equator to the North-Pole where the heat gets colder and denser and the landscape and vegetation changes with it in the meantime—Tundra with scant rainfall in the far North; Taiga with corniferous trees as we move downward; Temperate Zone with ample rainfall as we move toward the Equator. It was with in this disparity in landscape that the first civilization came to the fore when settlement started in lake shores and river banks where the Tigris and Euphrates in Sumaria, Yellow River in China and the Nile in Egypt are testaments to that effect.*

    As it happens, the human body shares the same thing with the surface of Earth where our body is 60% fluid or water as the rule of thumb 60-40-20 dictates. 40% of the 60% is extracellular [outside of the cells as in in the arteries and veins] and 20% is intracellular [inside the cells.] More over, the distinct nature of water plays a vital role where not only it can be found in three states [Liquid, Solid and Vapour or Gas] but it has an incredible ability of absorbing heat as in Heat-Capacity, for if it wasn’t for its high heat capacity, planet Earth would’ve been a fried planet like Venus, for instance. It is also a universal solvent where it plays a critical role in human body as such.

    Back to the curious minds who lived way before Lavasoure. It was the classical Greeks, Thales, Anaximenes and Empedocles among others who postulated if the natural world was made of four fundamental entities–Earth, Water, Air and Fire. Empedocles, in particular, argued in favour of water as the principal entity of matter on account of water’s ability to transmutate from liquid to ice and gas. But the question remained to be tantalising when the fundamental components of water remained elusive. The curiosity became more pervasive across not among Chemists but among men who were determined to turn a metal as in Iron, Copper or Zinc into Gold—-The Alchemists. Their success was limited to turning Copper to Bronze when they mixed Copper with Tin. And Bronze was so much more stronger that, the era is called Bronze Age. The same with Steel, they mixed Iron ore with charcoal-coal and the result was Steele** but again, they couldn’t get around to the fundamentals of water. This was until the Alchemist tradition was replaced with the pioneers of Chemistry—Joseph Priestly, Robert Boyle, Henry Cavendish and Antoine Lavoisier and the nature of water was unraveled subsequently.

    Before they delved into the fundamentals of water however, Joseph Priestley, in particular, struggled to understand the nature of fire so much so that, he came up with a rather strange theory otherwise known as “Phlogiston Theory” where he reasoned that matter is inherently combustible but his theory failed to provide the reason what makes matter burn. Interestingly enough, he discovered Oxygen through a smart experiment when he put a mercury under a glass and subjected the glass to Sun-rays and to his surprise, the mercury started to vaporize and an astute experimenter that he was, he noticed a nearby burning candle becoming more bright as it came in contact with the vapour-gas that came off the mercury. He was puzzled and repeated the experiment using a mouse instead of a candle. What happened next was that, he gave the strange gas to a mouse caged in a glass and the mouse didn’t die but another caged mouse with no access to the gas died. He named the new gas, Oxygen but again he failed to understand that it was the same gas that makes things burn but was determined not to give up his “Phlogiston Theory.”

    The other half of water which is Hydrogen wasn’t discovered until Henry Cavendish in another clever experiment poured Sulfuric-Acid [H2SO4] on to different metals as in iron or zinc and he collected the gas that came out as a result and when he brought the collected gas close to a fire, the gas turned blue. He named the gas [inflammable gas]–Hydrogen.

    What is so remarkable about the two main molecules that make up water—Oxygen and Hydrogen is that, they are both flammable but they give us water which is the center of what we call natural world. It was Antoine Lavoisier who is considered as the father of Modern Chemistry who gave the last touch to the mystery of water when he discovered that, the molecular composition was one Oxygen and two Hydrogen as in 2:1.

    *”Water: The Epic Struggle For Wealth, Power And Civilization.” Steven Solomon.

    **”Mystery Of Periodic Table.” Benjamin Winer.

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Selam Dr Paulos,

      Thank you for highlighting the evolutionary history of Science in general and chemistry in particular, and the dialectical relationship of the “French Revolution” and “science” through the father of chemistry Antoine Lavoisier. Well done brother.

      The chemistry of water = ስነ-ቅመማዊ ህዋሳት ማይ

      • Paulos

        Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

        Glad you like it and thanks for the translation. Was going to expand it a bit more but as you know, it is kind of a chain reaction where one idea leads to other then it becomes all over and cluttered. Thanks again.

        • Haile S.

          Paul et al,

          This is beautiful history of science.
          SGJ, do you have any idea how accessed is Awate by people in Asmara? I am not sure if Keren and other towns have internet at all. I guess those who could benefit from such posts don’t have a good connexion.
          I suggest ንህበት ማይ for the science and ንሃባይ ማይ for person of the science. ኣንጠረኛ ማይ ማለት እዩ።

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Haile,
            I am offended. Why would Keren not have an Internet connection when even the village of Asmara has one 🙂
            Seriously though, most foreign legions, NGO and similar offices have a connection. A few people also have a direct sattalite connection. However, the bandwidth is so slow a friend said, you write something on google and hit return, then you go to lunch and hopefully, if you are lucky, when you return the page would be loaded. But printing is still the solution. Eritrea probably is one of the highest consumers of copy paper and printer ink. Those who have good connection produce copies and distribute them to friends–like a newspaper, they carry bundles and distribute them to friends and acquaintances. There are also a few who sell hard copies of internet content. Still, the direct access from Eritrea is probably the lowest in the world–don’t believe any UN or other statistics that tell you otherwise.

          • Haile S.

            Saleh,
            🙂 🙂 🙂 That is great information. Thank you.

          • Paulos

            Selam Hailat,

            Many thanks for those kind words and glad you like it. Hope our people in Eritrea share with us all the great things we learn every day here in this great Forum and elsewhere as well.

      • Saleh Johar

        ሰላም ኣማን፣
        ቅመም (spice) ዳኣ እንታይ ክኽውን እዩ?

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          መርሓባ ሳልሕ,

          አዴታትናስ በርበረ ወይውን ሽሮ ክሰርሓ ከለዋ “ተቃሚሙ” ድዩ ኢለን ይታሓተታ:: ንሱ እንታይ ማለተን’ዩ እቲ ዘጥዕሞ ነገር (spices) ነቲ “ሓርጭ ሽሮ” ወይ “ሓርጭ በርበረ” ተገይርዎ’ዶ ማለተን እዩ:: ብሰረቱ ስራሕ ኬሚስትሪ ከአ ካብ እተፋላለዩ ንጥረ-ነገራት (elements) ሓዋዊስካ (synthesize)
          ንሓድሽ “ፍጥረ-ነገር” (compound) ምፍጣር ስለዝኾነ: ወይውን ንሓደ “ፍጥረ-ነገር” ዘቀሙ “ንጥረ-ነገራት” ፈቲሽካ (analyze) ገይርካ ንምፍላጥ ዝዓለመ ጨንፈር ስነፍልጠታዊ ትምህርቲ ስለዝኾነ: as a derivative of “ቅመም” we can call to chemistry as “ስነ-ቅመም”:: I hope my explanation gives you sense.

          • Saleh Johar

            No Amanuel,
            In fact your comment illustrates my confusion. I understand you couldn’t find words in Tigrinya so your comment is half English 🙂 I want to know the two words for 1) spices and 2) chemistry. Is there no other word for Chemistry? Do we need to create long compound words when we can just call it chemistry? For example, the Arabs have a word for chemistry derived from English, I presume. They call it kimya’a

          • Paulos

            Selam Ayay,

            In fact, the etymology for “Chemical” states the word to have derived from Medieval Latin “Alchimia.” But according to Wiki, it is not certain where the the word “Chemistry” derived from.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Paulos ,
            In fact tons of Greek books were translated in Baghdad during the abassyid dynasty. The rulers took advantage of Jew and Christian monks and philosophers and emplyed them as translators. It is claimed that they preserved the Greek knowledge from extinction and people like Avicenna, Ibn alarabi, ink kheldoun, alkwarizmi (algorithm} took it to Europe and that contributed to the enlightenment period. The abassyds wrested corrupt in governance but they did contribute greatly to human knowledge. That is why all those who remained were either killed or jailed while those who found a way to the west have become pillars of knowledge. And the region is still living in dark ages. It’s in those days that the word Kimy’a was created and later became alchemy. Just like alkhwarizmi became algorithm

          • Paulos

            Selam Ayay,

            I agree. I believe I mentioned it to you here in this Forum that, I saw your picture holding Daniel Boorstin’s book, “The Discoverers” and in that book I believe, he talks in great length the points you just described. I wonder, if you have read his previous book, “The Creators.”

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Saleh,

            Three things:
            1- since I use different uncommon tigrigna phrases and words, I put the English meaning in brackets to familiarize with my readers (Like elements, compound, analyse, synthesize). Otherwise I could have left my words assembled in tigrigna, without worrying about my readers,

            2 – that is my suggestion if our own words or phrases are needed as some still argue for it.

            3- it is not necessary to be one word if we don’t have it.

    • Selamat Denmarkino AArkey Professor Paulos,

      Thank you for the share and the references. What is fascinating about the water molecule is its cohesion and adhesion properties. The polar bonding of the slightly negative single oxygen molecule after grabbing the two electrons from the two hydrogen atoms as well as the slightly positively charged two hydrogen atoms, as you know, makes the water molecules stick to one another by bonding with four water molecules. The water molecule also adheres to other than water molecules. This is what gives water the ability to defy gravity and climb up trees.
      Water from the ground sticks to one another and go up the tree by sticking to each other as well as to the tree mater.
      As hydrogen and oxygen are two of the top three elements abundant in the universe, do you then believe that water is also in abundance in far away worlds in the universe? They have determined water to be present on Mars and even the moon I think. There is a theory that water was transported or brought to Earth by comets from outer space. Is it true? Finally what are the conditions that make it conducive for the two hydrogens with one oxygen atoms to bond and become a water molecule? Since both are in abundance in the universe, then shouldn’t water be ubiquitous in the universe?

      Finally do you think that Eritrea and Tigray should model themselves as one hydrogen atom each and the rest of Ethiopia be the Oxygen atom (the ratio of mass is there) so that they bond similar to water and become life sustainers as opposed to being hostile for life? Water all around– the Red Sea on the north and the source of the nile in the south. Er1+Tigray1+Ethiopia as in H2O for the ‘medemer’ minded.

      tSAtSE

      tSAtSE

      • Paulos

        Selam Tsatse Arkey,

        Hope Isaias, Debretsion and Abiy are reading you. Tsatse arkey, you’re looking good these days 😂. That is so funny!

        You said it right where the accepted theory about the origin of water here on Earth is the result of collusion of water-carrying comets and as they made their way toward Earth.

        More over, if you see the molecular configuration or geometry of water, it is not planar but angular so much so that the highly electronegative nature of Oxygen creates a dent around the two Hydrogen atoms and makes them tense and rattle so to speak including as you said, the extra unshared two electrons of Oxygen as well. And that is one of the reasons water is the best solvent around and the other properties attributed to it as well including the great points you added. Thank you.

    • Hayat Adem

      Dearest Paulos,
      This is even better. It is a humanized fiest of chemistry. Thanks for sharing.
      Axumite people were mekting rocks, building huge ships. They had a chemistry and geometry sophistication. in some cases more advanced than we have now in modern times. If we dig deep enough, this sciences can not be alien to us and our culture.
      —————-
      Some funny stuff below…
      _____________
      A high school student was sharing the lesson of the day with his mom. He told her that a certain scientist by the name Priestly discovered Oxygen in 1774. His mom shot back, “what were people breathing before 1774?”
      _________
      James Bruce is sometimes referred as a person who discovered the Nile. Now, that knowledge was shared with the people of Gojam. Up on hearing that story, a wise man from Gojam said jokingly said, “so, those of us who were here sll the time, who hosted and guided Bruce and many before and after him led them to the river are not to be counted?”
      ———-
      Question: AmHarigna do’ tifelTa eney senbetu?
      Answer: ayyi niHnan’do kab Gondar memtSaetu!
      —————-
      When chemistry started, we were there.

      • Paulos

        Hayata,

        That is so funny. Thank you. I am sure the Axumite Kingdom and the people were way ahead of their time than we are today. God willing, on some Saturdays, will try to comment on other areas as in Philosophy, Economics and Medicine among other things.

      • Haile S.

        Good morning Hayat,
        In the scale of Abyssinian pride, you are almost reaching Pr Fikre Tolossa 🙂 🙂 🙂 . Have you seen his interview with ስመኘው ባይፈርስ in his programme ነጻ ሃሳብ in Walta TV? What do you think about him relating of the word Ethiopia as used in different old world maps to Ethiopia the country?

        • Hayat Adem

          Hi Haile,
          I didn’t listen. I don’t know him. Please attach the interview as soon as you can.

        • Hayat Adem

          Aha Our Dear Haile,
          Thank you for making me waste an hour of my life for nothing. I admit, this Pr Fikre has his own quality of decency and conviction. I wish I could say the same on the quality of his research and book, as presented here in the interview. In short, it is a myth. There are two types of myths. One is compatible with worldly stories. I tend beleive society may need some dosage of reconcilable mythology. The other is not compatible to real social histography. This guy speaks to the latter. That means, you either have to believe him and drop the real history or the other way.

          • Haile S.

            Hi Hayat,
            🙂 🙂 🙂 I am sorry, Hayat. But isn’t it myth that sustained the Greeks? Pr Fikre is looking for EthioPis that sustains Ethiopia like Atlas did to the world.

          • Paulos

            Selam Hailat,

            It is interesting to see a person [Pr. Fiqre Tolossa] who was trained in critical thinking and evidence based knowledge, giving space to the tenets of Mythology so much so that he not only accepts it as an article of faith but dismisses all the alternative discourses where the alternative is based either on ancient texts, artifacts or archeological findings. That said however, why does Mythology take the center stage in who we are?

            In one of Ridley Scott’s brilliant films, the 2012 movie, “Prometheus” seeks to find the ultimate answer to the question humanity has been grappling with since time immemorial—Who are we? And where did we come from?

            As you know, in Greek Mythology, Prometheus was a Titan who allegedly stole fire from the other deities and gave it to humanity after he created humans out of clay. In the film as well, Ridley Scott, ever philosophical that he is, a crew in a spaceship found evidence that, a piece of human DNA to have been sent to planet Earth when aliens fought human like species and the latter sent the last piece of them when they went into extinction, thus begun the story of human species here on Earth—[The same like when Prometheus fought the deities in the Greek Mythology.]

            The implication is certainly another theory in a plethora of competing theories including faith based that to the very least have thus far spared humanity from the dread of despair of existential angst. And that is precisely the reason, we need Mythology—It gives us a meaningful beginning to who we are and where we came from.

            The flip side of the story is however frightening. When the seriousness of Mythology is reduced to a local level, it becomes a breeding ground for Ultra-nationalism and Fascism where the focus shifts from the collective identity of the human-species to us versus them social malady. And if the social and political reality of this century is to be described, it is just that where Central Europe as in Hungary and Poland among others come to mind.

          • Haile S.

            Hey Paul,
            Well said. I was trying to be ironic about it. You showed and exposed the danger of such local mythology with your usual enlightening torch. Thank you. What I liked is the courteous and persistent questioning of the interviewer. I am starting to like ስመኘው. The first time I listed to his interview was with General Tsadqan. He is a hard talk journalist.

          • Paulos

            Selam Hailat,

            I haven’t watched the interview. In fact, I rarely watch Youtube. Right after his book came out, I read the reception of other Historians and tried to follow the debate there after till it got sort of intense exchange. The guy got stuck to his guns though.

    • Ismail AA

      Selam Dr. Paulos,

      Many thanks for the lesson; it reminded me of my secondary school classes in Chemistry. You and your likes in this forum grace us with knowledge and share expertise and versatility of combining science with politics when positively provoked. As your diligent student, I finished this joyful contribution with a question. If oxygen and hydrogen function separately as combustibles to produce heat, they join one another in solidarity to produce water one of whose function is to extinguish heat they originate in clear conspiracy of stealing the function of carbon dioxide, can I celebrate and wonder how nature is created, or created itself, to keep balance and escape self destruction?

      • Paulos

        Selam Kbur Haw Ismail AA,

        Many thanks for those kind words. You are absolutely right. The marvel, beauty and conspiracy is breathtaking to say the least. God created us and everything around us with breadth and depth we can never comprehend. We need to celebrate the miracle of nature everyday, every hour and every second for we are extremely blessed and lucky to witness the miracle of life!

        Let me push a bit further the well designed choreography between Oxygen, Hydrogen and Carbon-di-Oxide but this time not in the atmosphere but in the human body.

        As you know, we need energy in the form of food for us to function and survive. If you notice, the word “energy” is generic but what does it even mean in real sense? How does the food we eat say, Pasta turn into energy when we see it coming out changing its color and shape when we dump it? What exactly happened to the food inside us where we feel up and going after we had it?

        Well, what happens is that, as you put it, the molecules inside the food go about conspiring against each other in a bid to stay stable [for lack of a better word.]

        When we had Pasta for instance, at the cellular level, it is reduced to the simpler compounds as in Glucose and the energy the body desperately craving for is stored with in the bond that is connecting the molecules inside the Glucose. As you know, the molecular formula for glucose is C6-H12-O6, as in there are 6 carbon, 12 Hydrogen and 6 Oxygen. As you can see, the ratio is 1:2:1. There are far more Hydrogen than the other two and not only that is the key, that is where the energy the body looking for is stored as well.

        How does the removal of a single Hydrogen at a time gets translated into energy? Well, the way the body is designed is indeed stunning the fact that, as much as a tank full of water generates energy when the water falls from a higher level to a lower level, exactly the same thing happens with in the cell. The Hydrogen that is already removed from the Glucose molecule, literally moves from a higher level to a lower level with in the part of the cell called Mitochondria–Potential energy gets converted to Kinetic energy if you will–and along the way, energy is harvested and stored in a molecule called ATP which is also known as energy currency of the body.

        But all the amazing process comes with a danger to the body. As you know, Hydrogen on its own is a toxic and what we call acid is when Hydrogen is accumulated on its own–floating around without being bounded to any other molecule. In order to prevent that from happening, the ever unstable and hungry Oxygen happily grabs the falling Hydrogen atoms and as you can see, they both become water! Now, the once intact glucose-C6-H12-O6 is left with no Hydrogen in it but only Carbon and Oxygen. And as you can see, it is turned into a Carbon-di-Oxide! We breath-in Oxygen to help us burn [to accept the falling Hydrogen] food and we breath-out Carbon-di-Oxide and Water Vapour [the water that resulted when Oxygen grabbed the falling Hydrogen.]

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Selam Dr Paulos,

          You presented it in a very simplistic way to the otherwise very complex molecular exchange in the complex physiological process of human body, and how the three elements (C, O, and H) are utilized. The break down of glucose in to molecular elements inside our body and how they are “used and exhaled” as a byproduct of the interaction of these molecular elements with the help of other biological enzymes. Good job again. Keep on.

          • Paulos

            Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

            Just saw your added comment about fats and proteins. My apologies!

        • Ismail AA

          Selam Dr. Paulos,

          Nature and its intricacies is amazing phenomenon. The more you delve into the tiniest particle of it, the more it becomes fascinating. Perhaps for the amateurs like myself, it can sound mundane like the sun rises and it sets mindset. But for those equipped with erudition and inquisitive mind, nature and its constituents is source of challenge to understand the infinite mysteries. Thank you so much for your time and will to educate those of us who need it.

        • Haile S.

          Selamt Ismail, Paul & all

          Who is this guy, Paulos? The Will Hunting of AIT (Awate Institute of Technology)?

          Ismail, earlier you said, “…nature is created, or created itself”
          What an exemplary sensitivity
          ከማኹም የብዛሓዮ ኣንቱም ጥዑም ሕብስቲ

          • Paulos

            Hailat,

            Good-Will Hunting? Far from it. ኣኽቢድካለይ ሃይላት ሓወይ። Thanks for the nice words though. ኣብ ኣስመራን ከረንን ምስተራኸብና ብዙሕ ከነዕልል ኢና!

          • Ismail AA

            ከምይ ተምሲ ሃይለ፣
            ክገርመካ ሓደ ካብዞም ኣብዛ እንዳ ፈላጣትን ከምዚ ከማይ ክመሃሩ ዝደልዩን ዝራከቡላ ዓዋተ መጺኦም ንደንቆሮ ስርዓት ዝድግፍ
            ዘሎ መሲሉዎ ንዶክቶር ጳውሎስ “retarded” ብዝብል ጸያፍ ቃል ፍረድንጂ ደፊሩዎ ነይሩ። እቲ ዘሐዝን ባዓል ጵውሎስ ኣብ ኮለጃትና ፍልጠቶም ክውርሱ ምተገበኤ።

          • Paulos

            ሰላም ክቡር ሓው እስማዒል,

            ትሕትናኻ መዘና የብሉን ክቡር ሓው! እዚ’ኻኣ ንዓና ነቶም ጋና ዘይበሰልና ፈለጥና ፈለጥና ኢልና ንሰብ ንንዕቕን ሓፍሓፍ ንብልን ዓቢ ኣርኣያን ትምህርትን እዩ። ኣባኻ ዘለኒ ክብረት ልዑል እዩ!

            ብዛዕባ እቶም ንሰብ ዘናሽው ዝጠቐስካዮም፣ ኣነ’ግዳ ክንደየናይ ምስ ውሱን ዓቕመይ፣ ኣብ ግዜ ሰውራ ትፈልጥ እንዲኻ ክንደይ በላሕትን ሊቃውንትን የሕዋትና ኤርትራውያን ብዘይጠቕሙ ሰባት ዘይሓቐቑን ተዳሂሎም አእምሮኦም ዘይሳሓቱን ነብሰቕትለት ዘይፈጸሙን! ክንደይ ግፍዒ እዩ’ኮ ተገይሩ ኣብ ልዕሊ ብሉጻት ዜጋታትና!

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            ሰላም ሃይላት,

            ለባማት ሰባት ከም በዓል ኢስማዒሎ ንተነቃፊ ነገራት ብጥንቃቀ እዮም ዝሕዝዎ:: ነዚ ዝጠቀስካዮ ኣበሃህልኡ ከአ ምስ ሃይላት ከይናጋዕ ተጠንቂቁ ዘቀመጦ ሓሳብ’ዩ:: አይመስለካን ሃይላት?

          • Haile S.

            ሓቅኻ ኤማ፡
            ብዝርድኣኒ ቋንቋ ስለዝተዛረበ እንድየ ቆብ ኣቢለዮ። ምሕላው ናይ ብጾት ቋንቋ (ኣተሓሳስባን ኣዘራርባን) እቲ ዝዓበየ ጸጋ እዩ፡ ከም ዝበልካዮ። እዚ ናይዚ ከምዚ ከማይ ሕልፍ ሕልፍ ኢልካ ከም ዒሉ ምርጋሕ ከኣ ኣይትጽልእዎ:-) 🙂 ።

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            ሰላም ሃይላት,

            ንሱ ደአ ሓደ ካብቶም “ሰው አብሎ ቆብ ከብሎ” ምኻንካ አይሰሓትክዎን:: ንናይ ኢስማዒሎ ጥንቁቅ አበሃህላ ቆብ ኣቢልካ ዝሃብካዮ መልሲ አስሒቁኒስ: እዋእ ነቲ ዘስሓቀኒ ነገር ብቃላት ዘየቀምጦ ኢለ እየ ዘካፈልኩኻ:: ንስሚዒትን ንእምነታትን ብጾትካ አብ ግምት ዘየእቱ ሓሳባት ምቅራብ ዓዲ ስለዘየጋብር እንታይ ፍረ አለዎ ኢልካዮ ኢኻ:: ለባማት የብዘሓዮም::

    • Hashela

      Hi P

      Here I would take the freedom to deviate from a literal translation of water chemistry and chose a title that attracts the interest of a broad spectrum of readers.

      ምስጢር ማይ

      As you correctly pointed out, the impact of thermohaline (temperature and salinity) driven ocean circulation on climate and climate evolution is enormous.

      With regard to the emergence of ancient civilizations and their agricultural and technological innovations, the question of “where” and “when” leads to the major
      driving force.

      The sites of nearly all ancient great civilations are centered between 30 degree north and 30 degree south and they started at around 10,000 years before present, a timing that coincides with the strenghening of the global monsoon systems (African Monsoon, Indian Monsoon, Asian Monsoon, Central American Monsoon) after the Planet emerged from its glacial state.

      Note that also that the pathways of human (homo-sapiens) and other homo species early migration was directed east-west, basically along a “hydrologic” corridor.

      In summary, the global monsoon rainfall and its periodic strengthening and weakening strongly co-shaped the timing, the spatial extent, the centers of civilization settlements, and the direction of migration (east-west!).

      Dear Moderator: As I decided stay here for a moment and changed my pen name for “Halafai megedi” to Hashela.

      • Paulos

        Selam Hashela,

        Brilliant points. I absolutely agree. Thank you! Please keep them coming.

      • Haile S.

        Good Morning Hashela,
        I second Paul, brilliant. ምስጢረ ማይ is a great find! One more additional reason to solidify that word. ከም ሥላሴ, ማይ ክንደይ ይኾኑ? ሓደ ይኾኑ ስርስተ ይኾኑ። ፈሳሲ፡ ሃፋ፡ በረድ።

        • Hashela

          Selam Haile

          Maybe ሃፋ instead ትኪ

          • Haile S.

            Yep Hashela,
            Already realized and changed it. Thanks. BTW what does Hashela mean? Checked Tigrigna dictionary and found words like ሓሸራ (ሓሰኻ)፡ ሓሹል (ጸላኢኻ ሓሹል ይኹን) ዝኣመሳሰሉ ጥራይ። may be it is not Tigrigna.

          • Hashela

            Haile
            a village near Keren!

          • Hashela

            Haile
            Sprichst Du Deutsch?

          • Haile S.

            Hashela,
            Sorry, nein.

      • Hashela

        Hi All
        can somebody tell me why I am not able to edit my post. It should be allowed so one can remove/correct the ugly typos

  • Hayat Adem

    Hello Friends,
    I like Haile’s note and I think I agree with all his points. MS tried to challenge by asking “so, there is no rising up?” I want to focus on this sarcastic point a bit for now.
    So, Mahmmuday, yes, there is a rising up. Rising up is not a default setting though. Many things have to be and done right: right dream, right plan and right choices of action. For that, you need to have a quakity leadership that excels the average and helps, not a leadership that heckles. You need the leadership that gets along with his surroundings and make friends with all all those matter, not a leadership that picks a fight 360 degree over nothing.
    We also need to have all our faculties in place that can maintain and sustain a long social memory. Nothing frustrates me more than the fact Eritreans tend to have a very short memory.. Peace is good, but do we also ask how we lost it first? Breaking out of isolation and sanction is good but do we also ask how we found ourselves in there in the first place?
    Rising of any sort is good but how much do we care about taking all precautions not to fall down in the first place?
    David was lucky only one time to beat Goliath. The story preceding that defeat of Goliath must have been about the fact that Goliath had been beating many many Davids prior that. How else have this srory gotten its dramatic zeal? The default and obvious truth is that Goliaths always beatbDavids. Exceptions happen but exceptions are not rules. Exceptions are not reasonable expectations. Rising up comes only through aspiration and work. RIsing up is not exactly the same thing like out-waiting a neighbor to fragment. Rising up does not come through investing your meager resources on sabotaging your neighbor. You don’t rise up with a leadership that has zero compatibility with the aspiration of the people.
    Isayas these days no more feels safe and welcome among his own people. He is walking in the peripheries, along boders lines of Zalambessa and OmHajeer. He walks free and safe more in Ethiopia than in the streets of Asmara. He spends nights switching a make shift residences.
    Mahmufay, your question raises the obvious to 3nd up meaning the obvious. Haile also is talking about rising up. He is pointing to the weaklinks and social holes that slacken us as people from rising. He is listing the opportunities we squandered to rise up. Implicitly, he is calling for corrective interventions. You on the other hand, are quick to go Tplf’s bad days to fetch sense of pride and accomplishedness while nothing of our pains are removed or fixed. Rising up comes through developing clarity of purpose, mobilization, hard work and relentless repeat of them. Rising up doesn’t come from rosing up.

    • Haile S.

      Selam Hayat,
      Brilliantly input on the rising up. It is staggering to see the regime still marches ignoring its accountability to the Eritrean people. ጸብጻብ እንዳገበርና ድኣ ንትስእ ጸገም ንኹስትሮ እምበር፡ ሎሚ ዘበን’ሲ በዚ ዝስዕብ መገዲ እዮም ሰላም ዝደልዩ ዘለዉ፣

      ንቕበሮ ንቐባብሮ
      ከይርአ መታን ቲ’ሓረሮ
      ጎቦ ነፍርስ ክድፈን ኣብ ስንጭሮ
      ከምቶም “ከድዓት” ኣብ ማእሰርቲ ንሕጸሮ

      ንዕበጦ ንዓባብጦ
      ዘይፈለጠ ተ’ሃልዩ ከይፈልጦ
      እቲ ፈትዩ ዘጽቀጠ ከትስእ ከይፍለጦ
      – እቲ ዝተሳቐየ መሊሹ ዕጭ ይሓንጥጦ
      መን ከይደፍረና ድሕሪ ሰላም ምስ እንጠጦ
      ሓውኻ ሓውትኻ እንዳደሰቕካ ኢኻ ስልጣን ትጎብጦ
      ጸብጻብ ዘይሓትት፡ ጠቕሙ ጥራይ ዝሕሉ ጓና ትሕንገጦ
      ከምኡ እንዳገበርካ ንዜጋኻ ተዳኽሞ ትሃስዮ ተፋጥጦ
      Accountability ንዝበለ፡ ብሻፎ ብሕቶ ትስልበጦ
      በደል ዝብሃል የለን፡ ኣብ ታሕቲ ሕብኣዮ ጽቐጦ

      ረስዕዎ Accountability
      ን’ፈቶ ጥራይ ብጎረባብቲ
      ንሞጎስ ብፈተውቲ
      በዞም ሓደሽቲ
      ንተሓጸብ ብሽብጢ
      ግደፍዎ ናይ ውሽጢ
      ኣእቲናዮ ኣለና ኣብ ሕዛእቲ
      ምስ በልዐ ክድርብዮ’ዩ ንታሕቲ
      የዋህ ዓቃል ህዝቢ ክርስዖ’ዩ ትዕዝብቲ

      Reconciliation?
      If only on the above condition!
      ዝብሉ እዮም ዝመስሉ

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selam awatistas,

    Our Saay has a new post in his blog, Eritrea digest. He wrote it in such a way, “the Doctor, the PM, the emperor in waiting” addressing to different section of Eritreans ( to the paranoid, to the disappeared, to the glotters, to the defiant). And here is one of his message:

    “Wedi Afey” has offered me Eritrea and I intend to reward him by annihilating the Eritrean identity and controlling your ports and economy while peddling the narrative of geopolitical unity.”

    • Teodros Alem

      selam aman h
      Ethiopia and Djibouti yesterday signed a 4 billion dollar memorandum of understanding deal, about economy, poltical and cultural, that includes a construction of oil pipeline from “Ogden” to djibouti port.
      And the agreement will be signed in addis by 3A and Djibouti president in a coming few weeks. eat ur hea””.

    • saay7

      Selamat Emma:

      I appreciate the kind words but it wasn’t me. Just because it appears in my blog doesn’t make it mine. Sometimes its a composite of people I talk to and respect greatly (Dr Newitol) ; sometimes it’s me (saay) and sometimes it is a contributor who wishes to remain anonymous (I.I.Justcant) where all I do as an editor is pick a title for the piece. I thought from her first para you can tell she is a woman.

      saay

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Saay,

        I thought they are a make up of names by you, to make it like a dialogical argument. Anyway, I hate these Pen names. Even when our country is at risk, they can’t come out to the open to fight. Sorry, ምሁራትና መዘምዘምያ የብሎምን:: ተሓቢእካ ዝማሓለለፍ መልእኽቲ ከአ ፍርያት የብሉን::

        • Haile S.

          Selamat Emma,
          እዚ nickname ሳጓ ዝብሃል፡ ገድሊ ዘምጽኦ እኳ እንተዘይኮነ፡ ማይ ኣስትዩ ዘዕበዮ እዩ። ቀደም ኣብ ጋዜጣ ሕብረት penname ተጠቒሞም ዝጽሕፉ ነይሮም። ብሓፈሻ፡ እዚኦም ዓቢ ስልጣን ወይ ሓላፍነት ዝነበሮም፡ ብዝርኣይዎን ብዝፈልጥዎምን ሰባት ተጠቒሞም፡ ትምህርቲ-ሓዘል ትዕዝብቲ ስለዘቕርቡ፡ ከይፍለጡን ከይውቀሱን ይፈርሁ ስለዝነበሩ እዩ። ሓደ ካብኣቶም ኣጸቢቐ ስለዝፈልጥ፡ ምኽንያቶም ይርድኣኒ ነይሩ። ድሕሪ ገድሊ ግና፡ መጠን ክግበረሉ ዝግብኦ ዝነበረ (ብናተይ ሓሳብ) )፡ መሊሱ ተጋኒኑ፡ ካብ ብሽም ብሳጓ ዝፍለጥ ሰብ በዝሐ። እዚ nickname ዝብሃል፡ ሕጂ ኣብ media ሰብ ዝጥቀመሉ ናቱ ነጸብራቕ፡ ወይ ከኣ ንምጥቃም ዘቃለለሉ ይመስለኒ።
          ከዕልለካ፥ ሓደ ጊዜ ወ/ጉ/ሚ ኤርትራ ሃይለ ወልደትንሳአ ቅድሚ ምእሳሩ፡ ኣብ ዝነበርክዎ ከተማ ዘረባ ከስምዕ ስለዝመጸ ከይደልካ። ዘረባ ተዘሪቡ፡ ድራር ተቐሪቡ፡ ምግቢ ንምውሳድ ተሰሪዐ ከለኹ፡ ሓደ ካብቶም መሳሰይቲ ዝፈልጠኒ ዝነበረ፡ ክፋለጥ ከዕልል ግዲ ደልዩኒ፡ ንዓ ሃይለ እዚኣ ንድሩዕ ሃቦ በለኒ። ንመጀርታይ ኣይኮነን እታ ሳጓ ክሰምዓ። ግና ኣብዚ ከምኡ ዝኣመሰለ ኣኼባ ኣይተጸበኽዎን። ቆርበተይ ግፍፍ ተሰሚዑኒ። ቢያቲ ተሰኪመ ከይደ፡ እዚኣ ንኣኹምያ ኢለ ክህቦ ቀረብኩ። ሾዑ እቲ ብጎኑ ዝነበረ (ቦዲ ጋርዲ?) ትቕብል ኣቢሉ፡ ድሓን ኣነ ክቕበለካ ኢሉ ወሰዳ። ደስ ኣይበለንን፡ ንባዕለይ ድራረይ ክሕዝ ተመሊሰ፡ ነታ ብያቲ ዶ ወይስ ካልእ ሂቦሞ ኣይፈልጥን ብማዕዶ ክጥዕም ርኣኹዎ እብለካ።

          • Paulos

            Selam Hailat,

            As you know, it is very common for famous writes to use aliases for different reasons—Isaac Asimov, Steven King to mention but a few. And the people you mentioned probably used aliases as opposed to nicknames where the latter can be changed every time one writes. It doesn’t stick so to speak.

            The culture of using monikers which traces its genesis pretty much in ሜዳ, was more as a term of endearment or affection, whereas the nicknames that have sprouted in Forumes are in a bid to hide one’s identity all together. Me thinks.

          • Haile S.

            Hi Paul,
            You are right, just interrogations of the influence of the Ghedli-names on the nicknames.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Dr Paulos,

            Aliases was common in TPLF than in our Fronts. I don’t think we even had them.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Hailat,

            If the individuals are known publicly by nicknames attached to the real person, I don’t have problems. Say for example “Duru’e”is known publicly by it, and it is not a “hidden name” who is physically unknown. Another example is our “Solomon” known as “Tsetse” is not a hidden a nickname. We know them who they are. But pen names who are physically unknown, are shadows of ghosts, who scare in real political fight, and who do not trust their own words that comes out from their mouth. When people tried to dissociate their their “thoughts” from their “real names” they don’t have credibilities whatsoever on what they “say” and “write.”

          • Haile S.

            Selamat Emma,
            You are right. Since I don’t like these appellations, I am probably stretching the linking, but I wouldn’t mind if your nick was wedi- Hdrat. However, if it was, the Gojamie, just because you were in Bahr-Dar (don’t get me wrong, I love Gojamie & Bahr-dar; that is where I am going to go if I go to Eth), and at the same time, if you were the minister of education in Eritrea, I am not sure I will be comfortable with that, definitely not.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Hailat,

            I am laughing. Do you know why? I was known as “wedi-Hidrat” throughout my school days and during my ghedli era, to the extent some do not even know my first name.

            Short story: In December 1969, two ELF operatives (Omer Mohammed and Mesfun Bahlibi) wrote a provocative pamphlet and posted it in the the school campus and in the electric poles of the streets. The pamphlet was written as if it was written by the Ethiopian student, showing their anger against ELF and the Eritrean people that cause the death of 15 thousand torserawit in Eritrea. There was a clash between us and them. There were 35 from us (myself one of them) wounded and treated in a hospital. We asked to leave the school to go back to Eritrea. Many ministers and Zewdi amakerti came to resolve the incidence. We stubbornly refused to stay, and finally “Seyoum Harogot” who was a “minister daeta” in the office of the Prime minister at that time, gave us a permission to go back home. We rented two buses and left Bahir Dar. Since it was telephoned to the governor of Eritrea of that time (Asrat Kassa) by the Ethiopian officials, we met a well armed police at the border and took us directly to Agip (security office) in Asmara to be registered. Then they distributed us in to different hotels until we see the governor. Two days later the entire Eritrean student in our major towns and cities came out to demonstrate in the streets. To make the story short, I call my father to come to the city. While my father was with me at the room where I stayed, my schoolmates came to my room and as usual called me “Wedi Hidrat”. My father wasn’t happy. So Hailat, those things are common and hence I agree with your points.

          • Haile S.

            Emma,
            He he! I guessed well. That is the beauty of provoking you. You come up with great stories like this one. Yes, these things are common, it is an Abyssinian thing. Abyssinian leaders were know to be named by the name of their horses, like aba taTeq etc, etc. BTW, I don’t know why not by the name of their mule. I guess, this horse thing could have been of Oromo origin.
            The reason I was almost sure inside me yours was wedi-Hidrat was because my uncle that I talked in few of my poems here, one of the first ELF highland fighters was known by his father (wedi teKlu) rather than by his name. He was before you and perhaps before Ismail (not sure). He later moved to the other side. He deserves the RIP. With few exceptions, his whole life was a fighter, one of the few first not to be demobilized.

      • Teodros Alem

        Selam Saay7
        dr newitol tries and fails Q and A r awesome, specially question 74 by the name fenkel from massawa and question 76 by medferiashwerk from enarj enawga is awesome, both the question and the answer r awesome.

    • Simon Kaleab

      Selam Amanuel H.,

      What is “Eritrean identity”?

      Is it possible to give a precise definition, so that we avoid future controversy?

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Simon,

        If you are asking in the context of the quoted paragraph, then I will refer you to the writer or to the editor of the piece. If you ask me my own subjective view on it, then here it is: Eritrean identity is our “collective identity” for the people inscribed with in the prescribed land called “Eritrea,” distinguished historically from other “collective identities” that exist around us (say example, Sudan, Ethiopia, Djibouti). I hope I am clear.

  • Mahmud Saleh

    Selam HaileS
    So, no chance of rising up? Too much of self-flagellation, and no suggestion of how we can get back on track…Alas, let me direct the question to Nitickay. The cancer of the region is now in remission, a bright future is ahead for the peoples of the region. No, I’m not kidding.

    • Ismail AA

      Selam ustaz Mahmoud,

      I rarely come in between an addressee and the addressed in this forum and comment. An advance regret for that. I do not know which malaise you have in mind, but on getting us on track, the first step is when those who still hope to play from side of the regime’s field and those who play from the opposite side form a new team and run the anti-dictatorship show from a new field. The regime’s side of the play ground has become a morass that do not allow any movement at all. It has become crime celebration scene that include the country’s elders such as Haji Younis.

      • Mahmud Saleh

        Ahlen Ismail AA
        Haha…you jump in between a lot, u have yo do it. If not u, then who?
        I personally enjoy it your rejoinders. If i got u, u r calling for coming together, and that is commendable. Come to the center bro. Ur welcome.

        • Ismail AA

          Selam Ustaz MS,

          Sure, sir. You haven’t forgotten my favorite allusion to breaking out of trenches and meeting in no-man’s land. But regime supporters have been refusing and insisting I jump to their side of the battle line and settle for place they choose for me. But you know the ego and vindictiveness of the omnipotent comander-in’-chief. You won’t like me to mention examples, do you?

          • Saleh Johar

            Ismail dear,
            The trenches are for the honorable. That’s is your natural place and take care of your favorite allusion. It’s the most worthy thing to keep. Conscience matters.

          • FishMilk

            Hi Ismail AA. The year is 2019 and not the 60s, 70s, or 80s. There are no longer any battle lines. Reality is that we have a dictatorial Government that has engaged in a long overdue peace agreement process with a progressive Ethiopian PM. Reality is that a legal framework for that peace process is being finalized and therefor incinerating bogus conspiracy theories. Reality is that we now have to find solution to effect change thru/within the present PFDJ regime.

          • Ismail AA

            Selam FM,
            It would surely help if you can summon courage and come out of the cocoon, and show your place in the decision making closed circle of the regime. Then, we could engage with real person. Nobody is talking about those decades you cited. The talk is about stakes and rights in their own right and not in the whim and stakes of “present PFDJ regime”. Let us get serious and not exclude the Eritrean people in favour of survival of the despot and his regime.

          • Haile S.

            Selamat Ismail,

            ኣንታ እስማዒል
            እዚ ነገር፡ ንህግደፍ፡ ትቃወም ተመሲልካ
            እኮ ኮይኑ፡ ኣይትግደፎም ሕቆፎም ዓትዒትካ

            ይብሉና
            ኣይትዛረቡ ኣይተተንፍሱ ብጩቕ ኣይትበሉ
            ንሕና ነጣቕዕ፡ ንስኹም ቀንጠመንጢ ኣዕልሉ
            ቁሊሕ ከይገደፉ፡ ብጩቕ እንተልኩም መጻና ይብሉ

            ብተግባር ኮነ ብዘረባ ጸቒጦም
            መፍትሒ ኣምጽኡ ይብሉ ክሳድ ዓትዒቶም
            መፍትሕ ማእሰርቲ ኣብ ሕጎኦም ኣቐሚጦም

            ኩላትና
            መፍትሕ ኣብ ጁባና ስለዘይብልና
            ክንሕዞ ስለዘይንኽእል ተመጣጢርና
            መፍትሕ ክትርከብ እንተድ’ኣ ደሊና
            ነቲ ዝሓብኣ፡ ውጻእ ኣውጽኣያ ኩላትና ሓቢርና
            ክንብሎ ከነገድዶ ክንክእል ኣሎና
            ቀንጠመንጢ ዝዓቖርናዮ ምምላቘ ገዲፍና.

          • Mahmud Saleh

            MerHaba Ustaz IsmailAA
            Stay well, Sir. Things are moving in the right direction. You know i am past partisan politics. Eritreans are coalescing arround core common issues and that is encouraging. Peace is rolling out its dividends, albeit slowly.

    • Haile S.

      Selamat Mahmoud and Ismail,

      Thank you Ismail for jumping in. I agree 100% with your response. Very busy now.
      This is not self-flagellation. The self aggrandizement on an ’emptying country’ without an iota step towards the concerned people is killing us. ዘይድሃይ፡ ዘይውክል፡ ዘይሰምዕ፡ ዘይጥምት ኣያ ኣለኒ እንዳበልካ፡ ጥሩምባ ዓባይ ዓዲ ኣላትኒ፡ ሓደ መዓልቲ ብጥዑይ ክመርሓኒ እዩ እንዳበልካ ትጽቢት ጽዮን ክሳብ መኣስ?
      Wouldn’t it have been great if the regime released people such as Hajji Ibrahim Younis? Disappointment to disappointment is the “bright future” that the regime does not miss from glowing day to day, week to week, month to month and year to year.
      ገዛእቲ ኤርትራ ኣብ ህዝቦም ዓቢ ንዕቀት ኣለዎም።

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Hailat,

        Unfortunately, for some, the survival of the regime is important to them, than the innocent Eritreans dying in prisons without seeing their day in a court of justice. After all for them “justice” is luxury and they don’t know the virtue that goes with it. The “bright future” for them is when the regime glows from day to day, and when our young leaves the country hopelessly to the country the call it the enemy of Eritrea. The problem is not “ንዕቀት እቲ ስርዓት አብ ልዕሊ ህዝብና” ዘይኮነስ ገለ ክፋል ህዝብና ነቲ ንዕቀት አብ ርእሲኡ ዝወርዶ ዘሎ ከም ቅቡል ወሲዱ ነቲ ስርዓት ከመጉስ ከሎ’ዩ:: ስለዚ እቲ ጓሂኻን ሕርቃንካን አብ ልዕሊ ከምዚኦም ዝአመሰሉ ክፋል ህዝብና ክኸውን አለዎ:: ምኽንያቱ ስርዓታት ኩሉ ዝገብርዎ ነገር ዕድሚኦም ንምናዋሕ ዘትኮረ ስለዝኾነ: ህዝቢ ነዚ ተገንዚቡ ሓድነቱ አጽኒዑ ክምክቶ ክሳዕ ዘይከአለ: ኢደቤዛ ዝኾኑ ናይቲ ስርዓት ከአ: ክሳዕታ ናይ መወዳእታ ህይወት ኢሳያስ ምስኡ ክጓዓዙ እዮም::

        • FishMilk

          Hi Amanuel Hidrat. And, what solutions do you propose for moving forward short of unrealistic complete removal of the PIA/PFDJ regime? Please enlighten me!

          • Mahmud Saleh

            Hi FM
            Some people will need years to addjust to the new level of games. They put all their cards and baits on TPLF, ንግዚኡ ጽርውርው ክብሎም እዩ። ኣሕዋትና እዮም። ምሕጋዞም ጥራይ።

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            ሳላም ማሕሙዳይ,

            አብየት!አብየት! ንነብስኻ ኣብ ላዕሊ ሚዛን ከተቀምጣ ከለኻ:: ኣየናይ እዩኸ እቲ ላዕላይ ጽፍሒ ፓለቲካዊ ግጥምያ ትብሎ ዘለኻ? አየኖት ረቋሒታት እዮምከ አብኡ ዘቀመጡኻ? እቲ ኣሕዋት ዝብል ንግዚኡ ገዲፍካ ገለ መብሪሂዶ ክትልግሰልና ምኸአልካ?

    • Haile S.

      Selamt Mahmoud,

      To expand discussion later on the ‘bright future’, lets take the example of foreign relations. Eth PMAA goes to France, Germany, Italy, Swiss and perhaps other western democracies soon. Our regime Reps go where? To Viktor Urban led Hungarian government who is putting his country at the fringe of EU, refusing to accept any refugee blocking and threatening to expulse those at his border or already in his country and doesn’t stop from going extreme. Is this part of the bright future for Eritrea?

      • Mahmud Saleh

        መርሓባ ቡ ሃይላት
        Actually, it is not that anexpeected that each of us will come out having different assesent of the current situation. What i am looking at is for golks of you calibre to place more emphasis on what we should do, and thatt was the thrust of my comment under your piece. We can make observations and statemnets of conviction but I feel we are dwelling in an area that has been discussed heavily (assessments and diagnoses…etc). I am looking at moving toward suggedting ideas that could challenge us move beyong desctiptions, what do we need to move on towards agreeing on sets of solutions? That has been the million Canadian dollar’ question.

        • Haile S.

          Selamat Mahmoud,

          Context matters. The ‘assessments and diagnosis’ came because our very well experienced Dr SGJ who knows very well the sickness of his patient was trying to revamp her moral, and as a younger inexperienced Dr, I was quick to point the bumps and bruises on her body reminding my senior professor of her suffering. I am not trying to find excuse for what I said, I agree 100% for the solution oriented approach. But now, you the chief hospital administrator along your administrative secretaries is coming asking me ትኽተር ዶ ትምተር what is the cure for her sickness ንዓ ኣውጽኣያ ኣብ ኩሊታ ዘላ ዓተር፡ እታ ዘላ ትጥርጠር.
          Mahmoud, the solution comes when all of us think for a solution. The admin for solution instead of for profit, the Dr for the interest of the patient instead for his publication and most importantly the husband instead of waiting her to die and marry another one, to think about doing everything to help his wife treated .

    • Paulos

      Muhamuday,

      Do you know what gets me stumped? When intelligent people like you are clouded with something only known to themselves and unable to see the reality for what it is. I started watching the other day a supposed discussion between the top PFDJ cadres where in no time I got completely turned off by their sheer dishonesty and disgusting pretention.

      And your diagnosis is misplaced when a young Eritrean guy who has just arrived here from Eritrea incidentally said to me the other day, ሻዕብያ “ኣንስተይቲ” መንሽሮ እያ! And of course, back home, malignant cancer is referred as a “feminine.” The reference or designation is certainly wrong.

      • Mahmud Saleh

        Paulosay
        Kemey kemey…ደሓን እሞ፡ ሻዕብያ “ኣንስተይቲ መንሽሮ” እንተኾይና ወያነ ከኣ “ተባዕታይ መንሽሮ ዘይንብሎ? እቶም ጥብቖታት ወያነን ካድርታቶምን ከኣ malignant cells roaming the Eritrean body politics?

        I know you don’t mean any of the above. I love you bro. But as I put it somewhere in my FB, I considered the “PFDJ cadres” initiative as a positive sign for they are venturing for the first time outside their comfort zone. “እንቑላል ቀስ ብቀስ ብእግሩ ይሄዳል” ኣይበልም እንዴ? ታድያ ጓድ Paul ምን ነካህ? ኣይተሓዘለይ Pawlosay ኣብ መንጎ ስራሕ እዩ።

        • Paulos

          Muhamuday,

          Love you too my dear brother. You should see me laughing. ኣታ ሙሓሙዳይ, ወያነ ተባዓታይ ተኾይና’ዳኣ benign እያ ማለት እዩ፣ That is a progress in the right direction on your part 😂.

          I am sure before you know it, you will be saying, ወያነ ሓላል’ያ! Heck, ወዲ ኣፌ’ከማን ንደብረጼን ብኢዱ ሒዙ blood is thicker than Abiy ኢልዎ!

          • Mahmud Saleh

            Ahlen Paulosay
            ይኽደነና ጥራይ፡ ቃል ኪዳን እንተገበሩ ኸ? እንታይ ዓይነት መንሽሮ ክወልዱ እዮም?
            ግን ስለምንታይ እዩ ሕ/ሰብና ንመንሽሮ ከም ኣንስተይቲ construct ዝገብራ? ኣነ ኣብ ጎኒ ደቀንስትዮ ስለዝኾንኩ ነዚ እቃወሞ ኣለኹ።

          • Paulos

            Muhamuday,

            I absolutely agree with you. As the late James Brown had it, sadly, “It is a man’s world.” Hope Awatistas enlighten us why that was the case as in why the malignant is described as ኣንስተይቲ.

          • Saleh Johar

            Paulos,
            Fertility is generally considered a woman’s think. If the man is infertile, he divorces the woman. Our tradition doesn’t consider the man could be infertile. So, since fertility is considered a women’s thing, malignant cancer that keeps growing, is fertile. Therefore a female. If you want to take it to the next level, go ahead because I can’t go any further in your science thing 🙂

          • Paulos

            Selam Ayay,

            That is actually very smart! I knew you were going to come up with why that is the case. It makes perfect sense. I have nothing to add to it to be honest. Aside the negative connection that came with it, the idea is simply ingenious.

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Saleh Johar

            “Since fertility is considered a women’s thing, malignant cancer that keeps growing, is fertile. Therefore (cancer is) a female”

            ጸሓይ በሪቓ፡ ጸሓይ ዓሪባ ንብል is ጸሓይ fertile?

            Semere Tesfai

          • Paulos

            Selam Ato Semere,

            If I may, the horizon is a reference point where we imply as if the Sun is rising or setting when in reality the Sun is neither rising nor setting.

            When a cancer cell on the other hand is a rebel so to speak where it defies all the rules and regulations of the body and multiplies at the expense of all the normal cells—recreates itself, and hence the fertility connotation.

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Paulos

            I’m completely lost on this one. The reason:

            ጥሪ ሕልፍ (ውድእ) ምስ በለት ክመጽእ ‘የ፡ ዒላ ዓድና ብዙሓት ቆልዑ ዉሒጣ (ኣጥሊቓ) እያ፡ ዓሶ/ሰዓል/መንሽሮ ሒዛትኒ ፈፈው ክብል ቀንየ፡ ግራትና ቃዲራ ከሪማ፡ በተኽስያን (ቤተ ክርስትያን) ዓድና ክትውዳእ ቀሪባ፡ ብእዋን ገድሊ ቢንቶ ተሰነይ ብዙሕ ግዜ ብፈንጂ ፈሪሳ፡ መገዲ ሓቂ ቀጣን እያ፡ መንግስተ-ሰማይ ዉሑድ ሰብ ‘ዩ ዝኣትዋ፡ ኣብ ቅድሚ እምላኽ ትቐውም ነብሲ ይሃበኒ(ና)፡ መኪናይ ተዓርያ፡ መፍትሐይ/ተለፎነይ/ቢሮይ/ሰዓተይ ረኺበያ…….

            Now, can you see a pattern here?

            semere Tesfai

          • Paulos

            Selam Ato Semere,

            The same here. I really don’t know why that is the case. Time for the fertile minds of Awate to shine one more time. Awate University ዘይተምጽኦ ኣረእስቲ የብላን 😂!—One more feminine description.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Dr Paulos,

            Culturally, it might have bad connotation, but:

            Feminine = ሰበይታይ

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Semere,
            Ikniw of a foolish argument used by the Wahhabis for sunset and sunrise but I would leave it for another time. Is peekaboo fertile, just like you sun analogy 🙂

          • Hameed Al-Arabi

            Hi Semere Tesfai,

            There is only one Sun, thus we can’t speak about fertility or reproduction of ጸሓይ. It is one sun whether it sets or rises. There is only one Semere Tesfai in this forum, whether he appears or disappears.

            Al-Arabi

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            ሰላም ዶ/ር ጻውሎስ,

            ኣንስታይ ጾታ (female) አፍራይት ወይ ኣባዛሒት ስለዝኾነት እዮም ንተዘርጋሒት (metastatic) ወይ ተባዛሒት (reproductive) መንሽሮ “አንስተይቲ መንሽሮ” ተባሂላ ትግለጽ:: smart way of calling it. ወለድና ከይተማህሩ ናይ ምሁራት አእምሮ ዝወነኑ እዮም::

          • Paulos

            Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

            I didn’t know to be honest. Now I know. Thank you. It is true when they say, ካብ ምህሮ ኣእምሮ! Thanks again.

          • Mahmud Saleh

            Ahlen Paulosay
            Come on don’t fall easily, ኣንታ ጅግና ጀጋኑ… ቅሩብ ዕርዲ ምትራር ከድልየና እዩ (joking, Emma). Are we to say that our ancestors knew about cell divisions and mutations? I think they called it ኣንስተይቲ because of societal values that assign bad things to women. For instance, witches are assigned to women. Do I make sense?

          • Paulos

            Muhamuday,

            ናይ ኣቦታትና በሊሕ ኣእምሮ ከመይ’ልካ ረሲዕካዮ? ንዓኻ በሊሕ ሰብ ዘፍረዩ እዮም’ኮ ካብ ‘ዝጊሄር’ሲ. They probably did know about cell division, we never know! The difference with those who claimed to have discovered the mechanism of cell division is that, ኣቦታትና ኣብ መዝገብ ምስፋር ብዙሕ ኣይፈትውዋን እዮም ኔሮም።

          • Paulos

            Muhamuday,

            This is really interesting stuff. His politics aside [joking], Professor Asmerom Legesse could be of a great help for this is his area of expertise.

          • Mez

            Hi Paulos,

            “…blood is thicker than Abiy..”

            What do you mean?

            Thanks

          • Paulos

            Selam Mez,

            It was supposed to be a joke for that was not the reason they were holding hands in the first place but if Isaias hails from that part of the region [where Debretsion is from], he could be closer to Debretsion as opposed to say, where Isaias’ grandfather is buried, for instance. Again, these kind of talks don’t mean much for we say them more often in jest.

          • Mez

            Dear Paulos,

            You just did the impossible a reality: the leftist and rightist thoughts in to an impersonated one.

            I hope wouldn’t be attractive to our young “will be political players”.

            Thanks

          • Paulos

            Selam Mez,

            On individual, ethnic, language and confessional level, the people may be different but they find commonality in powerful ideas and sense of purpose in life as well. And the role of great leaders is measured against the kind of imposing personalities they exude in a bid to capitalize on the common purpose as opposed to manipulating the differences for myopic political gains.

            When it is extremely tempting particularly in our region to think and execute in terms of regionalism or one’s ethnicity, it behooves the leaders to overcome the temptation and focus on common and collective goals instead.

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Mez

            “blood is thicker than Abiy. What do you mean?”

            እዚ ጠፊእካ?

            የሕዋት ዶ የኾናይ፡፡ እቱይ ልሓለፈ ይረስዕዋቶንዶ፡፡ ኣምሓራይ ኦሮሞይ ባሕርኹምይ መሬትኩምይ ዳኣኾኑይ ልደልዩ፡፡ ልሕና ማ ሕውነትኩምይ ፍቕርኹምይ ደኣኾንናይ ንደሊ – ማለት እዩ፡ ትግራይኛ ትጸዊ ‘ተኾንካ።

            ሰመረ ተስፋይ

          • Paulos

            Selam Ato Semere,

            Spot on brother. In fact, it sounds heavenly when you, in particular, say it. It is such a beautiful dialect.

          • Mez

            Hi Semere T,

            Probably the lazy “leftist ideology is/was thicker than blood”.

            That may explain why we are in such a mess in the first place.

            Thanks

          • Ismail AA

            Selam Semere Tesfai,
            Your phrases in Tigrinya exude typical, fortunately worn out today, arrogance which dwarfed your stature to hopeless infancy.

      • FishMilk

        Hi Paulos. In a strange way, I actually amired you when months ago, you openly declared that Meles Zenawi was your hero, that you idolized him. However, you must be very lonely now out on that thin and fragile tree limb that you have crawled out upon. Where do you go from here, especially now that your conspiracy theories have crashed over the past couple of days. Now you are dropping to ‘supposed discussion’ between top PFDJ cadre? CNN is desperately looking for qualified individuals like you. You guys simply refuse to accept realities on ground in Eritrea these days to include finalization of a legal framework to the peace process.

    • Semere Tesfai

      ሰላም ማሕሙድ ሳልሕ

      “So, no chance of rising up? Too much of self-flagellation, and no suggestion of how we can get back on track…Alas!”

      ከምይ እንጀራ ‘ዝጊ ብላዕ ወደይ! ኣብ ልበይ ዝነበርት ‘ካ ቦግ ኣቢልካ ኣውጻእካያ። ግን፡ ውዒልካ ሓዲርካ………

      እቲ ሕቶ፡ እቲ ኣብ መጽሓፍ ‘ዓርኪ ተማሃራይ’ ንባይቶ ኣናጹ ትም ኣቢሉ ኣፍ ኩለን ዘትሓዘ ሕቶ እንዳኣሉ። ማለት፡ ነታ ድሙ ‘ሞ መን ኣብ ክሳዳ ቃጭል ይእሰረላ እንዳኣሉ መእሰሪ ‘ቲ ነገር።

      ሰመረ ተስፋይ

      • Nitricc

        “ነታ ድሙ ‘ሞ ከመይ ገርካ ‘ዩ ኣብ ክሳዳ ቃጭል ዝእሰራ”

        Hi Semere; hahahahaha; I just understood what you mean. so funny and true.

      • Hameed Al-Arabi

        Hi Semere Tesfai,

        Ehhh meskinai! Still you are there rotting. The world has changed my friend, and man is flying in space. Instead of Wooooo Semere from mountain to mountain has changed to Wooooo Semere from continent to continet. Travelling days or months to deliver a message has become within seconds you spread the news around the world. It is the time of live transmission of events from one corner of the earth to the another. Is tying the bell difficult to you? Just poison one rat you will kill the cat. It is the era of remote control and drones.

        Al-Arabi

        • Berhe Y

          Dear Hamid,

          ዎ ሰመረ ካብ ጎቦ ናብ ጎቦ፡፡
          ሃገረሰብ ዓድና አዘኪርካኒ፡፡

          I really had a good laugh.
          Thank you,
          Berhe

  • Nitricc

    Hi All; things are moving and the only way out. peace. Good for you Eritrea.

    KHARTOUM (Reuters) – Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir said on Thursday that his country was reopening its border with Eritrea, which has been shut for about a year.

    Sudan closed the border in early January, 2018, after Bashir announced a six-month state of emergency in the regions of Kassala and North Kurdufan to help combat the trafficking of weapons and foodstuffs.

    “I announce here, from Kassala, that we are opening the border with Eritrea because they are our brothers and our people. Politics will not divide us,” Bashir said in televised remarks before scores of supporters in the town of Kassala, which is near the border in eastern Sudan.

  • Sarah Ogbay

    Selam Haile,
    Good self-reflection on how and why we are where we are!

  • Paulos

    Guest,

    Talk serious so that the Forum would take you serious. These are emotions talking.

    • Halafai megedi

      Hi P

      It is interesting and revealing that you characterize any discussion/mention about Eritrean struggle, Eritrean sovereignty, and real or perceive threat coming from the land of fake generals and fake Drs as not serious and emotional.

      Speaking of emotion:
      As one person in this forum abtly and figuratively described, whenever TPLF’s disastrous adventurism is critcized you turn from a relatively harmless and entertaining “poodle to a nasty bulldog”. This is not my preferred choice of words, but I found them to appropriately capture the instant metamorphism you are miraculously able to perform.

      With regard to being taken serious:
      Frequenting this relatively narrow valley, it seems you are mistaking your own echo as a sign of approval, consensus and seriousness

      Halafai megedi (Guest)

      • Paulos

        Selam Halafai Megedi,

        Great to see you back.

        Your otherwise serious inputs have been greatly missed where you beat me into morphing faster from serious to emotions while I snail-paced morphing from a poodle to a pitbull.

        • Halafai megedi

          I believe you are (purposely) confusing my “name” with somebody’s name. Because ?Saleh blocked my (Guest) posting, I just created a Disqus account with the name “Halafai Megedi”.

          • Paulos

            HM [Guest],

            It is all good brother. It is all good. Welcome to Awate!

          • Halafai megedi

            Thanks. I look forward to your article focusing on water chemistry as you seem to be more constructive and instructive when talking about science.

  • Selam Haile S.,

    Good, but only that “We made Ethiopia a Goliath to win big, but we discontinued becoming David”, I think is a flawed assumption. It is antagonistic and not forward looking towards cooperation, which is required in the future between ethiopia and eritrea.

    Do you believe that once a david always a david is true? David has always his weakness and goliath always his strength. Do you think that foolish goliaths and lucky davids will always be the rule?

    The writer Malcolm Gladwell had said that goliath’s weakness lay in the fact that most probably he suffered from a tumor of the hypophysis, which was responsible for his huge size (acromegaly), awkward walking style, and sever vision problem that made him an easy target even for little david.

    In case of ethiopia and eritrea, the probability of a change of position or a repeat of the once in a lifetime chance of success is more or less nonexistent, and the best thing for david and goliath to do is to cooperate and not antagonize.

    • Haile S.

      Selam Horizon,

      You are right. I agree with your central message. The example of David was in targeting against self(Eritrea) and not against Ethiopia, in line with the central message of my comments. The ‘collateral damage’ to Ethiopia was not intentional. I am also for talks between Eritrea and Ethiopia to be directed for cooperation and not for confrontation.

  • Paulos

    Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

    My apologies for bringing the thread from yesterday here where the exchange was about the rather complicated but at times fascinating relationships between the two Fronts—EPLF and TPLF. Was there any reason for the animosity beyond the mundane where if there was any relationship rooted in good faith after all? Perhaps the relationship was a classic case of “Thucydides Trap.”

    The Harvard Thucydides Trap project lists 16 cases where nations with in the last 500 years either who had gone to war or came closer to war when as Thucydides identified the three main factors that push nations to war: Interests, Fear and Honour.

    Certainly, Thucydides who wrote extensively about what was later known, “The Peloponnesian War” between the most powerful Sparta and the then rising power Athens, laid an intellectual foundation for latter-day historians when they examine why nations go to war in the first place. The theory of the “Trap” seems to be compelling so much so that it is ubiquitous in scope as well. The list contains the following nations with in the span of 500 years:*

    Portugal against Spain.
    Hubsburgs against Ottoman Empire.
    Hubsburgs against Sweden.
    Dutch Republic against England.
    France against UK.
    UK against Russia.
    France against Germany.
    China and Russia against Japan.
    UK against US.
    UK, France and France against Germany.
    Soviet Union, France and UK against Germany.
    US against Japan.
    US against Soviet Union.
    UK and France against Germany [Mainly on who controls Europe politically.]

    Again, the project examines and suggests that the overall picture of the list is based on the tensions that had risen between an established power and a new rising power when the former feels threatened by the latter.

    Can the same be said about the nature of the animosity between the two Fronts—EPLF and TPLF? Did the former ever feel threatened by the rise to prominence [for luck of a better word] of the latter? Perhaps.

    TPLF was a neophyte when EPLF was an already a formidable power to reckon with in the early summer of 1976 and it was natural for the former to be at the mercy of the latter including in moral, ideological and logistical support. If they had anything in common however, not only that they had a common enemy but in ideological flexibility, cultural appeal and the support of broad mass base as well. The commonality more over graduated into a different stage when TPLF lent a hand when EPLF decided to monopolize the Eritrean field as it defeated a pioneering Front–ELF. It was only a matter of time if the remaining where to go after each other when ego of a leader started to get in the way. As later testimonies attest, Isaias in particular felt a big fish in a small pond so to speak when he had Ethiopia as the ultimate prize of his mission in life. But the once neophyte remained a serious obstacle to his over-sized ambition and one can make the argument that, that critical factor may have led into what was dubbed a “senseless war” that had costed thousands of lives on both sides. Perhaps, as they say, only the dead sees the end of war, the war, however, never let up when it morphed not only onto a proxy war but onto an ideological and propaganda war as well. Isaias, as things stand, may have claimed a victory for weakening TPLF when he declared “Game Over.” Or is it?

    *The list was taken from, the book, “Destined For War: Can America and China Escape Thucydides Trap?” By Graham Allison.

  • Haile S.

    Selam Abi,
    There is this Brutus’d brutality in everyone of us. The most important is to harness it. Eritreans harnessed it to the limit of liberating themselves. They only targeted the brutal symbol of oppression, thus acted like David.
    ኣባ ትልቁ፡ ምን ኣለበት ጩቤዎን ብያስቀምጡ? ዌሳር ድሮ ሄዷል :-).

    • Abi

      Gashiye
      ቄሳርማ ጎዳና ሃርነት ላይ ተቀምጦ ፪/፼ እየሰበሰበ እነዳዊትን በየምድር ቤቱ እያበሰበሰ ነው።

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selam Haile & SGJ,

    Let me join Dr Paulos and Ismail in appreciating Haile S. for his resourceful knowledge, who contributed in making this forum in particular and to the website in general to be an educational place. Haile S is one of the few who are “energetic men of catholic taste” with broad knowledge and the desire to appreciate how all they fit in the human condition.

    Saleh, thank you very much for bringing the outlined valuable points in to the front page, they surely deserve. However, as I plead to Haile earlier in my comment, I had great expectation from him to elaborate his valuable points in an essay format, for they depict our “realities” and our “shortcoming” in real time, and the “character” we need to build who we are. I could assure you that many writers could have provoked to write along those lines.

  • Haile S.

    Selamat Saleh,

    Thank you for highlighting my comments in this way. Only honorable people like you do that. You see, that is what is missing with our regime and its members. They don’t consider anything that comes from their citizens. They present themselves as the alpha and omega of Eritrea for leading a fight for freedom. I will come back later to expand what I am saying.
    For now let me say this. As Ismail said, I try to churn around what I read between my two jaws, but this time I didn’t need to do that. You article was like ግዓት. That mound of delicious dough with a crater on top containing a mixture of spicy chilli and melted butter. I just swallowed it as is. It is still getting consumed by everybody.
    Now, you accompanied my comment/article with a beautiful painting, I don’t know whose, but much more speaking than that of Caravaggio’s the most celebrated among the italian painters. You choice has the people!. By adding this image you made my comments more attractive, but the message as you know is that we remained David the shepherd and musician instead of standing and becoming David the king of the people.
    Thank you again Saleh! Thank you Ismail!

  • Paulos

    Selam Hailat,

    When Ayay focused on geography, your fertile and highly imaginative mind went far and beyond and gave us a gem but a stark social, economic and political realities of the nation we all love so much. Thank you and glad you are here among us.

  • Ismail AA

    Selam SJ,

    Didn’t I tell you Awate has in house resourceful and people of critical insight. To be fair though there are also nice individuals who contribute nothing.

    I too hav observed Haile S and lots of others. They are extremely keen observers, and they take a mouthful at a time and keep on turning it around between their two jaws as long as possible to enjoy the flavor while at the same time searching their massive archive of knowledge to check where the morsel fits after being swallowed. Then, they turn to the cook and tell him what a wonderful meal he has prepared. Your article was short but voluminous in meaning and implication. Haile did not miss to enjoy it and admire your choice of recipes and way of mixing them. He let you enjoy the article and respond in your own way.