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Human rights lawyer vs. trained healer

Brainwashing The Young: YPFDJ Panelists Redefine Human Rights

Over labor day weekend, while most of the City of Davis was out of town vacationing for the holiday, UC Davis became the site for a large youth conference organized by the government of what is often referred to in the media as “Africa’s North Korea.”[1]

Davis is a small college town nestled in the Sacramento Valley of northern California. It is home to about 65,000 residents, approximately half of whom are students enrolled at the University of California Davis (UC Davis). Davis is known for being progressive, liberal, eco-conscious, and bike-friendly. Most recently, UC Davis drew international attention when student protestors were pepper-sprayed by campus police. A photo taken during the protest of an officer spraying a line of students seated on the pavement nearly reached iconic status as a representation of modern day peaceful protest and police brutality. But, for the most part, Davis doesn’t draw too much attention to itself. Its residents often compare Davis (affectionately) to an insulated bubble.

Over the course of the long weekend, the Eritrean ruling party, which is to say the government, hosted its ninth annual conference for the Young People’s Front for Democracy and Justice (YPFDJ), which is a youth organization that aims to “build a strong, conscious and patriotic Eritrean youth movement.”

As an Eritrean descendent living in North America, I decided to attend one evening of the conference at the invitation of conference organizers. A presentation entitled “Human Rights and Eritrea’s Image” was scheduled for that evening. Having studied, researched and worked with international human rights law, it was quite serendipitous that I happened to sit in on the human rights presentation.

What I hoped would be a conversation about charges of serious human rights violations in Eritrea turned out to be little more than an hour of indoctrination and rhetorical sidestepping on critical issues. Not only were known big-ticket items not even mentioned (such as indefinite military conscription;[2] severe restriction of freedom of speech, press, association and religion; [3] frequent disappearances;[4] forced labor;[5] the detention of political prisoners;[6] and the shoot-to-kill policy for people attempting to leave Eritrea without authorization[7]), but panelists denied outright the occurrence of human rights events of significant proportions including ongoing human trafficking in the Sinai desert,[8] an attempted military coup by 100 armed personnel that took place in January 2013,[9] and the UN’s allegation that 10,000 political prisoners are held in Eritrea.[10]

As I sat there in Freeborn Hall witnessing what I realized was a foreign government actively brainwashing several hundred young people, it occurred to me that no one else probably knew this was happening. Unlike the first eight annual conferences that were all held in major metropolitan areas with substantial dissenting diaspora communities, this year’s conference was in Davis, California. There were very few people in Davis – particularly over the long weekend – to protest, witness or even notice what Eritrea was doing in Freeborn Hall. With this report, I hope to bring to light the significant events of that evening so that they do not fade away into the forgotten history of a small college town in northern California.

Perhaps the most fascinating thing about the embassy’s human rights presentation was its delivery. The presenters mainly spoke about Eritrea’s image, the peoples’ collective right to self-determination, and the state’s freedom from interference by the international community. The presenters set the stage by signaling that the audience ought to be thankful for Eritrea’s independence from Ethiopia and colonization. The evening opened up with a skit honoring the freedom fighters (or “martyrs”) that died during Eritrea’s 30-year war of independence. One young performer thanked the martyrs “for giving us the freedom that we have today.” Before the words “human rights” had even been uttered, the audience was already primed to experience a sense of gratitude for not living during the time of colonization and occupation, thereby drawing attention away from the severe human rights violations that are taking place today in Eritrea.

Rhetorically, human rights were not discussed as the freedoms and rights of individuals living in Eritrea. Instead, human rights were referred to as a “political ploy” of the international community and the United States “to destabilize nations” such as Eritrea. The panelists were asked what words came to mind when they thought about human rights. They answered: “self-determination”, “dignity”, “right to associate” and “justice.” This selection of words is more closely associated with collective and national rights than the rights of individuals. They did not include more individualized human rights concepts such as freedom of speech, freedom of movement, or freedom of civil and political participation.

Very early on in the presentation, the embassy made it clear that the human rights discussion would be about the state’s rights against other states, and the peoples’ right to be free of foreign occupation or control. Nothing suggested that a conversation would ensue about Eritrea’s mandatory program of indefinite military conscription, the government’s prohibition of practicing any religion other than the four that are registered with the state, or the fact that in 2001 the government “destroyed Eritrea’s private press…and arrested its journalists.”[11]

The panelists then took a long irrelevant detour in which they presented a history of the development of human rights law. They criticized the UN’s Human Rights Council as being corrupt and too politically motivated. The panelists ended this tangent by criticizing the United States for not joining significant human rights instruments (i.e., conventions for the rights of women and children). Confusingly, the audience was then asked to determine whether Eritrea is in compliance with international human rights law by tallying up those countries that are not. Illogically, they suggested that Eritrea’s compliance is evidenced by the noncompliance of other nations.

Satisfied by its presentation of Eritrea’s compliance with human rights law, the panelists then turned to their second topic of little consequence to the issue of current human rights violations in Eritrea: the nation’s history of colonization and occupation by foreign states. They cited documented human rights violations against Eritreans by the Italians, Ethiopians and others, including the deportation and expropriation of the bodies and property of over 76,000 Eritreans by Ethiopian authorities. Here, the strategy of persuasion was 1) to discredit those states that accuse Eritrea of dire human rights violations by emphasizing their participation in past persecution against Eritreans, and 2) to derail the conversation from the most pressing human rights issues in Eritrea – those of modern times.

Perhaps the most troubling point in the presentation was when panelists, particularly a young medical student and self-proclaimed activist named Simon Tesfamariam, blatantly denied the occurrence of human trafficking in the Sinai desert or attempted military coup of January 2013. It was at this moment that the conference evolved rhetorically from avoidance and defensive language to outright conspiracy theories of re-occupation and neo-imperialism. That evening, I witnessed the active production of widespread fear and paranoia through a “them-versus-us” rhetoric of radicalism.

The international community’s concern about human trafficking of Eritreans in the Sinai desert was condemned as a political attempt to justify a reoccupation of Eritrea by Ethiopia or the United States. Simon Tesfamariam explicitly compared this to global campaigns used to justify colonization during the Scramble for Africa. He questioned the credibility of human trafficking claims and demanded the release of victims’ names and addresses as evidence, despite ample documentation and reporting on the issue.[12] The message was surprisingly clear: human trafficking of Eritreans is not happening in the Sinai desert, and a global campaign against human trafficking is merely a pretext to justify continued sanctions against Eritrea as well as its final eradication or occupation by foreign states.

Another panelist, Sophia Tesfamariam, criticized the recent UN Special Rapporteur’s report on human rights violations in Eritrea. She challenged the credibility of the report on the grounds that the appointed Rapporteur, Sheila B. Keetharuth, was biased due to her long employment with Amnesty International, where she worked extensively on human rights violations in Eritrea. Although, it seemed to me, that there would probably be few qualified candidates for the position than one who has extensively studied human rights in Eritrea.

The presentation ended with a message about the role of the young Eritrean diaspora in protecting Eritrea’s image. They were encouraged to participate in the global discussion of human rights through social media by responding to human rights allegations. The young audience was urged not to be silent when Eritrea is accused of human rights violations. Young members of the diaspora – who will undoubtedly play a significant part in shaping Eritrea’s future – attended that conference, and they were instructed to dismiss all accusations against Eritrea, even when such accusations are supported by insurmountable evidence. Fittingly, the presentation ended without any time allocated for direct questions from the audience.

[1] See, e.g., Nathaniel Myers, Africa’s North Korea, Foreign Policy (July/Aug. 2010), available at

[2] Amnesty International, Eritrea, in Annual International Report 2012, 142, 143-144 (2012), available at

[3] Freedom House, Freedom of the Press 2013: Eritrea, (“Eritrea continued to rank among the worst media environments in the world in 2012”); Human Rights Watch, World Report 2012: Eritrea, available at (“…the Eritrean government banned religious activities, except those organized by four registered religious organizations…it deposed the Orthodox patriarch…[and] appointed the current Sunny mufti”).

[4] Human Rights Watch, World Report 2011: Eritrea, available at (“Many detainees simply ‘disappear’”).

[5] Human Rights Watch, World Report 2013: Eritrea, available at (government uses conscripts for forced labor; conscripts do not complain because “we were afraid for our lives”).

[6] Eritrea: ’10,000 political prisoners in awful conditions’, British Broadcasting Company, May 9, 2013.

[7] Human Rights Watch, World Report 2013: Eritrea, available at; Amnesty International, Eritrea, in Annual International Report 2012, 142, 144 (2012), available at

[8] See U.S. Dept. of State, 2012 Trafficking in Persons Report – Eritrea, June 19, 2012, available at (“During the past three years, an estimated 2,000 to 3,000 Eritreans have escaped to refugee camps in eastern Sudan each month; traffickers seek out vulnerable Eritreans in the camps, some of whom were extorted and tortured as they were transported through the Sinai Peninsula”).

[9] See Jeffrey Gettleman, Coup Attempt by Rebel Soldiers Is Said to Fail in Eritrea, Jan. 21, 2013, (“mutinous soldiers stormed the Ministry of Information and took over the state-run television service”).

[10] See Eritrea: ’10,000 political prisoners in awful conditions’, British Broadcasting Company, May 9, 2013.

[11] Human Rights Watch, World Report 2012: Eritrea, available at

[12] See, e.g., Katie Nguyen, Number of Eritrean migrants seized, held for ranson on the rise, Thomson Reuters Foundation, Aug. 21, 2013,; Katy Migiro, Traffickers attacking Eritrean refugees in Sudan – rights groups, Thomson Reuters Foundation, Jan. 31, 2013,; Ashish Kumar Sen, Egypt: ‘In Sinai, I saw hell’; refugees are easy prey for brutal human traffickers, Washington Times, July, 21, 2013,; Phoebe Greenwood, Eritrean regime cashes in on arms and human trafficking, says UN report, The Guardian, July 17, 2012,; Phoebe Greenwood, Egyptian authorities look the other way as Bedouin kidnap refugees, The Guradian, Feb. 14, 2012,

About Jihan A. Kahssay

Human Rights Attorney

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  • Nathan Aman

    The YPFDJ don’t have a clue about what they are talking about. Right now they are being used as tools by the PFDJ in order to continue their horrible control of the Eritrean people. Only fools and cowards help,follow and obey the PFDJ. It is sad that these so-called YPFDJ live and prosper in a free country of the U.S.A and other free countries and don’t want the same for their own people they claim to love. Time will teach you like it did to previous blind followers of Shabia that ended up disappointed to say the least.What a shame!!!

  • Alex

    Why reply with reasons to traders and foreign conscripts agent. They are not the one writing the articles. It is prepared and written for them, and they simply add their names as were an eritrean prepared. So that is why i said how can u response to something that the so called author does not even know what he is talking about.
    If u dont’ know , the hottest available job for defeated eritreans is simply to be recruited to by ethiopian and western intelligents and make a living selling their country.

  • WediSewra

    Dear Ms Jihan,
    It appears your lies have been exposed and judging by the article below, you’re not a so-clever (wannabe) lawyer.. I hope you’ll do yourself a big favor and come to your senses, meaning you should learn to utilize your time in a more effective way if you really want to help your people and nation (???); as supposed to going around defaming and tarnishing individuals or organizations.
    I seriously hope the organizers of the YPFDJ conference and author of the article will go ahead and press charges, so as to teach you, a lawyer (?) a good lesson you probably you didn’t learn in your academic years: that is, if you intend on building a society free of exploitation and where justice and ‘Democracy’ should thrive, there must be no room for lies, gimmicks and devious agenda!

    Here’s the article where your lies have been exposed:


    • saay

      Selamat WediSewra:

      The debate between the doctor (Simon) and the lawyer (Jihan) will take its course, hopefully in the court of public opinion or in the court of law (where Jihan has a decided advantage.) But that’s up to Simon and his colleagues to decide.

      What interests me here is about those of us who have taken sides. I believe Jihan’s version of events and she has made her case; and you believe Simon’s version of events and he has made his case. Even more specifically, what interests me is what Simon has written about (a) and (b) his concern about his reputation and ability to have a career as a doctor (presumably in America and not in Eritrea, where his bleeding heart would be put to use.)

      For example, consider that the website, which was described in recently leaked emails, from Stratfor Global Intelligence as “Eritrean opposition, Islamist, Ethiopia-friendly” was caught lying about the death of the Eritrean president just last year and did not issue an apology to its readers for the error.”

      This is a case of intellectual dishonesty and sloppiness:

      (1) When you read “leaked emails, from Stratfor Global Intelligence”, the reader is supposed to get the impression that it was Global Intelligence that characterized as “Eritrean opposition, Islamist, Ethiopia-friendly.” He, Simon, is betting that most readers (probably you included) will not check the link provided and won’t discover that that was (a) wikileaks blowing the whistle on Stratfor; (b) that it was communication between Stratfor and a “Safi”, and (c) given that Safi characterizes (i) dehai as “somehow neutral Eritrean website” (bwahahahaha), (ii) asmarino as “eritrean opposition website, evangelican,I think CIA supported” (yawn) and (iii) as “Eritrean opposition, Islamist, Ethiopia-friendly” (Muslim editors = Islamist), what this shows is not the viewpoint of Stratfor but a “Safi” who shares the worldview of Simon. And who, coincidentally, was busted by wikileaks feeding information to Stratfor Global Intelligence which wikileaks describes as a company “that fronts as an intelligence publisher, but provides confidential intelligence services to large corporations, such as Bhopal’s Dow Chemical Co., Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon and government agencies, including the US Department of Homeland Security, the US Marines and the US Defence Intelligence Agency.” So despite all the PFDJ railing against hegemons, it was the PFDJ and its supporters that were the “kedemti” of the US agencies from July 2004 and December 2011, as this data shows.

      Hade beleley.

      (2) Simon says that was “caught lying about the death of the Eritrean president just last year and did not issue an apology to its readers for the error.” Link? Source? Nothing. He can’t provide it, it doesn’t exist because we didn’t report on the “death of the Eritrean president”. Since his whole piece is that we are unreliable because (i) we make up stories and (ii) we do not correct our mistakes, poor Simon has a mess in his hands.

      kilte beleley

      Finally, Simon weeps about how Jihan’s characterization of him defames him and endangers his earning potential and how, hint, hint, he may reluctantly have to sue. Well, I will let Jihan, a lawyer, deal with that. But he may consider the following: the Eritrean regime is accused of horrendous, barbaric crimes by the international community. At some future date, perhaps when Simon is in the prime of his career, it will be determined (a) it committed them, but Simon was not aware of it, but SHOULD have been aware of it; (b) it committed them, and Simon was aware of it; (c) it didn’t commit them and it was all a fabrication. Simon is betting that it is (c) and only (c). Because if it is (a) and (b), in a future world where everybody (and I mean everybody’s) paper trail is part of his/her resume, it is his future patients that will wonder how much commitment he has to the first principle of medical ethics of “primum non nocere” – “first, do no harm.” Consider the nature of the crimes–helicopter, containers, underground prisons, almaz,–he may want to invest just a little time from his busy advocacy schedule to investigate that.

      Simon is young and passionate and he will ignore my advice, but it is the function of the aging to give it and the young to ignore it.

      I didn’t read the rest of his piece because it exceeded my sloppiness threshhold (the quota I endure from articles), but I am pretty sure Jihan has read it and will give it the treatment it deserves.


      • Cor

        He actually DID provide a source for the claim about the President dying; it’s an embedded link with the actual article there.

  • TheTruth

    Looks like Jihan’s account is being called into question. Great respectful rebuttal. The difference between the two opposing camps.

  • Mussie

    Doctor Haile Mezgebe, you can fool yourself but not others.

    • yegermal

      hahahahahaha shooting in the dark and it ain’t sticking!

    • haile

      kan’do loms chrqkhum derbikhum!!!…Anyway, when I once mentioned to Sabri that Dr Mezgebe was kicked out, another pro-regime guy came up and told us that he wasn’t. Can we take ours to be a confirmation?…Nmkhuanu if what he wanted was to teach in Eritrea, why do you think that was something wrong to do?

      • Mussie

        Dr. Haile Mezgebe, you do not want to teach. you want to be the Medical school president or dean of Orhota medical school. you was jealousy to ward your life long collogues dr. Andemariam Gebremichael the dean of the Orhota school of Medicine.

        Dr. Haile Mezgebe you can run but you can not hide.

  • Araya

    Selamat Mr Gadi.
    I guess you know about Debrezeit. well, you get my point then.
    Gadi, the reason I felt you exaggerated the profession of lawyer was, I sensed from your tone, to sound “how dare you talk about her, she is a lawyer” “sort of throwing smacks around and that is why I said what I said, other than that I have no qualms with author and I wish her best of luck with her profession. Again I have no idea why you assumed I was attacking the author. My primary target was to those Eritrean youth haters and those who have extreme animosity with YPFDJ. To name names a few, SAAY and Haile. I was just reading earlier and there is a new dinosaur who is calling the YPFDJ “evil”
    Why is this all hate? What is to them if we print T-shirts? Wash cars and whatever we do, what is to you; to them; anyone who hates the YPFDJ? It is our life and we have the right to live our life the way we chose. If you are “the oppositions” are so good, why don’t you assemble a youth group that will challenge the YPFDJ? I know you tried, do you know why it failed over and over? It will never work? Yep, go ahead and answer for yourself.
    At the end of the day, we all are Eritreans. Don’t hate.

    • haile

      Araya @” My primary target was to those Eritrean youth haters and those who have extreme animosity with YPFDJ.” I can speak for myself, hatred is the expertise of the illegal regime and how it controls communities through manufactured polarization. Look how desperately you seem to be digging to make a case of hate out our concern. Those bright young people were far more capable of relating to their home country at a level warranted by their expertise and qualifications. They are reduced to enduring hours long nonsense drooling by some throwbacks and off they get sent to sell DVDs and T-shirts. That is all the bankrupted system of IA can offer, short of AK-47 that is. Eritreans are not capable of hating one another, although we disagree on many things that doesn’t amount to hate. Stop being used as a medium of transporting hate from the source, IA.

    • Saleh “Gadi” Johar

      See Araya? here is my dilemma … how is that you are part of the YPFDJ (because you say, “we” meaning you are part of the YPFDJ outfit.) If I am wrong, please correct me. Then I remember you claimed you were in Debrezeit! Are you part of both, or were you playing in two field at the same time? That is the for me to understand your position within context…though you have the right to be wherever you want to be. At this moment, I am confused: do you belong to the Debrezeit camp or the YPFDJ camp… or something else?

      • Araya

        Selamat Mr Gadi.
        I can see why you are confused. Let me back up and try to explain. I was born in Ethiopia and still my parents are in Addis and I go to Ethiopia very frequently. Every time I go to see my parents, every time the same discussion takes place in dining table between my dad and mom, of course Eritrea.
        My mom will say
        Entay Ezi Sebay beynu koynu
        My dad will shot back by saying
        Haqki, beynu hizwo.
        And the show just started.
        I never figured it out my mom’s passionate care for PIA and the same goes to my Dad, I have no idea why he is so against PIA. I never had time to involve and understand the political difference. My job was nothing but school, my Dad is an absolute dictator. Once I got break and time to spare, I started talking and evaluating the opposition groups in Addis. To make long story short I was in Addis at the time of the conference and I was invited by people I get know there, regretfully, I participated. Right after that came back to USA and I joined YPFDJ with full force. YPFDJ is not perfect but from what I have experienced in Debrezit, YPFDJ is as perfect as it gets. So, here I am a full time member of YPFDJ. I know most of you would not understand but before you judge anything please have a reference point. I am passionate about YPFDJ not because it is prefect but because I have a reference point.
        now, my mom and me give my dad all he can handle, till starts swering in Italian.:)
        I hope i have answered you.

  • Michael, B.

    Do not be offended, my dear countryman, if I take the liberty to ask you a favour. Please, do not take this some sort of quid pro quo move. While I feel the citizens’ obligation to do anything as small as writing the basics of Hegelianism, however clumsily and as motivated as possible, a the risk of failing, for you who missed the desired education at the right time, because you obviously had been in meda, I ask you to say what you mean and mean what you say about your gedli time. May be you will discover the internet medium catharsis,
    You the eye-witness expose those people we say most probably or rightly evil. Do not let the omerta’ prevail. Speak up, in the name of justice and for the sake of the Eritrean people. Give example so that the weak hearted follow your lead and tell what they went through under criminal tentacles of meriHinet Shabya. Those who saw the meda crimes been committed and recognize the bloody meriHinet elements, should not be silent. They, of course the moral high ground to speak up. And we agree that silence means partaking in the tegadelti crimes.
    One should not keep silent as his own brother being murdered by the order of a few Shabya gang members. It is unacceptable is not human is not ethical is satanical is monstrous; unless there some unknown code of ethics of the unconcerned that permit overlooking them as some bloody surreal scenes. Sure know directly and know who know directly the killing of our innocent tegadelti I know they all innocent victims for the simple reason they been speedily liquidated, with no respectable and due trial.
    Amanuel you take the initiative and expose them, as you knew them. Find the right time and tell us directly who is guilty and we are ready to shoulder you, from wherever we are.

  • haile


    It is the eve of September 18, the day a group of Ex-tegadelti led by IA, purged the EPLF based provisional government in 2001 and embarked on the most brutal type of oppression that has few parallels in history.

    Today, an Eritrean priest based priest Moses Zerai, contacted the Maltese authorities last night to inform them of 270 asylum seekers on board a dinghy that is in distress. I appears there has not been a relieve yet but the dangerous situation is being dealt with.

    It is a sorry state that serves as the reminder of the fateful day where IA and his group decided to siege the nation and its hard won independence hostage under gun point.


  • bini

    What is the difference between PFDJ and the Eritrean Government? Why do they operate under PFDJ? They are one and the same so why the redundancy? They should simply say representatives of GoE held a meeting here or there. Most of you are wasting your time here analyzing and studying PFDJ. There is no point. They have complete control of the people and the country. It doesn’t matter what name they use or who the personalities are. Focus on the issues. The issue is not what is happening with the youth in the diaspora. The issue is with the youth in Eritrea and the Eritrean people as a whole. The youth in Europe and USA have the choice to be YPFDJ or whatever but your young brothers and sisters in Eritrea do not have a choice of anything. So focus on them and see how you can help. The kids here can be as dumb as they want to be because that is their choice. How many children fear their parents in the USA enough that they are forced to join YPFDJ? That is BS.

  • Hlmi Derho

    Selamat Jihan,

    You’re a star. In fact, let me push the scale a notch up-you’re a superstar. It looks like Haile and Semere are craving for your attention. That sure is pretty dandy. But I say, that should come with a caveat. Mini-biography is in order. Haile is a brainy, a deft with words- with an impressive command of the English language. But here is the down side of the Ivory Tower. He is short, bald with an extra large belly. In fact, talk of the town has it that, the last time he saw his mojo was in a mirror. Semere is an honorary chair of the “I am here, I am here” club in the company of Selam Kidane who would do anything and everything to be on the lime, dim, bright and shady light. That said however, it is an honor to have you here amongst us. Your mighty pen will definitely lay bare the shenanigan PFDJ and the tyrant who is holding hostage the people in Eritrea.

    • haile

      Hilmi derho, very funny 🙂 @Haile…is short, bald with an extra large belly. In fact, talk of the town has it that, the last time he saw his mojo was in a mirror.

      That is if you weren’t making the error that the guy you describing is actually not me, it is the guy I hire to walk my dogs 🙂 He resembles nothing like Haile the tall, six pack, with a fresh and vibrant dark hair 🙂 He is not available by the way:-(

  • ottawa

    “Tegadelty”: those that died delivered freedom.
    “Tegadelty”: those that lived failed freedom.

    • ottawa

      Just to clearify my comment before some misinterprets it. “those that lived” I am refering to the ones that took power.

  • haile

    Dr/Professor/General/Engineer/[what ever you wish] Mussie

    So you think that I am a certain Dr Haile who was PFDJ supporter and encouraged the youth to join YPFDJ, but as you put it, I failed to get my dream retirement job in one of Eritrea’s un-recognized Universities. And bang! down with PFDJ I went. While you’re at it, why don’t you quote at least one sentence that I wrote here in support of the PFDJ over the years of my participation at awate forums?

    Why do you find it unfathomable that a citizen can have an issue with IA and his group who are holding state power by the barrels of the gun and refusing to hand it over to the citizens of Eritrea? However much you wish to criminalize the citizen, it would never work. This is the case of IA and his small group vs the people of Eritrea, the legitimate owners of the nation morally and legally.

    Stop making a laughing stock of yourself, I am not that guy you talking about. All I am saying is the YPFDJ can aspire higher and better than selling DVDs and T-shirts for a crime syndicate that has gambled away with the future of the Eritrean people by hijacking the independence that they fought for.

    chill out

  • Tamrat Tamrat

    53 years of destruction, killings, struggel, trust, mistrusts comes to almost to a stand still. Those even who trusted tplf and eplf have changed meaning. Some stick to tplf, some to eplf and some to every one surprise have declared that both tplf and eplf were wrong from the very beginning. Off course this is not easy time for those who always had said specially in 1991-1998 that tplf and eplf were wrong. They sacrificed them selves so that we avoid the horror of 1998- to date. It took 23 years for the dust to settel Down. Who would have thought there would be more sacrifice after1991?

    Now is still there are Things to be greatfull. There is no war. Let the cyber bullet rain it hurts only few who are far away from home. Our problems are more sophesticated than 1991. That no doubt about it. 23 years of God knows what i Call it has been creating all possible sorts of confusions and chaos make us untill we become so arrogant enough that we dare to pass judgement over Our People so that they fullfill Our ideals in what ever price they pay. We even forget the simple luxery of a Family going to their daily rutines and meet at home at the end of the day and conume what the day brings for them. Just because we thrill Our own by wiring some dollars.

  • Karim Abdulaziz

    Hello Jihan,

    I would like to say your article is informative and clearly delineates the ongoing attempt by HGDEF to perplex and misguide the youth from assuming a role that would bring about their true potential to the surface to effectively uncover the tyranny that which has subdued the nation for over two decades. Furthermore, its promising and hopeful to witness young lady as yourself courageously shedding light on the issues that has undoubtedly haunted many sensible, intelligent, and humble Eritreans. I sense this is a beginning of empowerment and radical change to be brought about by young minds. Keep up the good work!

  • haile


    “YPFDJ would run numbers … They have doctors, lawyers, engineers, scientists…”

    Wouldn’t it count to an insult to those professions, when one wears them as a title, yet have nothing better to offer other than be used to legitimatize some shoddy acts that they have no clue about!

    The regime in Eritrea is:

    Politically bankrupt: It claims to have enough security assurances to purchase electricity supply from Ethiopia (essentially trusting Ethiopia with vital assets as provision of power!) yet claims not to have the assurances of security to implement the constitution and bring those it incarcerated, tortured and killed to be accounted for.

    Economically bankrupt: It runs a parallel economy of impoverished national economy and unaccounted for black market economy of 09. It says it needs energy, which in turn needs hard currency, which in turn needs private investment that can’t happen since the national currency is deliberately over valued to divert income to its private bank that engages in contraband and black market Forex exchange. There is no way out for the economy, it is a dead case.

    Socially bankrupt: It has separated families for decades under national service, forced migration and denial of re-unions (even for burials). A regime can not look beyond hassad mentality towards anything that it comes into contact with.

    One would think “YPFDJ … They have doctors, lawyers, engineers, scientists…” would have a minuscule of imagination and courage to be something more than T-Shirt freaks that serves no purpose what so ever, other than freak the hell out of Eritreans in Eritrea. Those Eritreans are undergoing grueling levels of brutality every single day of their lives under THE CRIMINAL regime that has no other agenda than to siphon off the nation’s money. Skunis style.

    • saay

      Hey Haile:

      Spot on. I especially like it when the young in the YPFDJ rail against “old” people in the opposition when their puppeteers (Yemane Gebreab, Wedi Gerahtu, etc) are all old men. They decide when YPFDJ should meet, where, what the agenda should be. There is a Tigre saying quite appropriate here : Yiamer mi l’amer. (abu Selah: translate) [Eshi goitai, SGJ translating: Don’t expect the ignorant to be knowledgeable.]

      Now, if the YPFDJ doctors lawyers accountants professors promoters students (regardless of their credentials, they are all gravediggers, so long as they are in the cult*) want to open their mind to Eritrea (not the ABSTRACT Eritrea but the one made up of people), there is a short but powerful interview that Erena Radio conducted with Yonas Germano Nati. Yonas is the eldest of Germano Natis six children. He was a teacher in Barentu when his dad (a member of the G-15) was arrested and taken to Ela Ero (he is dead now, and we know that only courtesy to a guard who escaped).

      This is the real Eritrea, not the imaginary one the YPFDJ have been fed by the old puppet masters. But then again, Y’amer mi Amer?


      * for anybody who is in the YPFDJ and doesn’t understand why there is such head-shaking at him from decent folk, remember this quote: “I was in a cult. Everybody could see it; I don’t know why I couldn’t.” You can only be awakened if u hear the testimonials of those who left the cult.

      • haile

        Selam Saay;

        Good observation. In fact the age divide of YPFDJ leadership (nearing retirement:) Vs YPFDJ fellowship (young and impressionable) is not only visible in the organization’s power hierarchy but also in the sitting arrangement that takes form during seminars too. The old guys are always lined up in the front seats and the kids take the back isles. This is telling of the nature of the expectation and subtle intent of the set up.

        The YPFDJ is set up to stifle civil and political activity by diaspora born Eritreans vs. the situation in Eritrea. Eritrean intellectuals are well identified ENEMY to the regime. By definition, the diaspora youth are out of its control for it to effect the wanton killing and disappearance of Eritrean intellectuals that the regime engaged in Eritrea proper. Hence, what a better way of creating a pseudo organization to isolate and stupefy Eritrean young and bright youth born and brought up in the diaspora.

        One of an infamous traditions of killing in the regime’s secret service (Sleya) prisons is to organize a social event for the guards in the night and the numbered prisoners would be taken out of their cells at around 1:00 a.m. in the early morning hours and get shot. The next morning, no one would ask about the missing prisoners. You just go business as usual.

        I have hard time to believe that these YPFDJ youth lack an intellectual capacity to figure out what is going on around them, it is just the same culture, albeit watered down. Asking is a sure way of getting into trouble, and the sitting arrangements give clear clue to that effect.


        • Hailat,

          The untold truth: “One of an infamous traditions of killing in the regime’s secret service (Sleya) prisons is to organize a social event for the guards in the night and the numbered prisoners would be taken out of their cells at around 1:00 a.m. in the early morning hours and get shot. The next morning, no one would ask about the missing prisoners. You just go business as usual.”

          While this gruesome killing is continuing, the majority Eritreans (especially the educated section) are unconcerned and uneagered to challenge the evil man’s project – devouring our nation’s human resources, young and old. Keep exposing the secret acts of the regime.

    • Semere Andom

      Selamat Haile:
      The smart, educated among the YPFDJ know the facts, they are simply evil. History is littered with smart people, who knew the truth and yet committed untold atrocities against the creatures created in the image of God: humans. Dr. Joseph Mengele immediately comes to mind. Eritrean society is not unique and it has more than its share of cowards and cruel opportunists, who despite the grueling hell their brethren are enduring dance to the satanic tunes of PFDJ. The innately debilitating tendency to remain positive/optimistic does not allow us to entertain such evil to be prevalent in the Eritrean gene. We shudder at the much thought. Many things have conspired for the cowards, cruel and soulless opportunities to be the victors. We cannot blame the environment and the Millennium generation syndrome either as the same generation is also tolerant/progressive to freedom of speech, the environment and sexual orientation. Sorry Sal I do not have the numbers in tip of my fingers like you.
      The YPFDJ are just like parent like child, they want to go to the cottage called Asmara for a binge of drinking and whoring after a stressful studying for their medical degrees and if they have their way like Dr. Mengele they will isolate future Eritrean children for tendency of dissidence. I have not met YPFDJ member whose parents support democracy and justice in Eritrea. In the YPFDJ the OPFDJ( to borrow from Sal) has succeed to be fruitful and to multiple.


      • haile

        Selam Semere Andom

        “They are simply evil…” wayyy too unrealistic assessment for me. To begin with we need to prove participation in an act of ‘evil’ that is even proving illusive to many grown ups to comprehend. Beyond that, what role did the adult around them play to help them to see/learn about the truth? We can’t simply condemn our children as evil, if we have failed to create a situation where they can learn the facts. Remember that most of these youngsters have huge cultural and material attachment to their places of birth, how much of their time do they spend in engaging with issues in their family’s ‘back home’ issues is debatable. PFDJ wants to reduce them to DVD and T-shirt sales people, which it calls Nqhat! Who can come forward to claim they did something of the opposite with them?

        Z’abi qolA aynbedl…PFDJ is the real evil not the poor YPFDJ who have shown willingness to get involved with their native country’s challenges.

        Getting together like in this videos (Watch all 5) may not be too bad though…


        • yegermal

          Cool videos! Thank you! I don’t see keyh meyh ketelya metelya around… Can I safely assume wasn’t produced by Yemane Monkey goons?

    • Haile,

      PFDJs, PFDJs, the Army and government employees etc. must not be the object of our redicule but rather the object of our intellectual persuasion to leave Isaias Afewerqi by joining our struggle because our goal, unlike the enemies, woyane and its surrogates, is to build consensus among Eritreans and thereof strong nation.

      We must understand the afforemioned classes of people, when perceived superficially, may seem soldly behind Isaias Afewerqi but the reality can certainly be otherwise, given the state of agonizing life prevailing in the country.

      The fact that so many Eritreans, young and old, are leaving the country undaunted by the stories of hardship their predecessors experienced on foreign lands attests to the grim situation of our country is passing through under the oppressive regime of Isaias Afewerqi.

      And for any one to presume the people still languishing at home are behind the regime voluntarily is, I think, not only utterly irresponsible but also flat-out aiding the enemies who are workign ceaselessly to bring about the decimation of all institutions in our country as a prelude to its final demise. We must avoid.

      I had said many times before that Isaias Afewerqi is a disguised woyane as evidenced by:

      The way he deceived Qiada Al Ama—- learning Arabic langauge, spying on Christian Highlanders;

      Has blind-folded the people by wiping out Eritrean elites, pre and post-independence;

      Launching the illegal and unncessary war of 1998 with Ethiopia in collaboration with woyane;

      Willful abolition of the Eritrean Constitution;

      Willful abolition of Baito;

      Brought about the No War, No Peace situation that is killing Eritrea social fabric and Eritrean economy;

      Brought about the economic sanction and military embargo by the UNSC etc.

      But what does his last interview highlight?

      That he has Boldly Declared that he has at last reached the Threshold of the success of his decades of conspiracy. This is absolutely clear. Any one who has not yet grasped this Truth should have himself tested by Neurlogist.

      Does Isaias Afewerqi has the moral highground to blame others of all the failures transpired in Eritrea he enumerated in his interview, given the fact that he was the Author and Excutioner of all the Blue Prints that led to the current catastrophy?

      No. This a contradiction

      As a matter of fact, we are reliving the past, the past when Haile Selase and his Western surrogates, after decimating all the economic infrastructures left by Italian fascism, argued at the UN that Eritrea could not survive economically on her own and thus should be united with Ethiopia.

      When Isaias Afewerqi, after enumerating all the alleged failures, suggested that Eritrea be linked with Ethiopia ( Tigrai) in energy supply,in truth, he was implicitly affirming the old argumentof haile selase that Eritrea cannot sustain itself economically and therefore, be reunited with Tigrai.

      We must foil the conspiracy of Isaias Afewerqi and woyane by denying them eating the cake they baked.

      Genuine Eritreans,

      Eritrea has Energy more than it needs; she is abundantly endowed Geo-Thermal Energy.

  • Araya

    The problem is you, the old people. What gave you the right to interfere and judge about a bright young people who chose the destiny of their lives honorably by acknowledging their country, people and culture?
    The problem is you old people refused to let things go. You always have to involve in our own business. If you cannot beat Issaias Afroki, then sorry we cannot help you. We support him because he got balls that are made from titanium and he has Eritrea interest at heart. Do you want to know the state of your opposition, and then go to Ethiopia? You will see how they are used, abused and humiliated.
    Now, you have the nerve to tell us how the YPFDJ brainwashed, programed and indoctrinated.
    Let me tell you this even if we brainwashed then it is only because we at least we have a brain.
    My call to the old, corrupted and hate YPFDJ; first stop interfering in our young lives, and then I urge you to just to get lost and die off.leave us alone and let’s us carry our own responsibilty. just leave us alone.
    To the honorable old once, who support YPFDJ and encourage us, we have your back and we make sure the nation is respected and protected, in which you invested everything. We don’t forget the price you have paid. We are yours.
    Success to YPFDJ.
    Awet N hafash

    • Saleh “Gadi” Johar

      Hello Araya,
      I don’t know you, but surely you are not in Jihan’s league–even age-wise; she could be your daughter. Now, control your rage and learn from a young woman, a lawyer, who has a a few years to go before she can be in her late-twenties. Who do you have in mind when you screamed “You People”?

      • Araya

        Selamat MR Gadi

        I had in mind what they did in Ethiopia about the so-called youth conference. I was there. Why do you think I am angry?
        At lease in YPFDJ it is all about Eritrea by Eritreans. go to Addis and see for your self and you will understand what i am talking about.
        In a different note, what is the big deal for being a lawyer? I don’t mean to sound negative but I know many lawyers delivering pizza. Please don’t inflate the profession from what it is.

        • Araya

          Oh I forget to replay about the age thing. Why are you defensive about age? Hmmmmmmm
          I know you are the intelligent man here but it is never about the age, it is everything about the maturity.
          If it was about age, “them” would have left the youth alone.
          so here you have it, Mr Gadi.

        • Saleh “Gadi” Johar

          I didn’t inflate or defalte anything, I just stated her qualification so that you consider… she is not a dummy.

          1. I have been to Addis several times and I don’t think you can add new information to what i already know…I believe I have enough knowledge of what goes on there.

          2. You were in Debrezeit and apparently you were disappointed and I understand your frustration. But that frustration should not lead to endorsing an organization created by the PFDJ outfit.

          3. You know lawyers who deliver pizza, well, but that has nothing to do with their intelligence…even if they sweep the streets, they are educated people and that is what I stated concerning Jihan… I said nothing about the fate or their success career wise, or the economy that forces a lawyer to deliver pizza–it is your words.

          4. You insinuated that Jihan is one of the so-much abused “old” Eritreans; it was my attempt to correct your perception. Instead of acknowledging your misconception, you branched out on a different topic, totally unrelated. The topic was about YPFDJ and Jihan stated her views. You could have refuted what she wrote or agreed with it. Bringing unrelated issues to the article she wrote is hardly debating her points… it is worse, you evaded her points and accused her of something she is not: old or a member of the opposition you despise.

          I hope you understand where I am coming from….. but do you really believe what the PFDJ and its off-springs does is something we need to feel proud of? All the scientists and professional you mentioned following the tyrant like sheep is fine with you? That is what I got from your interjection. If I am wrong, I stand corrected.


      • TheOne

        There is a reason why society hates lawyers. They lie, cheat and defame all those who get in their way. No difference here.

        • yegermal

          Lawyers deal with law and only people that care about rule of law know and care about what lawyers do. If you worship DIA, you need not bother with law and lawyers since you have no use for neither…..well, not unless you need someone to rescue your a** for breaking the law in your host country. Until then, go memorize DIA’s slogans to feel uber patriotic!

    • TiETiE( Shiro bubble)

      You are talking AkLi TsBeT
      What is this Awt NhafaSh – it died years ago.
      It was meaningful during Gedli times – between enemy and these seeking freedom
      We are not in the same Hafash – We have a lot disagreements.
      You Hgdef are not Hafash anymore – You must be BzemeN WuBe ZtsemeMe.

  • Simon Tesfamariam

    I will be writing to Simon Tesfamariam’s medical school to complain on how such a moron could be admitted. This is the kind of a person Affirmative Action produces.

    • TheTruthSeeker

      The same could be said for this Jihan character who appreciates the mother of a man who has the blood of many Eritreans on his hand. By the way, what’s your profession before spew comments of grandeur.

    • yegermal

      His school is Duke in NC….. and I hear he is actually pretty smart in his area of study. Just a little misguided about Eritrean politics. Miskinay he just has a lot of growing to do in that area:).

  • haile

    Selamat Jihan

    Thanks for the response. Yes, what you said does answer my question, which was my impression from looking at some of the pictures released about the event.

    It is perplexing that these youth who were born and raised in democratic environment, find it hard to play a lead role in challenging the regime and its oppressive methods. The leadership of YPFDJ is mostly composed of Embassy staffers of the regime and they really have nothing to offer to these young and impressionable minds. I sense that peer pressure and parental control are probably what are discouraging these youth from getting engaged in a natural manner.

    This, unfortunately, may impact their long term relationship with their homeland once the regime is overthrown and its crimes are exposed for the world to see.

    It would have been a great deal if they were to purge their existing leaders (essentially regime employee at the Embassy) and preserve the organization and make it a truly: Young Peoples Front for Democracy and Justice!


    • saay

      Selamat Haile:

      It is perplexing that these youth who were born and raised in democratic environment, find it hard to play a lead role in challenging the regime and its oppressive methods

      Well, not to be a contrarian, but this doesn’t perplex me:

      1. The YPFDJ is part of The Millenial Generation (people born between late 1970s and 2000) and a lot of what some of us do in our day jobs is to find a way to communicate with them. There have been dozens of studies and surveys done by colleges, the military, non-profits, and big brand companies on what their values are. Somewhere on the top of their priorities are “Finding purpose and meaning in life”, “community affairs/volunteer work.” This is what OPFDJ (old PFDJ) has tapped into: what is it that we can do that will make them feel they are actually volunteering, participating in community affairs and looking for a purpose and meaning in life? It is not a coincidence the YPFDJ was set up by and, organizationally, reports to Yemane Gebreab. The other youth organization (NUEYS: National Union of Eritrean Youth and Students) hasn’t had the same impact, and it is not because it doesn’t have a cool logo or T-shirts. It just demands too much from its members; YPFDJ doesn’t. (The Millenials have created a term called post-adolescence which is the transition between adolescence and adulthood and they can live in that state for years: neither adolescent, nor adult: somewhere in between.)

      2. Instead of speaking in grand terms of “democratic environment”, perhaps the biggest question one can ask is: what is your attitude towards government? The generation that inspired the Ghedli–the 1960s–were in open warfare with the existing institutions. They were in open revolt. The Millenials are comfortable with Big Government. Take a 20 something year old Eritrean American and tell him: the Eritrean military is the largest “employer” in Eritrea and it hardly pays its employees anything. And he will think, hmmm, the US Department of Defense is the largest employer in America and its soldiers are always complaining how underpaid they are. People who are comfortable with having a Big Government expect it to do Big Things–or at least aspire to do Big Things, even if it is failing miserably at them. They expect Big Government to “keep us safe”, even if it means that it stampedes over people’s rights.

      3. Millenials are influenced by their friends and most claim to have a role model–their decision is influenced more by a friend than a parent, school or church. On the other hand, the values they learn at home are what they carry through life. Let’s say an Eritrean millenial has an American for a friend. Will his American friend tell him that he’s got to do something about the atrocious situation in Eritrea? Let’s consult our friends at National Geographic from a survey conducted in 2006 and made headlines:

      Only 37% of young Americans can find Iraq on a map—though U.S. troops have been there since 2003.
      6 in 10 young Americans don’t speak a foreign language fluently.
      20% of young Americans think Sudan is in Asia. (It’s the largest country in Africa.)
      48% of young Americans believe the majority population in India is Muslim. (It’s Hindu—by a landslide.)
      Half of young Americans can’t find New York on a map.


      I don’t know what it is in Canada and Europe but a YPFDJ will not get much help from his American friend because s/he is mostl likely unaware that a country called Eritrea even exists.

      To me, the biggest disappointment of 2013 was the disintegration of EYSC. It was EYSC that was going to be the antithesis to YPFDJ. Not by confrontation and in-your-face demonstrations but by setting a different example of how another group of millenials behave because peer/friends are the number one influence on one another. But, it was not to be.



      A recent survey of college graduates in the liberal arts and humanities shows the problem well. Researchers found that three-quarters of the college graduates surveyed thought Karl Marx’s statement, “from each according to his means, to each according to his needs,” was in the U.S. Constitution.

      • yegermal

        “To me, the biggest disappointment of 2013 was the disintegration of EYSC. It was EYSC that was going to be the antithesis to YPFDJ.”

        Mine too. So much so that I have lost hope in Eritrea altogether. I feel that if we couldn’t foil DIA’s obvious infiltration. IMO opinion the slogan “Eritrean solution for Eritrean problem” was just that because it was not only hollow but designed to evoke ultra-nationalism (DIA’s grand-tool) and create division, and did exactly what it was designed to do.

        • yegermal

          *If we couln’t foil…………we are not equipped to foil DIA’s plan to dismantle Eritrea and Eritreanism.

        • Yegermal,

          Don’t lose hope. It is the nature of politics and conflict of interests. We will overcome it with patience.

          • yegermal


            Well, Eritrean politics does not seem to follow the ordinary course. To give you an example, as we speak there is a total black out (no telephone, no water, no electricity, no wood , etc. )in most parts of Eritrea especially small towns. And the most frustrating part for the people is that there is no predictability as to when the electricity is turned on. In this kind of conditions, you would think the population would feel it has nothing to lose and spark an uprising. But nooo! Eritreans are different and have no limit to the amount of abuse they can take. One can’t possibly place hope on a vacuum…on a people that is apathetic and oblivious to its own demise. Frustrating and disappointing coming from a people that was dubbed “jigna”!

          • Selam Yegermal,

            “Eritreans are different and have no limit to the amount of abuse they can take.” This is lately we have learned. But for everything there is always a breaking point and hence sooner or later we will see a breaking point to our excruciating pain once it reached its tipping point. The problem is no one knows the tipping point yet.

      • haile

        Selamat Saay,

        I totally agree on the attitude traits of generation Me (Millennium). It doesn’t help the whole situation when the regime is all too good at information manipulation and distortion. This must be confusing to the youngsters too. Generally, they don’t seem to like to stay for extended periods of time in Eritrea, they also bring in their prejudice that they have about Africa and poverty whenever they spend sometime there hence erring to justify than challenge the abuses.

        You know how the pro-regime people can be daft and coward, as parents they only inspire fear on the children. But, hoping against hope, I also know that these youngsters find it easy to discard one way of looking at things, for a new and different way. The “opposition” doesn’t have ‘information and dissemination’ capabilities and is incapable of projecting the alternative ‘truth’ effectively. I am talking about a whole host of processing, preparation, presentation and targeting logistics that is needed to bring information to their doorstep. For example, 2012 has been the most dangerous year for the regime’s hold of its diaspora grounds. A great many deserters ranging military, intelligence, civilian, business, sports and other sections of the regime were exposing the regime in all spheres. An ex-halewa sewra and later enda 72, deserter and another air force pilot deserter described the situation as “there is nothing that hasn’t been done in Eritrea, except one that hasn’t been told” in terms of violations of human rights and committal of grave crimes against the State and its citizens by the regime holding power.

        I doubt that 2012 had been effectively used by the opposition, save for some YouTube distribution of the whole content of the witness accounts (running into many hours). I think that the day the regime loses its informational war in the diaspora, it would be the day its diaspora influence would completely collapse and the battle would be taken right inside the country.

        For now, the opposition seems to be taking a siesta 🙂


        • yegermal

          “It doesn’t help the whole situation when the regime is all too good at information manipulation and distortion”

          Exactly! The information manipulation has been and is DIA’s most powerful tool to keep the Eritrean people in disarray. The opposition (since Menkae) does not seem to understand that in order to defeat DIA it must neutralize his media machine. And you’re being to kind to say “For now, the opposition seems to be taking a siesta ” . The opposition is not taking a “siesta”, it is in a deep sleep if not in a permanent coma! How else could it be so ineffective in the face of total annihilation of its people, and it can only master hollow slogans and sporadic anemic activities! Mehrekat!

        • yegermal

          “The “opposition” doesn’t have ‘information and dissemination’ capabilities and is incapable of projecting the alternative ‘truth’ effectively. I am talking about a whole host of processing, preparation, presentation and targeting logistics that is needed to bring information to their doorstep.”

          I wholeheartedly agree! Care to join hands to rectify this pathetic situation? I am willing to share my info via awate webmaster. What do you think?

      • TheOne

        You obviously have no clue what you’re talking about. Many members of YPFDJ would run numbers around those in EYSC. They have doctors, lawyers, engineers, scientists and the opposition has big mouths that vandalize community centers. I think we know where the future lies.

        • yegermal

          The regime actually does not command a large number of professionals. It hires a few greedy among the “intellectual” class ( I actually call them “technocrats” as opposed to “intellectuals”) on a use-and-throw basis. Most of the PFDJ “intellectual” goons fade away without trace once they realize that love affair with DIA is not unconditional and it poses a liability to their career. But if you insist that DIA’s has support from intellectuals, go ahead and tell us who they are. I can guarantee you that you can count them in one hand!

    • Mussie

      Dr. Haile

      it is amazing, you have been supporting EPLF/PFDJ and now the Eritrean Government almost all of your adult life and passed that support torch literarily to your children(YPFDJ) and you turn around, accusing and treating the very youth(Your own children) you introduced and convinced them to serve Eritrea and the Eritrean government at will. isn’t a pathetic? I feel your pain and your frustrations, because after you took your retirement from the USA you went to Eritrea with the intentions of becoming a faculty president or dean. but to your disappointments you do not got those positions and you just came back to the USA for good and starting bad mouthing the Eritrean Government on this web site. I understand you are retired from work in the USA but I advice you to find some meaningful hobbies otherwise these twenty four hour glue ding in Awate and bashing the Eritrean Government will be bad for your health. it is just friendly advice, any ways you are a doctor and you know it is not health and that is eating you.

      • yegermal

        Unless you are disconnected from the actual Eritrea(not the “ABSTRACT” one , as SAAY aptly put it), you would know that nobody is badmouthing DIA’s kingdom. Far from it! The country is in a total akli-de-tsibib lockdown and what we complain about here does not even scrape the surface of the deep-rooted misery our people is enduring. Try to make a call to Eritrea….and find out, if you’re lucky enough to get through after days of trying, that is!. And all this is being done to justify DIA’s pending collusion with his old-buddies of the TPLF – one that will surely compromise our hard-won sovereignty.

  • MrBig

    HAHA! This article shows the desperation of the opo. camp! Lies and twists to gain attention of non-Eritreans. Still trying to up-ease masta?!
    You will not succeed. You will continue to live in the self perpetuated hell-on-earth you created in your own mind! God help you.

    Good nightmares!

  • Zahra

    The purpose of the conference was clear. Thanks Jihan for the report and nice to know the trend of what the Isayasists are planning. For most of our people who know the school of thought that Isayasim belongs to, whatever surprises they come with would not change who the Isayasists are for they are stuck there and suffering from their stalled world. So, their destructive strategy in the context of what you reported is that Isayasists accepted isolation and accepted to die in ruins of the what their tyrant’s blind rule.

  • haile

    Selamat all,

    Here a short video of armed Eritreans, most are young and seem to be ex-members of EDF. Any more ideas of where, who…?


    • yegermal

      Most likely member of one of the armed groups operating from Ethio. Would you like info on each of the people on the videos as well? But why?

    • yegermal

      EMDJ? At least that is what the shirts say 🙂

    • Tamrat Tamrat

      Hmmmm, the opposition can attack shabia but shabia can not attakc back becasue the 25 killo meter buffer zone must be respected. Other wise Ethiopia is forced to defend itself from the agression of shabia like 1998. I suggest isayas to read the history of Atse Tewodros or best the drama made in Hager Fikir Theater is more appealing if the dvd is available. Show them isu. Dont be Coward like mengistu.

      • TheOne

        The 25 kilometer buffer zone is no more. Please keep up with facts on the ground.

        • Tamrat Tamrat

          When was it abolished? Who abolished it?

          • TheTruth

            Years ago when the UN vacated the area, the Eritrean army moved in 🙂

  • The fact that the YPFDJs successfully assembled secretely at a secret place attests to two facts:

    1. Isaias Afewerqi and his cronies have lost confidence in the Eritrean public at large and therefore are going underground.

    2. The so called genuine Eritrean oppositions have not penetrated within the Camp of YPFDJs, and therefore, lost great opportunity to chase Isaias Afewerqi no matter where he hides.

    While No.1, is good news, No.2, casts serious deficiency on the part of the genuine Eritrean opposition.

    How do we correct our ways?

    A. Dissociate completely from woyane and its puppets

    B. Condemn woyane for the savege and brutal crimes it committed deporting hundresds of Eritreans from Ethiopia

    C. Condemn woyane for renegading the Final and Binding decision of the EEBC

    D. Condemn Woyane for occupying our territory illegally

    E. Expose Isaias Afewerqi as disguised woyane. Suppply the underlying reasons, such as his wanton killing of Eritrean intellectuals;

    The 1998 war he launched on Ethiopia in collaboration with woyane;

    His willfull abolution of the Eritrean Constitution and Baito;

    His wanton incaceration of the Senior EPLFs;

    The No War, No Peace situation he brought about and which is tearing apart the fabric of our society;

    F. Support the Eritrean Defense Forces

    G. Support Government employees

    H. Inflitrate PFDJs and PFDJs

    I. Join peacefully the festivals, Public Cermonies etc. held by Isaias Afewerqi supporters. Avoid confrontation.

    J. Far and Beyond, honor our Martyrs, the history of our Liberation War

    Remember: our No.1 agenda is to raise national consciousness of our people, and on the other, to define, depict the enemies, woyane and Isaias Afewerqi, as unambigiously clear as humanly possible.

    • TiETiE( Shiro bubble)

      Your idea is not good only nourishes Hgdef – extend Hgdef life. Right now the conflict is between Hgdef and the weyane not between Eritrean people and weyane. therefore the Eritrean people want friendship with the weyane because Hgdef is the enemy of Eritrean people.
      While the weyane killed many Eritrean the war was started by Hgdef evil. From the very conflict time Hgdef loved the war not the weyane. Therefore at this time Eritrean should not blame or attack weyane but be friend with the weyane. When Hgdef died and removed if the weyane turn mean – it is genuine to condemn them and see them our enemies who also deported 80,000 ertrean born people.

    • Tamrat Tamrat

      You forgot, condemen woyane for the cessecsion of Eritrea.
      Condem woyane for helping pfdj to stand on its own in 1990-1998.

      And you forgott to mention the ethiopians who were deported from thier country.

      As to the border issue woyane took over Ethiopia before shabia Draw the border and it is Natural not to be agreed. Now both pfdj and woyane have learnt a lot therough the years and instead of going all the way to Europa they solve their problems by asking the splitted ethnic Groups where they want the line to be drawn. All this human right discussion for the last time has learnt us one fundamental thing. We can do better than italians for Our own People. A tigringa People can never decide on afar People.

      We ethiopian are agreed on the general principle of eprdf principles of Our ethnic rights. What we disagree With tplf is that its priority for tigre People and concerning Eritrea it gives priority for tigrinya People. We get humiliated when some tigrinya People wanted more from woyane.

    • Gebre

      ” One of the sure signs of maturity is the ability to rise to the point of self-criticism” Martin Luther King.

      Dear Dawit, are you trying to honestly study the problems of our region and find solutions to them or are you compounding the problems by being part of them?

      Try to begin investigation by asking yourself: What have I done to them that they are doing this to me?

      Remember it’s never late to change!

  • Tamrat Tamrat

    Remittance vs Gold and copper mines as to downward spiral vs Vicious circle.

    If we see Eritrea’s problem from the economical point of view then we have to concider first its traditional Income ie remittance and the New one gold and copper mines though the state owns only 40% and foriegn Companies the rest.

    The remittance economy is so strong it brings more People abroad. But unlike many other countries eritreas who live abroad are represented by both pro and against government. No boody knows which Group is the largest but the very Growth of the number of rate of leaving the country and the wrong priority of the government on using the remittance leaves Eritrea in to a downward spiral even though the pro government support their government tremendiously both financially and politically.

    The New Income of the government together from the gold and copper mine keeps the Vicious circle intackt by financing the crushing burden of military spending thus high risk of cross border conflicts.

  • Semere Habtemariam

    Selam Jihan,

    You said, “The evening opened up with a skit honoring the freedom fighters (or “martyrs”) that died during Eritrea’s 30-year war of independence.”

    To the best of my knowledge every Eritrean event that I’ve attended always starts with paying tribute to our martyrs and I don’t see any problem with PFDJ continuing an established tradition. Granted the PFDJ has failed in honoring our martyrs in what matters most: there is no freedom in Eritrea that the martyrs died for. I don’t see how the conference organizers are at fault by doing what they are supposed to do, even if you think they were dishonest and using it for other purposes.

    I didn’t understand what you were trying to say by pointing this out. What is wrong with promoting a sense of duty and an appreciation of the enormous sacrifice we have made. Gratitude to our martyrs is the best way to express our commitment to the idea of a free Eritrea our martyrs died for. What was wrong with the meeting was its failure to discuss the subject matter: Human Rights.

    Don’t make an issue of something that is not an issue: a skit honoring our martyrs is a good thing and all of us should do it.

    This kind of unnecessary disgressions and barking at the wrong tree is what is underming the national credentials of the opposition where patriotism and national pride are becoming dirty words.

    Truely, the third world maliase is: a government that people hate and an opposition they despise.


    • TiETiE( Shiro bubble)

      semere habtemariam I have more on your side.
      In Eritrea whether it is in cities or Hagereseb when there is violent trouble or trouble is brewing or someone was brewing and igniting illegal advances people around/ these witnessing quickly announce Zban SwAt. Once that SwAt said all parties immediately stop their actions.
      Zban SwAt is one sided that just stop it quickly and bargain or no compromise on it. It is very very dangerous to advance once Zban SwAt said. It is a rule everyone fears including it is the violations of their died sons and daughters/brothers and sisters. all these wrong and right in the scene may paid their family as martyr or at least their distant family member. therefore they quickly stop it and honor the died then they can look into their issue further in a calm and good manner that any violent move again could alienate them from the entire society – treated greedy and evil may follow NO social service at all.
      I urge our sis Johan revise the rightness of her sentence.

    • yegermal

      “The evening opened up with a skit honoring the freedom fighters (or “martyrs”) that died during Eritrea’s 30-year war of independence. One young performer thanked the martyrs “for giving us the freedom that we have today.” Before the words “human rights” had even been uttered, the audience was already primed to experience a sense of gratitude for not living during the time of colonization and occupation, thereby drawing attention away from the severe human rights violations that are taking place today in Eritrea.”

      Semere, I think you missed the word “skit” in the sentence. You’re right that almost all Eritrean political events begin with a tribute (usually a moment of silence)to our martyrs. What is unusual is the tribute taking the form of a “skit” in which visual elements (like the young man probably dressed in fatigues and the infamous DIA’s flag and gesturing hallow fekera)are added to keep the audience captive of our past glories (independence) while de-emphasizing the horrific condition of present day Eritrea. Remember, the article is about “brainwashing” and I believe you should interpret the mention of the “tribute” in that context.

      • TiETiE( Shiro bubble)

        Honoring the war died is not national anthem, not recited from Bible or Quran versus. No differences between all political parties when it is about remembering War died that all respect them, honor them. Furthermore, honoring the died – there is nothing veiled for purposes of brain wash politics or religion or business advertisement or any type of believes.

        • yegermal

          “there is nothing veiled for purposes of brain wash politics or religion or business advertisement or any type of believes.”

          In DIA’s putrid mind nothing sacred, even the memory of the dead is used (since the dead themselves can’t be possibly used or abused)for his sinister purposes. Do you need proof of that? What do you think is being done when our martyrs’ memory is invoked ad nauseam although the very reason they gave their precious lives for( the Eritrean people and land)has lost the most basic of human rights some of which existed during Derg and its predecessors.

    • Horizon

      The martyred deserve the greatest respect given to human beings, and should be done in genuine respect and acknowledgment of their colossal sacrifice. No doubt about that. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to believe that those who do not care for the living would respect and honor the dead. What the regime says and does in their name turns out to be a means to an end, and their memory vilified, especially when it is used to promote lies, injustice and subjugation of the people for whom they were martyred. People should know that PFDJ is good at using the dead as well as the living. Only the people of Eritrea and not the regime can truly honor their lost fathers, sons and daughters. If indeed the regime honors the martyred, it should have done so with its action by honoring the cause for which so many Eritreans were sacrificed. Otherwise, it ends up being simply a lip service by the regime.

    • Jihan Kahssay

      Dear Semere,

      I appreciate your concern: no one should exploit or dismiss the significant contribution of Eritrean martyrs. For your benefit, I would like to provide some clarification on what I saw during the presentation on Human Rights & Eritrea’s Image.

      When I wrote “The evening opened up with a skit honoring the freedom fighters (or “martyrs”) that died during Eritrea’s 30-year war of independence,” I was not referring to a moment of silence. I was referring, instead, to an elaborate skit about a young boy who never appreciated martyr’s day until he had a “Christmas Carol”-style dream about meeting a fighter in the fields who told him about his passion for Eritrea and then witnessed that same young fighter die in battle. The boy then awoke from his dream and said he now understood martyr’s day and why we should all be thankful for what the young fighters did for us. Then, the fighter arose from his grave, was accompanied by other fighters, and joined the boy around the microphone where each person recited one reason why he or she was thankful for the martyrs’ sacrifice. It was then that “[o]ne young performer thanked the martyrs ‘for giving us the freedom that we have today.'”

      The skit was powerful, and effective. It set an irresistibly argumentative and defensive tone for the discussion on human rights. Metaphorically speaking, the skit was the primer you lay upon a surface before it is painted. And, to the same end, all primers are intended for one simple purpose: to make sure that the paint sticks.

      I hope this addresses your concerns.


      • Semere Habtemariam

        Selam Jihan,

        Thanks for the clarification. I appreciate you.

      • TheOne

        Why is that when someone has a different perspective from the opposition they are considered “brainwashed” or “lost”? Have you considered that it may be you who is brainwashed by western institutions and NGOs? It seems you can’t think critically and unlearn what it is you’ve been taught by the society you’ve been raised in. Your consciousness is clearly lacking.

        • Jihan Kahssay


          It is possible that the we are the ones who are mistaken, just as it remains possible that tommorrow the sun will not rise. Although, the evidence is most certainly stacked in our favor.


    • Semere Andom

      Hi Semere H:
      We try in vain to glean some redeeming qualities in the PFDJ. Even the moment of silence that is hypocritically observed by the PFDJ cannot redeem it from its wanton crimes against the martyrs. The martyr’s card is a mere guilt trap the PFDJ has perfected in operating and sadly many an Eritrean falls for it. This guilty switch has been a factor in Forto 21 and poorTri Ebdi was not the culprit
      The PFDJ invokes martyrs to appeal to people’s emotions and then like any cowards before them, under the dead of the night they send you to the martyrs land.
      It is not the invoking of martyrs or observing the martyrs day that is the problem, this is the least we can do to honor our dead, but when PFDJ doe it. This is not subtle difference. I am sure you know who hated hypocrisy the most: “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you devour widows’ houses, and for a pretense you make long prayers; therefore you will receive greater condemnation”

      Smere A

      • Semere Andom,

        Who could say it and put it clearly than you did! Hope to resonate at the receiving end.

  • Jihan,
    Good job. keep the volume high.

  • Jihan
    Just like most dictorship, underdeveloped and an democratic countries like Eritrea is normal to be totally in denial state of mind and for the very obvious fact you brought to our attention and spicily to the doubters .history march forward, today we witness many countries like Latin American countries with 34 of the 35 Latin American countries have regained their true sovereignty and the independence of their political decision. This as Giants as Mexico, Brazil and Argentinean have finally established the strong foundation of a tradition of working democracy and are embarking on genuine balanced economic development aiming to establishing a just society with the executive branch of government perennially under scrutiny of democratically elected legislature, independent judiciary.
    The message of great and immediate relevance in the Eritrean experience with the “with hope of change ,” they will express collective bid of the aspiration of the Eritrean masses for freedom, social justice and representative democracy, judging facts on their substantive merits, is inevitable and is very well in the making.
    We all know how DAI brutally suppressed and murdered political activists calling for FREDOM and representative of Democratic rule, DIA and his tags and the fascist regime coalescing of the revolutionary, the same old stale reactionary forces of DIA, to stifle the Eritrean aspiration would be short-lived before the torrent of despondent and very pressing fast changing realities: locally, philosophically, technologically and the convergence of the Universe in an increasingly transparent “Small Global Village.”
    The DIA does not enjoy the same levers of powers that permitted to fully control our people he once had, nor is capable undeterred neighbouring countries and by not addressing very urgent endemic and dire domestic economic issues and concerns of the citizens that he miserably failed the country is very obvious to those want see fact on ground . As to the forces of the loyalist and supporters of the dictorship regime counterrevolutionary forces for regime change, their belated initiatives to regain control over the Eritrean heart and mind or street would be short lived for the above reasons you stated clearly in term of human rights and justices , however, of more important pressing considerations, the hundreds of thousands disenfranchised masses looming under the weight of material deprivation and abject poverty.
    The Eritrea hope and aspiration is still in the cradle that will only grow into a big child and ultimately an adult that enforces its independent will. The deterrence of “Fear” will be broken, “Awakening the Giant Within: the Eritrea World will Breaking of the Wall of Fear,” the Eritrea that started on January at Fortto that started will carry through as the inevitable legitimate bid of the masses in the spirit of the age and human’s pressing needs.

  • Tamrat Tamrat

    The following songs of Tilahun Guessesse were forbidden in derg time. For those who understand amharic and isayas i have choosen the songs: ‘Almazen ayiche Alamazen sayati (metafore for Heilen ayiche isuyen sayi), Deresse, deresse, deresse, yasbkut deresse, yalemkut tessaka, (isayas is finished) …; Ahun sinitalla yayun temelkachoch, ahun sinitarek min yilalu swecoh,.(Ethiopia and Eritrea).; Genzeb Genzeb Genzeb yalew yisra, yisra yasera (Down With imperializm!!).

  • Crocus

    Thank you for the keen observations, and for reminding us the subtle ways the regime’s propaganda machine strives to brainwash impressionable minds.

    The Eritrean regime has no tools left in its quiver other than propaganda. The U.C. Davis conference is an example of a routine madness. But it takes two to a tango. The regime cannot beguile the youth unless the youth chooses to be beguiled. Sure, there are plenty of instances when people act contrary to their own best interest. Still, it is hard for me to imagine that youth in the 21st century will accept everything that was preached to it lock stock and barrel. They may find it risky to dissent, but I doubt they cannot tell sinister designs when they see one. After all, many among them have been marching out of step and fleeing the ranks in droves.

    Human beings shape their opinions relative to their circumstances. Eritreans are no different. The circumstances of the people already in power, or aspiring to one,(like Sofia Tesfamariam, Simon Tesfamariam [any kinship, by chance?]) is quite different than that of a group (YPFDJ) which views its loyalty to the country and the people, as it must. There is a silver lining in that, because if one’s loyalty is to the welfare of the people and the land, and not to the selfish instincts of a depraved regime, all the brainwashing in the world won’t make a dent.

    • Tamrat Tamrat

      After 22 years it is not brain washing.It is upbringing. A 10 year old who is now 32 knows both from his parents and the locked Eritrea that Eritrea is a land who crashed both super Powers and the giant Ethiopia. And those black and white Pictures of Eritrea of the tegadalit are hell than the life in Warsa. ‘Thanks to the tagadalities here we are now and what ever Eritrea is not achived is due to its own succssess in crashing any super Power on Earth.’ This atitude is more strong among the diaspora who never seen how the tegadaliti has survived the 30 years of civil war. This is what YG has been teaching all the time. By now he is furstrated and now singing on the top his voice one of Tilhaun’s forbidden song ‘Chuheten bitsemugn, yihew abet abet illalehu, bedel dersobinge ichowalhu…’

  • haile

    Selam Jihan A. Kahssay

    Thanks for such brief, precise and well researched observation. Having read some of the great work you do in the field assisting refugees and presenting their case by virtue your field in HR Law (, I would like to ask the following:

    Did you have an opportunity to engage with the youngsters on issues of HR in Eritrea informally? If you did, what is your overall impression?


    • Jihan Kahssay

      Selam Haile:

      Thank you for your inquiry. I did not have a chance to discuss HRs with those attending the conference. Although, I did observe the audience members during the presentation. No one appeared surprised or startled by the content of the presentation. Some members were dozing off and others were chatting quietly with their neighbors. A message that most people would find offensive and deeply troubling seemed otherwise normal and routine — even obvious — to the conference attendees.

      I hope that provides more insight to answer your question.

      All the best,

  • Tamrat Tamrat

    Hi Jilan! This is the best short article to the main cause of the eritreans fundamental problem. You said that {One young performer thanked the martyrs ][“for giving us the freedom that we have today.”} and it says it all.

    And the issue you explained is what differes the ethiopians than eritreans specially afte 1991. Eritrea was created by colonizers and since then eritreans have been accusing ‘colonizers’ for what ever wrong doings or failure as organized Groups or as a individuals. During the King Haile’s period the bullet against the regime brought problems to the concerned Groups. If the martyrs delivered the Independence then why eritreans still leaving Eritrea during the 1990s? Which part of independency they did not get it? By every damn reason eritreans leave Eritrea then they keep on their blame game. The parents of an eight year old couldnt get a better answer than telling their chiled what Ethiopians have done to their country for the curiocity of their chiled why the hell he lives in a country where no one looks like him or his parents. After all which one is a convincing one, a guy who liberated them from all the ‘atrocity’ ethiopiance have done to Eritrea or the same liberator was the cause too leaving mother land for any other country even to the land of the liberator crashed and took victory against.

    The large amount of the diaspora has a greate responibilty for leaving Eritrea for a better life be it before 1991 and after. Other wise how come pfdj managed to syncronize its propaganda while the very victims of pfdj sit and watch the brain washing for 22 or more?

    From all the Speechs and written material gathered the eritreans struggel for freedom and Democracy what is now happning in Eritrea prooves all what we heard and red is done by ‘pure accident’. Meaning the mass were not part and Parcel of the eplf. Who or which ever brought eplf to Power has left leaving Eritrea as it is. The game is joine pfdj and live a better life in Eritrea or leave Eritrea and sell the atrocity done by pfdj and live a better life. This is the survival of the fittest in all its wrong combinaiton.

    • TiETiE( Shiro bubble)

      this is the best time for Eritrean – they learned more than the Derg and Haileslasie times. No one likes Derg or haileslasie and no nostalegia haileslasie or Derg because it was dark times than now.

      Infact people are happy for having independence from hailesalsie or derg but the Evil regime in Eritrea could not comply what Eritrean expected for yrs. Then if they see or sense better by leaving nation it does not mean they missed Derg or haileslasie times.If it were good times when then the young drop their guns and surrender to haileslasie or derg?

      Almost no one regret having separated from the regimes of haileslasie or derg. Even you recreate them now no one would join them rather they would be stoned severely. What you are saying is not eritrean sick off.

      IF hgdef focused in education, build more universities, create jobs, get more money from the west deleting the idea of self reliance people would flood to west or middle east except few. Having job, education, love, property, and family are big footholds.

      What you are saying is > TnsTi Wedi Hlma( YareGezeC

      • TiETiE( Shiro bubble)

        I HIT Enter before I finished. Read that
        TnsTi Wedi Hlma( YareGeZeCH SeT Wend MewLeD TfelGaleCH )

      • Tamrat Tamrat

        You deliberately misinterprated my Message. the Message is The Independence of eirtrea was not the result of the uniqueness, intoleance for injustice and undemocratic rules, etc of ‘eritreans’ but it is the result of the Power Beyond the now eritrean peopel. And that Power has nothing to do With bringing justice and democray for eritreans and it seased to exist after derg was collapsed which was its main goal. So what eritreans left With is that singing how that enormous Power for justice and Democracy they used to have before 1991.

  • Excellent observation, having attended many government meetings back home, this is exactly how they conduct meetings. PFDJ’s brainwash strategy is similar to successful fast-food chain-stores here in US, that is: specialize on the item that sells best, and cut out all other menu items. I mean, why diversify when what you are selling/doing works? They use the same strategy again and again and it works just fine for the ‘indoctrination-ready’ audience.

  • TheTruth

    This article is utterly gibberish and so far from the truth. It’s sad when people have to lie to further their agenda. It’s even worse all your sources are groups who’ve never step foot in Eritrea. But not totally surprised by mentally enslaved naive puppets who have bought mainstream media’s lies.

  • Kokhob Selam

    ……ዝተሓጽበ ሓንጎል:… in Jebena

  • samsom

    I donot think the hgdf support to understand the root cause of the problem in Eritrea, we might lost Eritrea at all if Issais stay in power for the next 2 years. Who knows the cross road? like libya or syria….u cannot predicate what could happen with dictatorial regime.

    • TiETiE( Shiro bubble)

      People inside are already give up by many reason. One is they are tired of seeing loss while in reality they badly want to clean this dictator and his men. The army and the people are ready to respond any provocation from outside to that dictator. What is needed out side force I am not saying violence but something like – call > Ata MeN Eka AbTi MeAdo ZeleKa Respond > Ane Eye Ane Andat. > <. This dictator clearly said he want to stay 40 yrs in power. He is right.
      1. People must understand that he build his career by lying and killing and corrupting fighters.
      2. Death to him it is nothing except sorrow will go way in time. Infact he thinks people die anyway that shows he lacked moral and ethics.
      3. As long as he is surrounded by evils like him and he has great position as president and all commands under him it is bitter to let go all these powers. Think that of Kezafi and yemen leader Ali Salih. after they saw people were angry of them they could not leave the power they enjoyed and said I need three years to leave office that shows they could not commit to leave power, THAT TELLS THEY BELIEVE they are the only born to power and command and no one except them.To them it is like watching while someone raping your wife. if they can copy themselves they could do it. Esayas thinks no one should enjoy or hold the president and the command except him so until death.
      Why Kezafi could not prepared peaceful and smooth power handover 20 yrs ago or he could not set a step he can remove him and his family safely so early after he had big money and power?
      Therefore Believe me Esayas CheKiNu KweTsE MaleT HaSoT.
      the solution – Eritrea need brilliant people not soldiers. To win and remove esayas must be tricky with short time and no casualties.