Home / U-Turn / Quicksand!


Bear with me please! I think we are in quicksand and we need to cross a few steps before starting the journey. By “we” I mean people (Eritreans) who have already crossed over from the stage of “what should I be doing?” into the stage of “how should I do it best for maximum impact?” I usually take it for granted that an organized opposition that is more than twenty years old (very old), is done with obsessive distractions over what is right and what is wrong and deeply focused on just doing it whether it is right or wrong because we want change – any change as long as it means an end for a sad and badly wounded nation. If you have any questions about the ethics, morals, legality, acceptability, feasibility, partiality or simply about whether what you are about to say or do is right or wrong, please step back and sit aside because for most of us these concerns have long been resolved.  We are already on the “Run Away Train”, and singing “Runaway train, never going back – Wrong way on a one-way track”.  Let us tighten-up, hop-on and catch-up. We are sick to the bone. We have stopped listening to anything other than the “how to” of turning everything upside-down – because we have crossed “The Line”.

This article is to say that those of us who are obsessing with concerns of “right and wrong” need to give people a break and remind themselves that the Eritrean cyberspace is more of an arena of political contestation among ordinary but “motivated” (I.e. with a motive) citizens than a podium of academic lecturing for geeks. I understand that the two are not necessarily mutually exclusive but the ethics that govern each of the two are diametrically opposed. The backbone of academic research is neutrality as expressed by the extent to which the researcher renders him/herself not just invisible but non-existent because the intention is to discover the naked truth of things. Political contestation starts from where the academic world ends.

The practice of politics (blotika) as embodied in politicians and activists presumes that the truth has already been discovered. In fact it presumes that several competing versions of the same truth have already been discovered and that the role of the politician or activist is to sell his/her version of the discovered truth in order to either conserve or disband the status quo. The point here is that “uncovering the truth” requires research and research is its own monster.  I don’t think any of us (however smart we might be) can sit behind a laptop and produce a definition of the Eritrean catastrophe overnight and expect people to adopt and follow. However we might think of it, therefore, whatever is contributed in online Eritrean discussion forums such as Awate is politics – pure and simple – every single contributor including the most patriotic amongst us does so in his/her capacity as a citizen with a motive (not wisdom).

Of course that’s what I do plus a few communications to assemble my database of gossip. But at least I know that what I am doing is politics: I presume that the truth is out there – discovered and uncovered for everyone to see – and then I focus on how to motivate action on the truth that everyone has access to. I do not discover my own truth, take it as true and expect people to line-up. Capito!?

Ok! Let us go for “the line” now (the line that has already been discovered) just by way of explaining my version (or conception) of it.

Two amazing Dominics, Johnson and Tierney (2011) gossip that, “In 49 B.C. Julius Caesar halted his army on the banks of the Rubicon River in northern Italy. …  By violating an ancient Roman law forbidding any general to cross the Rubicon with an army, Caesar’s decision made war inevitable.” The significance of this event is that “ever since, ‘crossing the Rubicon’ has come to symbolize a point of no return, when the time for deliberation is over and action is at hand”. They explain that metaphorically, “crossing the Rubicon” refers to crossing from a “deliberative mind-set … [where people] approximate rational actors” to an “implemental mind-set … [where they] display a range of biases that deviate from rationality.” While the former mind-set expresses itself in terms of doubt and scepticism related to the feasibility of coming out of war as the winner, the latter mind-set is characterized by more than mere “confidence” and unfortunately “overconfidence”. They define “’Confidence’ as the perceived but reasonable assessment of your probability” of winning the battle; and “’Overconfidence’ … as a level of confidence that exceeds the true likelihood” of winning.

Of course you might want to know whether you were just “confident” going towards the fight and had picked on someone that you could realistically handle, or whether you took it a little too far with “overconfidence” and has since been trapped in a battle that you have no chance in hell you will ever win. The problem here is that even if you ask those questions or iterations of them a million times before starting the battle, God has made it so that the answer always comes at the end of battle and in kind. If you end up winning, then you will know that you were “confident” and if you lose you will know that you had it over the roof.

The argument that Johnson and Tierney (2011) make about the relationship of the incidence of the two mind-sets (and implicitly the prevalence of confidence and overconfidence) to the conducting of “war” is one that does not make sense at all but one that they substantiate with solid examples. They do not provide metrics to measure the level of confidence that might hypnotize you into going to war because like I said, it is the Lord’s design for the answer to always be buried at the end of the tunnel. But they provide an interesting predictor of the incidence of both: the perceived length of the operational timeframe or window of opportunity until the actual fight kicks off! They point out that “deliberative mind-sets” dominate public opinion (including that of decision-makers) when there is a long time to go until the fight does actually take place (i.e. when the actor perceives no need for urgency). They also note that “implemental mind-sets” dominate when the fact of war is imminent. Implicitly, “confidence” and “overconfidence” in your ability to crush the enemy associate to the incidence of the two mindsets respectively.

Here are some of the examples they mention: (a) in “the 1938 Munich crisis … France weighed its chances of defeating Germany. … [But] once war looked inevitable by 1939, the same actors that had previously been gloomy about the odds of military success became significantly more optimistic about ‘surviving a knockout blow and going on to crush Nazi Germany’.” (b) In “1990, when [the first Gulf War] remained uncertain … 60 percent [of Americans] expected a short war … [but] on January 16, [1991] the day Operation Desert Storm began, 83 percent of Americans expected a short war.” (c) A “study from the 1960s found that as soon as people had placed their bets at a racetrack, they suddenly grew more confident that their horse would win … [due to] the simple act of committing to a decision.”

They also argue that people possessed by an implemental mind-set “display a reduced receptivity to new information that may question the desirability or feasibility of the chosen goal … [and] seek information that supports the choice already made.” Depending on whether you perceive the context of the fight as being relaxed and suspended or you feel like it will and should take place today, a process of “cognitive tuning” determines whether you will apply qemish adey Hanquiluni kind of tactics when people ask for your opinion or whether you will tell them to suck it up and firm down with confidence in themselves and the Lord and dare the devil.

I am not asking those who haven’t “crossed the Rubicon” to give up. They can still catch up in limiting the potential consequences of irrational behavior. Johnson and Tierney (2011) mention one technique whereby such consequences may be controlled so that an “implemental mind-set” is checked within reasonable limits of desirable outcomes. They propose that institutionalizing the decision-making process can reduce the impact of the crossing. My personal opinion on this remedy is that their proposal is dumb and unworkable [at least in our situation where the whole point of deliberation is to enable us to cross the Rubicon]. If institutionalization of common sense (deliberation – Halkeskes) when war is imminent were actually feasible, it would have prevented the “implemental mind-set” of George Bush (the son) from turning “Iraq” into “I Rack”.

The key question here is – which of the two comes first: “institutionalization” or “mind-set”? The clue here is that while “institutionalization” is an endogenous variable determined within the system (i.e. the people, processes and dynamics involved decide and put up the institutional arrangements that fit the specific requirements at hand), “mind-set” is an exogenous variable determined by people, processes and dynamics over and above the actors directly involved in that specific side of the conflict (i.e. the prevalent mind-set determines the requirements at hand which determine the nature of workable institutionalization). If institutionalization, as they [Johnson and Tierney (2011)] say does indeed turn out to be a remedy to potential undesirable consequences of the dynamism of the “implemental mind-set”, I think you are seriously screwed-up if you ever start “institutionalizing” at an early stage because you will definitely end up institutionalizing the “deliberative mind-set”.

That exactly is what happened to the traditional Eritrean opposition [the “old guard”], the EDA, ENCDC, EPDP and others that I cannot mention in public any more: they are stuck in “quicksand” because they have institutionalized the “deliberative mind-set”! Like it or not, based on a slight reinterpretation of the above, what actually takes place is the institutionalization of the lack of urgency to act because according to Johnson and Tierney (2011) slugging on the “deliberative mind-set” is essentially motivated by the incidence of a relaxed and extended time frame for action. Institutionalization by its very nature is the freezing of key variables, the conversion of variation into routine, and the conservation of the system as a whole from flying all over the place.

Of course any sensible reader can challenge this argument by simply pointing out that Caesar, the guy that this whole Rubicon talk is about, had one of the most (if not the most) institutionalized army of his time when he crossed the Rubicon. Others may not even need to go further than our own Eritrea to find out that it was the EPLF that was relatively far more institutionalized than its competition that crossed the Rubicon. True! But Caesar himself was never institutionalized and neither was our own Ri’esi Akat.

Well “we” have a suggestion package composed of three steps for you guys: (a) De-Institutionalize the “deliberative mind-set” by destroying every standing opposition gang that is more than one person strong, (b) “Cross the Rubicon” today by acting crazy and out of the box and by introducing chaos to wake up the dead, and (c) Institutionalize the “implemental mind-set” focused on “Change Today – Not Tomorrow”.

“Institutionalizing the implemental mind-set” requires a two-faced but integral coin: (a) institutionalize the deliberative general public (meEgergreti), and (b) de-institutionalize risk-taking. I am just saying but I don’t think you need to worry much about “de-institutionalizing risk-taking” as ‘risk-taking’ cannot be institutionalized in the first place because institutionalizing aims at reducing risks by reducing the freedom to take risks. What I mean is that you should place additional guarantees that the meEgergreti (deliberators) are securely institutionalized.

Here is a simple argument that we might be able to horseshoe to fit what we need. Brown (2011) [in a different context] mentions the following: “who judges whether a war [or any form of conflict] has just cause? If sovereigns have no earthly superior, then a conflict between sovereigns is a conflict between equals and there is no authority save the state [the sovereign] itself to judge its cause.” What he is actually saying is that the concept of “judgement” applies only in the context of actual or perceived hierarchy and always from top to bottom. Judgement does not go side-ways on the horizontal axis. In other words there is neither legal nor moral authority that entrusts equals with the power or wisdom to judge one another. Judges make judgements on the commons because they are entrusted by the presumed embodiment of the collective will of the commons themselves to do so. De-institutionalizing the implemental mind-set of risk-taking (for our purpose) might, therefore, be viewed as the application of the principle of sovereign equality among ordinary people and the concept should not sound like rocket-science to those who demand that sovereignty belong to the people.

Institutionalizing the deliberative mind-set (mEgirgar) is simple – gather all “those guys” – and ask them to do something in order to make sure that “those sovereign citizens” (on whose actions we have no moral or legal authority) do not end up messing the future for all of us. Tell them that they need to agree and come up with a joint statement. Here – slip this menu taken from Fisher (2011) in their pockets: “[Please guarantee the following:] … just cause, right intention, competent authority … the harm likely to be caused … the good to be achieved, taking into account the probability of success … the principles of proportion and non-combatant immunity … and the war end in the establishment of a just peace.”

You may leave them an iPhone number where they may reach your great grandson towards the end of the next century.


Brown, D. (2011). Judging the Judges: Evaluating Challenges to Proper Authority in Just War Theory. Journal of Military Ethics, 10(3), 133-147. doi: 10.1080/15027570.2011.608491
Fisher, D. (2012). Can a medieval just war theory address 21st century concerns?. Expository Times, 123(4), 157-165. doi: 10.1177/0014524611426762
Forge, J. (2009). Proportionality, Just War Theory and Weapons Innovation. Science & Engineering Ethics, 15(1), 25-38. doi: 10.1007/s11948-008-9088-z
Johnson, D. and Tierney, D. (2011). The Rubicon Theory of War: How the Path to Conflict Reaches the Point of No Return. International Security, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 7-40. Available on: http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/files/The%20Rubicon%20Theory%20of%20War.pdf

About Ali Salim

Check Also

The ELL: Context And Method

Disclaimer: Say you are telling a friend in Adi-Qontsi about an argument you had with …

  • Teweldeberhan Weldedawit

    Selam Ali, You said “…if you have any ethics , morals, legality, acceptability,…etc please step back and sit aside…” This sentence took me back to the late 60th and early 70th when I was using the same analogy to support the Eritrean Liberation Fronts. Inspite of their brutalities and empty political and ideological philosophy I used to say ” THE END JUSTIFIES THE MEANS”. I used to argue the time for deliberation is over and it is the time for action in support of Liberation Fronts in whatever action they take. No questions, and no ifs and buts, about it. Inspite of the fratricidal war we still supported them and we hoped against the naked truth and reality of the time that after the independence everything will be ok and the Eritrean people will have their choice of the government. The result is PFDJ and “Nai wudubat hashewiye tewedi’u iyu” and the consequence of immense suffering of our people by one of the worst totalitarian on the planet. Were we right? NO. We were dead wrong. When we aspire for change, obviously it should be positive change. Change for good. There is no point to take the people from the frying pan to the the burning flame. But that does not mean we should ever be in a “deliberative mind set”. It only means that before we start the “implemental mind set” we should have a minimum understanding of what we want to do after the change and how we do it. Obviously the Eritrean people at large should understand and accept it. Otherwise we might end up with another PFDJ. Remember the Hawassa meeting of last year. After all the preparations and “Dliberations” there is still no commom understanding of the would be relationship between KIDAN and ENCDC. What do you do now? You go to “implemental mind set” or you go to “Deliberative mind set ” to clear out their differences first. Obviously the latter is the right choice.

    You talk about EPLF being more institutionilsed. I beg to differ. ELF at least had a minimum democratic institutions but EPLF had none. It was a one man rule then and it is a one man rule now.

    You said “.. delberate thousand times God has made so that the answer always comes at the end of the battle.” but again the answer is not made by God. It is greatly shaped and influenced by the “Deliberative mind set.” As it is said you harvest what you sow. That is why we got PFDJ and we should not make the same mistake. We should have a good dose of “Deliberative mind set” before we venture to the “Implemental mind set.”

  • ArBi

    Bezi diyu beti, Ali Selim, I am expecting a sarcastic book by 2015.

  • Gobian Garibaldi

    selam Ali, koKob, WerHi, and all:-),

    Thank you wedi’ya Younis for providing the link that takes to the old Ali. Ali nebsi, you talk about Hameed being a rebel and suddenly, there you are, the old rebel. You are an actor on a stage, curbing your own neighborhood or so you assume that role that might be acted upon by a rebel of another kind. You don’t find the old ones for they died for the big thing:-) You are an Ama of a new kind, Ama of the pen like me. The Ama of the gun was a new specie that spoke all languages in 1977 before he died as he has now become bold, bald, and old. “Aama Kara entezaibila shewAate lama alewa’a”, said my little sister shaebia when we were courting her:-). “Ginbar denbar”, we told the guys, her children. Her husband Isaias? We called him a wicked squinis and so he stall is only now fallen off with his cousin Meles who is fighting him over a comb that once belong to my moma Aama:-).

    These people were and are and you were and are, just like them only differently. Sal. provided the link to the ‘were’ and this page and the last few brings he ‘are’ here:-). Lady Arwe and the Moon are sleeping and make sure to keep the noise down when you throw the next party:-).

    Cheers and Peace!

    • kokhob

      maybe there is a lesson to be learned. the old was the result of the circumstances and the same is the new. if we work for peace we will create peaceful intellectuals, poetical parties and the country. if we don’t respect others it is just a mater of time till we get double reaction from them. some time that doesn’t work fast and properly but most of the time it works.

      the moon must have been wondering how things are changing and is preparing for new era. this should make you happy and call your extremist brother and tell him things are no more under control and people are advancing.

      • Gobian Garibaldi

        selam kokhob and all,

        In the face of evil, one has the right to take measures to counter it even in ways others think undesirable. The desireable way was highjacked and it may be a long way away to get it back in a way that is desireable or otherwise. If all roads could take us to Rome, let the rebel be a rebel if his way to Rome is one of the ways without compromising the unity in diversity and equality of the body-polity of of constitutional and institutional democratic Eritrea. Do all roads lead to Rome or WerHi?:-)

        I sail on the narrow and straight boat to the East while conversing with the people sailing east, west, south, and north on their way to the east or so they say and so it may be, who knows, eh?:-)

        Cheers and Peace!

    • Hameed

      Dear Gobian Garibaldi,

      First I would like to thank Kokhob Selam for the lesson he indicated to.

      In my last comment I stated that Gobian Garibaldi was reared by the mafia in Asmara and today he is against it and against all who oppose it. What is the reason behind his complexity? Mr. Gobian holds all the genes of the mafia in Asmara and he is unable to get rid of all its distorted teachings. He hates the mafia because they denied him to get a piece of the cake, and hates the others in principle because he don’t want them to participate with him and his custodians the mafia in the division of the whole cake. He is in state of one against all. Really, he is in contradiction.

      He is against Weyane because he thinks zenawi will take from his custodians the whole cake and distribute it to others. Please, Mr. Gobian tell us in your next comment how tasty is the cake that you antagonize all for?

      • Kokhob Selam

        we all have different back ground in history. we may get similarities of experience with some. what we have common with some one may not be with the other. look, the people who are free of mistakes in our struggle are very few counted by just finger. now, the degree my differ but no one is free. that is why we are working together in side reconciliation room. Awate is on the top of all in doing such wonderful work. think you have more responsibility on doing so and kindness is needed more to those who are confused. even more kindness to those who work long with reactionary and anti peace forces like EPLF as they have been innocent but only cheated. it takes time to recover when you know such a big front was useless.

      • Gobian Garibaldi

        selam Hameed and all,

        Hameed nebsi, your note is quite eloquent and, precise, and clear, with clever diction. Its own problem is it speaks of someone who does not exist. You portay yours truly as a big man in the world of realpolitik. I ain’t no politician no more:-) Politics is for those who play it to the extent of two bald men who went to and are still at war over a comb that once belong to their former friend and destroy pecious life, limb, and bread. Anybody can do all they want with their Eritrea or what they think their Eritrea is.

        Right now, comrade Hameed, Eritrea for me is just like a suffering woman with many noisy children who could not find their way back home because they don’t know how to or because they don’t want to. I have retired from that Eritrea and I live and let live as a fellow traveller heading east chating with you and the rest. I don’t want you to worry too much about the cake you are trying to baked in your head for me. It is just a cyber-cake made in Hameedland:-)

        Cheers and Peace!

        • Kokhob Selam

          Those noisy children are growing. day will come the women who is suffering will be happy. “z’abi …atbedel” don’t let those growing children blame you for not helping them today. don’t give up and stand for truth. and as you have mentioned it, they have one mother, so what ever happens at last they are brothers. “hawka hawka eyu”

          • Gobian Garibaldi

            selam Kokhob Selam,

            Kokhob nebis, with these children, it is damn it if you do and damn it if you don’t. I have done my bit of individual or oganized formal politicking for the rule of law and pluralist democracy in Eritrea besides having been in Aama before Eritrean independence. All was not in vain. Now, all Eritreans know what is going on with their country many have been and are still struggling to stop the Eritrean Frankenstain called PFDJ with Chair-Man Isaias at its helm. The king and his queen are necked and they don’t look good. As to the other siblings of Eritrea, the civic and no-civic opposition, the other Ere-ogs and Ere-re-orgs, read Awate Staff of late:-)

            The daughter of Aama and her husband Isaias are foolish for they keep rolling down the hill that they climbed on the shoulder of giants. What I have been writing for the last little while here is part of my retirement speech and that is all I can say till about what went on yesterday. The future is a mystry as the past is history and today is a story. Life goes on and the conversation will continue in one manner or other with one and with all journey to the future, to the East:-) Has the Moon not waken up yet?:-) How about the lady and Ali Salim?:-)

            Cheers and Peace!

        • Hameed

          Dear Gobian,

          Eritrea will continue to exist with or without Hameed, Gobian or any other creature, so don’t bother yourself. The noisy children one day we will see them playing in the playground and their mother happy. The children will not continue crying, definitely they will grow wisely, put their hands on the ailments and rectify what has gone wrong.

          Our independence was a dream and at the end realized, a democratic Eritrea too is a dream today and definitely will be realized tomorrow.

          • Gobian Garibaldi

            selam Hameed and all,

            Hameed nebsi, as you said, “Our independence was a dream and at the end realized”. So it was a drean and so it was done, thanks be to the mighty Eritrean Liberation Army and Eritrean Peoples’ Liberation Army. And so also is ” a democratic Eritrea too is a dream today and definitely will be realized tomorrow” and so may it be done.

            Did you read our comrade sara on the Awate Team’s latest page? If you haven’t yet, you ought to go there and read her and let us see what … and, would you please take my “kudes to that, sara nebsi” and, while you are at it, please add, if you don’t mind, that ” if the Moon doesn’t wake up soon, we will crown her as ‘the princess of the house” :-). And say hello to the lady of the house and Ali Salim if they happen to cross your way to the “Second Cup”. It has been nice talking to one and to all here:-). May God bless us with peace and bread and help us end war and dread! Amen!

            Cheers and Peace!

  • dear Ali Salim,
    this time you wrote for yourself as usual genius and high caliber, but please next time write for me (the public) to digest and share your valuable stand.


  • Said Selam

    ዓ ቢ ፍልልያት ንአሰ ተገዲቡ :-
    ሊ ላይ ኮነ ደጊም ሰላምና ቀሪቡ:-
    ሳ ስዩ ዘዕእብየና ባህልና ዓንብቡ :-
    ል ግዋም ተፈቲሑ ባይታና ዓንቢቡ:-
    ም ልከት ርኣና ሕጂ ተስፋ ሂቡ::

  • Kokhob Selam

    awate is colourful with attractive rainbow that promises the spring after the winter by having such great and advanced men reconciling and standing corrected.

    Ali, your work needs deep concentration and double reading but it is good job. you are heading fast parallel and we are near to join the lines in horizon depending in your next hopefully coming articles.

  • wkeren

    well as usaual i enjoyed your naration so please keep the good job,

  • Hameed

    I can’t say more than a brilliant article.

  • Abu Ala (Ali Salim),

    This is an excellent piece, timely, and straight forward. I love it, may be it coincides with my argument against the static (unmovable) EDA organization. Evidently, the whole deliberation at the congress of Hawassa was to enable them to “Cross the Rubicon” When we institutionalized the deliberated strategy of engagement against PFDJ, when the war against PFDJ becomes imminent, EDA are trying to prevent the the “implementing mind set” formed at the congress by making ENCDC inert. Well done Ali!!!

  • Gobian Garibaldi

    selam Ali Salim and all,

    Ali Salim, you are unique. That is great, my friend. I may have to go back to your last article, a book one for me, to understand this one, book two for me again, and learn you properly:-). Before I do that, I am sneaking this note say , good job and keep us up and to thank you for the few chuckles I got reading this second one of Ali before constable Hameed comes and catches me narrating again to second the lady of the house in rejoindering unquely, she will read you fully when she gets some rest. Keep it up and say something to the “aba guayla of the house,” constable Hameed, before a riot starts here in protest the curbing of the rights of narrations:-)

    Cheers and Peace!

    • Hameed

      Dear Gobian Garibaldi,

      You can narrate as you like whether positive or negative big events produced by others , but I hope not to confuse that as brainstorming thoughts and big events produced by you.

      It will be helpful to the reader if you write at the top of your comment narration of past events.

    • Kokhob Selam

      Gobian, we are learning a lot from you and hammed both and I want to request you both take you differences as just normal and work to narrow it till you agree in your common ground.

      • Gobian Garibaldi

        selam Kokhob Selam and all,

        Kokhob, nothing that mankind can think of, can feel about, can say, and can do will change his misery if what modern mankind has done and is doing are things to go by. At the end, man and mamon, on the one hand, Stanan and man, on the other, and God, Man, and Satan, on the third hand, will face each other in the battle of all battles and then the end will come when Kigdom come to here. That is about enough for the End Times:-).

        Now, back to our comrade Hameed,

        Hameed is political agitator of not a univesal kind if we take the univese as the universe as that that only consists of the lands of the two bald men fighting over a comb that was once my moma’s comb, and put Hameed in it, he is moving east with his parochial beast. Like treading to the East on the narrow and straignt even if I have to go it alone chating about the east, the west, the north, and the south with one and with all. Life is a journey along the highway of time. Man is born and comes into time and he grows in years and goes out of time and reaps the fruits of what he sow in time in the hereafter. May God bless us with peace and bread and help us end war and dread! Amen!

        Cheers and Peace!

        • kokhob

          “……the end, man and mamon, on the one hand, Stanan and man, on the other,…” which among those do consider your self?

          • Gobian Garibaldi

            selam kokhob and all,

            kokhob, I am Christian man who understands the Churchians, Mosqueans, and Pagans of all sorts in Eritrea. The animists? Them too for I lived with them once when I was with my moma Aama. Them and my moma and her daughter shaebia, Derg., Weyane, Isaias, Meles were the actors of old and I had me gun instead of a pen then.

            No guns for me for it is the era of the pen as I travel east with those who are travelling everywhere on their way to the east or so they say and so it may be, who knows, eh? :-). Are the lady of the house and the Moon still asleep? :-).

            Cheers and Peace!

          • Gobian Garibaldi

            Please read: “No guns for me” as : “No guns for me anymore” in the above note:

          • Kokhob Selam

            knowing all this is greatness. in short you are a library then. but here you are facing a big problem in using all this knowledge. you need wisdom. you need to be kind because you are no more an ordinary man. you should be in state of complete control of your self as you are no more living for your self. you need to lift up the ordinary people like me. I am saying this if you are sure of knowing all our religions.

            but I have difficulty in watching your wide knowledge may be it is because I am little man with limited condenseness or you are still not the man you thought. relax and let’s help each other in understanding.

  • L.T

    Who is Ali Salim,were he came from,What is his point,targat and goal,to whom he work,his interst to people of Eritrea and nation, why the enemay of Eritrea modern politic history paid much ear to him,Why he came to this arrgamanet stage 2009,how could be the main his important thing go to the Gash-Barka land and its people,The old Jan-Hoy and Dergues model trick divid and rule “Ras-Gez (Afar,low and high lander)(the idea from gang of five 1988 after Nadw Ezi military defeat)?
    I hope this quesitiones will get the answer from whatever his name.last the Sweden parliamenet say no to sanctioned Eritreans 2% tax payers in Sweden.The Riksdag man (Abal Baito)in Sweden Ato Arhe Mehamed Nacka Asgodom from 2010-2014 or 2000 days worked hard to stop this 2% from Swedish with Eritrea orgin.

    • ArBi

      What is your point? why do you want to know him? If you have clever idea you are welcome,too, without revealing your identity. Lewore motu..or curiosity killed the cat…kemzibahal….

    • sara

      who cares who he is….did any one asked who is …L.T, or from where he came or his goal and target.. this is a forum or a comfort room where every body does… what he doesn’t do in public and remains as such. so don’t bother who is who… same way no one counts or registers or asks who went to… the comfort room.

  • b’Alti W’qatto Arwe (As in a girl with a dragon tattoo).

    Ali Salim,

    Your take sounds pretty heavy and a bit convoluted as well. I am not sure if it is the fact that I have had a long day for I am completely beat. As such my synapsis are not living up to your footnotes marinated with high caliber citations. Will have to read it tomorrow again if I could make any sense out of it for I am used to the controversial Ali Salim as opposed to his newly introduced esoteric alter-ego.


    • sara

      please add this book to your review of a.s article…..the book is by Austin Dacey …titled.

      “”The Future of Blasphemy””