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WiA: Testimony of University of Asmara Students

This article was originally published by awate.com on September 12, 2005. It is awate.com’s translation (from English) of a testimony provided to Elsa Chyrum, an Eritrean human rights activist, executive director of Eritrean Human Rights Concern (EHRC), by a persons who chose to remain anonymous. This is part of a series of testimonies she has provided by Eritrean political prisoners who were detained in Gelalo, Dahlak Islands, and Karsheli. We are re-publishing it because it features Major General Gerezgheir Andemariam (“Wuchu”), who passed away on March 4, 2014. The government media has (as it is expected to) told his biography as it relates to his military achievements and his positive contribution to the liberation of Eritrea. We are presenting the part of his biography that left such a searing impression on young Eritreans that they chose to present this testimony anonymously.


It was in mid-July 2001. The committee of university of students were expressing their opposition, legally, to the call of the Ministry of Education that every university student should report for the harvest drive. Point by point, they provided a rebuttal to the president of University of Asmara, Dr. Woldeab Ishak, that the call is not doable.  To mention some of the points made:

  1. The University of Asmara has an autonomous administration and, as such, the call of the ministry of education does not concern it;
  2. The rainy-season harvest drive is nowhere to be found in the Eritrean constitution and, as such, is not acceptable;
  3. To force students to participate in the harvest drive without their consent and without pay violates the United Nation’s charter against forced labour and human rights, a charter that Eritrea is a signatory to.  It provided a summary that, if they are to participate, it has to be with their consent and with pay.

Nonetheless, the president of the University of Asmara explained that the campaign envisioned that the students’ task would be to conduct census, research and outreach to the people and that the compensation would be 800 Nakfa, meaning 26 Nakfa per day (USD $1.30.)  The students’ committee explained that the amount would not even suffice to cover meal and lodging expenses and asked for their rights in a legal and orderly manner.

Meanwhile, on 31 July, 2001 at 7:00 AM, Semere Kesete, the president of the student union of the University of Asmara, was seized at his home by three security officers who loaded him in a civilian car and arrested him. The students stated that all they did was ask for their rights and, if the president of the student union is guilty of any crime, he should be presented to a court of law.  As a lark, they presented the president of the student union to a court of law on August 9, 2001.  However, because no charges could be presented, the session was postponed for a later date.  In an announcement publicized on radio and television, it was disclosed that all students should report for the harvest drive. The students responded that they would not embark on the buses until he [Semere Kesete] was presented to a court of a law and a verdict rendered.

Right about then, the president of the university, Dr. Weldeab Ishak, disclosed that effective immediately, the academic season had concluded and that he wanted no responsibility [for what was to follow] and physically escorted us out of the campus. And closed the gates.

The next day, 8:00 AM, was Semere Kesete’s appointed time of court hearing and the students flocked to the courthouse to hear the verdict.  While some were inside the courthouse and others were in the yard, tens of soldiers materialized around the courthouse.  Beating and threatening with their guns and batons, they attempted to seize all students at the courthouse. A sizable number of students were seized and forcibly taken to the Asmara Stadium. Precisely at that time, an order was given that every university student, anywhere in Eritrea, should be detained. That night, many soldiers headed to the student dorms and, using their batons and guns, awakened the students and herded them, some with nothing on their backs except what they had on, to the Asmara Stadium. All in all, including the ones that were already there, they numbered around 300. Whipped by winds and drenched by rain, hungry and in pain, they spent the night at the stadium. Fathers and mothers convened outside the stadium, with food and spare clothes. But they were dispersed by the stick-wielding soldiers—there were mothers that were beaten with sticks.

The next morning, they were given derisory snacks and canned food. At about 11:00 AM, they readied the vehicles. And, without providing any explanation, they attempted to load the students. But the students said that they had committed no crimes and that they had asked for their rights legally and in an orderly manner and asked where they were taking them. They were told to embark without asking questions.  They responded that they would not. One of the pistol-carrying supervisors ordered the soldiers to move in.  About 50 soldiers, some carrying Klashnikovs some carrying batons, filed in. They ordered them to embark. The students said they wouldn’t. They locked and loaded their weapons. And those carrying batons started beating the students. Screams could be heard.  Entering from the upper and lower level of the stadium, the soldiers started beating the students wantonly. Many had broken limbs. The parents and siblings who were outside started screaming. The soldiers dispersed them by beating them with their sticks.  Some had broken legs, others fractured skulls and when they were exhausted, they dragged them and loaded them [on the trucks.] They took them, to destination unknown, past Asmara city limits towards Massawa. We had no idea where. But after a few days, all students would follow them, and would see them with their own eyes. This was when every student was taken to Wi’A.

The date was 12 August 2001. This is three days after the students were forcibly taken. Beginning at precisely 6:00 AM, traumatized and frightened students started showing up at the stadium. Gradually, their numbers increased and, having spent the whole day without breakfast or lunch, at precisely 4:00 PM, heavy trucks and N-3 [cargo trucks] entered the stadium. With an empty stomach and without any preparation, nearly 1700 students began the journey. We headed out of the city limits towards Massawa. We did not know where we were headed. We passed Massawa and turned right on the road to Asab.  After six hours, at about 10:00 PM, we reached a place called Wi’A. Without food or water, with all our fatigue, we slept on the rock-strewn ground, without any sheets. We spent the night, our perimeter encircled by soldiers. At around 10:00 AM, they separated the females from us and headed them to a destination to our east.  And we, carrying our bags, began walking. With the military barracks to our left, we headed out, to the northwest. After a while, we were asked to sit. From 6:00 AM [when we met at the stadium] until the next day at 11:00 AM, for 30 hours, we had nothing to eat and we were in pain.

At about 12:00 noon, when the students began fainting from dehydration, they took us to a big stream which flows into the Hadas River.  While we were headed there, a few of our comrades began fainting. We were not allowed to pick them up. When we reached the river, we headed to muddy stream. Still empty-stomached, we drank the muddy waters.  Many fell right there. We carried them up the banks. We were told to leave them there. There were many who had lost consciousness. One by one, they loaded them up a water truck. I remember, hungry as we were, we saw many goats around the river where we drank water. Softly, we headed in their direction. The goats were eating dry bread, left over by the soldiers. Seeing this, we were thrilled. Although the smell was foul, we attempted to share the bread with them. But the bread was so dry we could not chew on it. We placed it on our clothes [shirts] and dunked it in the river to soften it.  We ate some, and we took some to our comrades who were lying down on the banks of the river, suffering from hunger. A bit strengthened now, we began to move about. On the path of the walkway, we saw many students, fallen. Later, we heard that on August 14, 2001, Yirga Yosief and on August 19, 2001, Yemane Tekie had died.  Many had mental and physical incapacitation. For example, one of the students who used to share sleeping quarters with us, a 2nd year biology student, had mental problems and became insane. These big trials, the causes of this pain were the 30 hours without food or water as well as the environment of Wi’A.

A military barrack set in a deep valley, Wi’A is found 45 kilometres south of Massawa on the right side of the road to Assab, about 6 kilometres northwest of the town of Foro. There are mountains to its north, west and south. The weather was quite hot then—we were told by our comrades who were at the clinic that it was 45 degrees centigrade. What is most amazing is that, despite its extreme heat, they have chosen Wi’A as a prison and centre of pain.

Some of the soldiers there told us that they had been given wrong information about us. They were told: “These [the students] were plotting to overthrow the government. They are enemies of the state. They are spoiled. While you are in the bunker defending your country, they want the indulgence of selection.” About a week later, the commander of the 35th division, Colonel Gabriel Woldeselase, gathered about 2000 of us. They separated us into four groups. The next morning, the first group, which included females, was taken to the well-known prison in Gelalo. Fearing opposition, the supervisors of the camp took two groups to Gelalo. Those of us in the other two groups remained in Wi’A. Later, our comrades who were sent to Gelalo told us that Gelalo is a hot place and their time was spent by engaging in heavy manual labour, after walking for two hours each day.

As for the two groups that were left in Wi’A, they segregated us. They gathered some of us at the camp, others at the school. Whether at work or relieving ourselves, we were always guarded by soldiers. Under the intense heat, we would gather rocks for about 3 hours. The rocks get hot during the day.  We would carry the rocks on our shoulders, and clear the ground to construct a road. One night, it hailed; there was no shelter and the rain poured on our backs. At night, we slept in the mud.  The next morning, many of us were ill.

A month later, Dr. Woldeab Ishak showed up and called a meeting. Students poured out tough questions and opinions. But the event was being video-taped and, after a while, our comrades who asked the questions were rounded up at night and separated from us. The bitterness of life in prison continued. On September 8, 2001, the two groups who were in Wi’A were called to a meeting with Colonel Gabriel Woldeselase. In a speech filled with bluster and threats, he told us: “Because you have rejected a call that would have benefited the country and the people, you are guilty. Thus, you should admit your error and ask for forgiveness.” One of us stood up and responded that it was not a crime to ask for your rights. Nonetheless, continuing on with his bullying, he threatened, “Unless you ask for forgiveness, a punishment worse than what you have encountered awaits you.”  The next morning, they prepared buses and headed us out on the road to Asab. On the second day, we reached our destination, a place called Edi.  On September 11, 2001, about noon time, we headed out of Edi in the direction that we had come from [Wia.] Midway, we disembarked at a place called Arkobkobai. There, we were guarded by many soldiers. As we understood it, the plan was for them to ask us to ask for forgiveness and those who would not comply would be mowed down by gun fire.   Some distance away, a man holding papers, and accompanied by soldiers with batons and guns, would call out the students, one at a time.  Everyone was asked a written question: “I, having disobeyed a government proclamation that would benefit the government and the country, am correct or wrong.” The written document further said that if you say that you did not disobey but were exercising your rights, you would be considered guilty. Every student was asked.  We all knew that what we had done was correct. However, using force and intimidation, they compelled us to say that it was wrong. They got what they wanted; and we lost.  Particularly because the cost was Yirga Yosief and Yemane Tekie. Also because many had been taken ill, been incapacitated and imprisoned.  Having completed their interrogation, they returned us back to Wi’A.

On September 18, 2001, after G-15–the officials who had opposed the administration of the government–were arrested, the private press was closed and the journalists arrested, they intensified the guard around us. The prison and the punishment got even worse. Even people who were suffering from diarrhea were not permitted to go relieve themselves.  Day and night, we were escorted by soldiers even when trying to relieve ourselves. We were gathered under a huge tent with a standing order not to talk to anyone.  Many were harmed by the sun, the heat and diseases. On September 19th, 2001, the 2nd year biology student who had lost his mind was taken to the military clinic. He is still not cured.

Finally, Major General Gerezgheir Andemariam (“Wuchu”) called us to a meeting.  And he said as follows: “Like somebody who has been infected with AIDS, you have been infected with G-15.  You are guilty of crimes against the people and the government. The government knows what is best for you; so say ok, to whatever it tells you. As for whatever it is you are guilty of, it is on your head and it will follow you.”  At night, some of our comrades were arrested and taken. But the rest of us, after nearly three months of pain and suffering, left Wi’A and headed to Asmara the next day, November 7, 2001. Our morale was deeply affected and we lost all hope. And we understood, henceforth, our future under this government would be the depth of darkness.  When will it dawn: don’t know!

For the original Tigrinya publication, refer here. For the first publication of the translation in English, refer here.

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  • haile

    Seare I bet your guys don’t even know this guy or think what he did was the real deal (picture below). Wuchu gained all by his contribution to to the independence struggle, but really let’s be fair, sriU fetihu husur mot eyu moytu. Beyond 1991 we have NOTHING positive to remember him by…a low life really. Jignnet qedem neyru!

    Gen. Oqbe Abraha, hero of independence, hero of post independence and truly martyred as a hero standing for the true value and dream that he fought for.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iz83IhrJyhc

  • Seare

    Here goes a MAN! Here goes an avenger! Here goes a man who
    put broad smile of gratification and pride on our faces!

    Wuchu and his comrades belong to this generation of Eritreans
    that has finally learnt that turning the other chick is not good idea in the
    first place. So they showed the world what a well-organized highly disciplined African
    movement can achieve. The defeat of the
    enemy is a witness to the perseverance, endurance, cleverness and bravery of
    the man and his comrades.

    I wish Wuchu and his comrades would have kept a certain
    distance from the rest of us. Mingling with the rest of us in clubs and similar
    recreational areas has made some dent in the way we see them.

  • Nathan Aman

    B’selam E’ref, You got it all wrong. The late General Gerezgabeher Andemaraiam (Wuchu) was a freedom fighter and not someone who enlisted into the military from a regular civilian life. And since he went to meda to fight for his Eritrean people he had a special responsibility to serve and protect his people. But as it turned out he was a wimp and could not stand to his boss the dictator. I would have agreed with your point if you talked about another country and another government where the rule of law take care of all civilian matters and the military does it’s military affairs. But in Eritrea’s case we all died and suffered and we expect nothing less than 100% of service from our ex-tegadelty and nothing less. But what we see is a bunch of law lives that think that just listening to one man commands will give them respect from all Eritreans. Wrong. Even if one Eritrean is unhappy then the independence of our country is valueless! What do you think the tagdeltied died for? So the rest of of could live happy, full of pride and joyful and without any harm specially from our own supposed Heroes! So please be reasonable don’t throw words like military is more important than the people themselves. At the end of the day ,Without happy people no military no leader can have a good name or a good legacy. It all depends happy the people are and how Fairly you lead/led your people and country!

  • Semere Andom

    Hi Sal and Hayat:

    I will plead the “iteredanin” on the following allegation :)

    “So, there you have it: a man from humble beginnings, who had no education, became literate in Ghedli, learned military science in Ghedli, was by nature extremely smart–a quick learner– but never unlearned his countryside upbringing despite years of military and ghedli indoctrination: that everybody must serve someone. A huge challenge to those (you included, Hayatom) who claim that the Ghedli was an assembly line–you went in one way, and emerged completely different. Not with Wuchu. He remained, for good or ill, the country-boy with his gwassa values: values that your average Ghedli Defamer would never dare criticize. Because it is “nbur”, don’t you know”

    First, “kulu Zmelko alewo”, means everyone has someone who scares/dominates him , not everyone must serve someone else. It is pure Tigrina saying and you are translating it to wrongly.

    Second, the assertion that Wuchu remained true to his roots is not totally true.

    All gwusas on whose behalf EPLF claimed to have fought were gullible and they were molded, brain washed that the educated are their enemies and wore the straight talking chogard danga dragotory “accolade” proudly. But their straight talking blunt “qul qul zafa” talk was not applied to their dominator. That is why the likes of Wuchu never questioned their “melaki”, DIA. Because he (Wuchu) was spun as a straight shooter in the PFDJ mill does not mean he remained true to his village roots. Far from it. Only the superficial things, like what your say, your accents, ridiculing education and urbanite fighters was to survive, not the integrity and other virtues that the village has taught him until he reaches “L’eli edme”

    His country-boy upbringing taught Wuchu to speak truthfully no matter what, to stand for the weak and oppressed , to hear all sides of the story before condemning others. His gwasa roots taught him to be humble.When is becomes a man he participates in village politics and he is told to search for precedents when faced with a dilemma in the history of of his fathers, his lineage and is always told to speak and side with the truth,
    Are you sure he exuded all this virtues to award him that he remained true to his country roots despite the Ghedli machinery?

    The design of EPLF was to make sure that the likes of Wuchu to keep their accents and their diction, but to lose their humanity, innocence and to just mechanically perform the orders to the letter. His country roots did not teach him what we heard from him since he was tegadalai. In fact he was the poster boy for how the educated and the enlightened should act after their initiation to change the social class they born into,

    Just because I am such good friend I am going to say iTeredanin:-)

    Semere Andom

    • Hayat Adem

      ya, good way to express your reservation and exit as a friend! iTeredanin:-)

    • saay7

      iTegadalai Semere:

      entay iyu zeytereda’aka? “kulu zmelko alewo” is, according to you, “everyone has someone who scares/dominates him” and, according to me, “everyone is dominated by someone, everybody must serve someone.” So where is this huge correction Kharaka sHilka zemexa’ekayo?

      Recall that when “Wuchu” narrates that story, he narrates it using present tense. The melakhi is not a THING (like law) but a PERSON. It struck me that is probably the value system he still believed in. As “Bselam Eref” noted, this is unsurprising given that he was a military man where a chain of command and discipline demands unquestioning carrying out of orders. This, of course, is something I have been telling you Ghedli defamers–that 99% of the excesses of Ghedli could be explained using two words: military and communism–but that is just not as sexy as “Ghedli Culture Which Hates Ethiopia and Borrowed Arabist/Islamist Values.” (present company excluded: Semere, you have always been on the more reasonable side of the Ghedli Defamer corner:))

      My point about wuchu is this, Semere. Your fellow travelers in the Ghedli Defamation corner present this scenario: everyone is Mother Theresa before they join the field, and they all come out as Charles Mansons after the Ghedli culture. Well, when their inconsistency is shown they will say, oh, no, the Ghedli virus affected ONLY the leadership (it was a VERY selective virus): we have no problem with the rank and file, but their issue is with the WHOLE Ghedli–alpha to omega.

      And here’s one man, Wuchu, who tells a more nuanced story: in 2014, for a veteran, who you are is the sum total of what you brought IN to Ghedli, what you absorbed DURING Ghedli, and what you did AFTER Ghedli. That’s all. And this is very obvious to anyone who is guided by reason: if it wasn’t the case, every Ghedli veteran would be IDENTICAL in EVERY WAY.

      saay

      • Semere Andom

        Sal:

        Khara is siRe, newri, Br’eka maletka di yu?

        I am still as reasonable as before, just too many “arms” to juggle :-), to avoid the folly of collective demonizing ( a tendency that afflicts many de-romantics) or collective canonizing ( an affliction of most romantics). striking this elusive balance is what we must hope for in this subject that seems to insert itself no matter what we are debating. And in a comment section it is hard to tackle all the nuances and to makeup for it, we all are guilty of running for a cover in satirical humor or sarcasm or short pointed quips, but if at the end of any difficult day we manage to eradicate and weed-out the cheerleaders of any spectrum, the malice that is at some level the root of many of our problems, and make our point anchored in facts and in a measure manner and along the way shame those who want to us to feed on the status quo, I will be a happy camper.

        But I admit, my concept of free speech borders on the extreme ;-)

        But, there is reason to celebrate, we are unearthing talent, Serray aptly called it a blue print for the future.

        Semere A

  • Hayat Adem

    Selam Sal,

    I can see your comment regarding wuchu in Disqus but not on this page. Yes, I am familiar with those stories but are not part of the interview i mentioned. way towards the bottom, your famous elbowing again…Wuchu’s career growth is amazing. His naturalness is amazing. The regime he was serving represents something else- now unarguably devilish. Both ghedli and the regime strangulated the innocence, the raw beauty, and the nibur values of Eritrea. As much as you see nibur in Wuchu’s words, what do you feel when you read the story of the meraHi ganta who had to give order to his wife to go hijjum and see her killed and then he had to follow. He told us how niburnet looks like on the radio while commanding his unit in the theater ‘normally a husband takes her wife to a movie, not a blazing a war?” do you also see niburnet in that? do you see nibur in the following link:

    http://www.economist.com/blogs/baobab/2014/03/national-service-eritrea
    Unwanted pregnancies among single women, once a taboo, have increased as mothers are usually excused from the draft. Eritreans cannot leave the country without government permission. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees says around 2,000 escape illegally every month via Sudan or Ethiopia.

  • saay7

    Hey B’selam E’ref:

    All true. And I was particularly moved by the eulogy which enumerated how many wounds he sustained to liberate Eritrea: he was wounded in the head and practically every organ and limb.

    But this is an obituary. We are discussing his strengths and weaknesses. Plenty has been said about his strengh. His weakness was this: the sense of right and wrong he was taught as a shepherd, was overwhelmed by his sense of hierarchy: that EVERYBODY must SERVE SOMEBODY. When the G-15 issue arose, he was tested: the standards were right or wrong (he knew from his country side upbringing that it is WRONG to to accuse people and not give them the right to defend themselves) and hierarchial “follow orders.” He chose to follow orders. And this article we are commenting on is how his “follow orders” led to him victimizing not just G-15 but innocent young Eritreans (you might call them misguided) and how that has led to a terribly consequence: people, specially the young, giving up on their country and going anywhere. That is a betrayal of what he swore to uphold: a country governed by rule of law.

    In the end, life is a balance: we weigh people’s virtues and their vices. Their strengths and weaknesses. And Wuchu’s weakness (inherited NOT from Ghedli but his shepherd days) was part of Eritrea’s undoing.

    saay

  • Hayat Adem

    May be I should add this extraordinary story of tegadali and his wife (also tegadalit) wuchu had mentioned in his interview.

    ሕውየት- ገለ ካብ ጦብላሕታት ውግእ [ዶ መዕለልካና]?
    ውጩ- ኣንቱም ሰባት ኩይናት ዝብልዎኮ ገለ’ዩ ዘርእየካ! ኣብ ምድምሳስ ናደው’ዩ። ሓደ መራሕ ጋንታ ናይ ክ/ሰ 52 ንከረን እናጥቃዕና ከለና፣ ሰበይቱ ኣብታ ጋንታ ነይራ፡ ናሓንቲ ኩጀት እናሃጀምዋ ከለው ድማ ሰበይቱ ትስዋእ። ወዮ መራሕ ጋንታ ሬድዮ ሒዙ እናጎየየ “ብቐደሙ ምስ ሰበይትኻ ሲኒማ ይእቶ’ምበር ምስ ሰበይትኻ ዶ ውግእ ይእቶ!!” ኢሉ ህጅሙ ቀጺሉ። ዝገርመካ ንባዕሉ ኣብ 3 ወርሓ ተሰዊኡ።

  • B’selam E’ref

    Dear saay,

    You are absolutely right regarding General Wuchu’s smarts. He was not a man who started out with the relative privileges that his urbane counterparts like PIA or Yemane Gebrab or Haile Menkorios had but he was smart as heck. He had not studied at universities like most of the senior leadership of EPLF he served with or led but he made himself literate. Listening to his colleagues describe him, he had a photographic memory of the landscape. He never forgot a mountain or river bed that he saw. He could recall how high a mountain was or how deep a river ran. Having been raised in the countryside of Eritrea, he had a good feel for the bushes were the wars were fought. He could recall things in his head without looking at a map. He had a good feel for where the enemy may be hiding or what areas needed to be secured or where to form the defensive lines or fortifiations..etc. Of course, he was also known for being super-confident and was a man who felt that the EPLF, and the Eritrean Defense Forces later, were capable of doing almost anything. And more importantly, he convinced the tegadelti troops he led that they were capable of accomplishing anything. Confidence is contagious. For that matter, most of the EPLF leadership were known for being a confident bunch. I think they all took on PIA’s personality. PIA set the tone for the organization he led. But it is also important to note that PIA did not win the war by himself. Many intelligent and brilliant military minds had served with him or helped him. For instance, guys like Ibrahim Affa are known to have been PIA’s right hand man. May be even more than Wuchu. Wedi Flansa and others. Too many to name. The surprising thing is that General Wuchu lasted as long as he did. He should have a long time ago. He was going from one battle to the next for years and sustained multiple wounds. That iconic clip of him pronouncing the Nadew Iz dead before the battle even began to motivate his troops will be known as his defining moment. General Wuchu has joined the pantheon of Eritrean heros.

  • B’selam E’ref

    Hayat, Please don’t go there. Let General Wuchu rest in peace. Don’t bring your YG-infested anti-gedli halewlew now. Leave the jigna alone. He has joined the pantheon of Eritrean heros. May he rest in peace.

  • Hayat Adem

    What/who was Wuchu before joining EPLF? This is from a HiWyet magazine of 1997 edition interview with him. The parts I selected to post is the early ages of the General. The interview touched on many issues in medda and after. I can extract them on demand for you piece by piece if any one is interested. feel free to ask. Now to the extracted verbatim:

    ካብ ሕውየት ሕታም ቁጽሪ 10፣ 1997 “ሜጀር ጀነራል ውጩ ኣፉ ከፊቱ” ካብዝብለ ቃለ-ማሕተት ብምጭርራም ዝተውስደ

    ሕ- ንእሽቶ ውጩ ከመይ ነይሩ
    ው- ዘኽታምን ድኻን። ንኽልቲአን በዓንተቦኡ’የ ተላልየን…

    ሕ- ውጩ ዝብል ሳጓ ከመይ’ላ ወጺኣትካ?
    ው- ውጩ ማለት በርበረ ኢያ ቃውቃው እትብል ከላስ ገለ ዘይብላ።…ካብ ድኽነትና ዝተላዕለ ርካብ ኣይነበረናን። አነ ድማ ሱስ’የ ዝፎቱ። በርበረ ጌርኪ ሃብኒ ይብላ ነደይ። ሕጂ ክንጓሲ ከለና ሓደ ንኹልና ዝመልከና እንታይ ተመሲሕካ፣ ምስበለኒ ውጩ ኢለዮ። ሽዑ እታ ኩላ መንእሰይ ስሒቓ። ካን ንሳ ዝአንፋ ለጊባትኒ።…ሽዑ ወዲ 7 ዓመት ነይረ።

    ሕ- ከብቲ ዲኻ ጠለ በጊዕ ትጓሲየን ዝነበርካ?
    ው- 2 አብዑር ነይሮሙና…

    ሕ- ቅድሚ ምስላፍካ ምስ ፊደል ሌላ ኣይነበረካን ማለት ድዩ?
    ው- ኣብ ጸልማት ጉስነት’የ ዓብየ። ‘ሀ’ን ‘ለ’ን ከይፈለጥኩወን’የ ንሜዳ ወሪደ።

    ሕ- …ኣብ ከተማ አቲኻ ዝፈተንካዮ ስራሕ አሎዶ?
    ው- ጤለ በጊዕ፣ እኽሊ ከሸቃቕጥ ናብ አስመራ ይኣቱ ነይረ።…ዕንጨይቲ ፈሊጸ ይፈልጥ። (ሰሓቕ)…ጠላዕ ክንጣላዕ ንውዕል ነይርና።..፣

    ሕ- ..ክትጋደል እንታይ ደሪኹካ? በኸመይ ብሃገራዊ ናጽነት ክትጽሎ ኪኢልካ?
    ው- …ኣብ ሓደ ሕርሻ ኣብ ሑመራ ክልተ ሰሙን ሰሪሕና ንተሰነይ ንምለስ። ኣብኡ ዝጣልዑ ሰባት ንረክብ’ሞ ምሶኦም ክንጣላዕ ከለና ህላወ ሻዕቢያ ንሰምዕ። ዓዲ ምስ ኣተና “ኢሳያስ ብባሕሪ መጺኡ”፣ “ተኽሉ ሸሪፍ፣ አብርሃ ዓንደብርሃን” ዝብል ዘረባ ንሰምዕ…

    ሕ- ምስ ሰማዕኻ ሽዑ ንሽዑዶ ነቒልካ?

    ው- እወ።
    ሕ- መኣስ ማለት’ዩ?
    ው- ነሓሰ 1971። አብ ተኽሊ ዝተብሃለ ሰሜናዊ ባሕሪ። ኣብኡ ረኺባንዮም ንገድሊ። ወዲ አፈወርቂ ዝርከቦም ብዙሓት ድማ ጸኒሖሙኒ።

    You are welcome.

    • saay7

      Selam Hayat:

      Somewhere in this interview (or an interview conducted by the PFDJ documentation unit), Wuchu inadvertently gives his life-long philosophy, learned in childhood and that is: ኩሉ ዝመልኮ ኣለዎ: everyone is dominated by someone, everybody must serve someone.

      There is a common saying attributed to Wuchu of what he told Isaias (whom he called, affectionately, Ayay) when there was disorder in the early 2000s:

      ኣያይ፥ ብላዐሊ አግዚኣብሀር፥ ብታሕቲ ወዲ ገረዝግሀኢር፥ ዓዲ ከውቲ ኽገብራ ኢየ፥ (Sir, with the help of God above and son of God’s slave below (his last name translates to God’s slave), I will shut down the country.

      Somewhere else in this (or Eri-TV) interview, he is asked to recall a fond memory from childhood and he talks about he and as many of 27 of his colleagues raised funds to buy a goat (then $3 Ethopian birr) and have meat for a change.

      So, there you have it: a man from humble beginnings, who had no education, became literate in Ghedli, learned military science in Ghedli, was by nature extremely smart–a quick learner– but never unlearned his countryside upbringing despite years of military and ghedli indoctrination: that everybody must serve someone. A huge challenge to those (you included, Hayatom) who claim that the Ghedli was an assembly line–you went in one way, and emerged completely different. Not with Wuchu.

      saay

      • B’selam E’ref

        Dear Saay,
        Let me strongly disagree with you regarding what you said about “kulu zimelko alewo” or what have you.
        Understand that General Wuchu was a military man. His passion was the military. He was not interested in being a politician. He was tasked with winning the war for independence and then safeguarding the country’s sovereignty. That is what he did and did well. Militaries are not democracies. There is a strict chain of command people have to follow. You have to execute the orders given to you by your superiors. You can’t question things. Following the chain of command is an absolute necessity for good order and discipline. By the way, that is partly why the EPLF was a more successful organization than the ELF. In the EPLF, if you strayed from orders or questioned the chain of command, you were taken out back and shot. There was good order and discipline. Did that carry over into civilian leadership post independence? I can’t say. I don’t know enough. You probably know about it more than I do. Hey, your brother was on the inside for God’s sake :) But General Wuchu was under duty to follow instructions from his superiors, including the Commander In Chief, PIA. If the Commander In Chief says I want you to shut down the country, what’s General Wuchu supposed to say? “I resign in protest.” It don’t work like that Saay, especially when the country’s sovereignty was at risk and some senior people had committed treason and put our troop’s safety and our sovereignty at risk. General Wuchu and our Commander In Chief did what they had to do to save the country. God bless them for that.

  • N. Aman

    The late general May have been a great fighter or even a great military leader during and after Eritrea’s independence. The question is what has he done to protect his comrades-in arms such people and ex-tegadelties like Petros Solomon, Mahmoud Sherifo, Haile Woldetensae among others that were arrested and put away where no one knows their whereabouts till today? Now how someone who is in a great and powerful position and knows that these ex-tegadelties are accused for something as serious as a treason and do nothing about it. What kind of legacy is he gonna leave behind. A hero has to live like one for the rest of his life. Specially in Eritrea’s case with a unique history you cannot go wrong if you stand for your comrades that were with you for the rest of your gelding life. In an even a bigger picture what did you fight for? To serve one man! That is a shame. One fights to free his people and go back to make them his slaves more than their original colonizers What an irony. The Eritrean story gets weirder every time. definitely give him credit for fighting for our independence but give him 0 for not upholding the promise of tagdelties that died for our independence. I believe there were an agreement that who ever survived the independence war was supposed to indulge, free, protect, create law and order and most importantly introduce the Rule Of Law. What did the late Gerezgabeher Andemariam (wushu) did to keep that promise. I believe it will be very short of that promise. Those, Who are in jail or may be deceased while still fighting for our full Freedom are true heroes and will be kept In that capacity for the rest of history,on the other hand those who collaborate and betray our people and the promise of our gelding shame on them. Just for a position and fear and corruption they have relieved their legacy from that of Jigna to that of servant of a dictator!!!!

  • haile

    Selamat all,

    The search is over…Lemlem has finally been found. She is well and alive!

    • danny

      Oh wow! so beautiful then and now. Thanks Haile

  • haile

    Yes and No, SMichael. Yes, because I understand your point holds in general sense, although it is normally two constitutionality you seek to meet – competent and an ally. That is in non-dictatorships. In here I am talking something chronic and often bypass the first condition (for a purpose and not lack their of). You need to get up close to tegadelti (even those with less academic beginnings). My impression from the humble little I know is that they tend to be highly focused, really value the knowledge they come to gain and with opportunity they would pretty much succeed in anything they would put their hand on. Sadly, opportunity was what has been denied to them, the regime pitted them against the most kind and upright Eritrean people. It tampered in the way it controlled their mind and put them in places of power, my evidence is that many tegadelti have joined the exodus with the rest of the population. It is a well orchestrated play of blindfolding their leadership to muzzle and confuse them into paralysis and take them for a ride ተጻወቱልና’ካ

  • haile

    Selamat Awatistas,

    What a great job by Eritrean Women for Change to recognize and honor Rahel!!! Please see how Eritreans can be exemplary and caring towards each other outside of HGDEF. Imagine if this was done by the PFDJ, mtsememna ;-) here is pure citizen love… Thank you Adiam Haile Rufael..youre a great leader… (Read Assenna.com for more)

  • S Michael

    At that particular period of time,it was unfair for the students to refuse to do what they were asked to do while other citizens were still dying at the war front—and mind you,they were provided with 800 nacfs per month.The late Gen was simply advising them to obey to the order of the day.
    It was unfair treat but hey,–their response was unfair and unreasonable and untimely too—this is in 2001???What is the point of bringing it up again?We debated on this before in detail.
    Just for the sake of politicizing things as usual—–huh?

  • Rodab

    Hi there AT,
    Wuchu is a gigantic hero of the war for independence. That is an assertion and no one can dispute that. In the past 20 something years however, like any high PFDJ official, he committed mistakes/crimes if not for anything, by virtue of being an active member of a leadership that has caused a great deal of misery on the Eritrean people. And though I have no specific knowledge on the man’s personal misdeeds, I am sure there must be some cases where he, on a personal level, would be responsible for. And that is where people need information on. As a public media that has been one of the priemer source of information for nearly a decade and half, Awate would (and should) be in a position to be able to gather and provide some basic information on actions of high profile officials such as Wuchu. Instead, we are treated to an old article because it has Wuchu mentioned somewhere in there telling the “revolters” they were guilty! Of course he would tell them that. He is a government official and not an opposition figure. It would’ve been a shock if he had not criticized them. Mind you this was September 2001 – the most critical month in Eritrea’s post independence history. Any PFDJ official at those fluid times wouldn’t have any other way but to go on all out offense against real or perceived critics. So his statement doesn’t have much weight if seen in that context. There must be more serious issues and I am sure we will hear them some time the future. In any case, while he should be condemned for his wrongdoings, his past heroic actions can not be eroded; the man played a major role in helping realize independence and for that I say RIP our hero!

    On related topic, yesterday as I watch the funeral proceeding, I felt bad at the total disrespect by one man of the Petroses, the Sherifos, the Duru’s and many other patriotics who may have died and buried in a disgraceful way. I imagined them being burried by a handful guards somewhere in remote areas. The comparison with what I was seeing was simply unbelievable. All this mega disparity because one man defines who is patriotic and who is not. End of story! And as I watch thousands and thousands of mourners, including religious leaders, govt officials, the general public and the army, it occured to me that this event is taking place only and only because one man is for it. Othrewise the place would’ve been as deserted as it was when the giants of the G15 were burried somewhere in unknown places, or when a top regime member was burried in London. At that moment I see Isaias, a regular human size, standing among thousands mourners, yet I felt his power was beyond that of the 5 million of us, and that realy realy got me. And it scared me. (I can sense Gedli bashers to criticize me “what are you complaining about when you’re thanking Wuchu for delivering what you’re complaining about” my answer would be well, that’s your view and not necessarly mine).

    Peace!

    • haile

      Selamat Rodab,

      One thing that set us Eritreans apart from the rest of mankind is perhaps we view the universe as something that starts and ends all around us. What you saw in that lame dictator’s being can be seen all over the world of dictatorship where one man rules. Sadam, Gaddaffi, Id Amin, Mengistu, Isaias…. they are all the same, do the same things and the purpose is to make you feel in exactly the way you did.

      Isaias is powerless and weak, yet his dramatics has fooled people to think that he fought all wars alone, won alone, created Eritrea alone, can destroy Eritrea alone….that is all drama. He is a simple idiot who can’t even outsmart ragtag opposition figures and terrorists that took him for a ride. As I discussed with Amde, there is inherent problem on our sense of collective being as Eritreans, but things are getting much better by the day. The day we wake up and know that a small group of people were playing us like a ball, I our problems will be over. Yet it would be a sad day too because we will finally open our eyes to the irreversible damage and loss of life we allowed on ourselves and hence the guilt would be huge.

      For now let me ask you this, you said wuchu played a “gigantic role” in our independence. Can you point to some specifics that can be considered as such (beyond that of a popular azazi serawit?) Popularity is good but not every thing. So can you present incidents that you consider “gigantic” or you’re being like the rest of us, Eritrean. Like Isaias played gigantic role, Sophia Tesfamaiam played gigantic role, Hagos kisha played gigantic role…. Before finding out the misdeed of a man, let’s find his deeds that would set him above others. Protocol and mass gathering in a most dictatorial corner of the planet shouldn’t be allowed to play its intended trick on us.

      Regards

      • RIP Jigna

        General Wuchu participated or served as a commander leading troops in almost all of the key battles that the EPLF fought and won. Is that gigantic enough for you? He gave everything he had to his country and served his country right up until the day he died. Is that gigantic enough for you?
        What are you going to be know for haile when you die? What are people going to say about you? That you spent a lot of time on the internet?

        • S Michael

          Cannot agree more.I was just watching the ErI-TV –posted on Meskerem.Net while the late Gen Wuchu was talking about the Aseb Front Liberation Strategy.
          This person,RIP and may the Lord bless his soul, deserves more than State Funeral.
          No body has a right to demonize this Gigantic Hero.He was every where—Nadew destruction,Fenkil Op,Aseb Liberation—name it.
          Typo Eritrean heroism.
          Tihim zibele yitahgom,
          Yeah, the only thing our Cyber politicians and our pseudo-Opposition groups know is just talking non-stop like a Parrot sitting behind a computer in a comfort zone—besides betraying Eritrea and ” defaming”/black-mailing the heros like the late Gen.

      • Rodab

        Hailat,
        At yesterday’s readout of his story, it was clear to me the man moved to various ranks farily quickly. I like to believe that has something to do with his performance. I also like to believe his performance is responsible for the popularity he earned. when I was back home, I heard many great battles of Wuchu where tegadeltis were outnumbered by a singnificant number yet managed to overrun the Dergue soldiers. One of such great battles was that of the demolition of the Nadew in 1988 where Mesfin Hagos and Wuchu played key roles, and of course we know that that battle played key role in liberating Eritrea.

        For anyone who weren’t there at a speficic time and place, it is challenging to present specific works of big tegadeltis like Wuchu because obviously Isaias is not going to allow heros’ actions to be documented. Which makes us having nothing to go by but popular believe or by whatever those who were there tell us. In this regard, the only hope I have is heroes’ achievments are written somewhere in books authored by foreigners like Dan Connel, Thomas Kennely, Michela Wrong etc….otherwise kab Isaiasn kab Augetnsi terifna ena.

        • haile

          Yes Rodab, terifna ena. 23 years later this is what we are left with “a man we think or like to believe must have done something great”. By all accounts wuchu is great fighter, I have also heard some accounts from serving colonels and others that attests to the fact that there are/were many such like people within “tewaga’E serawit”. The question is that what exactly did ERiTV present to enhance your knowledge of wuchu other than his light joke (with shows courage) when announcing the launch of the Afabet battle.

          They can’t tell us because it involves major coordination by those IA accuses of “treason”. Quick rise in the ranks may have been proof of performance in ghedli (which I know little to tell) but not in today’s PFDJ. Intelectual deficiency and moral corruptibility are key assets for promotion in today’s IA Eritrea/PFDJ. The bottom line is that IA can’t tell the Ghedli history for it would expose him for the treason that he is living in.

          Edme nwexaEteNa mbal eyu nlomi… :-)

          • saay7

            Yep, Haile the great. When they were narrating Wuchus biography, what was interesting was not the inclusion of who he served under but the exclusion.

            Btw, many moons ago, a reporter (Eri-TV) asked how Wuchu got his nickname. It’s at once charming and depressing.

            Saay

          • S Michael

            Come on Sal,stay away from this and that heresay–It is way below your standard.Please ,be so kind to close this debate on the dead.
            We know all this and that business of PFDJ.No
            need of regurgitating things here.

          • haile

            hey saay

            moons? Is that shepherds by night? He also mentioned how he got his nick in 1997 interview with ጋዜጣ ሕውየት። Mind you though, I liked his directness and matter-of-factly approach in narrating his past and humble beginning. Another fine brain wasted by IA, I would have long sent him to many great military academies around the globe and let him be the military man that he sounds to love to be. IA made a farmer out of him!!!

          • Rodab

            ሃይላት
            ኣብ ዘይተኣሳሰር ኣርእስቲ፣
            ናይ ወዲ ቫካሮ ፈኸራ ኣብ ልዕሊ ኢሰያስ ማዕረ ክንደይ ክብደት ትህቦ? ንሱ ኣብቲ “ፍሉይ መልእኽቲ ንህዝቢ ኤርትራ” ዝብል ዘውጽኦ መልእኽቲ፣ ክሳብ ሕጂ ንሓሙሽተ ኣዋልርሕ ክግበር ዝጸንሐ ሰለማዊ መጸዋዕታ ኢሰያስ ስለዘይተቐበሎ ሕጂ ብኻልእ ኣገባብ ንምልእላዩ ንሰርሕ ኣለና በሃላይ እዩ። ኣነ ዘርብኡ ክንውንነታዊ ዘይኮነስ ደራኺ(inspirational) ጌረ እየ ዝርእዮ። ከምቲ ቆልዓ ነዲኡ ‘ኣርባዕተ እግሪ አንትሃልዩክስ ጽባሕ ንግሆ ንርኢ’ ዝበላ እዩ ነገሩ።

          • haile

            መርሓባ ሮዳብ – (haha love the Tinglish ኣብ ዘይተኣሳሰር ኣርእስቲ! )

            መቸስ ኣጸጋሚ’ዩ ክትግምት። ሓቁ’ዩ ክትብል፡ ምእማኑ የጸግም፡ ኣይፋሉን ከይትብል’ውን ኣብዘይትፈልጦ ኢኻ ከተዝግም። ደሓን፡ የስምረልካ ይኣክል ንሕጂ። ብውልቀይ ናይ ወዲ ቫካሮ (ከምኡ’ውን ወዲ ትኳቦ) ፍሉይነት፡ ብዝሒ ዘለዎ ህዝቢ ክዓስሎም ምኽኣሉን፡ ቁሉዕ መርኣያ ፍሹል ህላዌ ስርዓት ህግደፍን ኮራኩሩን ክኸውን ምብቅዑ እዩ። ግደ ሓቂ፡ እንትርፎ፡ ብጻውዒት ወዲ ቫካሮ ንምምስራት ሓደስቲ ማሕበረ-ኮማት ዝተሰማዓኒ ዓብይ ተስፋን ፍናንን፡ ካልእ ኣብ ደቀቕቲ፡ ፖለቲካዊ ስልትታቱ ወሪደ ክግምግምን፡ ክትንትንን ብዝደፋፍእ ኩነታት ኣይተታሓዝኩን። ብደለይቲ ፍትሒ ዝምእከል ኤርትራዊ ማሕበረኮማት፡ ኣብ ኩለንተናዊ ዓይነት ክውንነትና ብሓባር ከነሳጉም ዘኽእል ባይታ ዝፈጥር ዓብይ ዝላ ንቕድሚት እዩ ድማ።

          • S Michael

            I beg your pardon,Haile? Hope I read you wrong.You are flip-flopping in my opinion if you are talking about the late Gen.
            I might agree on the current procedure of ranks and files,which is the nature of the current situation considering the likes of Forte Op.You rank people who yout “trust” ,not based on their qualification,which is the legacy of Dictators and non-dictators.Do you believe Obama would give Senator McCain a serious Cabinet position?

    • RIP Jigna

      General Wuchu deserved a state funeral. Anyone of those names you rattled off (Durue, Sherifo…etc) would have had state funerals as well had they not committed treason. Treason is a serious crime punishable by death in all countries. They are lucky they weren’t hanged because that is the usual punishment for treason. Even during the American revolution, people who committed treason were hanged on the spot. Treason is a very very serious crime.

      • haile

        hahaha….how come IA is not hanged on the spot then? And we suppose you attended court proceedings that found them guilty? Wuchu managed to go to ghedli illiterate and ended up a military leader with moderate to good academic skills. That is gigantic in my book . You went to the west learned enough to write here, consumed so much hamburgers and ended up illiterate like when wuchu first joined ghedli! Well, that is gigantic too, I guess…

      • Rodab

        Hey Rip Jigna,
        I will agree with you if you do me favor with this little thing: present proof showing it was the G-15 and not Isaias that committed treason. Keep in mind all the big and small decisions of the 1998-200 war were made by Isaias and his circle of friends like Yemane G/A and Yeman G/M.

      • Nitricc

        RIP Jegna.
        I agree with you Treason is a serious matter but don’t you think they the right and out fairness they should face their accusers in court of law? You can detaine me for what ever reason but you got to give the opportunity to defend myself.
        So, my friend lets be fair here.
        As far as the death of the general; he lived a worthy life worthy of living . What is tragedy is; you have in here they have already died and they never even not know it. Wichu did not die; every body dies but not everyone lives. So, he lived a beautiful life. A life worthy living. I celebrate his life I don’t feel bad nor sad. We all die and dying serving your country and people in one and dying serving the white man is quit another thing.
        RIP

        • hotelier

          Nitricc man,
          yes the general lived a worthy life. a life that he can be proud of. as u mentioned, there are a lot of people in the modern age (including in this forum) who have basically abidcated their spot among the living. they live their lives on their computers. they have already died you like said. they just don’t know it. no body will remember them when they are gone from this earth.

    • Rodab

      In his own words:

  • yemane Johar

    ወዮ ወዮ ውዮ….

    ማልጎ ከይብሉኻስ ውጩ

    ብኣጋ ዝወድአ ሓርጩ

    ካብ ህዝቢ ነይኡ መሪጹ

    ውልዕ ኢሉ ዝጠፍአ ሃጺጹ።

    ወዲቑ ኢሎሞ ኾኾብ ኣፍደዩ

    ይቕረ በሉ ሕነ ኣይትፍደዩ

    ሓሊፉ ከይዱ ወዲ ኢታይ

    ብዓውታ ኣያይ አንዳበለ ጎይታይ።

    ባሊቓ ዶ’ታ ከቢድዋ’ታ ዕንክሊሉ

    ውይስ መስተ በሊዕዎ ኣካሉ

    ገለዶ’ታ ኣትዩዎ ብኣመሉ

    ሑሱም መርገም ደበና መሲሉ።

    ወዲ ኢታይ ቲ’ዝበልካዮ

    ብስም ስዉኣት ዝማሓልካዮ

    ጥሒስካዮ ቓል ዝኣተኻዮ

    ብስም ማሕዮ

    ክብረን ሚሒካዮ

    ብትዕቢት ባሊቓ

    ክንደይ ሰብ ሓቒቓ

    ኣብ ውዕያ ገልዓሎ

    ተማሃራይ ብዓመጽ ክልሎ

    ገሊኡ ብወቕዒ ክዕሎ

    ኣረሜን ተግባርካ ተሰኒዱ’ሎ።

    ኣብ ጎዳጉድ ኣብ ዒራዒሮ

    ሑዩር ኣሎ ሂውት ዝመረሮ

    ንሓቒ ሓሶት ምስቀበሮ

    ንሕልናኣልቦ ንደንቖሮ

    ፍትሒ ብኸመይ ክስቖሮ።

    ሰኣን ምህሮ ሰኣን ኣእምሮ

    ኢደ በዛ ደቒ ኮማሮ

    ዸግና ኒርካስ ናብ ዜሮ

    ጎዲልካ ክንዲ ዝድመሮ

    ጸሊም ኣጎበር ከልዕሉ ቐባሮ!።

    እቶም ምስ ሬሳ ዝባኣሱ

    በዓል ኢሱ ሚሱ

    እቶም በዓል ንሕና ንሱ

    ሰይጣን ክውድሱ ሓጥያት ዝወረሱ

    ከምስሉ ክበኽዩ‘ዮም ደኒኖም

    ናይ ሓሶት ባንዴራ ተኸዲኖም

    ንምሸቱ ጋይላ ምሕዳሮም

    ኣረቒ ዊስኪ ዓቲሮም

    ብሄረ ህግደፍ ዶ ክንብሎም

    ኣይዋሃድን ባህልና ምስ ባህሎም።

    እዝጊ ክሓድገልካ

    መጻዕደኩዎ ክዳንካ

    ደም አንዶሞ ተዓሊሱ ኢድካ

    ክንደይ ኮን ትኸውን ኣሕሊፍካ።

    ቕድምን ድሓርን እንከይወደንካ

    ዓለም አንካብ ኣርከበትካ

    መልኣከ ሞት እንካብ ጸዋዓካ

    እንካብ ነቐልካ እንካብ ከድካ

    ግብርኻን ተግባርካን የሰኒካ

    ሓንቲአን ድማ ሃህ ኢላ ትቐበልካ።

    • http://awate.com/ Tsige

      To the point, and entertaining.

  • danny

    For the last 23 years, the so called Eritrean government has subdued the population into total submission through sheer force of brute. This government has no purpose nor vision for its existance. It is ironic Wuchu equated the actions of the students as being infected by AIDS, and he himself died of the disease. entay yibehal koynu, etom terifom zelewu sebsiltan ertra nWuchu yemaslom.

    • Dawit

      How do you know he died of AIDS? We truly live in a sick world where rumors and false allegations serve as the truth. Nevertheless the man has passed and we should never talk ill of the dead. RIP to a man who was a gallant fighter in the war for independence

      • danny

        If we take your logic at face value, I suppose people should never talk ill of Hitler, Stalin and Pol Pot. We may as well do away with history all together because history is mostly about dead people. Gee, you higdefawyan never cease to make me shake my head

    • S Michael

      Watch out your dirty and filthy mouth man.Did you test yourself as you might have silent HIV infection as well?
      Just as a courtesy though,most of the veterans suffer from secondary morbidities related to sedentary life style and due to unhealthy diet/lifestyle related illness as these are people who were living running and fighting without enough food and water–hence, leading now to serious metabolic derangements.I can tell you why he died but it is none of your business.

      • danny

        saint michael,
        What is clear here is I am on the side of the students and the Eritrean people while you are a proven ass kisser of the treasenous PFDJ leadership. Who do you think would have a filthy mouth, a normal person or an ass kisser?

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