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SmeTr Hamassien: Objective and Struggle

Book Review by Semere T Habtemariam
Title: SmeTr Hamassien: Objective and Struggle (ስመጥር ሓማሴን፥ ዕላማን ተጋድሎን።)
Author: Dr. Yebio Woldemariam
Language: Tigrinya (146 pages)
Publisher: Ultimate Printing Press
Year: 2017 (2010 Geez Calendar)

The English version is out under the title: Profile of Courage: Eritrean Struggle against Italian Colonization and Fascism.

The author of SmeTr Hammasien (ስመጥር ሓማሴን፥ ዕላማን ተጋድሎን።) grew up listening to his own mother lamenting the indignities her family had endured as the first and early victims of Italian colonialism. She would often say, “May God pluck out the eyes of the Italians.” 

But how was Italy, a country that was itself not unified till 1861 and considered second-rate by European standards, able to conqueror Eritrea, the ancient and only gateway to Greater Abbyssinia, or Adi Habesha as the author puts it? What were the socio-political and economic factors that contributed to the subjugation of the people of the Horn of Africa in general and Eritreans in particular under Italian rule?

 An attempt to answer these questions have led the author to focus on the SmeTr Hammassien: Eritreans who rebelled against Italian colonization by siding with Ethiopia in the aftermath of 1890, when Eritrea was officially declared an Italian African Colony. SmeTr is the Amharic word to signify the heroic deeds of Eritreans (Hamassien) in the service of Ethiopia. Although, it is clear that all the Eritrean SmeTr have one thing in common–hatred of Italian colonization–it is not equally clear that they have a parallel love for Ethiopia. 

For some, Ethiopia was a safe haven from political persecution, and for others, it was a land of opportunity where they could easily excel due to their exposure to a much more developed economy in Italian Eritrea, and for some others, it was the mother-land where the prodigal children have to go to, and for some others, it was the cruel reminder of the barbarity inflicted on Eritrean POWs at the orders of Emperor Menelik after the 1896 battle of Adwa. 

Personal and selfish self-interest and self-promotion, primordial and atavistic connection, and ideological enlightenment and political alignment and expediency against colonization were all at play. It is more likely the confluence of all factors that led to the rise of the phenomena of SmeTr and reducing it to one factor would render it insufficient as an explanatory and descriptive method. Signalling one reason at the expense of others would neither be true nor helpful in shedding light and help us come to terms with the past. Unlike what the author has said or failed to say, some notable SmeTr have also regretted their role in handing Eritrea to King Haileselassie in silver platter. Asfeha Weldemichael, for instance, did not die waiving the Andnet flag as cited in the book. Before writing this review, I took it upon myself to interview some of his close family members and they all assured me that he died a happy man that Eritrea has won its independence. Ghirmai Haile, a son of SmeTr himself and veteran Tegadalay of the EPLF, has attributed some prophetic words to Asfeha Woldemichael. Apparently Asfeha was not happy with the short-lived alliance between the EPLF and the TPLF and was convinced that Eritreans would soon be rudely awakened by the treacherous nature of Tigrayans. With the outbreak of the 1998-2000, it didn’t take long for Eritreans to resuscitate the old song “of never trust a Tigrayan.” Many Eritreans today, who are familiar with Asfeha’s prophecy, believe that history has proven him right; I am not one of them. Culture and values are not immutable and they change from one generation to the next. 

The author makes it clear that Eritreans had benefited hugely from the massive investments colonial Italy had made in Eritrea, so much so, that so many Ethiopians immigrated to and settled in Eritrea to take advantage of these economic opportunities. Eritreans had forfeited normalcy during the zemene cheqatat and DeguA’s (Tigray) rule, and some have even went as far as adopting Islam and Catholicism to protect themselves against the atrocities of succesive Ethiopian war lords. There is a common saying in Eritrea that encapsulated the security, law and order, that Italy brought to Eritrea:

ሽፍትነት ሃጸይ ዮሃንስ ሓሙሽተ ነፍሒ ሒዝካ ንበረኻ፡
ሽፍትነት ጥልያን ይግባይ ኢልካ ናብ ገዛኻ።

All it took for rebellion/banditry to happen during the reign of Emperor Yohannes is to take five rifles (with you) and go to the jungle;

While all it took for rebellion/banditry to end during the reign of Italy is to plead for mercy and return home.

There is no one single and linear narrative to describe the SmeTr Hamassien in Ethiopia. Some SmeTr were actually disappointed by the archaic and oppressive feudal system that kept Ethiopians in chains and darkness. This poignant observation made them strongly feel that Ethiopia would be the poster child of what was wrong with independence if it failed to immediately and completely overhaul its old and defunct system. The most pioneering and radical thinkers in this line of thinking were Blata Ghebrezgabier Gilamariam from Hamasien and Tesfamichael Tikue from Akeleguzay.  Even Lorenzo Taazaz, the loadstar of SmeTrism, was not immune to this line of thinking, but above all, didn’t believe that the small but regal Haileselassie was up to the challenge of nation-building: he was not progressive enough. 

With all the opportunities that Ethiopia afforded Eritreans, one could easily detect an air of ambivalence in all of them. Their animus toward colonization and their lofty aspiration for independence and freedom could not easily be reconciled with the anachronistic and oppressive feudal system. Ethiopia was the backwater of stagnation and backwardness. They must have felt that they went from the frying pan into the fire. “Ethiopia in its present situation,” Blata Ghebrezgabier Gilamariam accurately predicted, “would easily fall prey to the European hyena.” 

The exploitative land tenure that kept Ethiopian peasants in abject poverty and the intra-rivalry of feudal lords that divided the populace into almost semi-autonomous chieftains was inimical to the much-hoped and desired progress and modernity and the defense of the only independent country in Africa against a European colonization. This is, even in light of the fact that the once king of Shewa and Oromo (in the spirit of PC), Emperor Menelik, was the only one who succeeded in bringing modern Ethiopia together after the death of the Tigrayan Emperor of Ethiopia Yohannes. So much for the 3000 continuous and unbroken history of a Solomonic dynasty.

The lack of a unified identity looms large as the be-all-and-end-all explanation of why the people easily fell prey to the Italian conquest in this book, but this does not explain why the same people were able to successfully foil the Egptian invasion in 1875 in Gundet and 1876 in Gura, or why the people of Lowland Eritrea rallied on the side of Ras Alula to defeat the Mahdists in Eritrea in the battle of Kufit in 1885, or why the forces of Ras Alula defeated the advancing Italian forces in the battle of Dogali in 1887. Most importantly Ethiopians won the battle of Adwa, earning themselves the proud distinction of being one of two non-European countries who fought and won a war against a European power. Japan being the second.

Although the author goes to great pains to document his evidence and cite his sources, he does make some general conclusions, however, intuitively right they might seem, that do not pass some serious scrutiny. The good thing of the scientific pursuit is to find a hole in the theory and the whole house of cards comes crumbling down. He does, however, make up for it through his meticulous adherence to facts and there is a lot that he was able to bring to the surface. One could easily learn a lot from this small book packed with primary and secondary sources. The chapter on Zerai Deres was the most illuminating for me; it answered some of the questions I have been raising throughout my life. In this regard, his book is a great addition to the mushrooming literature of Eritrean and Ethiopian studies which is compelling us to litigate the past. 

In the prevailing period of uncertainty and perplexity, where our liberators have turned into our tormentors and where a modern and independent Eritrea has become indistinguishable from the old Ethiopia that some SmeTr Hammassien had rightfully decried, one is bound to engage in the examination of the present by unravelling the past. No doubt, the group that comes with the best narrative will win the day. It is the power of storytelling that all religions, civilizations and national mythologies are made of. Ultimately, in the words of George Orowell, “Whoever controls the past will control the future.” History is where some of the most important  intellectual battles of the present are fought and it matters a great deal which narrative will eventually prevail. This is not just an academic exercise; a lot is at stake. One of my favorite Veteran Tegadelti is Mohammed Berhan Blatta (Wedi Blatta), who has repeatedly argued that the misguided revisionism of history is futile because the history of modern Eritrea and its national identity is written by the blood of Eritrean patriots–reflecting its mosaic of rich diversity. I like to believe that he is right but it still behooves us to, at least, sleep with one eye open.

The obvious question among many readers would be: Why did the author focus on the SmeTr of Hamassien and use Hamassien instead of Eritrea? And why did he not start with the SmeTr of Ethiopia, or more aptly Jeganu deqi ArbeAa? Don’t we, Eritreans, have many Eritreans of Ethiopian origin, who have proven to be loyal and stalwart advocates of Eritrean independence and many have duly paid the ultimate price for its liberation? This is the story many Eritreans would have liked to first read about. These Eritreans of Ethiopian origin, the Jeganu deqi ArbeAa, deserve more honor and recognition than the SmeTr hamasien. From Weldeab Woldemariam, to Isaias Afwerki and Hagos Kisha, it is the story that is begging to be told. (The latter two should be praised for their role in the liberation of Eritrea and condemned for being the cause of the current misery and dehumanization of the Eritrean people.) 

In the competing and often-times contradictory national narratives of both Eritrea and Ethiopia whose side does this book portend to support? The author, in person and in writing, is an intelligent and refined individual and I had the privilege of interacting with him numerous times in my capacity as an activist. He is somebody who does not waver in his stand and is willing to stand alone, if need be, but he would never throw you an arrow before dipping it in honey, and that makes him a double edge sword. In intelligence and profundity and line of thinking, he is in the same class as Tekeste Negash but he is more in tune with social norms of decency and sensitivity than him. He is someone who can disagree with anyone without being disagreeable and that theme is also evident in his book. It is very hard to not respect the two gentlemen; they do their due diligence and always make their due contribution to enhancing our fund of knowledge and understanding. One could hate their politics and appreciate their scholarly contribution. What made this book particularly enjoyable was the authentic and traditional use of the Tigrinya language. His mastery of the Tigrinya language and its impeccable use was the icing on the cake.

Unlike the bright but long-winded Yosief Ghebrehiwet and the crude and shallow Rezene Habte, Yebio is not interested in undoing what has been achieved by the heroic sacrifice of the Eritrean people. Unlike the cacophony of few but loud Ethiopillias and neo-Andnets, his Andnetism operates within the boundaries of reason, decency and knows its limitations. (I stand to be corrected if my reading of his softer version of andnetism is wrong.)

As a student who values knowledge for the sake of knowledge, discourse for the sake of discourse, I can tolerate anything that operates under the rubric of Eritrea and for that, I am obligated to remain open-minded and open-minded I shall remain.

As Eritreans and human beings, we are duty-bound to promote unity on all fundamentals (Eritrean foundational values), liberty on particulars and charity on everything else. The aynfelale and Ertra nErtrawyan credo is what makes Eritrea indivisible. The story of Eritrea is that of national unity, the pursuit of self-rule and self-determination and the struggle continues. In the words of Samora Machel, “A luta continua!” or as my friend, Saleh Gadi Johar would say, “ሕጂ ‘ውን ክውግሕ ‘ዩ። ተማሒርኩም ኣለኹም።”

Profile of Courage: Eritrean Struggle against Italian Colonization and Fascism can be purchased from Amazon:
Profiles of Courage

Semere Tesfamicael Habtemariam is the author of Reflections on the History of the Tewahdo Orthodox Church History of Tewahdo Church and Hearts Like Birds Hearts like Birds. He can be reached at his email: weriz@yahoo.com

About Semere T Habtemariam

Semere T Habtemariam is an author and a columnist at Awate. He holds a BA in Government and Politics and a MA in Public Affairs from the University of Texas at Dallas. He lives in Dallas, Texas. His two books are: Reflections-History-Abyssinian-Orthodox-Tewahdo and Hearts-Like-Birds.

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  • Consolation

    Selamat All,

    Today is the 24 th of Meskerem which is important due to what is about to happen in Ethiopia. The TPLF has publicly declared that as tomorrow it will not recognize Abiy’s government. You may feel like me that over a period of 27 years of unchallenged supremacy in that unfortunate country, the TPLF thugs have become addicted to believing in their own self-importance. It is difficult to explain otherwise why they should think anybody cares or worries about the endless warnings and ultimatums they have been issuing over the past 30 months. Now the real question is: Will Abiy return the favour and stop recognizing Tigray and start applying the screws that he has been reluctant to apply so far? He could, for starters, drastically reduce the budget that he doles out to them. He might impose a blockade of Tigray and deny them access to the rest of Ethiopia. Now that the TPLF’s last hope of an Oromos Eretcha uprising has evaporated, Abiy has the thugs squarely under his feet. And it is about time that he started twisting those feet!

    • Selam Consolation,

      Abiy is preparing a gift for tplf in reciprocation. The federal government will stop recognizing tplf, and a transitional government will be formed that will represent tigray, with which the central government will deal as much as the regional state of tigray is concerned. Relations with tplf will be severed completely. This will make tplf redundant, ineffective and of no use to the people of tigray.
      Sending a federal force is also on the air, but i don’t think that it is the immediate plan. There are many things the federal government can do before it reaches the stage of using force.
      Drying up funds is the first and most important thing the federal government will do. Currency change has already its effect with billions of birr in tplf’s hands made useless.

      The reality about tplf is what many people say: “ላዩ ዛቻ፣ ዉስጡ ፍራቻ፤”.

      • Abi

        Horizon + Consolation
        ኧረ እባካችሁ በዕለተ በሰንበቱ የሙት ወቃሽ አትሁኑ::
        እንዴት አይነት ጉድ ነው!

        • Kim Hanna

          Selam Abi,

          We have made it through 3/4 of 2020 around the world. I cannot wait to celebrate the end of it on December 31st, I might have both brandy and bourbon for the occasion.

          I don’t know if you know or have any more information out there that is missed on what is going on in Ethiopian politics.
          Some of the statements from Federal office holders and some intellectual TPLF supporters pontificating as the fumes of conflict increase waiting for a match to ignite it. Some are actually active fans for this smoldering smoke.

          What is really going on in this walking willynilly in to a forest fire. I never thought we will get to this point. Even though I apportion a larger part of the blame on TPLF leaders, the Federal leaders cannot avoid responsibility for the catastrophe that can visit the country. Enemies of Ethiopia are salivating.

          Mr. K.H

          • David Samson

            Selam KH,

            Ras Abi is not in a good mood talking politics after seen his team thumped by his former’s boss team,6-1.
            Had ManU conceded another goal, I would not bet Oli will last until tomorrow lunch time.

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam David,

            What about Liverpool ? That was more stunning, top to bottom in a matter of weeks. They all need this kind of humbling experience to keep their edge.

            Mr. K.H

        • Selam Abi,

          I am sure you know the proverb: “Pride goes before destruction, and haughtiness before a fall.”. That was always true and it is true today.
          If you retreat continuously in front of such people for the sake of peace and normalcy, they think they have won, and they push for more. They never think rationally. That is their biggest problem.
          In their book, they either win all, all the time, or lose all. That is how arrogant and ignorant they are. Tplf always has some sort of an exit strategy in case of its failure. The unfortunate thing is that the people will always come out losers by paying the price and by being discarded after their sacrifices. Tplf did exactly that to those who brought it to power the first time, and it will repeat it any time. That is its modus operandi: use and discard. There must be an end.
          Such people bring the tempest upon themselves. That is their problem, as long as they work for it. What the federal government should do is to separate them from the people of tigray, which has nothing to do with the tplf mafia group from Adwa. I hope the people of tigray will care much more for their own interest than for the mafia group which served/serves the interest of its narrow group from Adwa, and not the interest of the people of tigray. The interest of the people of tigray lies with the people of ethiopia.

  • Brhan

    Hi All,
    Trump refused to condemn white supremacy.

    • Kim Hanna

      Selam Brhan,

      Biden said Antifa is an idea. Idea.
      Just to balance the farce.

      Mr. K.H

      • Brhan

        Hi Kim,
        No Biden said , “FBI director said Antifa is an idea”…The sentence for the FBI director

        • Kim Hanna

          Selam Brhan,

          O.K, let me ask you. Is Antifa an idea?

          Mr. K.H

          • Brhan

            Hi Kim,
            If you live in the US , can you enlighten me?

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Brhan,

            Sorry for delayed response. I will try my best for a short rough description.
            Young mostly white agitators who harass conservative speakers on college campus and elsewhere. That was early on.
            They are evolving in to arson and violence, for example, behind black lives matter demonstrations, in different part of the country.
            They appear a loosely connected anarchists mostly found in the North West U.S.
            They gave themselves the name of anti-fascist…antifa in the beginning and appears to be evolving and growing, hard to tell.

            Mr. K.H

          • Selam Kim Hanna,

            On our side of the world, “antifa” is more or less an unknown term. But, as wikepedia says, the anti-fascists are a group that were formed in reaction to the violence by white supremacists and far-right extremists, and in my opinion the description will not be complete without comparing them with the above groups. The Antifa is said to have been formed for the first time in Germany between the two world wars in opposition to the Nazis.
            They seem to be a collection of people who oppose the above organizations.
            Trump although he characterizes the antifa as terrorists, he doesn’t dare to condemn the white supremacists and far-right extremists, which are the reason for the existence of antifa in the US in the first place. It is due to the fact that white supremacists and far rights are the support base of trump.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Horizon the dim wit,

            You are not a credible witness.

          • Simon Kaleab,

            Is that you speaking, the guy who unashamedly has chosen to become the doormat for white supremacists and far right extremists, and sees it as his badge of honour? Could you be so dumb?

          • Simon Kaleab

            Horizon the dim wit,

            Check the history of Biden and the Democrat party: slavery, segregation. Search for Biden’s crime bill, read it and learn, you fool!

          • Brhan

            Hi Horizon,
            Let me tell you you are dealing with a person, who has double standard. In one way he condemns, bigotery in Eritrea, check what he is said about ደቂ ኣርባዓ…and compare it with that of the US, where he uses the bigotery words against whom he disagrees in opinion. It is rare that I see him focusing on opinion. He starts with insulting another forum member and ends it with it.
            In case you don’t know Deki Arbaa, these are Eritreans of Ethiopian origin mainly from Tigray and who came with the army of Alula and settled in Eritrea. It is just to say that they are second class, by narrow minded people.

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Horizon,

            Today is October 1st. 2020.
            The following is my opinion, on my side of the world. It might not be defensible position for all the arguments some might come up with. It is entirely based on my observation of the last couple of years.

            Trump is a crude and rude New York-er with a unique personality who managed to climb the ladder of power against all odds. He managed to survive with sheer tenacity and hard work with the help of a section of conservatives and a section of average working man and women. (Deplorables)
            To highlight one of his metaphors, he is standing in the middle of the swamp complete with crocodiles trying to drain it without knowing all the elements.
            Washington D.C is entrenched bloated and corrupt full of self interested lobbyists former gov. operatives (hogs). They are loosely connected groupings with a hand in various government offices. They are all getting nervous about the continuation and survival of their operations.
            The “journalists” who move around in these circles have bought in to what they consider disruption of the status quo by this erratic orange man. He behaves like a car salesman. Most of the journalists have joined in by spearheading the opposition. They don’t report news, they look for that silver bullet. Just watch the evening line up of MSNBC news channel. It is incredible.

            What Trump represent is really a revolution or renewal of sorts against the bloated Federal Government operatives who wouldn’t shy away from oppression of the people for more power if conditions permit it or an excuse is found.
            Look at Black lives matter organization that really doesn’t care about black lives. They only care about the useful ones.
            Look at Covid 19 response template and the like.
            The fascists call themselves anti-fascists and some of the corporate lords are funding them. They bail out arrested criminals from jail for the front line jobs of violence and disorder.

            In this environment of an epic choice by the citizens on which road to travel on, other interested parties look for ways to tip the scale. The Chinese,Iranians and North Koreans would choose Biden, a safe bet. Europeans and others with a hand in the cookie jar connected to D.C swamp would choose Biden. I am sure they will do more than prey.
            Can you believe Trump’s luck, he faced Hillary Clinton, disliked by so many in 2016. Now searching for years they came up with 78 year old man to take charge when the country is facing pandemic and civil unrest.

            If you are an average working man and women including Blacks Hispanics and Asians, they would choose Trump, provided they manage to get clean information.
            Sooner or later the American Empire will come down like all the others. Trump, the unlikely individual, might be able to extend its life by few decades… Wow, ha..ha. in my humble opinion.

            Mr. K.H

          • Selam Kim Hanna,

            Trump is not only the wrong solution for the ailing USA, on the contrary he is the man who will undo all the greatness about America the world knew up to now. He came four years ago with the slogan of fighting and changing the entrenched Washington system and to bring back factories outsourced to SE Asia. What did he do? Not only did he not bring a solution, he created more scandalous social, economic and political problems. It was as if the US was expecting a cure from a charlatan doctor. I doubt he has achieved anything positive for the US or the world.
            No factories returned back as he promised, the middle class is remains doubtful about its economic future, the rich got richer with his tax reform for the rich, himself he paid only $750 over two years, and nothing for a decade or more and he continues to refuse to reveal his tax income. Unashamedly, he even said that he used the loopholes of the law to pay very little tax.
            Due to trump’s incompetence more than 200k Americans have already died of covid-19. Even poor old Africa fared much much better than trump’s USA, because Africa took the necessary precautions earlier, like lockdowns, supposed to be one of the reasons that helped. China unlike the US is going to allow hundreds of millions of its people to go on vacations, while the US and Europe are gradual going back to lockdown.
            Socially, the US has become the most divided Western nation, and no one knows where it is going, much more during this presidency.
            Globally, trump is the first US President who is seen with contempt. His words are no more important in the world forum. The EU is ignoring him on Iran, China has found fertile ground and it is expanding its influence, while the USA’s is shrinking.
            His lies have becomes his trademark, and nobody trusts him for anything.
            This man is destroying America and the world. If he gets a second term, he may as well finish off the world.
            The narcissistic and paranoid emperor Nero burnt Rome to the ground. The narcissistic, with dubious character and suspected for paranoia, trump, armed with the most dangerous weapon the world has ever seen, unlike Nero, nobody knows what could happen if he is elected for a second term.
            Trump is the problem and not the solution. He is the curse of America and the world and not the blessing in anyway imaginable.
            Finally, with all his personal history and the history of his ancestors included, imagining trump as a revolutionist and a revivalist, is difficult to believe. The last four years didn’t show it. Although at the head of a government, whatever he did was reminiscent of anarchy and amateurism. Unfortunately, trump looks like the guy who will push the US over the cliff, than the guy who will save it.

          • Consolation

            Horizon,

            I disagree with you because of the following: There are two huge issues for which Trump would be a revolutionary leader if he hadn’t had to confront the slimy Democrats. The issues are GLOBALIZATION and THE MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX. Trump is the only leader in the past 60 years who showed the courage to confront the rich corporations against their agenda to control and enslave the world and USA war machine that has wrecked the lives of millions of people throughout. If he loses and Democratic Party, which is a puppet of the rich, wins, they will take the USA to where it was during the Obama years, and bankrupt it through their endless wars and screw American workers by allowing the corporations to outsource all good jobs to cheaper pastures.

          • Sultan

            Condo:
            U might be correct but partially!
            Democrats puppets of the rich?
            Didn’t know that!
            Expansionism and Globalization :
            The “ America First” Agenda seems mainly to do with the White Supremacist Agenda,in my opinion!
            Aside from the hegemonic Foreign Policy of the the Democratic Party, Trump Foreign Policy is more dangerous based on his policy on WHO, Climate and and the Middle East.
            I only agree with you that his policy on Eritrea seems more constructive provided he augments his soft policy on improving Constitutional Governance in Eritrea.

          • Consolation

            Selam Sultan,

            Both the Democratic and Republican parties are puppets of the rich. Who do you think Obama was working when he was striving to effectuate the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade deal? Who was Clinton working for when he signed the NAFTA which decimated the manufacturing sector of the USA by exporting millions of jobs? I think people should educate themselves that the core principles behind globalization is to allow the rich and powerful to control the world. Trump went against his republican party when he made his anti-globalization one his core principles.

            Again, his anti-war position is huge because war has become a central philosophy of the USA. Trump has boldly defied the war-mongers and is in fact the only president in the past 40 year who has not started a war. The savage treatment he gets from the media and the slimy Democrats for his antiwar positions the whole world has seen.

            As for white supremacy, once your lose your sovereignty and become a slave of the rich, Democrat and Republican have no differences. In fact, by making America Great and returning millions of good-paying manufacturing jobs, he has helped blacks more than any Democrats. Don’t forget that it was Clinton and Biden who through their infamous Crime Bill have decimated black lives. Millions of black people are incarcerated for crimes such as possessing 5 grams of hash. So please, don’t fall for these silly cultural palliatives that the Democrats throw around.

            I never mentioned his position on Eritrea.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Consolation,

            A well crafted response.

            Biden has been around in DC for nearly 50 years. His main achievements are, his anti-black Crime Bill and enriching his family and his two brothers. His son, Hunter, is corruptly linked to China, Ukraine and Russia.

            Obama is not a friend of blacks. He is a friend of Planned Parenthood (abortion factory of defenceless black kids). He is a friend of LGBTQ…XYZ gender freak show. He is a friend of the Muslim Brotherhood.

          • Sultan

            Conso:
            To be honest with you,if Trump were for reconciliation and was not anti-immigrants, I would be the FIRST ONE to support him based on :
            -Genuine -USA-focused policy but if it were inclusive and nonpartisan
            -His Pro-life policy (50 million lives lost since Prochoice / Abortion law was passed( 1million abortion’s per annum( 1/2 a million black lives)

            -Working Economy for all

            -Comprehensive immigration reform with Humanitarian Amnesty Law or Legislation for the 7-10 million hard working undocumented immigrants like Reagan did

            -Gun-control policy/Law

            -Pro Family and Values / morality

            -if he were to pass Anti Kkkk /White Supremacist Law / Anti Domestic Terrorist Law

            -Improve the Criminal Justice System
            -Pass the Nigro-Compensation Law for the 400 yrs old discrimination of blacks
            -Effective Police Refirm( not defunding )
            -Tax Reform that benefits the majority, not the 1%

            -Free Community College Education and Loan Assistance and Forgiveness
            Program included SELECTED FREE UNIV EDUCATION for the Achievers like a billionaire did in NY
            -Improving the over all the women’s Right and Empowerment ( gender equality, pay equality, paid maternity leave
            -Healthcare, which helps all Americans( modified Obamacare
            Etc.,,
            Trump could easily have done the above but his covert and overt chaotic, racist and divisive policies are the testimonies for his true color and policies.
            Democrats could potentially achieve all the above but they are just inept.
            They just have to do better on the destabilizing foreign policy and be easy on taxation by learning from Trump’s strengths.

          • Consolation

            Sultan,

            In short, the USA needs a third party. The Sanders wing of the Democratic party should split and form such a party by the people, of the people, for the people. Only then can you have a government that works for the people. The Democratic and Republican parties are too dependent on the donor class. What should come first is to separate the politicians from the rich by overhauling the campaign financing laws. As it is, the politicians are too much dependent on the donors. They say there are over 10,000 registered lobbyists in DC. If this is not legalized corruption, I sure don’t know what is.

          • Abi

            King Sultan
            Trump has no idea whatsoever if Eritrea is a country , a person or a fast food chain. His policy on Eritrea can be summed up by “ Eritrea who,
            I don’t know him, I never met him “
            Let’s wait and see Madam Rice’s position on Isu and Eritrea. My hope is she see them separately. Otherwise, PMAA is going to be extremely busy softening her heart towards Eritrea.

          • Selam Consolation,

            I don’t think that trump carries the anti-globalization banner as if he is a left wing Activist. Maybe you are misunderstanding his protectionism as anti-globalization. It is simply against his ideology and the ideology of his party.

            Let us make America great again, build the wall, withdraw from international organizations and agreements and his trade war with china; all of these are part of his protectionist ideology and it has nothing to do with standing against globalization to save the world. I think that some have already started to sue his trade wars because they do damage to american companies more than to the chinese.
            When he was proudly telling the world a few years ago that he had managed to get a more than a $100bn arms deal with the KSA, that doesn’t mean confronting the Military Industrial Complex, but working for it.
            The democratic party could be the puppet of the rich, but the republican party members are the ones who are the rich and the conservative.
            Has trump brought back any industries as he said he would do? I don’t think so. These outsourced industries function with old technologies of the 70s and 80s. They benefit from cheap labor, and if they go back to the US, they can’t compete in the global market as “made in USA”, because the wage is at least five times greater when compared with wages in china. What do you think the industrial giants would do? They will implement automation in order to be able to compete in the global market. Automation will bring unemployment, and trump could say all the myths in the world, but he can’t easily bring back outsourced industries.
            Trump may have confronted the rich corporations by decreasing corporate taxes, and not in any other way. He is part of the herd, and he can’t eat his own flesh.

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Horizon,

            I think we have differing points of view attributable perhaps to our sources of information. In your part of the world, if the bulk of the information you get is from BBC and the Guardian, I am here to tell you that they are biased. There is a CNN cable show of Don Lemon who I watched part of the time. He totally, I mean 100% of the time for 4 years blamed trump for everything. Racist is every other word for his analysis of most topics.

            “This man is destroying America and the world. If he gets a second term, he may as well finish off the world.”

            That sounded odd to me. In any case, I wished miraculously I could see what you saw for 10 seconds, because I see it almost the opposite.
            I am not saying that Trump is an easy person to defend. He is transparent to a fault. He meanders,does somersault, and lands on his feet most of the time. Have you ever seen any leader like that before? What is his saving grace is he has assembled intelligent people to do the task with heavy delegation.
            The Philippines leader, on some items I read appears similar in nature to Trump. I don’t know enough about him.

            Mr. K.H

          • Sultan

            Kim;
            Interesting Sean Hannity style analysis.
            Are you sure you are NOT talking about another Trump?
            Or another Tucker of Fox News??

            “ If you are an average working man and women including Blacks Hispanics and Asians, they would choose Trump, provided they manage to get clean information.“

            Do u know what Trump has said and done against the Muslims,Africans/Blacks, Asians and Latinos as well as about the Immigrants over all and as to WHY?

            What about what his handpicked Sec of the Homeland Security said publicly?

            “ The American demographics is changing FAST, we need to work hard on this”!!!

            She had no choice but to RESIGN!

            Do you know why Trump has blocked and even banned Immigration and Immigrants including the high IQ GENIUS Professionals from India and Pakistan but favoring the British, the Irish ,the Jewish,Norwegians and Swedish immigrants as well as Eastern Europeans coz they have “nicer” skin color and speak better English ?

            He said it!

            Another Simon Kale-Ab of awate.com??
            ??
            You sound one of the most “uninformed” Senior US Citizens, who has lived here for more than 40 yrs now????

            Yes,Antifa is an idea against Fascism and its top leaders are highly educated Socialist-minded White Intellectuals for a genuine purpose and agenda/JUSTICE!

            Those, you claimed and generalized as Antifah Members using the “Black Lives Matter”are:

            -Few gang members who tried to loot in the name the Peaceful Protests

            -The R wing radicals trying to infiltrate and disrupt the peaceful protests for Justice( confirmed to be so by the FBI,in Minneapolis,MN, Kinnosha, MI and Portland)!
            The FBI CONFIRMED the above.

            Trumps Special Advisor, Ms Conway,confirmed this and as quoted by Biden,declaring that Trump creates such conflicts and chaos then tries to get credit by calling the National Guard to stabilize things he and his own radicals done- he did it)!

            He is quick to blame the left for everything as he said it during his debate the other day when Chris Wallace challenged him for not condemning the KKK/White Supremacists!

          • Brhan

            Hi Mr. K.H
            You forgot ኢትዮጲያ የኣፍሪካ መዲና ? Would it choose Biden.
            Due to aid being cut because of the dam and African countries according to Turmp are ………

          • Abi

            Mr Kim
            I really enjoyed your last sentence.

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Abi,

            I envisioned you coming at me in full Ras gear on your white horse, Sultan.
            I am glad the last sentence won the day.

            Mr. K.H

          • Abi

            Mr Kim
            የፈረሴን ሥም ማን ቀይር አለህ?
            The last sentence saved the day:)
            አጨራረስ ነው ማሳመር እንጂ መጀመርማ ማንም ጅል ይጀምራል!

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Kim,

            Well articulated. Good observations on the Media becoming the opposition and Kamala bailing out BLM communists and Antifa anarchists.

            Lying, crooked and corrupt Biden never had a proper job in his life. He has been a parasite aka a career, self-serving politician.

            But the “American Empire” coming down is not a forgone conclusion provided the correct leadership is at the helm.

            Historian Arnold Toynbee said “Civilizations die by suicide, not by murder.”

            America’s main enemies are internal: millionaire liberal leftists, merchants of race conflict, short term advantage politicians. Add to this, economy bankrupting endless foreign wars.

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Simon Kaleab,

            “Civilizations die by suicide, not by murder.”, is a great statement.
            The last several elections are bringing in to the fore front of leadership in congress and cabinet level position individuals of lower quality, so to speak.
            Nancy Pelosi, speaker of the house, and Harry Reed, former senate majority leader can be categorized as a psycho partisan ideologues with short term vision.
            More have come in to the ranks of high positions that doesn’t speak well for the future.
            Do you know who the head of congress overseeing the banking industry is…..Maxine Waters, of California, with little understanding of the subject matter. Really sad.

            Mr K.H

          • David Samson

            Selam KH,

            In cricket*, if the batting team is losing wickets, it prays for heavens intervention. If its prayers are answered, it can get off the hook without being beaten. The unfortunate side, which was
            on the verge of winning, then taunts the losing side with a single line: “You are saved by the rain; you are saved by the rain”

            What am I talking about then and what is its relevance to the USA’s election?

            Well, for two important reasons:

            The first one is much more important for people who do not live in the USA and give a hook who wins the election. As with the losing side which has had luck on its side, we, too, have luck. Due to the pandemic, our airways have been quiet over the election.

            By this time of the election calendar, the news would have been 90% about the USA. I am glad that we have freed from constant watching the Paparazzi like conveys travelling across the country.

            What is more, Trump is now quarantined, so most likely to miss the next debate. That is a bonus I have never imagined that I would get one.

            Second is nothing to do with us or me, but how fortunes could turn things upside.

            Who would have imagined that Joe has a chance of winning the election nine months ago, probably not many people? Now, not only the mishandling of the pandemic by Trump but more importantly, the virus itself has shielded him from a left hook by Trump. Under normal circumstance, the chap, known for his gaffes, would have been slaughtered like a sheep by Trump, but now the virus comes to rescue him from the Jaws of Trump.

            People, like me, who do not live in the USA, do not have any stake on the outcome of the election. People might be excited by the election’s outcome, but as someone said, “The only thing that changes following USA’s election is the kitchen towel in the white house”.

            How about the Horn?

            Many Ethiopians think the democratic favours them. Yes, it is true choosing between Eritrea and Ethiopia. It is highly unlikely that, even if Joe wins, American foreign policy vis vis the Nile issue would change. I think whoever wins will still favour the

            Egyptians. If Joe wins, there is a chance that Suzan Rice might take the Secretary state portfolio. We know that Suzan is a friend of Ethiopians in general and Meles in particular. Being said, the USA’s foreign policy does not work depending on personal friendships. So, Ethios just lower your hopes and expectations.

            As with Eritrea, Oops! I mean Wedi Afom, he will have none of it. He cannot stand that woman; he has kept his grudges under his teeth and is most likely to go to his retreat and wait until fortunes turn in his favour. As to his supporters rest assured, Wedi Afom will outlast sleepy Joe. IA calculation would be: Joe will only serve a single term and the Republicans would take the office back. Even, in the unlikely event of Kamal winning the second term, Susan would not be around. He can close his nose and talk to the new Secretary. His opponents: Tough! We are being cursed and can only blame our stars.

            I wish Trump wins for a simple reason: his non-intervention foreign policy. The Americans, since taken over the helm from the Brit after the second world war, have created havoc, destruction, and untold miseries on this planet. The world would be a better place if Americans keep their nose out of the “Police of the world”. The heavy mishandling of conflicts has resulted in blunders after blunders. I know the world is not only addicted to the USA’s aid but leadership too. Everyone waits for the Americans to sort out the mess of the world. As people become less reliant on aid, they will also be used to the world without the Americans. Trump,

            the first time in many decades said, let the others deal with it. African, in many years, had stability over the last four years, barring the self-inflict civil wars. Trump has scorn for Africans, so decide not even to visit the continent, instead of his sent his wife.

            The more the Americans keep out of the king’s role and focus with their domestic issues— have a pizza and go to the movies— the more world would be a better place to live in.

            *For uninitiated Americans, I am not referring to an insect
            that makes a rough sound. Pre-Google’s world, it would probably take me 10pages to explain the intricacy and complex rules of a cricket game, but for those interested, you can google it. There is a saying, along the lines of, an English toff makes a good deal by 3 pm, then plays cricket before winding up the days with a pint.

        • Simon Kaleab

          Brhan,

          Confused Wray will say anything to please his audience.

          On June 4, 2020, Wray stated that “anarchists” like Antifa are “exploiting” George Floyd protests “to pursue violent, extremist agendas.

    • Simon Kaleab

      Brhan,

      Who told you?

      Last week Trump banned the KKK (Biden’s former friends) and Antifa (Biden’s current friends) as domestic terrorist groups.

      • Brhan

        Simon
        You did not tell me your source? እንካን ሃባን ኢዩ

        • Simon Kaleab

          Brhan,

          Trump denounces KKK and racism in Charlottesville – BBC NEWS

          Trump pledges to make Juneteenth a federal holiday, designate KKK a terrorist group in pitch to Black voters – The Hill

          Trump to designate KKK, Antifa as terrorist groups in black empowerment plan – New York Post

          • Brhan

            Hi Simon,
            Live TV.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Brhan,

            I have given you the lead. Be active.

            By the way, your source?

          • Brhan

            SIMON,I told you in English ፡ LIVE TV፡ with my own eyes. Did you miss the debate? Or you were reading the Hill at that time
            If you did not understand in English:
            Let me tell you in Tigrinya:
            ብ ዓይነይ ብዓይነይ ብዓይነይ….ኣቱም ሰባት ገለ ባ በሉ

          • Simon Kaleab

            Brhan,

            Were you under the influence of something when you were watching TV?

          • Brhan

            Simon to close this file and for you to understand me clearly , I will say it in Tiginya.
            ሰራቒ ሞባእ ባዕሉ ይላፋለፍ!
            Ciao

          • Simon Kaleab

            Brhan,

            Are you sure you watched the debate?

            You are caught spreading lies red handed. Now, time to hide and cry.

          • Brhan

            Simon,
            Is it English or ትግርኛ that you do not understand?

          • Simon Kaleab

            Brhan,

            Can you beat a lie detector test?

  • Sultan

    Selam Semere H.
    Thank you for your ongoing intellectual book reviews and for your contribution to the Ethio-Eritrea history and Literature.
    While appreciating Dr Yebio for this historical article, for me the take home message is:
    “ As Eritreans and human beings, we are duty-bound to promote unity on all fundamentals (Eritrean foundational values), liberty on particulars and charity on everything else. The aynfelale and Ertra nErtrawyan credo is what makes Eritrea indivisible. The story of Eritrea is that of national unity, the pursuit of self-rule and self-determination and the struggle continues. In the words of Samora Machel, “A luta continua!” or as my friend, Saleh Gadi Johar would say, “ሕጂ ‘ውን ክውግሕ ‘ዩ። ተማሒርኩም ኣለኹም።”!

    GBU too.

    In the 21st century and in New Etitrea,the Deki-40 thing has no value but a traditional and historical one!
    I don’t see any value here when people make it a big deal and wasting their time debating on a dead issue.

  • Haile S.

    Selam Semere TH,

    Thank you for bringing this history book to our attention. Books are always a treasure. They contribute a bit to the puzzle-piece even when they don’t become the whole piece of a puzzle. Indeed history is a perpertual puzzle that never complets. Every author should be congratulated for writing and contributing to the puzzle.

    Now on the book you presented; it is already difficult to comment on a book one hasn’t read. It becomes especialy more difficult when the book is on a subject that defies the norm of Eritrean historiography. Knowing the very contents would be necessary to engage the subject and the author. Having said that we can still talk about the problematics of approaching such a subject. Pre-1998, I remember hearing, or getting confronted by the visible Ethiopians of the time (TPLF representatives and affiliates), on the non-condemnation of Italy by Eritreans. They were interrogating Eritreans of the lack of written materials that condemn the colonialists. It was a form of attack meant to undercut the foundation of a nation during an incubation period of the war of 1998. They were bringing what allegedely Tekeste Negash wrote, a paper that was circulating in Dehai and by email (I couldn’t find it now). We were being asked to “knock off our foundation” on which we allegedly stood. Although I have still to read Profile if Courage, based on your review, I think this book goes in the direction of plugging such a lacuna.

  • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

    Selam all,
    Isn’t history mostly told by the winners?
    How do we know any of these so called historians are telling us the the truth?
    There were two books at Stanford and Berkeley they were talking complete the opposite about Eritrea, before independence.
    Hmmm…historians. Get a real job.

  • Simon Kaleab

    Selam all,

    Is it necessary to drool over “deqi ArbeAa” in this day and age? This is a true sign of backward thinking.
    The French are not bothered about Napoleon’s Italian ancestry, nor do the Russians obsess over Stalin’s Georgian origins. Because they are truly great Nations.

    • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

      Selamat Simon,
      Please add Aboy Weldeab Weldemariam of Eritrea, to your list.

      • Abi

        MM
        What does “deqi ArbeAa” mean?
        Thanks

        • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

          Abi,
          As you know you can get USA citizenship in about 5 or 6 yrs. In Eritrea was 40 years:) Is it fair? You tell me.
          However, one of the reason we are in this mess is because of that.
          It is directly proportional.

          • Abi

            MM
            I’m not in a position to judge a country’s citizenship law. I don’t even know how long it takes to get Ethiopian citizenship. I believe it was 25 years.
            Your answer is not clear. Try again without asking me a question.
            Do not go nuclear physics on me.

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Abi,
            Do not go nuclear physics on me?
            Now you are going to wake up the sleeper agents [some of them pretend to be opposing the criminal gangs in Adi-Halo]

            If a person who lives in Eritrea feels that way, I can’t blame them. However, for a person who lives her and went through the citizenship process and received their citizenship and advocate even the 40 years is not long enough is beyond my comprehension. That fairness is lost, unless you are Aboy Wel Wel 🙂

          • Abi

            MM
            Let me try again. Please read the question three times before you attempt to answer.
            Thanks 🙏
            QUESTION
            What does deqi ArbeAa mean?

            I’m not asking for feelings or fairness. I’m asking the meaning of the word. Don’t go Berhe on me. Stay on Earth.

          • Hashela

            Abi

            literally, it means “sons of 40”, it refers to Eritreans who acquired their Eritrean citizenship after staying for 40 years in Eritrea. Most of them are people from Tigray

          • Abi

            Hashela
            Thanks
            I’m having heartache talking to the Engeenier.

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Abi,
            You are too slow today. I have already answered that.
            You have to stay in Eritrea for 40 yrs to get your citizenship. ArbeAa mean 40.

        • Semere Tesfai

          ሰላም ወንድም እማች

          “What does “deqi ArbeAa” mean?”

          “Literally, it means “sons of 40″; it refers to Eritreans (or their parents) who obtained their Eritrean citizenship after staying for 40 years in Eritrea. Most of them are people from Tigray”

          1. – No, no, no! That is not true. ደቀ’ርብዓ (‘ወደርባዓ) has nothing to do with Eritrean citizenship. None whatsoever, none. And there is a simple way to prove it.
          A. – Eritrea become a sovereign nation about thirty years ago. But..
          the concept of ደቀ’ርብዓ law has been in the life of Eritrean communities way, way prior to the arrival of Italians.

          B. – Eritrea was a part of Ethiopia (of some sort) for about forty years (1952-1991). How could one acquire an Eritrean citizenship prior to the Italian colonial era and during Haileselassie and Derg era? Doesn’t make any sense; or does it?

          2. – Now, to answer your question:

          A. – The law of citizenship is National in nature that is issued by a national government.

          B. – The law of ደቀ’ርብዓ (‘ወደርባዓ) is a common sense law, a humane law, a law of compassion, a benevolence law that accepts “strangers” from “far” places to their closely knit village community as one of their own.

          Let me explain in more detail

          3. – In the densely populated Eritrean Tigrigna-Land (Hamassien, Akeleguzai, Seraye) every square inch of land is village owned. Meaning: any person who comes from outside, has to blend-in and reside in the village that s/he chose, as a part of that village community.

          4. – Though with an attached stigma, for any “stranger” (outsider), there are at least three ways one can be a member of the village community. And these are the common ways

          A. – By the power of the law (ብሕገ-ንጉስ). There is a Tigrigna saying: ንጉስ ይተክል፡ ንጉስ ይነቅል. Meaning: a King can allow you to settle in anyone’s land; and also, a King can uproot you from your own land. Therefore, by the power (order) of an authority, you can settle among any village community – as a group or as an individual. Case in point: By the order of Allula, the tens of thousands (if not hundreds of thousands) of Allula Army that settled among Eritrean village communities after the death of Yohaness IV in Metema. The people who joined an existing village by the order of higher-up authority will carry a stigma called ማእከላይ ዓሌት

          2. – Prior to Eritrean independence, Eritrean villages were paternal communities. Meaning: every Eritrean was identified by his father’s village; and every land ownership an Eritrean can have was only in his ancestral village. But, but, but things don’t always go by the book. Some children – for so many reasons – would be born and raised in their mothers village, with their mother and maternal grandparents. After they become adult-men – since they are part of the villagers by their mother side – the village will accept them in the community as one of their own. But they will always carry a stigma with them. They are always called ተወልጀ

          3. – Some come to Eritrean villages seeking work – doing farm-works for elders, widows with small children, and rich farmers who need extra help; and some teenage boys who tend cattles. These farm workers, they stay for years and years in the village and raise children in the village – and become part of the community – during good and bad times. After living for forty years among the village community, they themselves become part of the community with full land and legal rights – but still with a stigma attached. And the stigma they live-with is ደቀ’ርብዓ (‘ወደርባዓ)

          4. – Mind you: one can be ‘ወደርባዓ (ደቀ’ርብዓ) if he moves from one Seraye village to another Seraye Village, or from a village in Hamassien into a village in Akeleguzay, or vice versa

          5. – Today, after Eritrean independence, all lands are owned by the government. Therefor, legally, you can use land; but you can’t own land

          Semere Tesfai

          • Abi

            ወንድም አማች
            Can we safely say “ወደርባዓ” belongs to the lower socioeconomic strata ?
            More importantly, can we conclude that the most important achievement of the independence is freeing the land?

            What was different in Ethiopian situation is there were no restrictions whatsoever for Eritreans to assimilate in the society and achieve their potential. Now that is progressive move by a backward society.
            Talk to me:)

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam ወንድም አማች

            1. – “Can we safely say “ወደርባዓ” belongs to the lower socioeconomic strata ?”

            A. – ወደርባዓ applies to people who assimilated into a certain village and village life – not city dwellers from “far” places. And yes they start poor and outcast, but they don’t necessarily end that way – even a young women who started as a sex-worker in the towns of Eritrea, could end-up owning her own restaurant Bar and hotel

            B. – Eritrean cities specially Asmara – had many people from outside mixed with Eritreans – Italian mix, Yemen mix, Nigerian mix, Indian mix, Sudan mix, Somali mix, Tigreans, Amara, Oromo, I heard even Palestinians were in the outskirts of Asmara at some time. All these people, since they were close to the center of power, education, and business, they have always been rich and powerful – and their offsprings still are.

            2. – “More importantly, can we conclude that the most important achievement of the independence is freeing the land?”

            Yes, yes! Absolutely yes.

            “3. – What was different in Ethiopian situation is there were no restrictions whatsoever for Eritreans to assimilate in the society and achieve their potential. Now that is progressive move by a backward society.
            Talk to me:)”

            Eritreans were always welcomed in Ethiopia. And for Eritreans, in cities and countryside – as far as success – the sky was the limit. As far as I know, Eritreans owned Shashemenie. I heard about half of Welqait people have some Eritrean blood in them – but you know more than I do.

            Semere Tesfai

          • Abi

            ወንድም አማች
            የቐንየለይ
            3 ሻሸመኔ ስመጥሩ ሐማሴናውያን የሰፈሩበት ቦታ ነው:: ደቂባዶ እንበላቸው? ምክንያቱም እንግዳ ተቀባዩ ደጉ የኢትዮጵያ ህዝብ እጁን ዘርግቶ ደጃፉን ከፍቶ ሲቀበላቸው ምንም አይነት ጊዜ አልፈጀባቸውም::
            ደጉ የኢትዮጵያ ህዝብ ይባረክ!

            2 አሁን መሬቱ ነፃ ወጥቷል !! ወደፊት ህዝቡ ነፃ ይወጣል የሚል ግምት አለ::

          • Hashela

            Abi

            “አሁን መሬቱ ነፃ ወጥቷል !! ወደፊት ህዝቡ ነፃ ይወጣል የሚል ግምት አለ::”

            ቃልካ እስዓር!

          • Abi

            Hashela
            Translation please!

          • Hashela

            Abi

            You constantly bombard us with Amharic and you are not willing to put some efforts to learn the new lingua franca. A truly Shoan aristocrat!

          • Abi

            Hashela
            “new lingua Franca”? Not yet buddy. Tigray-Tigrign is in the making! Not achieved yet. Why are you rushing to declare…
            ጉድ ነው!

          • Hashela

            Abi

            a true aristocratic spin doctor!

          • Semere Tesfai

            ሰላም ወንድም ኣማች

            “አሁን መሬቱ ነፃ ወጥቷል !! ወደፊት ህዝቡ ነፃ ይወጣል የሚል ግምት አለ::”

            Not so fast!
            ወንድም ኣማች – ኢትዮጵያ የጋራጥን፡ ኤርትራ ለብቻችን ሆኖው ለዘልኣለም ይኖራሉ! Don’t you forget that!

            Why do you think Eritreans are flocking South in droves? 🙂

            Semere Tesfai

          • Abi

            ወንድም አማች
            ሞኝህን ፈልግ! ዘንድሮ ነቄ ብለናል!
            ከትግራይ አናሳልፋችሁም:: ደቀርብአ እያልክ ትግራይ ውስጥ ቀልጠህ ትቀራለህ::
            የነበረው እንዳልነበር ሆኗል ዘንድሮ:)

          • Desbele

            Semere,
            You claimed “the PFDJ government has done tremendous favor to itself and to the Eritrean people by nationalizing the land in Eritrea”
            With all its drawbacks, village collective ownership of land was fair.
            Now, all land in Eritrean belong to the state. And well, the state is the dictator-acting like the king you mentioned. “ንጉስ ይተክል፡ ንጉስ ይነቅል. Meaning: a King can allow you to settle in anyone’s land; and also, a King can uproot you from your own land.” ይነቅለካ ጥራይ ደይኮነ መቃብር ከማን ይከልኣኻ- ንጉስ ኢሳያስ. Very ironic the very ‘Son of 40’ ‘ወደርባዓ (ደቀ’ርብዓ) is now the ‘king’ by whose whim land is distributed.
            I know a mother of five denied entitlment to her share of land for farming (“gebri”) because her husband fled the army.
            Second, there is no appeal if the regime extort land from the village. Thats how you may have get the ‘bond’ land.
            Dergue’s land for the tiller was much better as it has left rights of land to the villagers.

          • Hashela

            Selam Semere

            You are right, in that context the use of Eritrean citizenship was legally incorrect as a result of hastily writing by me.

          • David Samson

            Selam Semere,

            Who thoughts your history? Ghedli? You are trying to travel as
            far distance as possible away from Tigray. Little did you know that Allula was one of the most decorated general the Habsha land ever to grace. You might not value his bravery and ingenuity, but others have and will forever.

            Although historian differs on the number of troops he brought with him, it was estimated to be no more than 20,000. There were stationed in what later called Villagio Gine. These troops had remained behind and might have settled in the area, hence for constant referred to as Deki Hamasien are from Tigray by Zombies Interahamwes. I do not know how you got hundreds of thousands of figures. The population in the region at the time was not even
            in the hundreds of thousand.

          • Berhe Y

            Selam Dawit,

            መዓስ ኢኻ ነዚ ገድሊ ካብ ርኣሱ ትወርድ።

            ወሪዱዎ ገድሊ፡ ክንደ ኣንጻር “ትሕተ ሃገራዊነት” ከጥፋእ ዘይጸዖረ። 🙂

            Berhe

          • David Samson

            ሰላም ሐዊ በርህ፣

            ናብ ሃኪም ከይደስ ኣብ ርአስኻ ብዙሕ ናይ ገድሊ ጥይት ኣለካ ኢሎምኒ። መድሃኒቱ ኻኣ ተራፒ እዩ፥ ኣበይ ኸመይ፥ ብዙሒ ተዛረብን ኸምአውን ጸሐፍውን፥ እንታኢለ፥ ገድሊ ገደል፡

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam David Samson

            1. – “Little did you know that Allula was one of the most decorated general the Habsha land ever to grace. You might not value his bravery and ingenuity, but others have and will forever.

            A. – Pal: you’re one confused fella. I thought you were self-hating (Habesha), self degrading, fascist worshiper. Little did I know, you’re Allula worshiping AgAzian as well. Wow!

            B. – I said Allula and his men were barbaric; nothing else. My proof: among many other inhumane things they’ve done, they cleansed (killed) 2/3 of the (defenseless) Kunama population in one trip for no justifiable reason. If that is not barbaric, I don’t know what is.

            2. – “Who thoughts your history? Ghedli? You are trying to travel as far distance as possible away from Tigray.”

            Where did you get that idea? Could you please quote me on that?

            3. – “Although historian differs on the number of troops he brought with him (to Eritrea), it was estimated to be no more than 20,000. I do not know how you got hundreds of thousands of figures.

            Just to help you expand your perspective:

            A. – The Allula Army didn’t settle in Hamassien only; they settled all over the Tigrigna Land. Case in point: WeldeAb Weldemariam home village.

            B. – When the Allula Army settled in the villages of the Tigrigna Land, they didn’t settle as lone individuals. They settled as family units. They brought their wives, their children, even some of their siblings and other family members – ሩዖምን ጋዕ-ገልጠሞምን ጠቕሊሎም ‘ዮም መጺኦም. Now assume the average family size was seven people – husband and wife plus five dependents – and do your math; 20,000 x 7

            4. – “These (Allula) troops had remained behind and might have settled in the area (Hamassien), hence for constant referred to as Deki Hamasien are from Tigray by Zombies Interahamwes.

            Again:

            A. – The Allula Army didn’t settle in Hamassien only. They settled allover the Tigrigna Land.

            B. – Nobody said “Deki Hamasien are from Tigray” except you.

            Semere Tesfai

          • David Samson

            Selam Semere,

            Am I a confused soul?

            Let me repeat what I have said on this site. No insane person defends colonialism. No one had invited Italian to come to Eritrea. Having said that, enough negatives have been said and written about colonisation. I do not want to dwell on its negatives as it is a futile exercise. It also perpetuates the victim mindset and would not help us to move forward.

            Here are the positive legacies of Italian colonisation:

            First, compared to other European colonisers, the Italians, to a large extent, did not impose their culture on the natives. An Italian author wrote on the customs and traditions of highland and argued the local culture should be left untainted.

            Before the arrival of Italians, the Abyssinians warlords had been at each other’s throat. The land was littered with famine and civil war. The region had never experienced stability for so long since the arrival of Italians. Eritreans, particularly, the highlanders thrived. All able bodies were attracted by the opportunities the Italians
            had created (Yes, I hear you saying Italians built Eritrea for themselves). The countryside had a sigh of relief after many wars and famine.

            When Italians arrived in Eritrea, they found barred land with few mud houses.
            Could you envisage the road from Massawa to Asmara would be built by the natives?

            The Italians only allowed us to attend up to 4th grade. This is typical victimhood.

            Did the natives have the concept of education— except religious schools? No, is not 1 greater than zero? If Italians were designed the education system to oppress the natives, why did not they then allow the natives to go to higher education in the 1930s and 1940s? Do I know a person who reached the highest academia in the 1940s? Yes, I do.

            Why do I worship the colonisers then? Do I suffer from slavery mentality? You can call me whatever you like, but I take it with a badge of honour?

            Even within my life span, I have seen how one of the most industrious, and technically gift society have turned into ashes.

            Let me divert you and say this true story.

            An Italian, born in 1920, had visited Eritrea for the first time since he left in the 1940s. This chap is not ordinary, but rather a person who built most of the buildings in Asmara. He was an engineer by profession. He had a unique style of building the “Palazzo”. He left his mark underneath each building by writing his name. He had
            the nostalgia for Asmara and had always longed to visit the city before he departs from this world. He sold his car to raise funds for his trip an d finallyarrived in Asmara after 70 years.

            He speaks Tigrigna, but with a bit rusty, so the minister of Hasot had assigned him an Italian interpreter. According to these morons, it was meant to be a scoop, to exploit it as a PR. The Italian was in constant tears during his visit. “He missed his birth city, that is why he is crying, said the commentator”. It never crossed their mind that the reason he was in tears was that unable to recognise the city he left 70 years ago. It is almost unrecognisable, and it is for the worst. He was shocked to his core as to why the Hebesha are so destructive.

            Why is the moral story? Habesha is real destroyer; our past time is war, destruction, envy, and jealousy.

            The house I grew up was not far from an Italian farm. I had the fortune of testing all the Italian fruits one could imagine. My surrounding was green. Then came the Derg, within 3-5 years the area was destroyed. No green or fruit tree was left; the area was
            turned into barren land. The area returned to its original surrounding—dessert.

            That is how I see, be it Derg or Ghedli, as destroyers and only see barren land across the country, hence my nostalgia for and longing of Italians in the hope I may see the place I grew up being turned into green. The only tragedy about Italian colonisation is they left too early. Had stayed for another 100 years, we would
            have avoided all the tragedy that has been fallen on our land.

            Sorry to spoil you but I disagree with Allula and the settlers. Yes, Allula administered what was Tigrigna land, but his troops were too small to have spared over the entire land.

            “WeldeAb Weldemariam home village.”

            Again untrue.

            Many people, attracted by the arrival of Italians, had moved over to the other side of the Mereb. The idea who was the settler and the settled is based on false narratives. There were no reference points called Eritreans or Ethiopians to use them as a yardstick to say who moved over and where. People who lived in the region did
            not have the concept of nationhood, but loyalty to the warlords. Now, 150 later, you turn to say that he is from Tigray or Eritrea is not only bonkers but downright lies.

            “Nobody said “Deki Hamasien are from Tigray” except you”

            You got the wrong of the stick. Not only I did not say, but I abhor it. If you want to see people with such views, you need to visit the “Dekabt Site”. As I said to Simon, they are Interahamwe of Eritrea. I do not want to mention names, but they’re few in here.

            Now, it is your turn. Feel free to call me white worshiper, suffers a slavery mentality or whatever it suits.

            You can write not only a page even a book on all the atrocities the Italians might have committed. The only caveat is I know more than you might think about all the negatives of colonisation; and how the Italians built the country for themselves, and,
            how they practised apartheid. You are spoiled for choices.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Semere,
            Can you elaborate on the “deqi arbaAa” law? How old is the law? Some sources say it was started by Alula to setlle his armies who usualyy came with their pack animals, wives and children and camped in different places. When the men go campaigning for long periods, during the farming season, the they farm the land. Slowly they build shacks and claim the place naturally. Remember then entire Eritrean population when the Italians arrived was a mere 250,000. There was so much unused land. Isn’t Alula responsible for instating the 40-years rights and the “megedi Arbaa”, a road that gives everyone the right to use and no one can block? Do you know of entire villages started by Alula’s militia? And some villages that were settled by the militia of some Abyssinian princes who eradicated the men and owned the women?

            How old do you think the law is, any record that proves it predates Alula or princes like Wube and Suhul?

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Saleh

            “Can you elaborate on the “deqi arbaAa” law?”

            1. – Saleh: I don’t know much about the Tigrigna Land. True, I was born and raised in Hagereseb; but as I’ve said many times here at Awate, I joined Ghedli at the age of sixteen; and I spent all of my Ghedli life in Barka.. Then from Ghedli to Sudan, and from Sudan here to the USA. Now, how much would a 16 year old teenager know about his culture, laws, and history? Not much really.

            I don’t know the history of it but I know about Deqi-ArbaA because there were some in my village. As far as the legal books concerning Deqi-ArbaA – since it is universally applied in the Tigrigna Land – I presume – it is in the commonly used traditional Kebessa Law Books – Higi Lege-Chiwa, Higi Etkeme-MilgaA, Higi-Edgna-Tegeleba, and Higi ShewAte Anseba.

            2. – “Some sources say it was started by Alula to settle his armies who usually came with their pack animals, wives and children and camped in different places.”

            Could be; but I very much doubt it. Because Alulla didn’t need laws to settle his people. He was doing it using verbal orders. My memory is scant concerning the detailed story, but in my village there is a clan (ማይ-ቤት) settled that way. Not only were settled in my village, but also given the most fertile land of my village.

            3. – “Isn’t Alula responsible for instating the 40-years rights and the “megedi Arbaa”,

            I don’t know the history of it – how they came-up with the name – but I know for sure what Mengedi-ArbaA is. And this is what it is.When you start a village, you can’t build houses everywhere. Between houses, you’ve to have very wide roads that allows large number of people (ex. wedding, funeral, holidays times), large number of animals to pass freely in the middle of the village. These large streets that go from one end of the village to the other end of the village are called Mengedi-ArbaA. A mid-sized village would have 4-5 Mengedi-ArbaA streets that go from one end of the village to the othe – East-West, North-South type. And if one wants to build a house, before starting the construction, the owner must have clearance from the village Shimagle to make sure the his/here house doesn’t fall – fully or partially – within the path of the Mengedi-ArbaA

            4. – “How old do you think the law is, any record that proves it predates Alula or princes like Wube and Suhul?”

            I’m not really sure about the start-time and history of it but it has to be before Allula. My grandfather died in 1984 at the age of 98. Meaning he was born around 1886 – arround the year Italians arrived in Eritrea. He served two years in Libya, six months in Rome, and two years in Somalia. His house and parent’s house (Hidmo) is still standing with other similar age houses (Hidmos). And there was clearly outlined Mengedi-ArbaA in those houses, because the houses are in the middle of the village. That is way, way before Allula. And we’ve my grandfather age Deki-ArbaA in my village.

            5. – About the cruelty and barbarism of Tigrean warlords: My grandfather told me all kinds of horror stories that I don’t even want to revisit. All I can say is, when they say ገዳይ (ቀታሊ)፡ ዘራፍ (ዘራፊ)፡ ዘማች…… believe them; that is exactly who they were.

            Semere Tesfai

          • uf

            Hi Semere T.
            That is exactly what a cruel, barbaric and sadist of wedi Temben is doing to Eritrean. It is from your grandfather story but you are witnessing that thing and still you are supporter of ሕግደፍ መንደፍ.

          • Sultan

            Sem T.
            A gem, indeed!
            You answered your own question saying
            “ How can a 16 yrs old teen, who joined the Ghedli at age 16 can know the cultural and traditional details of Eritrea”?

            But the 16 yrs old “ Wedi Haghereseb Cheguar Dangha”, who spent his youth life and sacrificing it for the sake of those victims due to the torture they had gone through that your Grand Father narrated you about , is TELLING IT AS IS in a brilliant and intelligent way!

            You are a Text Book of our legit Ghedli!

            We are talking about a(n)Haghereseb teen,who had no chance to go to school and to live a basic life, who survived the unsurvivable including death but, who has made it to the max to be one of the most successful Intellectuals and Professionals with at least a Master’s Degree( you rather sound a PhD guy) and teaching others to have Master’s and PhD degrees.. …!

            I wish you could write a book about you, your life and your ULTIMATE SUCCESS STORY!
            I advised my daughter to do so since she has overcome life and its challenge like most Eritreans, to succeed against all odds besides getting a top degree from a 6th grade( and from Hagereseb in Blin Language!) from Eritrea by bypassing 4-5 yrs of Junior and High School Education without any further education, and with zero background in English and Math and other basic sciences and subjects !

            No clue how she made it with Honors in the Senior High School yr!

            Eritrean DNA( Gene)??

            I am mesmerized as to how you succeeded to what you have achieved from scratch coupled with the worst Trauma( PTSD related to the Ghedli)!

            Your Wondim Amatch, Abi,would say
            ”Chighirr bilhattin yifetral”!
            GBU and Kudus to you!

          • sara

            selam ato semere,
            what is discussed about this ArBaa etc is new to me, and is mind boggling. its like a fairy tell, but some thing new i learned.thanks

          • Haile S.

            Selam Sara,

            You probably weren’t born, we the oldies (just to make Abi happy) remember a weekly theatre broadcast in early 70s on radio entitled ኣርብዓ, prepared by the naturally comedian መምህር ሰሎሞን ገብረእግዚኣብሔር and played by among others by elementary school students (one was my schoolmate). I think it was on that ደቀ’ርብዓ crap! I was young in elementary school thus don’t remember a lot other than we were joking about it by inserting, swearing & repeating ኣርብዓ in every converation we had and every family was waiting for Sunday to arrive to place ears close to the squeaky radio. May be the elder ones could come and tell us what it was about.

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Selam Aya Haile S.

            The “Arba’a” comedy by Memhir Selomon has to do with the story of a gentleman who comes up with a way to swindle money. He ends up pretending to have lost his mind and keeps repeating “Arba’a”. It is not related to the deqi Arba’a story. You can see it on youtube if you look for Memhir Solomon Arbaa”.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Sis Abrehet,

            I (we) am lucky to have you here. I would have created a very wrong story by adding 40 + 40. Thanks a lot. Don’t stop checking us.

          • sara

            selam ato Haile,
            wow… also good to know we had Radio stations in our language in the 70th…what i used to hear older family member’s talk was about
            American radio and tv station they used to tune in Asmara. thanks.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Sara,

            Of course we had a public radio! in addition to the 24/7 American forces radio (AFR). In the mid 70 there was also an educational radio, perhaps something that was built over the AFR after they stopped broadcasting. Not sure, but under Sis Abrehet’s watch, I can speculate anything :-). One of the phrases for the english class I recall playing with music was : “I am walking by the water 2X, splash splash! splash! splash!” Or something like that. I think it stopped too after the 1975 ቶግ ቶግ ( ታ ታ ታ for Abi)

            I am afraid Abi is going to blow out his chest 🙂 🙂

          • Aron

            Hi Semere,
            I learned a lot from your comment and you confirmed a lot of what my grandfather used to tell me. The only thing missing is Mikael Shul’s role in starting it. My info is incomplete folklore so if you please expand on it I would greatly appreciate it. Aron.

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Aron

            Sorry, I need help on that one.
            Where is Haile S when you need him!

            Semere Tesfai

          • Aron

            Hi Semere,
            Thanks a lot any way. I hope Haile S or other forumers say somrthing on it. It feels good to read our history again. Aron.

          • Haile S.

            Selam Aron and Semere-T,

            Thank you for your confidence. I don’t feel having more knowledgeable in this aspects than you. Like you, Semere, I feel the “40 year law” in some way preceeds Alula. One needs to read the ሕግን ሥርዓትን መሬት ዓደቦ, Alula’s biographies, some Italian and the few Eritrean authors research-based publications on the subject. I doubt if Michael Suhul had time to change laws in Mereb Mlash because he was absorbed by his Gonder and all the challenges he was facing there. But I wouldn’t be surprised if one of his appointees did something as Wubie’s representative had instituted a kind of ‘merraige tax’ on women in Akele-Guzay region after defeating the leadership of that region.

      • Abi

        MM
        Is it correct to say that Weldeab weldemariam was originally from Tigray?

        • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

          Abi,
          Yes he was and no one can say contributed much to Eritrea than him. He was a legend!

          • Abi

            MM
            Thanks.
            Some time back I read in this site that he was also the mastermind of Tigray-Tigrign movement. Now, I know why. I was confused before since I didn’t know his origin. It all makes sense.
            You can call him anything you like. Legend, Saint, visionary, Agazian, …
            Thanks.

          • Sultan

            Abi:
            U r spot on and IA has followed his footsteps at one point and even now comes becoming more expansionist and Ethiopianist!
            I think u missed my testimony saying that a low level EPLF Official from Ansera Region was heard saying in 1996” The long term joint agenda of the EPLF and TPLF is to create a strong Nation(“ Tigrai-Tigrigni State aka The AgAzian State, wink ….wink) so as to neutralize and weaken the Islamist and Wuhabist Movement in the Horn !
            We thought this was just his wish and unsubstantiated statement .
            Even though a remote one, that is a possibility and if IA lives longer and declares, those Junkie supporters bluffing against the TPLF, Tigray people and the AgAzian will rather ask “ How far” when IA asks them to jump!

            But I prefer an Independent and Sovereign Eritrea to have an Economic Integration ( mutual and respectful)with a United and strong Ethiopia, which believes in and respects an Independent and a SOVEREIGN Eritrea.

    • David Samson

      Selam Simon,

      Have you noticed that all the supposedly Tigrayan Eritrean highlanders end up in Tigray, but why these Zombies Interahamwes only stop in Tigray? When you confronted them why the genealogy stopped in Tigray, they have not got an answer. They never entertained the idea these people had lived on the coast before they are pushed back by the outsiders. Their mind is being blocked and could not see beyond 40-50 years. I am staggered and at times shocks me to a bone when these mindsets are being repeated by people who have reached the highest echelon in the academy.

      If you have blood from Yemen, Sudan, and Djibouti, you are automatically acquired Eritreanness; no question is being asked about 40 years; no question is being asked even if you are from the first generation.

      Recently, a friend suggested I should watch tube clips by the so-called “Deki Abat”. Initially, I thought it was a joke and did not make anything about, but as I watched more of it, I thought I was in Rwanda in Apr-94. The way they describe some regions in the highland is equivalent to the radio Interahamwe Never in my wildest dream crossed my mind that the zombies have reached that low.

  • Hashela

    Selam All

    What stands out here is the strong contrast between the Tigrina and English title of the book. The Tigrina title has an element of divisiveness, a chose that is ill timed. With worry and hope, I will read the book. I hope that the reason of my worry will be not confirmed.

  • Sem Habtemariam

    Selam all,

    For those who might have taken offense to the word “backward,” let me make it clear that every Ethiopian and non-Ethiopian intellectual worthy of his salt have used it because it was true. Let me quote from, “The 1960 Aborted Coup in Ethiopia,” by Abddelkerim Temesgen, “In their pronouncement of the new government, the rebels raised the issue of Ethiopia’s
    backwardness compared with the newly African countries that were liberated from the yoke ofcolonialism.”

  • David Samson

    Selam Semere,

    I am glad to see someone also agrees with my views regarding the legacy of Italy. This book also tears part and shred all the lies which have been perpetuated by many Ethiopians in that only a handful of Eritreans fought on the Ethiopian side. Many Eritreans
    who fought and died for Ethiopia were demonised as ‘Banda’.

    I will repeat what I wrote not long time ago regarding why immigrants flourish outside the
    country or area they live. I know in person many of the successful business people
    in the 1940-50s were Eritreans of Ethiopians origin. They seized all the opportunities
    that were created by the Italians and able to prosper and have done well for themselves
    and their family.

    What a tragedy! all the magnificent infrastructure and industry built by Italy have been buried and destroyed by IA and his Ghedli lunatics. Closure of the Italian school is the last nail on the coffin to completely wipe out the legacy.

    Viva Sempre Italiano

    • Dongolo

      Selam David Samson. Sorry buddy, but your mind is lost in memory of Eritrea from long ago, that will simply never ever be again. This year there have been large Black Lives Matter protests across Italy and even demands to tear down statues of Cristoforo Columbo….
      Your dreams a broken waste…
      But the chance was in your hands….
      You let it slip away….

      • Simon Kaleab

        Selam Dongolo,

        BLM, the Marxist outfit who care less about blacks than they care about bringing a Maoist utopia to the USA.

        • Dongolo

          Selam Simon Kaleab. I agree that BLM is BS but it is a reflection of societies’ pathetic status at the moment. I watch in amazement of how the U.S. media is now in a frenzy over the N.Y. Times story on Trump’s taxes wherein they draw wild conclusions without having to reveal a source. Looking forward to see how stuttering and totally incompetent Joe fares in tonight’s debate…..’Times they are a changin’…

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Dongolo,

            Unfortunately, the corrupt media have become the opposition. Obviously, the far Left NYT will not reveal their source as the full context will reveal the truth.

            There are various ways business people use to reduce the tax they pay. Tax AVOIDANCE is legal, while tax EVASION is illegal. Some business folks plough back their profits into their business to avoid paying tax. Also, if a business has overpaid tax in some years they will get reductions the following years. One cannot mess about with the IRS.

            Furthermore, Trump has been returning back his salary to the government. A great gesture!

            The debate?

            Sleepy Joe, a career self-serving politician for nearly 50 years, will be exposed to the public.

            His racist past, his using his position to profit his family members. His son’s millions from Bursima gas Ukraine, millions from a military linked China Bank, millions from the wife of the former mayor of Moscow. His two brothers have also been on the gravy train of lucrative deals,

            And, many, many more.

          • Sultan

            Sir:
            But not paying taxes through manipulations and messing around with billions of $$ of tax payers in the name of filing bankruptcy …. is what now?
            Biden Family just took advantage of non US Tax payer few million $ of at all true but legally!
            Biden apologized for his past mistakes and picked up a Black VP – a future potential President, the first woman and first black woman potential president!

          • Sultan

            Dongolo:
            U said” I agree that BLM is BS ….”!
            Please clarify.
            I understand the hypocrisy behind ignoring and doing nothing about the “Gross Civil War”between blacks in the Urban America but u can’t ignore the keidi-albo Police Brutality on/ against blacks either.

            I made it go VIRAL via the Facebook that I was thrown to an asphalted road and dragged to the Police Car at 1am while driving home exhausted after a-16-hr shift few yrs ago!

            Call it a BS if u wish but you can’t ignore such a gross human rights abuse in a country claiming to be “ The Champion of Democracy and Human Rights”, which is a beyond BS!

            Hope u will not endorse this:
            “ The BLM is a Terrorist Group” , a Senior GOP declared/ Trump Surrogate!

          • Dongolo

            Selam Sultan. Contrary to what most people believe, BLM Is not a grass-roots and black created/black run organization dedicated to fighting racism. Rather, BLM is the creation of a group of a few very wealthy white individuals such media moguls and non-profit organizations. BLM is mainly funded by George Soros (Open Society Foundation), Rob McKay (Taco Bell heir), the Ford Foundation, the Borealis Philanthropy, and the Democracy Alliance. BLM originated back in 2013 when the media suddenly started focusing attention on a perceived rise of unjustified, racially motivated killings of African American men by white police officers. That’s the way that the media portrayed it, but the facts say otherwise, as the number of police shootings of African American men is not/has not been on the rise but rather on a decline. According to the Juvenile and Criminal Justice Report, the rate of police killings of African Americans has fallen by 70% over the last 40-50 years. Fact remains that white racist police are not the biggest murderers of African Americans. According to the FBI Uniform Crime Report, 2,925 African Americans were murdered in 2018. 89% of them (2,600) were murdered by other African Americans but yet the media continued to place focus on white Racist police. The Facts are clear yet the media continues twisting the truth. Why are they pushing the false narrative that racism is rampant forgetting that we jhad Obama for eight years)? Why are they spreading this lie that racially motivated police shootings are up? Why are they spreading this lie knowing that it is definitely causing racial divisions, protest, rioting, looting, burning, destruction and death? This global media cabal has a secret agenda. The BLM Network / media cabal is not what it makes itself out to be. It is a wolf in sheep’s clothing which pretends to be the liberal friends of African Americans, but in reality they are their mortal enemies. The policies that BLM so aggressively push cause nothing but more damage to the African American community. Under the guise of eliminating racism they push a policy that they call, “Stop The Mass Incarcerations”. This is a policy that promotes the release of prison inmates before their time is up and putting them back on the street.Under the guise of eliminating racism they push for the decriminalization of drugs offenses, and the immediate pardon of all drug offenses with reparations paid to those convicted of drug offenses. The African American community where there is the highest crime rate and the biggest problems with drug abuse, they push to release the inmates from prison and put them back on the streets, let drug use and drug dealing run wild, and then take away the police.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Dongolo,

            BLM are a communist organisation even further to the left of millionaire Comrade Bernie Sanders.

            By the way, observe what is going to happen in Chicago’s Black community this weekend. In the gun controlled city run by Black Democrat LGBTQ woman Mayor, there could be up to 20 shootings and 5 killings (Black on Black). This happens every weekend.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Dongolo,

            What did I tell you?

            This past weekend, in Chicago, 3 killed and 34 shot (Black on Black).

  • Selam All,

    From what i could gather reading the review, the title of the book is rather a misnomer, “Sme Tir Hamassien”, “Profile of Courage: Eritrean Struggle against Italian Colonization and Fascism”, because i have seen nothing mentioned towards that, but an extensive description of a feudal and backward ethiopia in comparison to the enlightened Sme Tir Hamassiens, those who more or less saw themselves par the Italian colonizer. At the end, i was asking myself, what did they do to gain the name SimeTir Hamassiens (the Heroic Hamassiens). I found nothing but as usual another description of ethiopia as a feudal and backward country.

    The lack of a unified identity made some identify themselves with the colonizer, and fought its wars. Those who didn’t, paid a price. They were killed by mustard gas, genocide was committed against them with 30K innocent ethiopians killed in 3 days in addis, etc. IA at one point had said that the real colonizers were Eritreans, who fought fascist Italy’s wars in Somalia, Libya and Ethiopia. A stump was issued by fascist italy to show the dedication of eritrean askaris and a tree was planted in a park near Milan in the name of Awate. If the book is meant to sanitize the role played by eritrean askaris, from the review, there is nothing to show to that effect, from what i read.

    Here is another book with the old and known narrative, to show the difference between the feudal and backward Ethiopia in comparison with those who have identified themselves with the colonizer. Nevertheless, the feudal and the backward have moved forward despite all the problems, and the sophisticated by african standard seem to be still there.

    When the realization that feudal backward Ethiopia “would easily fall prey to the European hyena.”, was made, nevertheless, they didn’t say that Ethiopia didn’t have to expect far away powers, but Italy with Eritrean askaris, who were next door.

    It seems that they, the SmeTr Hamassien had all the time to slice, dice and criticize Ethiopia and no time to actually fight the Italians, the colonizers. All they did was to run to ethiopia and criticizing the country that hosted them, as it happens even today. They forgot all about their anti-colonial struggle once they set foot in that backward and yet secure country.

    • Abi

      Horizon
      You are a real gentleman!
      I wanted to use some colorful words to describe these ungrateful Hamassien ስመጥፉ, ተግባረ ክፉ የጭቃ ውስጥ እሾሆች:: I decided not to pay too much attention to them.
      These guys never fought Italian colonization. They were busy fighting over leftover pasta.
      Build the Wall!!!

      • Brhan

        Selam Abi,
        The only problem of building a wall in your style , is that you will end up building more walls against those who are arround you, one by one, and at the end you will be the only one left surrounded by the walls you build.

        • Abi

          Brhan
          It is going to be a double wall on your side.
          Only Isaias knows how ungrateful you are. Karma is a beach.

          • Brhan

            Abi ,
            I am afraid it will go down to Adama, Arsi, Harar, Asela, Asosa, Dre Dawa, Jigiga etc. Be careful!

          • Abi

            Don’t worry Brother Brhan.
            Stay in your side of the fence.

          • Brhan

            Abi what about of the other comment :

            “Brhan, History will be really tough on those Arab Slaves who betrayed Ethiopia and chose to wash and kiss Arab stinking feet” said Abi

            And Brhan asked Abi
            ” If that includes PMAA who was decorated by the two Arabs: MBS and MBZ”
            This time is a big bingo Abish?

          • Abi

            Brhan
            I have already replied to your earth shattering comment. If that is not enough, let me know. I don’t hesitate to tell you what is appropriate.
            You must be in the dark, as usual.

          • Brhan

            Abi,
            No you don’t. Check it! You only go up. And please
            وانت تضحك ማለት
            እየሳቅክ! ሳትቆጣ

          • Abi

            Brhan
            ምን የሚያስቆጣ ነገር ተገኘ? ሁሉንም እኮ ቀደም ብለን ሰምተነዋል::
            ባለፈ ጉዳይ አንጣላም:: ለወደፊቱ አጥሩን ማጠባበቅ ነው መፍትሄው::

      • NewDawn

        Selam Abi, I’m all for it, as long as you contribute towards its erection.

        • Abi

          NewDawn
          Glad you joined the common sense group.
          Ethiopians should never repeat the mistakes committed by their forefathers and avoid every and all relationships between the two people.

      • Consolation

        Selam Abi,

        የኢትዮጵያ ሰራዊት፥ ኣስመራ ገብተው
        ሲመርሹ ያየ፥ ጫማ ቢስ እግራቸው
        ሊገዙን ነው የመጡት፥ ወይስ ልንገዛቸው
        ብለው ያልተጸጸቱ፥ ማን ይቍጠራቸው::

        You first need to ensure that you have a country before you think of walls. If we abandon you now, you will not have an Ethiopia to speak of.

        • Abi

          Consolation
          ምነው እራስዎን አንቱ አሉት ጌታው!
          ኧረ የምትችል ከሆነ ጉራህን ቀንሰው::
          ክፉ እንዳታናግረኝ::
          Go ahead abandon us today.
          አጥር ዘለህ ጥይት አምልጠህ መጥተህ ደግሞ ልታስፈራራ ይዳዳሃል:: ተጠራርጋችሁ ሂዱ!
          ብትኖሩ አትጠቅሙ : ብትሄዱ አትጎዱ ምን ታስፈራራለህ? አስገድደን አናስቀራችሁም::

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Abi,
            Do you know who hates build the wall from Eritrean side?
            The HGDF people.
            Make it 100m high!

          • Abi

            MM
            ምን ችግር አለ እርስዎ ካዘዙ ጌታዬ!
            ድንጋዩንና ሲሚንቶውን ከመቀሌ: ወዛደሩን ከሳዋ ወዛደር ማምረቻ አስመጥተን እንገነባዋለን!

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Hey Abi,
            Wait a minute…where is your Federal govt’s contribution here?
            I was under the impression the Amhara kilil [with some federal money] covers the cost.

          • Abi

            MM
            The Amhara kilil will play the “ supervising engineers “ role making sure there are no human-size loopholes.
            The federal government along with His Excellency ኢሳያስ አፈወርቂ will secure the funds for salaries and other accommodations.

          • Dongolo

            Selam MM. Simply no need to discuss the Ethio-Eri wall issue as within a short time, it will become a Ethio-Tigray wall issue.

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Hi Dongolo,
            How is this going to solve our issue then? Just curious to know.

          • Brhan

            MM,
            I am curious too. This wall thing once , you start building it , it never stops, you continue building another wall, one after anotherI think at end will have Walltopia, south of the border!

          • Dongolo

            Selam Brhan. You can use drywall.

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Brhan
            If the wall is going to be build, it will most probably will be around the Amhara Killil. In a way, Eritrea [except hgdf] as well as other region’s on Ethiopia will be peaceful after that.

            P.S. I am becoming extremely busy for the next few months [or years] and I am out.
            Stay focused!

          • Consolation

            Selam Abi

            ራሳችን ጋብዘን: ያገባነው በኛ ቤት
            ኣልለቅ ብሎ: ያሰቃየን ሰላሳ ዓመት
            እንደተወጋ ሲተች: ሲሾፍብን በሐሰት
            ክፋት ይቆጠራል ወይ: ብንነግረው ኡነት::

          • Abi

            Consolation
            “You can’t handle the truth “. Let’s stop it here. I don’t want to offend friends here.

          • Consolation

            Abi,

            Are you telling us that you will not go where I am leading because you might offend friends? Are you sure they are your friends when you tell them that you hold dirty thoughts that would offend them if you spilled them out. No sir, you are not a friend. You are one of the Ethiopian elite who was cheering when Mengistu and Haile Sellasie were butchering Eritreans. And you have been chewing your grudges for the past 30 years. You spill out your unpleasant thoughts now and then when you are unable to control yourself. Stop being diplomatic and careful not to offend your ‘friends’. Say what you feel honestly. We have had enough of soft-speaking back-stabbers

          • Abi

            Consolation
            I was cheering for Menge in his efforts to protect Eritrea from Eritreans. Huge mistake. I was also cheering during the border war when you soiled your pants and the sun was setting on you.
            So far, I just stated the obvious. If you notice, I said nothing new.
            Did you learn anything new today? I don’t think you have. Everything is being recycled.

          • Consolation

            Abi,

            I knew what you are. In fact, I knew that you not only loved the TPLF but that you loved loving them when I wrote:

            ተራራ ያንቀጠቀጠ ወያናይ ትውልድ
            ሀገር ሲያተራምስ ሲዘርፍ ሲዘለብድ
            ስንቱ ወደደው መውደዱን ሳይወድ
            ስንቱስ ወደደው መውደዱን የሚወድ::

            As for soiling our pants, you are kidding me. The killing fields speak a different story. But that has always been the bankruptcy of your kind. Hundreds of thousands of poor Ethiopian peasants perish while you cheer. You would not have cheered had your brother, sister, cousin, friend, neighbour, or school-mate was among the dead. Their pointless sacrifice to satisfy your sense of glory in a backward Ethiopia is pathetic.

            Now, I have a question for you. Where do you think is your Ethiopia heading? For reasons that defy comprehension, Abiy refuses to rein in the TPLF thugs who are now openly challenging his legitimacy. The question is: what do you think will happen if Eritrea takes a neutral stance and refuses to side with Abiy?

          • Abi

            Consolation
            We don’t need Eritrean help regarding internal affairs. The less involved Eritrea is always the better.
            The only reason PMAA needs Eritrean friendship is to keep Egypt at bay. We don’t need Egypt too close to us. This is not rocket science. Abiy knows how childish and egocentric Isu is. Isu is like a cow that is following አሞሌ ጨው. It is working! ስቆ የማያውቀውን ነው ያሳቅነው 🙂 አላየኸውም እንዴ ደረቱን እየመታ “l love you እስክትወጣ ነፍሴ” ሲለን?

            The Tplf thugs are already cornered. Soon, they will be removed by the people of Tigray.
            The rest of your zibazinke is not new. It has been recycled million times. I read it from Dehai to Awate and everywhere a drunk Eritrean is writing.

    • Sem Habtemariam

      Selam Horizon,

      I am not going to hold your lack of knowledge against you because you could be very young, but these SmeTr are people who served in the highest echelons of the power in Ethiopia and are people of fame and renown. The author, explicitly and sometimes implicitly, tells us how proud Ethiopians they were and that is certainly true for some but there were others who never felt comfortable under an Ethiopian skin and they hated how much backward Ethiopia was. BTW, don’t be too sensitive about the truth. The two coups against the monarchy, the failed one of 1960 and the successful one of the 1974, made the fight against the backwardness of Ethiopia as the rallying cry of their coup and the justification for change. Many Africans who waged the anti-colonial battle in their respective countries and had the misfortune of visiting Ethiopia invariably recognized this quintessential and sad Ethiopian reality. Some even questioned the value of independence if it means people have to live in utter darkness and ignorance as was the case in Ethiopia. BTW, I don’t particularly enjoy mentioning this but it is the truth and I have said that today’s Eritrea is not much different from the old Ethiopia that some of the SmeTr justifiably decried. This was true of Ethiopia then as it is true of Eritrea today.

      • Brhan

        Hello Semere,
        I wish we had commentators from that reflect the diversity of Ethiopia to give us their input. The Oromo, Somali, Afar and etc have similar understanding with th Smear Hamassien on the issue of feudal lords and the kings’ exploitation to their people.
        History has no mercy. It will very hard for some to swallow the truth.

        • Sem Habtemariam

          Selam Berhan,

          Spoiler-alert: my next review will touch on this very subject you’ve rightfully pointed out. It is about time. It is the only way we can understand the complexity of our history and, at least, get closer to the truth.

        • Abi

          Brhan
          History will be really tough on those Arab Slaves who betrayed Ethiopia and chose to wash and kiss Arab stinking feet.

          • Brhan

            Abi
            You mean like PMAA who was decorated by MBS and MBZ?

          • Abi

            Brhan
            Not really. Like your ስመጥፉ ሃማሴዎች::

          • Brhan

            Abi
            Got it. MBS and MBZ have stinking feet? What happened to Wal-Mart socks?

          • Abi

            Brhan
            May be you pick up couple of pairs when you got off work. Use your employee discount. Besides, the ስመ ጥፉ ሃማሴዎች did a lousy job.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Berhan,

            Abi is on his Ta Ta Ta Ta shooting mode.

            This mode comes out every time someone says and writes history that failed to praise his backward king.

            He usually settle down after watching a soccer match.

            Look now he is going to turn his machine gun towards me, Ta Ta Ta ..,:)

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            Really Berhe?
            Let us leave the ታ ታ ታ thing aside.

            Eritreans in GENERAL are the last people to talk about the “backward “ king.
            As the former slaves of the Italian masters, and Isaias Afwerki currently, it is advisable to avoid bragging about your badge of honor, slavery.
            It is only during the Great King and Abyotawi Derg you were considered free and equal. These were the times you flocked to Ethiopian backward towns like desert locusts.
            You should have stayed in your developed Eritrea serving your masters.
            Is there anything else you know other than dispensing empty ጉራ and biting the hands that fed you?
            Isaias is your King for a reason. Only he will put you where you belong, modern day slavery or refugee camps.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            I am ducking until Saturday, premier league.

            You just want everything erased, including the blanket indiscriminate bombing of women and children.

            I am not in favour of the word “backward” or any other designation.

            The point is Eritreans wanted democracy, and the king turned wanted feudal system.

            Isayas Afeworki will be dragged and killed like a dog just like what happened to the king, Gaddafi.

            Don’t bet on it, it’s just a matter of time.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            You really deserve Isaias 1,2,3,…..10 until you come down to earth. The sequence of Isaiases at the helm will hopefully, just hopefully, teach you humility not to call others “ backwards”. Honestly, I don’t see any potential for you to become humble in the near future as evidenced by the current book.

            I thought the Author of the book passed away some years back. I think I confused him with another person with the same name.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abi,

            I am putting a full body Armour now.

            Just one one last one, when you say “you” are you referring to “Eritrean people” or it’s only for me. If it’s only for me, that’s ok. I am already under ground.

            Look, we don’t know how to say “eshi yene geta” …no matter what the situation is ..please don’t think it as being “arrogant / offensive”.

            Berhe

          • Abi

            Hawna Berhe
            Don’t worry buddy. You have been necked for the last 28 years. Except you don’t know it.

            You knew how to say Si Signore!

          • Haile S.

            Selam Abi and Berhe snd all,

            Guys please zoom out!

            Thanks to books, let me share with you what Ladislas Farago wrote on his visit to Hailesellasie in his book “Abyssinia on the Eve” in 1935 when he visited Abyssinia as a reporter for a British journal after the Welwel incident on the eve of the Italian invasion.

            ….. Ten minutes later we had arrived at the new palace where the Emperor was living. The guard presented arms. The modern design of the building was a strange contrast with the feudal pomp of Gibbi. It stands in the middle of a big, well-kept garden, and the fresh grey of the stone harmonises with the red and yellow flowers. This garden is the mania of its owner, and in a country where fresh water costs more than beer, only an Emperor can afford to have a garden full of flowers. Two hundred men fetch water from distant springs every day, marching in procession carrying vessels on their heads. The palace is like an English country house; it is only seven months old, and was put up in record time for the Swedish Crown Prince’s visit. While it was being built, the Emperor came every day to watch its progress, and the foundation-stone was laid according to Abyssinian custom. First the Emperor, followed by his ministers, and then every man, woman and child of the population brought a brick in their hands, as contribution to the new building, and seven months later it was finished. More than 800 workmen were used under the direction of European architects. As the Europeans only got paid, the high ideals of the natives wore thin and one day they collected in front of the new palace and shouted in chorus: “Habet! Habet! (ኣበል ኣበል, my understanding). We would like to be paid our wages too!” The Minister of the Household answered them firom the terrace that had just been finished: “The Janhoi will speak to you. Go round to the back of the castle!’” And as they all went to the back and waited on their Emperor with smiling faces, he drove out of the front entrance, away to his old palace. ….

            …… The (inside) walls are lined with bookshelves, housing a valuable library which consists principally of French books, with a good many English standard works; it is quite clear from the condition of the books that their owner has read most of them. I was interested to see that he had an almost complete collection of the Latin classics in the original, for he speaks the language fluently and is delighted when he can find anyone who can talk it with him. …

            Audience with the lion of Judah:
            Amidst the thousands of screaming beggars, servants, parasites, soldiers, and lazy ministers, amidst decaying buildings and gorgeous gilded halls, the Emperor of Abyssinia leads a lonely life. He is the most hard-working citizen in the country, rising at 4 a.m. and receiving the first interviewers of the day an hour later. Whoever is in his service must be an early riser. My audience was to take place at nine o’clock in the morning, really a very early hour for such a reception, but the Emperor had already put five hours’ work behind him, attending to very important State business, and seeing his ministers, by the time that others are getting out of bed. I knew him quite well by this time. Although I had not met him personally, I heard much about him almost daily. And what I heard made it clear to me that there are two different Abyssinias. One an uncultivated, backward country, the Abyssinia of the past, that lives its life in the trackless bush ten or twelve thousand feet up; the other a modem Abyssinia
            personified by the Emperor. Nothing can happen without him: it would be true to say that he is the prime mover behind everytliing that takes place. He works for his country all the time, thinks and cares for its well-being, worries about, and is worried by its government. Haile Selassie was bom in Harar, but no one knows when, neither the Almanach de Gotha nor he himself, and when he
            is asked, his usual reply is: “I was bom before Aduwa.” When I asked his private secretary he answered with some hesitation: “His Majesty is about forty-five”. Haile Selassie looks younger than that: among Abyssinians he is considered a good-looking man; he is a living proof of the bitterly contested theory that the Amhara have no connection with negroes, for his skin is brown, like a sim-tanned European’s. He has a prominent brow with small veins pulsating quickly under the thin skin, and his features are aristocratic and proud, but the predominating impression is sadness. The calm reflected in his face, is not the calm of peace, it tends rather to arouse anxiety and pity. It is the expression of a wise man who knows that he has to fight long odds and is not convinced of his success. It seems to say: “I have done my duty!” and his melancholy eyes seem to search his visitor for corroboration. His hands are particularly striking, and they have a lot to do, for the Emperor, like all Abyssinians, likes to gesticulate, and accompanies every story that he tells with Uvely movements of his hands, and he holds them but seldom under his black silk cape, or kaba, which is part of the nobleman’s dress and is worn with the usual white Jodhpur trousers. …

            My comment: Hailesselasie started as described from scratch and built a fair country. Our regime received a fair country and they are letting it down to start from scratch. Mathematically, we are equal:-) 🙂 🙂 .

          • Hashela

            Selam Haile

            Thank you! With your Solomonic verdicts, you are the guardian of peace at Awate.

          • Abi

            መምህር
            Thank you for the piece.
            The library mentioned in the piece is still being used . The building houses the three president’s offices , University Senate, Foreign Relations office, and IES. The library is run by IES along with the museum . It is a beautiful building. You don’t want to leave that building.
            When you visit the King’s bedroom upstairs, you will find the mirror that was hit by a bullet during the coup. Nice bedroom if you ask me:)
            ( There might be changes now)
            IES = Institute of Ethiopian Studies.

          • Haile S.

            ጀታው,

            I had the privilege to sit in that garden and smell the flowers for one academic year.

          • Abi

            መምህር
            I have spent special one-to-one study sessions (tutorials) in that garden aka kissing pool.
            My witness is right next to me:)
            Say hello:)

          • Haile S.

            ስርላም ጀታው ከእመኔትዎ፡

            ሰላምታ ይድርሰዎ!

            እንግድያ ኣንተን በግ-ተራ ጠባቂ ስለመረጠች፡ የእመቤት ነጋሲ፡ እረኛው የሚል ዘፍርን መርጬላታለሁ።

          • Abi

            መምህር
            If you remember correctly, the way from በግ ተራ to the kissing pool is always dark by the side of መኮንን አዳራሽ ( Brhan must have been the maintenance manager).

            ሰላምታውን አድርሼ የመረጥከውን ዘፈን እዘፍንላታለሁ:)

          • Haile S.

            ጀታው፡

            በBrhan ኣይምጡብኝ፡ ጨለማ ኣልወድም!

          • Abi

            መምህር
            እኔም ጨለማ ስለምጠላ ነው ብርሃን ላይ የማልጨክነው:)

          • Abay

            Dear Haile S
            Thank you for the comment.
            Obviously, it is difficult for me to get hold of the book you quoted (or the one in the main article) here in Ethiopia but I did some googling on the book and the author. Farago seems to be one of the least credible authors/historians. Below is a direct quotation form one of the top reviews of the book by Bob Newman:

            “Sent to Ethiopia(Mr. Fargo) to report on the situation just before Mussolini’s Italy invaded, Farago seems to have been rather clueless (about Ethiopia), listening to a Berlin tailor rather than going for some reference books, diplomats, or travelers who’d been there.” In brackets are my additions. For any verification the link is : https://www.amazon.com/Abyssinia-eve-Ladislas-Farago/dp/B00085YV20

            With this in mind, I would like to question the validity of the report of Ladislas Farago because there are some things that do not add up. His visit was sometime in 1935 but starting from 1905, there was pipe water and electricity in the palaces of both Emperor Menelik and that of Emperor Haile Selassie. I understand the supply could be very limited and may have cut off the population but still, there was running water pipe supply. Another fact, Emperor Haile Sellassie’s palace was built in an area that was littered with countless small streams. In fact one of the challenges of the engineers that built his palace was keeping the compound dry of water and free of muddy soil, “Beer cheaper than water”, he really was clueless. So many people carrying pots to water the garden, forget pipe water, the very compound was full of streams, may be he really was misinformed by a Berlin tailor! The emperor is maniac because he loves flowers? That is stupid! “Modern design of his building…” What? Did he expect the emperor to live on trees? Just to show that the book is probably not worth the paper it is written on! He is a misleading person and the book is simply unprofessional and for me personally, trash! You will find more if you read further!
            Thank you
            My regards
            Abay

          • Abi

            Hello Abay የኔ ጀግና
            I didn’t want to comment on the validity of the article.
            I have spent years in that building. The King’s bathrooms on the second floor must be the best in the world in quality and craftsmanship. The building has several bathrooms everywhere. Imagine people fetching water for the bathrooms.
            Haile just brought the piece to defuse the tension between yours truly and the other clueless people.
            Please visit the museum and the library at IES.

          • Abay

            My dear brother Abi
            Hope all is well with you. Thank you for the recommendation and I should visit it the IES musseum once Sidist KIlo Campus reopens By the way there was a comment following mine by Haile S some 10 hours ago but checking if after work I just cannot find it now! I hope he will read this post and here is more info on Ladislas Farago, True he is considered to be a great writer but many who lie are good at creativity in fabricating stories and in creativity but that is just for then imagination. The man employs his skills and in the name of history tarnishes the truth. He did not do this just to Ethiopia! Here are excerpts: One from from Wikipedia; “The British historian Stephen Dorril, in his MI6 Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty’s Secret Intelligence Service asserts that Faragó was the ‘most successful disinformer or dupe’ My source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ladislas_Farago
            And another one by Encyclopedia Britannica: “In 1972 Farago made headlines in the London Daily Express when he announced that Martin Bormann, Adolf Hitler’s ruthless deputy during World War II, was alive and had become a businessman in Argentina. Farago’s allegations were discredited when the picture was identified as that of a schoolteacher and when West German officials declared (1973) that Bormann’s skeleton had been unearthed in 1972.” my source: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ladislas-Farago
            I know this post is rather lengthy but cannot sit ideal when an arrogant pretender defames not only Ethiopia but also Africa.
            Conclusion: He is a pompous pretender, has no clue on how to approach historical facts and incapable of the very subject, history.
            My regards to you and all in the forum.
            Abay

          • Haile S.

            Selam Abay,

            My comment was put back to pending after I corrected a typo. Hopefully, the moderator will help in releasing it. You expressed your reserve on him. I read the book and appreciated his contribution in recording hus observation of that difficult time in form of a book, which most reporters didn’t do. I am appreciating him not of the spicy way he writes, but the things he recorded and the photographs he included there. Obviousely, we have differences there, but I still recommend anyone interested in that period to read this book.

          • Abi

            ታላቁ አባይ
            All is fine with me. Thank you for your concern. አዱ ገነት እንዴት ሰነበተች? አንተስ እንዴት ከርመሃል?
            አልፎ አልፎ ብቅ እያልክ ማስተማርህን አታቋርጥ:: ብዙ መታረም ያለባቸው ጉዳዮች ከፊታችን ተደቅነውብናል::

            The author of the book under the discussion must have copied and pasted from Farago guy.
            Their mission is always belittling Ethiopia and Ethiopians.

          • NewDawn

            Kkkkk neftenga, why are you and your likes allowed to spread vitriol on this site. It’s to no surprise you’re hunted down like animals in your own country.

            Eritreans are the last people you should have hate towards to.

          • Abi

            Hello NewDawn
            ምነው መርዝ እንደላሰች ውሻ አክለፈለፈህ ?
            ነፍጠኛነቴን አትጠራጠር!! ከአባቶቼ የወረስኩት ነው:: ወደፊትም አብሮኝ ይኖራል::
            አባቶችህ የሲኞርን እግር ሲያጥቡ አባቶቼ በሶላቶ ጭንቅላት ኢላማ ይለማመዱ ነበር:: ጥይት ላለማባከን ሁለቱን ሰላቶ ባንድ ጥይት ነበር የሚያጋድሙት!
            ዛሬ ደግሞ አንተ ደረስክና አንድ ኢሳያስን ሸሽተህ እንደበግ በየግርግሙ ትታጎራለህ:: ጉራ ብቻ!

          • NewDawn

            Selam Abi, i dont speak amharic, please write in english.

            Thanks.

          • Brhan

            Hello Berhe
            My HR has fired Abi.
            The big reason is he is forgeting every time what he said a day ago and with his new comment every time contradicts himself. I counted 3 bingos! And enoguh for me from counting.
            I think he has to fully retire and do one thing: watch soccer.
            Now it is good to do business with Horizon.

          • Abi

            Brhan
            Enjoy your nightly bingo from the comfort of your dark retirement home or assisted living.
            You are contradicting yourself as a society. You proudly call us backwards and still flocked to us in millions. You should have stayed in your developed world.
            You deserve a page on the World Record Books for unmatched ጉራ.
            Now, back to your game. Somebody turn the light on please.
            It is too dark over there. Brhan can’t see…

          • Brhan

            Abi,
            Look who is really in the dark and can’t see. Torch a light in the forum and find if I uttered a word called ” backwards”. I have never used the word to any kind of people. But who did call names to people , YOU! Torch a light on what you have said in this forum and you will find , it was ugly and you will regret and wish you would not have said it.
            If another person said it , challenge him but as we say ኣይተላግብለይ..do not put words in my mouth.

          • Abi

            Brhan
            What should be thrown in the garbage can is your arrogance and belittling of others. You can’t call us backwards while living and prospering in our backyard. I’m not talking about you personally. I’m talking in general.
            Glad you are gone!!!!

          • Brhan

            Abi
            If we , Eritreans are gone from Ethiopia , why do you come to us?
            Is it love and hate complex you have! ማጨሎት ኣለን!

          • Abi

            Brhan
            Still in the dark?
            There are more Eritreans vacation and do business in Ethiopia than in Eritrea.
            Do yourselves a favor and stop bragging. Be humble for a change. Try it.

          • Brhan

            Abi,
            Thanks. You love Eritrea and Eritreans , the proof is you are still arround here and there in the forum of awate.com and I am sure you will continue , the reason is :

            ፍቅርህ ለኤርትራ
            እንዴት ያለ ጠንካራ
            መግለጫው በመሳደብ ና ፉከራ
            ድሮስ ያበሻ ፍቅር ኣሻራ
            በመሳደብ ነው ተብሏል ….ቀጥልበት ኣትፍራ

          • Abi

            Brhan
            Sorry, I’m not expert in flattery. You like it or not I tell you what I mean.
            I’m not playing Saint here.
            This perfected guilt trapping mechanism doesn’t work with me. Stop playing victim.

          • Sultan

            Ustaz Brhan:
            U have not figured yet this shrewd smart “Neftegna”?
            He knows as much as truth as you know about Eritrea. He knows EXACTLY what he talking about.
            Knowledgeable, smart, genius but crooked and shrewd at times and as needed!
            Wuray Elu Ketselileka elu Eyyu ziblon zighebron kullu!

      • Selam SHM,

        I have no reason to doubt that they held very important positions of power in the HS government, because they were ministers, generals, etc., but when the author says that they were not sure about their feelings if they loved ethiopia as equally as they hated the colonizer, although feudal and backward ethiopia, as they saw her to be, was providing them everything, then there is a level of disingenuousness. The disinginuity lies in the fact that those who didn’t feel comfortable in the ethiopian skin chose to live in that backward and feudal country and accept whatever that poor country gave them, and instead of leaving and going to the civilized nations that would have satisfied their sophisticated taste and would have accepted them with open arms. They didn’t come from any european country after all. These people were not italians, but africans, and the difference between the life under colonialism as a second class citizen and that of feudalism, is different, and the second is chosen most of the time than living under an apartheid system. Class differences existed then and exists today. There were the haves and have-nots, even in today’s world, let alone in feudalism. Ethiopia may have been late in extricating herself from feudalism as others did, fortunately, she didn’t pass through colonialism. It means a lot.

        They hated the backwardness of ethiopians in comparison to what? Towards italians and the city of asmara that was built by the italians. If there were some eritreans who learnt by watching the italians, because they were not allowed beyond the fourth grade, that couldn’t be considered the climax of education. As there were some eritreans who got more education, there were also ethiopians who were educated. Ethiopia has had a university since the 50s.

        Good for ethiopians that they would revolt against backwardness. What do you say about those who do not revolt against modern day slavery? What is independence without freedom in this 21st century is the question that should be asked rather than independence under feudalism and backwardness?

        You say “This was true of Ethiopia then as it is true of Eritrea today.”. Did the author have this in mind when all he wanted to show was ethiopia’s backwardness and feudalism, that was written and said by so many eritreans before him. Maybe the Sme Tr Hamassien have succeeded in ethiopia post federation, after the end of italian colonialism, nevertheless, what was the nature of their anti-colonial struggle?

        The 50s and 60s were the time when most african countries were under colonial rule, which can’t be considered a better situation than feudalism. Backwardness and feudalism do not mean the absence of freedom as it happens under colonialism. Maybe it is not the best of freedom. I am sure that many would choose independence under feudalism rather than colonialism.

        • Abi

          Horizon
          Eritreans deserve Isaias, Isaias 2, Isaias 3….
          These ungrateful lots still write about Ethiopian backwardness while the young and old modern , sophisticated Italian speaking, ሶላቶ worshipping Eritreans languishing in the refugee camps all over the world.

        • Brhan

          Hello Horizon,
          Another new point but valid one:

          “What do you say about those who do not revolt against modern day slavery? What is independence without freedom in this 21st century is the question that should be asked rather than independence under feudalism and backwardness?”

          What you have said is partially true. What is not true is the issue of “who do not revolt?’
          1. May be you want to see like civic like Qerro style, or army like OLF or a mix of two. Ethiopia is close to 100+ Million and Eritrea is less than 4 million. Ethiopia is vast and not forget its geography and demography, very fertile for revolution. I am not drawing excuses but to show you revolution has relativity. I can give you an example, look to Egypt, like Ethiopia, very populated under tyrant. Are they revolting? Yes. Like Ethiopians of Qerro, No. Look at Russia, China, and Belarus. I can continue. I believe you agree with me that what works in one country does mean that you can copy and paste. In addition, I agree with you that we have to revolt for freedom

          2. There are iconic examples of how Eritreans revolted for freedom: a) May Habar b) Asmara University students c) G 15 d) Wedi Alie) Akhria students and f) the many men and women who said no and languishing in prisons including gov’t junior officials, journalists, teachers. To say what you have said to is a slap at their faces Eritrean political prisoners. They were against the regime polices, including modern day slavery. If it is that is because you do not know, I pardon your wrong comment. I hope I shed some light. I do not believe the comment came because you discredit them or you think that by that Eritreans did not revolt.

          • Selam Brhan,

            Much more than the size of a country and its demography, it is people that are much more important. They should stay behind and face their nemesis. If what you have in mind is to leave behind everything and go away, how is it possible to revolt against injustice. You don’t have to go to the field to revolt against your oppressors. There is this rule of the 3.5% of the population participating in peaceful revolution, that is said to move even a mountain. If people have remained behind and refused to cooperate with the regime, made the country ungovernable through demonstrations, etc, they can bring down a dictator as said by those who have studied dictatorships all over the world. There are many examples for that.
            Of course, even in a peaceful revolution, there is a price to pay. Even for this to take place, there should be the right people in the right place and at the right time. Now after the majority of the young have left the land, change seems to be in the hands of the military.

            Regimes do not control the people. It is the people who cooperate with the regime who control everything for them. Even if IA goes, there might not be change if there are people who continue to support the system. IA and his group may have created the system, it is the supporters that give it life and sustain it in life. Remove that support, it will come down crumbling as a house of cards.

            On an individual basis or as groups who can’t unite on one single agenda and work together as one, whatever they do separately will not succeed. Yes, there are Eritreans who have sacrificed themselves opposing the injustice alone or in small groups. Unfortunately, it was not effective to bring down the system. Let us see the diaspora. Has there been up to know unity in facing the one common problem which is dictatorship? Most ethiopians from all corners of the country and from the diaspora were opposing tplf’s dictatorship, and we saw the outcome.

            There is one simple question here. What did the rest do when these individuals and groups were put in prison. Did they raise the torch and followed their footsteps, or they kept quiet? A spark should be a fire to bring a change. Otherwise, it is easily put out.

            Nevertheless, I do understand the difficulty. Every revolution doesn’t succeed, nor does it bring democracy. It is a lifelong struggle until the final goal is reached. But, one important point; other people can’t be responsible for things we have not done ourselves. Past history can’t serve the present, and past problems do not always explain our present day predicaments.

          • Brhan

            Hello Horizon,

            Previously, I tried to discuss with you to indicate that
            1) revolution is not one type or model i,e, for example you can’t copy and paste the Qerro exprience in Eritrea. Because as you know there are many factors that make the two countries different.

            2) I was trying to be pragmatic and gave you examples of other countries which are under dictatorship and if their people are doing something even close to revoultion or not. You should support your good argument by concrete examples.

            3) Last but not least, I told you Eritrean are also struggling against the dictator and gave you many examples , incase you have not heard of them.
            In conclusion to our good discussion, I can say that even scholars have different opininons what constitutes to be a revoultion and not , even tyrants continue to rule, the crystal truth is that tyrany will come to end.
            Have a nice day

        • Berhe Y

          Hi Horizon,

          Your arguments are valid but your are making it personal. The people of that time, didn’t have an idea what today’s Eritrea will be, but what was Eritrea and Ethiopia then.

          In retrospect, it was a mistake for the federation with Ethiopia. We should have stayed different countries all together.

          You keep repeating, Eritreans were second class citizens during colonial times but they had successfully transitioned to full fledged democracy with freedom of the press, business and other advances. It was not like Italy left and Ethiopia took over, but 10 years had passed in between.

          May be if the federation didn’t happen, we would not be taking about slavery Eritrea today.

          Berhe

    • Brhan

      Hello Horizon,

      I did not read the book, but from the review above I can say that the book is not showing love to colinzers or hate to Ethiopia of that time. As you know colonization was not unique to Eritrea; it was all over Africa. And Africans were recruited by colonizers for the benefit of their colonizers, including participating in wars against their fellow Africans , even within their country. In parallel to that there were many Eritreans who fought against it to gather with Ethiopians.

      So, you have the good and the bad. It is worthwhile to study politics of that time to know why some did this and the others did that. I believe the book is trying to answer this question.

      Speaking of today, I can tell you if we are going to speak about good relationship between Eritrea and Ethiopia , that good part of our past , can boost our efforts. We only remember the bad side as a lesson to us so that the same mistake is not going to repeat itself again.

      This is from Eritrean side. Now let me go to the Ethiopian side: The only problem, with your comment that I have is if it is comprehensive, meaning is it shared by Ethiopians who are diverse in ethnicity. For sure you know that there are many Ethiopians like the Oromo, Guraghe, Somali who had grievances towards Menelik and Selase due to their policies of grabbing of lands, discrimination on the base of religion, culture, language. I do not think these people with grievances look at their ruling as golden age of Ethiopia. In fact, I read they call them colonizers! Reports that come from their areas include the demolishing of statues that has to do with the kings. Don’t you think that is due to the two kings’ wrong policies. What the SmTer Hamassien said was the policies were wrong. And this is t ruth and is reflected in the city of Harar, Adama, Arsi. I believe you agree with me what we need is that 1) truth and 2) reconcilation, so that we can have peace now. If not we are going to let the fire to continue.

      Thank you

      • Selam Brhan,

        An ethiopian can deny or manufacture history as he likes, but that doesn’t mean the real thing. I remember Lencho Letta, who was one of the founders of olf, when he finally said that we have fed our people many fake stories and conspiracy theories.
        There were mistakes done. But, you can’t undo past mistakes. Nor could you be vindicated by living on past grievances, and by committing similar mistakes yourself, as we see in ethiopia. Human beings should be ready to write their future by focusing on what binds them together and not by living on things that separate them. That is the biggest problem of our region.
        We should learn from our mistakes and we should never repeat them, and try to move on. When europeans and the japanese can live with the germans and the americans, respectively, why not the people of the horn of africa?

        • Abi

          Horizon
          The problem is the poisonous and ungrateful ስመጥር ሃማሴኖች::

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Abi,
            Seriousness aside ስመጥር is a rated R word, if you know Tigrigna and Amharic 🙂
            Just saying.

          • Abi

            MM
            May be it is a fitting term for the poisonous ስመጥፉ ሃማሴናውያን::

          • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

            Abi,
            Are you purposely mixing ስመጥር with ስመጥሩ?
            I never even heard and don’t know the meaning of ስመጥር

          • Abi

            MM
            In Amharic they are the same.
            There is no mixing here. You can use them both.

    • Sem Habtemariam
      • Brhan

        መርሓባ ሰመረ
        ሶኒየ ሰሉስ ሊንክ ምጥቃዕ ኣይፍቀድን ደኣ ከይከውን

      • መሃንድስ-ምዕባለ

        Selamat Sem,
        For a record: speaking of that, you should also mention the Majority of Andnetawyan were from Hamassien, followed by Seraye and Akele Guzay [saved by the huge majority of Saho]