Inform, Inspire, Embolden. Reconcile!

Kebire, The Father Of Eritrean Martyrs

In the forties, when Kebire was assassinated, Eritreans were divided into two major political blocs: one advocating unity with Ethiopia and another opting for independence. Each bloc believed to own the truth and fiercely struggled to destroy the other bloc. In the process, Eritreans lost Eritrea, which slipped between their fingers. It took Eritreans tens of thousands of lives and forty years of devastating struggle to recover Eritrea. Naturally, Eritreans are lamenting over the wrong decisions taken in the forties. Today, there is a political divide and it is important to learn from that history more than any other time.

Abdulkadir Mohammed Saleh Kebire is commonly known as ‘Kebire’, his family name which means senior, or great. Kebir is the direct translation of his great grandfather’s name, “Abe” who was affectionately known as Kebire. A devout religious family, the Kebire family has been well known since the middle of the 19th Century.

Abdulkadir Kebire was born in the Massawa area in 1902 though some stories indicate he was actually born in his mother’s village in the Dankalia region. As a child, Kebire attended Khelwa where he studied the Quran and Arabic. Later on he attended primary school and finished grade four, the highest education Eritreans were allowed to arrain under the Italian occupation. But Kebire never stopped pursuing knowledge on his own and he was mainly self-educated though he benefited from the knowledge passed to him from the elders of his family and his exposure to the rich library that his family possessed.

At the age of 18 Kebire traveled to Egypt where he witnessed the revolution of Saad Zeqlul against the British occupation, an incident that left its mark on him and shaped his rebellious character. Soon he became more interested in politics and was determined to make a change in his country and to improve the livelihood of his people.

When the Italians hired him as an advisor and translator in their Embassy in Yemen, he found it a great opportunity to acquaint himself with notable politicians and intellectuals of the era. Immediately he became a respected socialite around the diplomatic circles in Yemen and gained many friends. His fame and importance was noticeable to the extent that he participated in the team that was set to broker a peace deal between Saudi-Arabia and Yemen over a border disagreement of the two countries. The team included important personalities of the era: Shiekh Amin Al-Hussaini of Palestine (the leader/Martyr of the famous Palestinian uprising); The notable Syrian writer Hashim AlAtassi; and Prince Shekib Arselan of Lebanon. During his trips to Saudi Arabia to negotiate peace, he met and befriended the Saudi Prince, later King, Faisal Bin AbdulAziz, who used to call him ‘Al Messewe’e’.

Upon his return to Eritrea, he briefly entered the business world and become a successful businessman and established many charity projects including a technical school in Mai Dshto in Akria. Obsessed with encouraging Eritreans to be educated, Kebire become controversial for promoting the education of women– something that was taboo in those days. He believed that only through education and unity can the people be masters of their own destiny; such messages were his vehicle in the world of politics.

In April 1941 (2nd WW) the Italians were defeated and the victorious British Army decided to keep the Italian governing structure in Eritrea. Kebire was enraged that a “liberating force” could still depend on the services of a system that oppressed Eritreans. He was aware of the risks that Eritrea faced and raced against time to form a party that will struggle to safeguard the interest of Eritreans; a few months after the defeat of the Italians he formed the Liberal Nationalist Party together with his friend Gebremeskel Weldu.

Kebire organized the first ever public political demonstration in modern Eritrean history to oppose the continuation of the Italian bureaucratic structure. Kebire and his friend Gebremeskel Weldu demanded that all colonial Italian bureaucrats be removed from all administrative positions and demanded that a committee composed of able Eritreans to take over the civilian aspects of the administration and be responsible for the affairs of their country. However, the British had different plans and refused to cooperate.

Kebire was determined to expand his power base and towards this end, he met with notable politicians of the period to achieve that goal. The discussions led to the formation of the Mahber Fiqri Hager (Love of the Nation Association) of which Kebire was a founding member and served as the party’s vice chairman for five-years.

In the forties, the Eritrean arena was full of political parties and all major powers vied to advance their interests in Eritrea. Ethiopia intensified its bid and started to finance the Andnet party while patriotic Eritreans intensified their struggle to confront any decision that might endanger the welfare of Eritreans and exposetheir country to risks. It was in such a situation that the famous convention known as “Waala Bet Ghiorgis” was held; all Eritrean religious leaders, social notables and politicians of the time attended the convention. Unfortunately, the political parties left the convention severly divided on the type of future relation between Eritrea and Ethiopia.

As consequences of the Bet Ghiorgis convention, and other concerns that Ibrahim Sultan espoused, the Islamic League (Rabita Al Islamiya) was formed in 1946 in Keren. Sayed Bekri AlMurghani became the president of the party while Ibrahim Sultan was elected the secretary general of the party, and Kebire was elected as the party’s leader in Asmara and its surroundings. Under the leadership of Ibrahim Sultan the strategist and visionary man, and Kebire the party’s political dynamo, the Islamic League became a formidable Eritrean political force.

In June 10, 1946, thousands of members of the Islamic league and other Eritreans gathered to listen to Kebire’s political speech. As usual, Kebire emphasized the importance of education:

“…I repeated the words ‘Freedom’ and ‘Independence’ excessively, but I didn’t mention the means. That is because the means [to freedom and independence] is obvious and they have only one door: it is education. If we are truly demanding freedom and Independence, we have only one means to achieve that: education alone, education alone….”

In the long speech he outlined his party’s goals and demands; Kebire become the most admired and the most Charismatic leader of the age; his oratory skills and sound vision were confirmed and he remained a trusted politician known for his bravery and respectful character. Fluent in Arabic, Tigrigna, Tigre, Afar and Italian, his speeches were bold, yet diplomatic. Kebire’s personality was expressed candidly in a popular song of the time: “Kebire’s mouth that drips words of honey” and that song became a household jingle.

A letter dated Aug. 25, 1948, which Kebire wrote to his friend Shiekh Nur-Hussien who was residing in Somalia, to brief him about the developments in Eritrea, characterizes Kebire’s humble character. He wrote, “…if only you were not far, you would be the right person to lead us dear brother. But they found me and I had to bear the responsibilities”. Such was the nature of the humble man who was eager to serve his nation with honesty and dedication.

The Andnet party considered Kebire one of the most dangerous men who could undermine their struggle for the unconditional union of Eritrea with Ethiopia and they perceived him as the thorn that stood in their way. They send him threatening messages and tried to intimidate him. Worse, the Andnet thugs burned his farm in Ailet and his Dairy farm in Merara was destroyed by armed members of the Andnet ‘shiftas’ who stole the cows in the farm. But nothing stopped him from struggling for the self-determination of Eritrea and he loudly stated that he was only afraid of the Almighty and no one else. “Cowards can take my life, but they can never own my conviction and views”, is the belief that Kebire so much practiced.

By March 1949, Kebire who has become a mighty political figure and a real threat to the Andnet party, was assigned the task of presenting Eritrea’s case in the UN General Assembly. All Eritrean patriots counted on Kebire to present their case and the Islamic League was confident of his ability to win the debate and present a convincing argument. But the Andnet Party that felt threatened had another plan.

On a Sunday night, a few days before his expected departure to New York to present Eritrea’s case in the General Assembly of the UN, a hired thug shot Kebire with a pistol in a street in Asmara. He was taken to hospital, but he had lost much blood, and doctors struggled to save him for two days and nights. On Tuesday, after stubbornly holding to life, Kebire was pronounced dead. His killer, a known thug in the streets of Asmara, was shipped to Harar in Ethiopia, where he lived in fear until his death few years ago. Many old people of the time know the member of the Andnet party who was behind the hired thug who killed Kebire.

Eritreans still imagine and ponder: what would have been the outcome of Kebire’s presentation if he had lived to present Eritrea’s case to the UN! However, with Kebire out of the way, Aklilu Habteweld’s (The Ethiopian prime minister) team had to debate Ibrahim Sultan’s weakened and grieving team. Omar Qadi, another Eritrean independentist hero, a lawyer himself, commented on the absence of Kebire and said that the “Independentist Movement of Eritrea lost its brightest lawyer”. Ibrahim Sultan lamented, “I lost my right hand” in reference to the death of the great Kebire.

On a sad Wednesday of 1949, Kebire was put in his final resting-place in Asmara, he was 47 years old. Thousands of Eritreans and foreign dignitaries walked behind Kebire’s funeral—a procession that many claim was biggest in those days.

That was a glimpse of the history of Kebire, the father of Martyrs.

  • Berhan Tecle

    Some 18 years after Kebire’s letter to Shiekh Nur, in 1966 I happened to be in Mogadishu and had an opportunity to get acquainted with the Shiekh Nur family. I know I have been to their house a few times but I am not sure, Shiekh Nur the patriarch of the family was still alive at the time. However, I got to know well, two of his son’s, the urbane and most generous Feregella and the youngest of the family the jovial and friendly Berhan. In one of my visits to Feregella’s office to ask him a favor of using one of his type writers, he offered me to take it with me and have the use of it as long as I need it. This to me was an act of great kindness, to separate the personal from the political. All the Eritreans residing in Mogadishu were members of the Eritro-Somalo Friendship Association and supporters of the ELF. The ELF representative had his office at the Association’s center. Because the organization I represented was critical and had reservation about ELF’s method of struggle, he was instrumental in making us unwelcome guests to the Eritrean community of Mogadishu. Despite his effort most of the members, especially the Shiekh Nur and Hashim family welcomed and generously embraced us as fellow Eritreans.

    An act of kindness and courage to do what is right is hard to forget. Every time I think of Somalia I remember those days and the many Eritreans I got to know. After the fall of Siad Barre’s government and the chaos that followed, I cannot help but wonder what may have befallen to the fate of the vibrant Eritrean community of Mogadishu?

  • PTS

    Hi all,
    On its Facebook page, radio Erena reported Abune Dioskoros, the Patriarch of the Eritrean Orthodox Church passed away. Rest in peace!

  • Addis Alem

    I feel like I am ambushed by an uncharacteristic decency on your part … lol .. I was reacting to your history of exclusion … the first comment is not me … like that song says .. it wasn’t me … lol

    • PTS

      Addis Yelem,
      why don’t you gather your thoyghts and tell us what you are trying to say instead of flooding us with wasted materials?
      no, I urge the mod not to delete your post, so we can get entertained by a runaway toy…

      • Addis Alem

        Don’t worry, they won’t delete it. Why set up a trap only to discard it with its catch? lol

    • AOsman

      Dear Addis Alem,

      Each time I visit to read something new, I find your and a few other frequent commentators who are just there to spew hate. I don’t intend to advise you how you should behave here as you will learn soon, but want to say have merci on Asmarino that you guys claim to love, but managed to hijack and will not allow a simple discussion to develop.


      • PTS

        The individuals over there are not cool at all. The other day one of them borrowed the list of the Nairobi participants from this website and not only did he not give credit to Awate, he didn’t even have the decency to call this website by its name. I thought that was dishonest. In Tigrigna we call it ዕቡይ ለማናይ

      • Rule of Law

        I used to be a regular at asmarino back in the days when the site was a news letter web portal. There was this fellow who went by the nickname “Iben Batuta” who picked on Selam Kidane whenever she stumbled on her writing. Occasionally, I and “Iben Batuta” would lock on crossfire on legitimate differences and it was fun. I am attracted to satire, poetry and sound literature. This was about 10 years ago. I now hardly visit asmarino because some of its esteemed writers such as YG have disappeared and there’s almost no material to read and the site has now turned into a hub of political activism which I have nothing against. As for this site and its one-sided policies, I am coming across new manifestations as of late. For now I can’t say much because I am under probation and I can’t stand the chance of “fatwa” being issued on me.

  • Addis Alem

    .. and if u do not rush to moderate me out, and label me as hopelessly alien, not your kind of habesha … lol … I promise to moderate how I type … deal?

  • Addis Alem

    Oh, sorry, I thought I was writing to the so called moderators … who knew u would let people speak their mind like this … we will see how long it lasts … lol

  • Addis Alem

    This site is nothing more than a personal islamist cult gohar blabla the Sudanese nomad is running to Islamize and Sudanize Eritrea. This jihadist lives to run this cult. And like all cults, it will die with him soon enough.

  • Mahmud Saleh

    Selam Awate nation
    Thanks AT the greatista. I do have a feeling that Kebire’s statue will occupy the junction where Godana Semaetat meets Godana Harnet. Kebire is unique, in that, he stands tall in his intellectual endeavors, and also for the fact that he died too soon without any stains or luggage that the politics of that time encumbered upon the politicians of his era. Some times dying too soon is a blessing. He was an anchor of both prominent Eritrean divides of that time, highland/lowland and Christian/Muslim divides. Nations are saved by souls like Kebire.

  • tes

    Dear AT and Awatawyan,

    From time to time I am getting more interest on the hero of our revolutionary struggle, Osman Saleh Sabbe.

    it is more than worth to study his contribution on the struggle for Independence. I wish I devote my whole life to study this man.

    he is the true revolutionary leader and a father of our revolution.

    If you have any idea or project, even for a PhD dissertation, I wish I will be part of it.


  • Adel H. Kabire

    Please is there are any books would help me. Could you please help me with the names of the books. Thank you

    • Kokhob Selam

      Dear Adel,
      Till someone come to provide the information you can also go to this is the site I learn more about this great man.

  • Adel H. Kabire

    Very great job.
    I would really love to know more about Eritrean history. A lot of people asked me about the history of Eritrea, but my info about that is limited.. Thank you so much again for the great job.

  • AMAN

    Dear Awates
    Greetings to all participants and readers.
    PART I. ( 1961 – 1974 )
    Today, again I am going to highlight some facts
    of the Ethiopian/Eritrean revolution that started
    in in 1961.
    When the political tide was turning in favor of the Ethiopian
    opposition party lead by the ELM / ELF; king HSI panicked
    and started taking bizarre & irrational steps to cover up his
    late wrong action to dismantle and outlaw his/the Andinet party
    who was collectively ruling Ethiopia to put all the powers into his
    own hands and to rule by decree. This short sighetd action and
    betrayal of his Andinet comrades only helped his opponent party
    the ELF who made good use of it by absorbing many prominent
    Ethiopians from the king’s side to their side. And in a revolution
    of 12 years period ( Armed and diplomatic ) the ELF ; militarily
    and diplomatically completely neutralized the King HSI regime
    pushing it further and further into the cliff which its imminent fall
    became clear by 1972/73. The revolution lead by the opposition
    ELF was well received by many Ethiopians, sectors and institutions
    in the military, the Higher Education and workers confederations
    which later came to be known as eprp student movement, meison
    movements, tlf / MaGeBT Biher/nationalist movemet and so on.
    Thus the time was ripe for democratic change to hold in Ethiopia in
    1974 and was hoped that the ELF and the King’s regime were close
    to agreement in their negotiations to forming a joint parliamentary
    administration with the backing of some western countries and the us.
    When the junta’s military came out of nowhere and hijacked the change
    and democratic transition to a new system in Ethiopia. The military took
    all the wrong ways and further complicated the issue until it blows out of
    proportion and becoming unmanageable by Ethiopian or African politics.
    And helped push it into a no return stage and the fate to be determined
    only in a win or loose military solution.
    Thus two serious & unforgivable mistakes against Ethiopia by king HSI here.
    1. The dissolving of the Andinet party and collective Federal leadership and
    consolidating power into only one person – emperor HSI. AND
    2. The outlawing of opposition political parties & the failure to engage the
    Ethiopian opposition movement lead by the ELM / ELF parties by pre-judging
    them and setting a precondition on their political activities and setting a military
    and pseudo-military dictatorial feudal rule system.

  • Abi

    LT the Greatest!
    I don’t know much about fish. It is not my favorite food. If you need only one hand and one mouth to eat a fish, I will give it a try.
    LT, do you know you need two hands and two mouths to eat Tire Siga?

  • Admas

    do you mean you are served to the fish, to the mediterranean fish(Sharks)?… for the situation in Ethiopia, why not ask thouseds of your own cousins who choose Ethiopian refugee camps over your hell hole Eritrea?

  • tes

    Hi Abi,

    Until citizens of a given country are not able to build a civilized society and a freedom of all aspects no adjective can be given to call them “great”. May be fine is enough. But fine is fine. I would rather describe Ethiopians as nice people.

    Their nicety became the center of attraction for feudal lords, brutal kings, dictators and unpredictable leaders. It is the nicety of Ethiopian people that such a resourceful country is still lagging behind on the economic index and global market.

    if Ethiopians are to be proud of all they can count is their feudals, kings and dictators. Unfortunately Ethiopia is where it is today.

    Abi, unless Ethiopian messengers are freed from their war mongering mind and tendency of expansionism no modern Ethiopia can be built. Cry therefore for your people for being just nice.


    • Abi

      Tes Nebsi
      Time and again you are proving me right. You see , the greatness of Ethiopians is not that they are rich. They are poor. Our greatness comes from the fact that we share from the little we have. Our doors and our hearts are always open .
      Read Mark 12:42-44. It is in the Bible. Don’t look at in your cooking book . Better yet, ask your bartender.
      I don’t expect you to read the bible. You are too modern, too arogant, too cadre to read the good book.

  • tes

    Dear Alula,

    Abi has no single idea. If he has it is all what is left from Derg and we all know (except Abi) what Derg is.


  • Abyssinia

    Hello my people,
    How have you been all over here?

    Well, the sculping of heroes from nobodies has been intensified recently. But that is not what leaves me dumbfounded. I understand that there was/is a section of Eritrean society, to be specific, the muslim lowlanders, who rightfully saw the Andnet fathers as shiftas, tugs, terrorists and villains simply because they did not think the Andnet fathers were taking Eritrea to where their aspirations is best served. The children of the lowlanders have inherited the spirit and vision of their parents, continued the struggle and they achieved what they wanted – the furthest possible distance from Ethiopia. They continue to write the “history” of their fathers as heroes; you would never see them disrespect a single person from their religion and region. Now these are definitely people who knew where they wanted to go and taught their children their values, aspirations and hopes. One might not like their struggle for other reasons, but any rational person can not help but appreciate their consistency, their sense of history, and their long-term aspirations and their struggle for taking Eritrea to where they wanted it to go. That is , in my opinion, a respectable track record.

    The bewilderment for me is this: what did the highland fathers gave birth to? Did they all die without having children who can at least defend them from amateurish historians urinating in their graves? Ladies, and gentlemen, I am not talking about children who inherited their values, their aspirations, their strategic thinking, and their sense of history? I am just wondering about having some children that have a slight respect for their parents, if not for any human being? Help me people, I am genuinely intrigued.

  • Rule of Law

    Dear anonymous author
    This is what we call typical “banda.” In recent years, we have seen some “torch bearers” such as the likes of Yassin Aberra who was eliminated by the DIA for undermining the secular system (hope you got my my drift? “he studied Quran and learned Arabic” Bottom line, secularism is going to be the standalone overriding law of the land in future democratic Eritrea period!! If the “andeneters” were “shifta” where is the independence now? show me the beef?

    • Rule of Law

      Dear moderator (it would be nice to put a name behind the job description. I have seen it before)
      First of all you need to remember the “law” and use salutation. Second, what violation are you talking about? Whoever “staff member” (we know) intentionally scribbled this diatribe in a bid to defame and portray our patriotic unionists as “shifta” which is a pejorative term no sensible person should resort to using especially against historical figures some of us hold as heroes and heroines. I used the equivalent term “banda” to set the record straight. Now what makes you think that you can change the rule of engagement just because you own this blog. Did it occur to you that you are sounding like the despot in the helm of the PFDJ – a dictatorial demeanor that you seem to resent? you have no sense of shame to “warn” me (I’m not sure what you can do except for banishing me from your little dominion but then again, you can’t arrest my strong spirit of freedom) Where is freedom of expression?? How in your right mind can you write this to me. I guess may be it is the age factor. Good luck.

      • Abyssinia

        Hi RoL,
        Hmm. It is painful, bro. In case it consoles you, let me tell you this. I posted a picture of Maskal celebration from Ethiopia before, and I found out it was deleted. I thought it could be by mistake and posted it again. it was deleted again. Then I got it. I still wonder when the highland Eritreans are going to get it.

        • Rule of Law

          The picture being deleted could’ve been a bandwidth issue and it’s less concerning. What is interesting is some individuals in this site have the privilege of a free ride – bashing others and portraying some villein figures who have tainted history of being collaborators with colonial powers and yet they don’t want you to defend the true version of history. These folks lead a conflicted life and have lost their sense of identity. As to the highlanders being systematically displaced though, I haven’t seen the bigger impact from the angle you have. As a matter of fact, I beg to differ on this: a few months ago I watched a semi documentary on Eritrean refugees who fled the country through Libya and there I watched a family of close to 12 Muslims who told the interviewer that they sold multiple houses they then used the money which was more than $40,000 to pay their smugglers. The mass exodus is not sparing certain people with certain religious background. I could be wrong but either way, the fact that PFDJ is the last entity to leave the country is a matter of time and I believe in post-PFDJ Eritrea, a proper provision will be in place whereby those who didn’t sell their property will have the right to reclaim it.

  • Admas

    The way some Eritreans delude themselves in the name of “history” is nothing less than romanticizing a raw deal. Just wondering what the independence has proved other than how much Eritreans rightly or wrongly hated Ethiopians….It is like saying, had we not gained our independence from Ethiopia we would have missed-out on our endless predicament….sorry but ምን ተይዞ ይህ ሁሉ ጉራ ኣይገባኝም።……..I would at least wait until some meaningful result comes out of it….

    • Hope

      Selam Admas:
      There is no point of trying to discard history:
      There are few FACTS you cannot,and will never change and discard under any circumstance and condition’!

      That Eritreans were abused and oppressed beyond any one’s imagination after dismantling the Federal System and Eritrea’s Socio-Economico-Cultural Fabric and other related basic Human Rights issues!

      ” Ertra,Meretiwa inji Hizbiwa ayasfelighenim”!
      -Worst,Eritreans were
      massacred enmasse and burnt up inside Mosques and their villages were burnt down into ashes ; kids and infants were burnt up alive; pregnant women were stabbed to their gravid bellies with byonetts alive in front of their husbands,kids,mothers,fathers,sisters ,mothers ,etc,,,
      -People were,including kids and their moms,over-run by tanks on a day light…
      And coz of the above barbaric atrocities;

      The ONLY option left for Eritreans was then,to pick up arms and struggle for their survival or existence!

      Since it was a Legitimate struggle,they won against all ODDS under the Sun!

      Now,Eritreans,contrary to your allegation ,they rather escorted in luxury buses,fetched (them)with food and water :

      -their murderers
      -the Rapists of their teens
      -the stabbers of their pregnant moms and sisters those,who burned their villages and burnt alive their kids ….
      And yet,you are accusing Eritreans for hating Ethiopians!
      The truth of the matter is that,it was Eritreans,who forgot those atrocities and crimes and forgave Ethiopians overnight and sought for a peaceful Co-existence and Regional Integration and Reconciliation!
      History never lies and no one ,including the hypocrites like you and your likes,can and will erase history!

      It is up to you and your likes to make up your minds and ask Eritreans for forgiveness and move on!
      In the event:
      The temporary hiccups created by their own dictator and his conspirators of the hateful few Tigreyans,not Ethiopians,will never derail Eritreans towards reaching the Promised Land and in achieving their dreams ,and definitely,will reclaim what belongs to them!

      It is only a matter of time,2-5 yrs ,as the SIGNS OF THE TIMES ARE RIGHT THERE!

  • saay7

    Hey Abi:

    I am sorry you feel that way but please read the article again; Ethiopia was mentioned six times and only from the standpoint of a country that wanted to incorporate Eritrea as a province.

    Incidentally, the series on our heroes was done for precisely the opposite reason of what you stated: they are never mentioned in “Sawa Cadre School” because the PFDJ doesn’t glorify any organization but EPLF/PFDJ and it doesn’t glorify any individual but Isaias Afwerki. So, um, it is not about you:)


  • tes

    Hi Abi,

    If we have heroes, this heroism was achieved mainly simply because they scored it to liberate us from the evil messengers of the South. This occupies 50 years of our modern history. It is worth to speak about it day and night.


    • Abi

      Yesterday you said there are 150,000 Eritreans in refugee camps in Ethiopia. There are many more all over Ethiopia. Working, attending school, living peacefully. They are in the “evil “country. They said the south is safe. They don’t agree with your description of the south. Of course, you don’t know what you are talking about. Blame it on the Ale.
      Cry day and night.

      • tes

        Hi Abi,

        When are you going to stop being wolfish?

        Ok, there is a difference between evil messengers and evil country. I said the former. And remember 1998. No Eritrean is safe in Ethiopia as it depends to the type of messengers that rule the country.


  • Solomon Haile

    Selamat Victorawian,

    AbdulKhadir Mohamed SaliH Kebire, will forever remain a great man of character in the hearts of all Eritreans.

    Great job AT. Your narration of this great Eritrean’s history is not only consistent with my belief of creating. “MaHber. FiQuri Hager” but will serve as an essential and central beams for the inevitable peace bridge between the two states of Eritrea and Ethiopia.

    As for education, I certainly have gained more pertinent knowledge.

  • Mesfin

    Dear AT!

    I thank you for presenting history of an inspirational Eritrean hero. I wish I could be this man, this great man, to advocate Education in each and every house hold of Eritrea. To tell my people that the only way out to freedom and independence is to educate ourselves, our youngsters. The great man was never afraid of his enemies, but his God. A man who had long vision for betterment of Eritreans was assassinated by his brothers who loved to eat from two different place at the same time. Our current fight, fight of the opposition against injustice is not different from the fight our grandfathers have started.

    Most of the time, the disagreements we have is due to our ignorance, our luck of flexibility to unlearn what we have learnt by the butchers, PFDJists. All we have learnt is to sing song called ‘Metcikaley do kitcibeyeka…..’ or feel comfortable with the proverb ‘ziberekxet tcehcaina zinegese nugusna. ‘



  • Abi

    Hi Team Awate
    If this is how you present history, you just hit the bottom. If this is the ongoing propaganda, you have succeeded. Introduction to cadre school. Sawa 101. “How to make the Ethiopians look evil.”
    You made kebire an angel who can fly, while you depicted the Andinet party and through them the Ethiopians in general as thugs and shiftas. Whoever wrote this propaganda material should get the highest honors from the president of Eritrea. This article is a must read starting first grade.
    An ongoing propaganda in the name of history. What are you afraid of? Andinet party ? The only people you have to afraid is the likes of the disgraced professor bereket , who want to see the two peoples together again. I hope he reads this propaganda material and lose hope.
    Why don’t you just present the history without the colorful adjectives on both sides? Kebire the humble angel with wings , Andinet/ Ethiopia the shifta, the thugs, the murderers.
    Relax! In case you forgot, Eritrea is independent already.

    • Kokhob Selam

      Dear Abi,
      if there, you see an honest man who stands for freedom you must learn to appreciate. Remember this the first hero who paid for national freedom. it is the same for me. I love Grma Nway and Mengstu Nieway of Ethiopia both brothers who try to remove your king.

      • Abi

        Merhaba Kokobe
        I’m not questioning his heroism. He is your hero. I hope you will erect his statue on godana harnet in the future. My problem is why the writer depicted the other party as evils. If this is to teach history to the young generation, just present the facts without the spices, without passing judgment , without scaring the sh*t out of the youth. ” You don’t like gedli, try the Ethiopians!”.This is a pure propaganda material straight from IA’s office.
        Kokobe, I am sure you appreciate Mengistu for removing the king. You see Kokobe, removing King Haileselassie or King Isayas is not an end by itself. It is a means to a better end. We failed with Mengistu miserably.

        • Kokhob Selam

          Hi Bro,

          First I didn’t mention Mengtu Hailemariam. I am talking about Mengstu Niway the brother of Girma Neway. if I am wrong please correct it.

          Who is Mengstu Neway, Brigadier-General Mengistu Neway was a commander of the Ethiopian Imperial Guardduring. he is known for his heroic action to remove the late King HS by organizing a coup in 1960. his brother Girmay was also part of the group. both were killed. See, I know about Ethiopians more than you Lol.

          heroes never stay much as people always are late to notice and stand with them. Heroes come and go just to give us lessons. if we don’t note their massage, we go on paying more and more. it is the same with Ethiopian heroes and all the world heroes. the death of Mengstu Neway is supposed to let Ethiopians take revolutionary action. another man known by Megstu Hailemariam came after 14 years and killed all ministers and the king. in fact people paid even high price for ignoring Mengstu Neway. it is the same with Eritrea. it was a mater of one day to let Eritrea independent nation. the death of this great man was suppose to be the lesson and push for independent nation at the spot. for ignoring the man we Eritreans paid a lot of people and we are under dictator. Karmic law works..Lol.

          • Eyob Medhane


            The name of one of the Neway brothers is not Girma Neway. It is Germame Neway… (Germame, as in someone looking at you with a frightening stare.. 🙂

          • Kokhob Selam

            Dear Eyob,

            ኣይ ያንተ ነገር ! ምቸም ስሙን ኣርመህ ዝም ኣላልክ ምልእክቱንም በዝያው —- ገርማሜ 🙂

          • Abi

            I brought Mengistu HM in relation to removing the king since you appreciate the efforts of the two brothers in removing the king. I hope it is clear now.

    • Eyob Medhane


      Here is your answer for the reason of this article. It is on the bottom of the first paragraph, italicized and bold.

      “…Today, there is a political divide and it is important to learn from that history more than any other time…”

      It seems that it is becoming very clear for the writers of the article that there is a growing number of Eritreans rejecting Ghedli and are seeing no point of it. So, what do you do in such situations? Well, you gin up the emotion. Inject a little bit spicey hate of Ethiopia. And dig up some “heroes”, who’re dead over six decades ago…That is how it works. I am still waiting for the “investigation” of the “murderer” from the acrobatist opportunist former mayor of Harar.. 🙂

      • Kokhob Selam

        Dear Eyob,
        No, No! the massage is exactly for united struggle. it is about learning from history.

      • tes

        Hi Eyob Medhane,

        A die-hard anti Arab, what else do want to say?


        • Abi

          Hi Tes
          I prefer to be die-hard anti Arab than to die for the Arab .

    • tes

      Hi Abi,

      Yes for sure the Andinet Party is a party of thugs and shiftas. What other description fits them best other than you said?

      And yes Eritrea is an independent and sovereign country unlike the dreams of these thugs and shiftas. Stay tuned for more historical facts that expose Ethiopia’s evil acts and the evil dreams of Andinet party.


      • Abi

        Hi Tes
        I think you are in a holiday spirit you started early. Drink up! Get back to me when you are sober.
        Last time you were sober you predicted civil war in Eritrea. No wonder you stay drunk.

        • tes

          Hi Abi,

          The day you tried to have a fight with me, you lost all your chaps. And you tried all other tools to stay under your wolfy skin. “Never let a wolf to stay around” is an advice from a shepherd.


          • Abi

            Hi Tes
            This came from a drunk shepherd. No! It is from the sheep itself.
            Could you please provide a link for your quotation?
            Tes, are you talking about a bar fight? You are the heavyweight!

    • saay7

      Selamat Abi:

      Mnew, mnew teqoTu:)

      In my book, the Andinet Party reflected the genuine aspirations (and fears) of a significant slice of Eritrea: being part of the Ethiopian Crown, being fully integrated with the Ethiopian Tewahdo Church, fear of continuous Italian rule–all intensified by the tumult and power vaccum created after the defeat of the Italians in World War II. So far, so good.

      What has irked you, I take it, is the accusation that(a) the Andinet Party used terrorism to bring about a political goal and that (b) Ethiopia was implicated in the terror campaign.

      There are scholars who have written on this subject including Trevaskis, Jonas Gebremedhin and Tekeste Negash.

      (a) All agree that the Unionist Party DID use terrorism to advance its cause
      (b) Tekeste Negash (the Federal Experience) strongly disagrees that Ethiopia had a hand in it at all. Trevaskis and Gebremedhin argue that because a lot of these shiftas were celebrated as patriots in Ethiopia for their defiance against Italians and that they were, when hunted, always able to live unmolested in Ethiopia, then Ethiopia was culpable.

      What the AT is saying is that the assassin of Kebire was one such person; the exception being that he went all the way to Harar whereas most shifta returned to Tigray.


      • Semere Andom

        Mnew yerrega wetet honk
        We do not have to dwell on Andnet (after all the word is sacred and good) era to prove the terrorism of the ruling regimes of Abi’s country. To make it simple, I will interview myself
        1. Did the rules of Ethiopia from HS to MH terrorize Eritreas? Yes
        2. Does the word terrorize drive from terror and terrorism? Yes
        3. Were the Ethiopian people terrorists? NO
        4. Are there Ethiopian terror deniers? Yes

        • Abi

          Hi Sem
          Yerega wetet qibe yiweTawal. Teregaga.
          You need one more? Sure.
          Yerega dem gubet yiweTawal.

  • Eyob Medhane

    Awate team,

    Wasn’t “Eritrea’s own” a mayor of Harar, who later became attorney general of Ethiopia? Why didn’t he arrest, when he was a mayor of Harar, a city, where the “killer” was hiding. Well, It would have been nice, if you asked him, why, let alone arresting the man, we never heard a peep out of him about a “murderer” was hiding in a city that he was a mayor of. He wrote countless books, but I doubt he mentioned this. Come on. Make the “murder” investigation full. The former mayor of Harar and former attorney general contributes to awate time to time. Ask him why as a “good Eritrean” he didn’t investigate the “murder” of the “hero”.

    P.S. Oh the name of the former mayor of Harar? Bereket Habteselassie…

    I look forward for the results of his “investigation” (Not)

    • dawit

      selam Eyob,
      Just a minor correction of Ethiopian history, Dr, Berket was attorney general before he was appointed to be Mayor of Harar.

      • Eyob Medhane


        Thank you.mI did not know that…I thought he became head of “mermari commission”, while he was attorney general at the end of Haileselassie I era? In any case, he still could have assisted the supposed “murderer” with all the power he had.. 😉

        • dawit

          He became “mermari commission” after he returned from working as special advisor to World Bank President McNamara?. After attorney general. He was professor in Law School at Haile Selassie University. You can give credit to Berket as one of the Faculty leading and encouraging student protest of ‘Land for the Tiller’. Then he was appointed Mayor of Harar, under the classic ‘Shum-Shir’ of Emperor HS strategy of maintaining his power. You could be the Foreign Minister today and end up an Ambassador to some obscure country, or you could be the Minister of Ager Gizat,and end up Wereda Giszi in some remote corner of the country or you are a professor you become administrator or mayor of a small town.. .

  • dawit

    Dear All
    Simply a brilliant historical article. Congra Awate Team! Indeed “Kebire, the father of Martyrs”. “Cowards can take my life, but they can never own my conviction and views”, It is a lesson for those who attempt to destroy Eritrea. There are still thousands Eritreans ready to sacrifice their lives for what they believe.

    • Kokhob Selam

      Dear dawitom,

      ኣንታ ናትካስ በይኑ እዩ !

      • dawit

        Dear Kokhobay

        ሕጅኸ እንታይ እዩ ጸገመይ ?

        • Kokhob Selam

          Dear dawit,

          ሕጂ ‘ሞ ድማ ጸገም ኣይኮነን ዝበሃል! ኣብ ግብ ዝበለ ጸልማት ኢኻ ኣቲኻ ዘለኻ :: ነቲ ካብ መንግስታት መግዛእቲ ንላዕሊ ንሃገርን ህዝብን ኣብ ሓደጋ ዘውድቕ ዘሎ ስርዓት እኮ ኢኻ ምስ ኣዝዩ ሓላል ፍጡር ዓብደልቃድር ከቢረ ክትሰርዖ ያኢ እድካ ተወጣውጥ ዘለኻ ::

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