Home / Negarit / Tsion King and The Degezmati Muslims

Tsion King and The Degezmati Muslims

Until the 7th century, Abyssinia flourished under the Axumite Kingdom which replaced other kingdoms including Damot Belew, and others. It had good relations with the regional kingdoms as well as with the Romans, Persians, Indians. Then it collapsed.

Abyssinian presence in the Arabian Peninsula was so visible and the two cultures saw times of peace and war. Racially, both people claimed ancestry from Shem son of Noah (Semites) but in time, even that didn’t serve them.

After creating the Kebre-Negest myth in 1270 AD, the Abyssinian ruling class became a theocracy and all racial, culture and politics relations were made to serve the Church. Incidentally, the writer of the Kibre-Negest fables was Ibn Al-Assal. Another book that still shapes the Abyssinian Islamophobia is the narration of the 16th century conquests of Ahmed Gragn, is also written by Embaqom, Arab widely believed to a Muslim convert to Christianity. Today, most of the venerated saints of Abyssinia hailed from the Arab lands, including Abba Salama the most famous Egyptian Patriarch of Abyssinia.

Until European missionaries arrived, and later the Ottomans occupied the Red Sea shores, Abyssinia and the Arabs had a fair relation even when the Red Sea Dahlak Archipelago was under the Arab Umayyad rule. Arabic was visibly present in the Abyssinian the culture and the seals of the kings of the time carried Arabic inscription. Even King Yohannes’ seal had an Arabic inscription, and his governor of the Eritrean highlands had no qualms wearing an Arab garb.

In Eritrea, Muslims do not have as many saints but a few notable religious families, revered Sufis like Abdelkader Jelani, and the Quiraishi Mirqaniya family to whom Stti Alewiya, the black African belonged—she was the spiritual leader of the Eritrean Red Sea coast.

Axum was mainly destroyed by a queen named Yodit (aka Gudit, Esatu, Ga’aw, and many other names). The ruthless queen destroyed what little was left of the Axumite Kingdom.

Between 900 – 1137 AD, the Zagwe dynasty ruled the Abyssinian highlands Abyssinia; the dynasty ended when its last king Za-Ilmaknun the last Zagwe King was killed in battle by the forces of the Abyssinian King Yekuno Amlak, who claimed to be a descendant of Menelik, thus of king Solomon, and established the 2nd Solomonic dynasty. Abyssinian kings had to prove a Solomonic blood runs through their veins before they can be crowned, and most of the time, the church came up with fantastic stories to crown the powerful contenders. So did Yohannes claim a Solomonic ancestry and wreaked havoc in the region. But finally, the rule of the 2nd Solomonic dynasty ended in 1974 when the Derg overthrew king Haile Selassie.

Yohannes seal carries an inscription in Geez and Arabic. King of Kings Yohannes of Tsion and of Ethiopia. He was a bigoted and cruel ruler who cut the tongue of a theologian who contradicted him in a debate and ordered the blinding of king Tekhlegiorgis with a hot wire put on his eyes. Ras Alula was the absolute governor of Eritrea under king Yohannes.

The Conference of Buru Meda

Yohannes wanted to convert the entire country to one faith. To this end, in 1878 he held a theological council at Buru Meda, Wollo region of Abyssinia. Then he delegitimized all other sects and religions except his church which was known as Karra. Yohannes was so obsessed with the Christology debate of the time and the Buru Meda proclamation ordered the other Orthodox churches of Abyssinia (Sgga and Qbat), the Catholic, Protestant, and Muslim faith, as well as the Pagans, and others to covert and accept the Karra doctrines. If they refused to convert, they must either leave the territories he ruled over and go into exile or face the sword.

The proclamation was hard on Muslims, while most others could easily blend in and hide their faith, the Muslims had difficulty in hiding their faith due to some noticeable cultural traits that they couldn’t hide. They changed their names, their manners, and clothes to hide their faith—It was the time compound names became popular, Mohammed Berhan, Mohammed Hagos, Mohammed Saeed, Mohammed Saleh, Mohammed Nur, etc. And the women were given faith neutral names like Lemlem, Mebrat, and the like.

That was the time Ras Alula ruled the highlands and two of his deputies established camps carrying their names: The plateau of Adi Tekhlai and plain of Adi Gebru which today are large villages. As for the Tsegga and Qbbat, though they were forced to accept the decrees of the council, even today they still exist in small pockets in the region and to this day the Tewaḥdo faction dominates life in Abyssinia.

Complaining to the Naib

Abyssinian warlords travel with their pack animals, retinues, slaves, women, and children. When the men go to invade and pillage, their families are left in camps with a few guards and soon they established themselves where they settled. Until then, for instance, Adi Teklai and Adi Gebru served as internment camps for Muslims rounded up from their farms in the surrounding villages.

The Muslims could not bear the injustices and sought help from the Naib of Massawa who came to their rescue. He threatened Yohannes he will block Abyssinian access to the port unless he treated the Muslims nicely. Alula convinced Yohannes the matter was serious, and he devised a plan. Alula arranged for the Degiat of Tsazega to sponsor the Muslims so that they can have some freedom to move around and attend to their farms and houses, though most were taken by the hordes. Thereafter, the Muslims got a little relief. However, when Alula’s soldiers found Muslims moving freely, they harassed them: ‘You Muslim guy! Why are you moving around?’ The person would reply, “I am Aslamay Degezmati (Sponsored by the Degezmatch of the village of Tsaazega).

Why the Islamophobia

And that is the inspiration of the Islamophobia adopted by the bigots, the fascists who threaten Muslims: we will intern you; we will kill you; we will own you, etc. It’s that tradition they are dreaming of reviving. It’s probable they are children of the marauding peasant soldiers who arrived in the place with Alula and owned the land that earlier belonged to other people who were dispossessed of their lands. And they are not ashamed of referencing Israel as model of a religious state where they rule the rest. It’s the unjust anti-peace belief of “we own everything, and you do not exist.”

The mentality of intolerance and fanaticism of Yohannes is inherited by a segment of Abyssinian elite who never failed in agitating the masses using the language that Yohannes used in rallying his subjects. It’s even worse because unlike Yohannes whose agitation was spread through word of mouth at a very slow pace, todays sectarians use the internet to cover the world with their hate filled, bigoted messages. Still, they do not know what is behind the never-ending conflicts in our region or pretend not to know it. But it’s a conflict between hegemonic segments who come in different forms equipped with different reasoning fit for the time. But they are always true to their hegemonic aspirations. It’s the usual shifting alliances between the Abyssinian elite of the Amhara, Tigrai, and the Eritrean highlands with a little tweaking depending on the situation. The ruling elite have always abused their monopoly of power and they have nothing to show for it except ignorance, destitution, poverty, and bloodshed.

So, those dream of converting others or interning free citizens to appease their sick ego need to ask their Ancestors (abowatom and emowatom), to which sect their ancestors belonged before Yohannes forced them to convert.

NB: The above is a close translation of the content of Negarit 130 and is the 3rd part of a four-part series.

About Saleh "Gadi" Johar

Born and raised in Keren, Eritrea, now a US citizen residing in California, Mr. Saleh “Gadi” Johar is founder and publisher of awate.com. Author of Miriam was Here, Of Kings and Bandits, and Simply Echoes. Saleh is acclaimed for his wealth of experience and knowledge in the history and politics of the Horn of Africa. A prominent public speaker and a researcher specializing on the Horn of Africa, he has given many distinguished lectures and participated in numerous seminars and conferences around the world. Activism Awate.com was founded by Saleh “Gadi” Johar and is administered by the Awate Team and a group of volunteers who serve as the website’s advisory committee. The mission of awate.com is to provide Eritreans and friends of Eritrea with information that is hidden by the Eritrean regime and its surrogates; to provide a platform for information dissemination and opinion sharing; to inspire Eritreans, to embolden them into taking action, and finally, to lay the groundwork for reconciliation whose pillars are the truth. Miriam Was Here This book that was launched on August 16, 2013, is based on true stories; in writing it, Saleh has interviewed dozens of victims and eye-witnesses of Human trafficking, Eritrea, human rights, forced labor.and researched hundreds of pages of materials. The novel describes the ordeal of a nation, its youth, women and parents. It focuses on violation of human rights of the citizens and a country whose youth have become victims of slave labor, human trafficking, hostage taking, and human organ harvesting--all a result of bad governance. The main character of the story is Miriam, a young Eritrean woman; her father Zerom Bahta Hadgembes, a veteran of the struggle who resides in America and her childhood friend Senay who wanted to marry her but ended up being conscripted. Kings and Bandits Saleh “Gadi” Johar tells a powerful story that is never told: that many "child warriors" to whom we are asked to offer sympathies befitting helpless victims and hostages are actually premature adults who have made a conscious decision to stand up against brutality and oppression, and actually deserve our admiration. And that many of those whom we instinctively feel sympathetic towards, like the Ethiopian king Emperor Haile Sellassie, were actually world-class tyrants whose transgressions would normally be cases in the World Court. Simply Echoes A collection of romantic, political observations and travel poems; a reflection of the euphoric years that followed Eritrean Independence in 1991.

Check Also

Negarit 129: Wise leaders Build, Machos Destroy

In today’s Negarit 129, I will tell you some additional information about Tedros and Kassa …

  • Simon Kaleab

    Selam Saleh G.,

    You said:

    “the Abyssinian ruling class became a theocracy and all racial, culture and politics relations”

    In fact, it is the Arabs who suddenly became religious and ‘race’ fanatics. They invaded Egypt and the whole of North Africa, Syria, the Holy Land including Jerusalem, Iraq and Persia (Iran), to name but few. Until then, religious wars were almost unheard of.

    Now, the world became cursed with the two plagues: religion and ‘race’.

    These foolish things, by Bryan Ferry:
    https://youtu.be/vYUpq2dTnnY

    • Saleh Johar

      Simon,
      Yes, I thought the topic was Abyssinia! But you are right, all primitive societies had the same traits and I will not list them all because I am sure you know them. But the Arabs? I am not sure who among the Arabs because it’s a wide brush. But on theocracy, even Europeans did it until recently–remember the crusades? That was the norm. But I think the most significant comparison is the Wahabi of Saudi Arabia and the Abyssinian clergy come from the same mould.

      • Simon Kaleab

        Selam Saleh G.,

        By the Arabs, meaning the Arabs from the Hijaz who started it all.

        The Crusades was a conflict between two sets of fanatics, Muslims and Christians, over a land that doesn’t belong to them. As you know, that land belongs to the Jews.

        In Europe, a better example of fanaticism is the Inquisition.

        • Saleh Johar

          Simon,

          Oh Yes, God gave it to them 3000 years ago–who would challenge that? Many Christian fanatics agree with you. I would have continued but I see where this leads–exposing Islamophobia after we though we passed through Arabphobia 🙂 It’s all leads to the usual bigotry and fanaticism. I am out.

    • said

      Greetings,
      Simon
      As a devoted Christian perhaps you know some what about Jewish faith .you find in depth Article by RON UNZ ,he is Jewish and scholar. when read the article you will find new knowledge and what you will discovered will surprise you and you will be totally astonished?

      American Pravda: RON UNZ Jewish scholar American Pravda: Please find the link to the article .https://www.unz.com/runz/american-pravda-oddities-of-the-jewish-religion/

    • said

      Greetings,
      Simon
      Let me summarize for you the long article (American Pravda: Oddities of the Jewish Religion). according to the article .Traditionally religious Jews pay little attention to most of the Old Testament. their religious doctrine is sometimes called “Talmudic Judaism.”
      According to the Jewish Talmud, Jesus is perhaps the vilest being who ever lived, condemned to spend eternity in the bottommost pit of Hell, immersed in a boiling vat of excrement.
      Christian Bible represents purest evil, and if circumstances permit, burning Bibles is a very praiseworthy act.

      The primarily involving the relationship between Jews and non-Jews, with the highly derogatory term GOYM frequently used to describe the latter. To put it bluntly, Jews have divine souls and goyim do not, being merely beasts in the shape of men. Indeed, the primary reason for the existence of non-Jews is to serve as the slaves of Jews, with some very high-ranking rabbis occasionally stating this well-known fact. In 2010, Israel’s top Sephardic rabbi used his weekly sermon to declare that the only reason for the existence of non-Jews is to serve Jews and do work for them. The enslavement or extermination of all non-Jews seems an ultimate implied goal of the religion. in a published article a prominent Israeli rabbi explained that if a Jew needed a liver, it would be perfectly fine and indeed obligatory, to kill an innocent Gentile and take his.
      Religious Judaism has a decidedly negative view towards all non-Jews, Christianity in particular is regarded as a total abomination, which must be wiped from the face of the earth.
      Christian Zionists are enthusiastic advocates for Jews, Judaism, and Israel, and some of that enthusiasm is based upon total ignorance.

      • Reclaim Abyssinia

        Thank you Said,
        I can’t wait to tell this story at my next gathering with mates on the weekend 😂. Where do you get all this info from? Are you theologist, Islamist, historian, Social Mediest, etc..
        Cheers,
        Reclaim

        • Simon Kaleab

          Selam RA,

          Said is peddling long debunked conspiracy theories from a book called ‘The Protocols of the Elders of Zion’. This book of lies was manufactured by the secret service during the era of Tsarist Russia. The book is still very popular in many Arab/Muslim countries.

          • said

            Greeting,
            Simon,

            You are totally wrong to quote me something I did not said, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion’ Zionist protocol your commented to Reclaim Abyssinia is false and lie .
            Read the article and then respond with honesty and integrity the writer of the article is Jewish and chief editor of UNZ magazine. He give many reference, highly researched article. I have debated with you many times ,you always come up with false narrative and change subject, refute the article if you are able .it is not my personal opinion and you have hard time digesting the article .All the quotation he put it is publicly well known fact
            One have to be clear not be a Jew and Judaism hatred or antisemitism. Christian Zionist movement plays a major role ,in the long bloody history of the colonization of Palestine.
            It is known fact Christian Zionists are leading the call for the U.S. to unconditionally support Israel.
            Simon you said below Jerusalem belong to the Jewish people. you get your reference about Jerusalem from master John Hagee, the chairman and founder of Christians United for Israel (CUFI). The largest pro-Israel lobby group in the U.S., he recently tweeted that Jerusalem and Israel belong to the Jewish people, and encouraged Christians to “take a stand against evil” and show “unconditional love and support for Israel.”

            Let me remind you, Jewish Zionism is a newer development than Christian Zionism ,It is well known fact for century about Christian Zionist movements are motivated primarily by the belief that Jews taking control over the biblical land of Israel will bring about Jesus’ second coming and the end of the Time or how the world will end , when Christians Zionis will reach salvation and non-Christians — including Muslims and Jews — will be annihilated. These End Times theologies have roots in 16th-century Protestantism in Europe and mainly UK. You must be very familiar as Christian Zionist followers with Public figures, John Nelson Darby Lord Shaftesbury, and William Blackstone ,to quite few began proselytizing the End Times prophecy and come up and conjuring up ideas of a Jewish homeland in Palestine decades before prominent Jewish Zionists called for the same, it is in a public record . from where all it started and the well known Britain’s Arthur Balfour, whose Balfour Declaration promised a Jewish homeland in Palestine, was himself a noted Christian Zionist. Balfour, an avid antisemite, And Christian Zionists occupied the highest offices of the Trump administration, including former Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and former Vice President Mike Pence, John Hagee for his overtly antisemitic views are well knoun. In his sermon was publicized in which Hagee claimed that God intended the Holocaust, and had prophesied it in the Book of Jeremiah, As reported in TIME magazine. Christian Zionism is at its core antisemitic and also anti-Muslim and others too.

            As reported fact Great Britain and Western powers, who ultimately partitioned Palestine and Israel. No doubt, and not out of love for Jewish people Christian Zionist leaders viewed the displacement of Jews out of Europe into Palestine as a convenient solution to the “Jewish question,” Christian Zionists today and in past view the 1948 establishment of the State of Israel as a fulfilment of biblical End Times prophecy. And as a sign that God is blessing Israel and paving the way for Jesus’ return.
            My be you need to see RAPTURE MOVIES as it was put clearly Bible and the end times. Presenting a somber warning It’s the Seventh Year of the Tribulation. The world is in ruins. Christianity has all but disappeared, except for small bands of believers, hiding, surviving, and waiting for the Second Coming. wars, invasions and offensives have been seen as escalating measures that foreshadow the End Times that will bring Christians into salvation and annihilate non-Christians.—this will will including Palestinian Christians — is absent from Christian Zionism since Jewish rule over Palestine is key to unlocking the End Times. what kind of End Times prophecy. And narration
            in their End Times and believing Jews are ultimately “damned to hell.”

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Said,

            Who is John Hagee? I have no idea and I don’t care about what he says..

            Historically, there was no country called Arab Palestine, but only Jewish Palestine.You may ask Roman emperors Hadrian, Vespasian and Titus (dead long ago). The land was renamed as Palestine by Hadrian to punish Jewish rebelliousness.

            The Muslim Arab army invaded the land, led by Caliph Omar bin Khattab, in 636 AD.

            You are shooting in the dark with conspiracy theories.

          • said

            Greeting
            Simon
            Amazing, I am not surprised ,Which part I am shooting in the dark with conspiracy theories, backed up .it is about an article with reference that I referred to you ,the doctrine is of “Talmudic Judaism. is not a conspiracy theories .Your dishonesty obviously continues in the same pattern and down same manner as in the past .when you have no argument and answer you make up with history of Palestine .which I never mentioned ,just like I never mentioned Zion protocol, you make up thing to suite hate monger, is nothing new. You don’t practice, “Love Thy Neighbor”. You tell me western Jews spent two thousand years living as a diaspora people, the land of Palestine belong to them based on old bible. and I would not be surprised you will come up again with another an related argument .It seem you had hard with article and you don’t know what make up with it First of all ,the article was about Jews religion and faithful Jews pay little attention to most of the Old Testament. And their religious doctrine is s called “Talmudic Judaism.” And Talmud represents a massive accretion of published commentary built up over more than a millennium, I give you as example above with summary to make easy for you and I was hoping you refuted the opinion based on the article I sent you that Jewish lives have infinite value, and non-Jewish ones none at all and the article further says negative view towards all religious Judaism non-Jews, Christianity in particular is regarded as a total abomination, which must be wiped from the face of the earth. For example, according to mainstream Talmudic doctrine, black Africans are traditionally placed somewhere between people and monkeys in their intrinsic nature, are you aware of this religious dogma. Read the article .The disheartening facts that have so completely upended you understanding of reality and you have no fact to refute expect as usual come up with twisted fact .

            You do not the history and the fact of Umar ibn al-Khattab in liberating Jerusalem and it is a city holy to the three largest monotheistic faiths – Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. History tell us that the Byzantine Empire made clear its desire to eliminate the new Muslim religion growing on its southern borders. Imperial Roman Byzantine Empire ruled and conquered Syria and Palestine .as recorded history tell us .The decisive Battle of Yarmuk in 636 was a huge blow to Byzantine power in the greater region. Muslim armies were looked at as liberator from Byzantine Empire welcomed by the local population – both Jews and Christians. The majority of the Christians of the region were Monophysites, and they had many theological differences. Byzantine Empire. They welcomed Muslim rule over the area instead of the Byzantines. By 637, Muslim armies began to appear in the vicinity of Jerusalem. began to surround the city, Sophronius refused to surrender the city unless Umar ibn al-Khattab came to accept the surrender himself..

            Umar ibn al-Khattab left Madinah,a long journey travelling alone with one donkey and one only on helper . When he arrived in Jerusalem, he was greeted by Sophronius, who undoubtedly must have been amazed that the caliph of the Muslims, one of the most powerful people in the world at that time, was dressed in no more than simple robes and was indistinguishable from his helper and on Umar and helper alternating to ride the donkey.
            When the time for prayer came, Sophronius invited Umar to pray inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, but Umar absolutely refused and ibn al-Khattab . He insisted that if he prayed there, later in time and future Muslims would use it as an excuse to convert it into a mosque – thereby depriving Christendom of one of its holiest sites. And Umar protecting and honroing Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Umar prayed outside the Church.. This treaty was signed by Umar and Patriarch Sophronius, given them an assurance of safety for themselves for their property, their churches, their crosses, the sick and healthy of the city and for all the rituals which belong to their religion..

            Their churches will not be inhabited by Muslims and will not be destroyed. Neither they, nor the land on which they stand, nor their cross, nor their property will be damaged. They will not be forcibly converted.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Said,

            Which research institute does the author of this article, recycled from ‘The Protocols’, belong to?

            You claim that Caliph Omar bin Khattab liberated Jerusalem.

            Fact check:
            – after the Jewish uprising against Roman colonial rule in 70 AD, the Romans massacred the population and destroyed the Temple. Also, Emperor Hadrian renamed the land as Palestine after the last Jewish revolt of 132 AD

            – Few hundred years later, the Romans became Christians and expelled and banned Jews from entering Jerusalem

            – In 636 AD, the Muslim Arab army under Caliph Omar invaded Jewish Palestine, replacing one form of dictatorship by another.

          • said

            Greeting
            Simon,
            You come up with your one line view and you said recycled from ‘The Protocols’, that is all you can say .even those I summarized for you twice . why do not you refute and show us which part is from ‘The Protocols’, The subject was about article clearly about the faith of Jewish people and about the doctrine is of “Talmudic Judaism “ since you have nothing to say about the article .you choose to talk about Omer Ibn Khattab ,what a jump of an issue .

            It is interesting you said fact ,you are not held accountable to the truth, you could not Fact check: Trump lies, let alone event of thousand year ago . you an inability to deal with reality and fact let me remind you. Trump’s 35,000 documented lies. you believed his lies .Trump failed over and over and over to persuade the judicial branch to sanction their usurpation of the Constitution..

            This was in January of this year and you continue to believe till the very end. The assault on the Capitol on January 6th was the most conspicuous effort to overthrow the legitimately elected government of the United States. As a Trump devotees fully behind his false claims of a stolen election and you argued till the end with me. you remember, don’t you? – he tried to overturn the results. As devotees you believed Trump’s big lie that the 2020 election was stolen, and that President Biden is not legitimate. As devotees of right wing “Stop the Steal” you can not tell truth from lies and you belived never-ending torrent of lies, idiocies, and absurdities you ve been programmed to fear and hate and blame . The endless effusion of lies ever turn out to be true did not matter to you.so you did repeatedly abandoned in favor of newer lies for the next news cycle. You win The gold standard for shamelessness.

            According to Britannica .Umar was universally respected for his justice and authority. His role in decisively shaping the early Islamic community is widely acknowledged. According oxford reference he, Establishing the Islamic calendar, organizing state pensions, and upholding justice.
            you said in 636 AD, the Muslim Arab army under Caliph Omar invaded Jewish Palestine, replacing one form of dictatorship by another. First there was no Jewish Palestine state at that time
            you make it up . it was Roman empire that rule the entire region and the majority of the habitant were Arab.
            I want refer you Michael H. Hart wrote a book entitled “THE 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History” in 1978. Michael Hart’s choice of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab among the 100 influential persons, 52nd on the list. Higher than Julius Caesa. Among many achievement Michael said his contributions to humanity are great. that every human being was born free and no one should have to abase himself in front of others. “Since when have you turned men into slaves, whereas they are born free of their mothers?” Greeting
            Simon,
            You come up with your one line view and you said recycled from ‘The Protocols’, that is all you can say .even those I summarized for you twice . why do not you refute and show us which part is from ‘The Protocols’, The subject was about article clearly about the faith of Jewish people and about the doctrine is of “Talmudic Judaism “ since you have nothing to say about the article .you choose to talk about Omer Ibn Khattab ,what a jump of an issue .

            It is interesting you said fact ,you are not held accountable to the truth, you could not Fact check: Trump lies, let alone event of thousand year ago . you an inability to deal with reality and fact let me remind you. Trump’s 35,000 documented lies. you believed his lies .Trump failed over and over and over to persuade the judicial branch to sanction their usurpation of the Constitution..

            This was in January of this year and you continue to believe till the very end. The assault on the Capitol on January 6th was the most conspicuous effort to overthrow the legitimately elected government of the United States. As a Trump devotees fully behind his false claims of a stolen election and you argued till the end with me. you remember, don’t you? – he tried to overturn the results. As devotees you believed Trump’s big lie that the 2020 election was stolen, and that President Biden is not legitimate. As devotees of right wing “Stop the Steal” you can not tell truth from lies and you blived never-ending torrent of lies, idiocies, and absurdities you ve been programmed to fear and hate and blame . The endless effusion of lies ever turn out to be true did not matter to you.so you did repeatedly abandoned in favor of newer lies for the next news cycle. You win The gold standard for shamelessness.
            According to Britannica .Umar was universally respected for his justice and authority. His role in decisively shaping the early Islamic community is widely acknowledged. According oxford reference he, Establishing the Islamic calendar, organizing state pensions, and upholding justice.

            I want refer you Michael H. Hart wrote a book entitled “THE 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History” in 1978. Michael Hart’s choice of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab among the 100 influential persons, 52nd on the list. Higher than Julius Caesa. Among many achievement Michael said his contributions to humanity are great. that every human being was born free and no one should have to abase himself in front of others. “Since when have you turned men into slaves, whereas they are born free of their mothers?”
            Simon you do not know the history Islam ,other your hate like Christian Zionist and you do not about fact of Omer and you are not remotely qualified to call him dictator ,it is disgraceful and an insult, that is your habitual hate and you nothing else to say . Umar Ibn Al-Khattab was the second Caliph of the Muslim Ummah and the first Muslim leader to be called the Commander of the Faithful.

            And Hart says achievements are impressive that Umar Ibn Al-Khattab ordered the Muslim armies to leave the natives of the conquered land in peace and ordered the military personnel not to force the natives to convert to Islam. He was a leader, a statesman, a pious and God conscious Muslim who showed respect for all individuals including non-Muslims and he ordered the Muslims to treat non-Muslims with respect. Michael says. He showed us how to apply the Quranic injunction “there is no compulsion in religion.” Omar (r) was a superb administrator. He established a Shura (consultative) council and sought advice on matters of state.

            Under the leadership of Umar ibn Al-Khattab Islam spread widely by virtue of its beauty, simplicity, transparency, openness and the leadership provided by him. And conversion of some high-placed religious personalities from among the Jewish and the Christian communities. These religious personalities saw Islam as a continuation and affirmation of the Abrahamic faith. Ardkun, the Bishop of Damascus, accepted Islam after the Islamic armies entered the city. The followers of Ardkun became attracted towards the new faith and became Muslim. The chief administrator of the city of Shata in Egypt, left his town with two thousand men and went to city of Damietta where the Muslim army was camped and embraced Islam with his followers. At his time . two superpowers .The Persian and Byzantine empires held the balance of power in the region . Omer altered this balance of power. It was a situation that neither the Byzantines nor the Persians could ignore. As reported Khosroe, the emperor of Persia, was on record as having ordered an assault on Madina. The Byzantines had attacked on the northern frontier and had killed the Muslim general Zaid bin Haris (632) in short with great detail we know what happened . The triumph of Omar (r) over the mighty empires of Persia and Byzantium within a brief span of ten years is one of the most remarkable stories,. Simply put ,humankind is born into freedom and is beholden only to the transcendence of God. The Battle of Yarmuk (636) had broken Byzantine resistance. the Patriarch of Jerusalem offered the keys to the city provided the Caliph himself came up to accept them.
            A huge army of 150,000 was assembled and put under the command of Mardan Shah who had already seen action against the Arabs at the Battle of the Euphrates. Persians empire was defeated in the plain of Qadasia. and the Muslims were victorious. And marked the end of the Persian Empire.

            Crusaders killed and massacred tens of thousand of Muslim and Jewish people .main while history tell us Omar (r) treated the conquered people with unsurpassed magnanimity. The capitulation document signed with the Christians upon the fall of Jerusalem provides an example as above treaty, no need to repeat .The document speaks for itself. The Muslim armies were fighting for the freedom of worship, not for religious conversion.

            Umar (r.a) had special characteristics .As I mentioned above treaties were signed. In short “They shall not be required to change their religion “ , nor shall any interference be made in their religious practices.” the non-Muslims enjoyed freedom of religion. They were free to perform their religious rites, ring bells to start their religious ceremonies, take out the Cross in procession and hold religious fairs.
            Omer was known for his justices unlike no other. in his inauguration he said, “Oh people, know that I have been appointed to govern your affairs, so recognize that my roughness is now weakened, but I will continue to be rough and harsh on the people of oppression and transgression and will put their cheeks into the dirt. Know also that I will put my own cheek into the dirt to defend the people of piety.” As I mentioned above he never felt it necessary to have a body guard.he went to Jerusalem alone with one of his helper? Umar considered himself an ordinary and lived a life of humility. He is a role model for compassion .equality strength, justice, love, and he treated people with mercy to all mankind .
            Simon you do not know the history Islam nor of Christianity, do make your self full, beside your hate like Christian Zionist and you do not about fact of Omer and you are not remotely qualified to call him dictator ,it is disgraceful and an insult, that is your habitual hate and you have nothing else to say . Umar Ibn Al-Khattab was the second Caliph of the Muslim Ummah and the first Muslim leader to be called the Commander of the Faithful. and highly respected by many none Muslim historian

            And Hart says achievements are impressive that Umar Ibn Al-Khattab ordered the Muslim armies to leave the natives of the conquered land in peace and ordered the military personnel not to force the natives to convert to Islam. He was a leader, a statesman, a pious and God conscious Muslim who showed respect for all individuals including non-Muslims and he ordered the Muslims to treat non-Muslims with respect. Michael says. He showed us how to apply the Quranic injunction “there is no compulsion in religion.” Omar (r) was a superb administrator. He established a Shura (consultative) council and sought advice on matters of state.
            Under the leadership of Umar ibn Al-Khattab Islam spread widely by virtue of its beauty, simplicity, transparency, openness and the leadership provided by him. And conversion of some high-placed religious personalities from among the Jewish and the Christian communities. These religious personalities saw Islam as a continuation and affirmation of the Abrahamic faith. Ardkun, the Bishop of Damascus, accepted Islam after the Islamic armies entered the city. The followers of Ardkun became attracted towards the new faith and became Muslim. The chief administrator of the city of Shata in Egypt, left his town with two thousand men and went to city of Damietta where the Muslim army was camped and embraced Islam with his followers. At his time . two superpowers .The Persian and Byzantine empires held the balance of power in the region . Omer altered this balance of power. It was a situation that neither the Byzantines nor the Persians could ignore. As reported Khosroe, the emperor of Persia, was on record as having ordered an assault on Madina. The Byzantines had attacked on the northern frontier and had killed the Muslim general Zaid bin Haris (632) in short with great detail we know what happened . The triumph of Omar (r) over the mighty empires of Persia and Byzantium within a brief span of ten years is one of the most remarkable stories,. Simply put ,humankind is born into freedom and is beholden only to the transcendence of God. The Battle of Yarmuk (636) had broken Byzantine resistance. the Patriarch of Jerusalem offered the keys to the city provided the Caliph himself came up to accept them.
            A huge army of 150,000 was assembled and put under the command of Mardan Shah who had already seen action against the Arabs at the Battle of the Euphrates. Persians empire was defeated in the plain of Qadasia. and the Muslims were victorious. And marked the end of the Persian Empire.

            Crusaders killed and massacred tens of thousand of Muslim and Jewish people .main while history tell us Omar (r) treated the conquered people with unsurpassed magnanimity. The capitulation document signed with the Christians upon the fall of Jerusalem provides an example as above treaty, no need to repeat .The document speaks for itself. The Muslim armies were fighting for the freedom of worship, not for religious conversion.

            Umar (r.a) had special characteristics .As I mentioned above treaties were signed. In short “They shall not be required to change their religion “ , nor shall any interference be made in their religious practices.” the non-Muslims enjoyed freedom of religion. They were free to perform their religious rites, ring bells to start their religious ceremonies, take out the Cross in procession and hold religious fairs.
            Omer was known for his justices unlike no other. in his inauguration he said, “Oh people, know that I have been appointed to govern your affairs, so recognize that my roughness is now weakened, but I will continue to be rough and harsh on the people of oppression and transgression and will put their cheeks into the dirt. Know also that I will put my own cheek into the dirt to defend the people of piety.” As I mentioned above he never felt it necessary to have a body guard.he went to Jerusalem alone with one of his helper? Umar considered himself an ordinary and lived a life of humility. He is a role model for compassion .equality strength, justice, love, and he treated people with mercy to all mankind .

          • said

            greeting moderator please note i reentered the text twice sorry

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Said,

            You still have not told me which research institute your author belongs to.

            It was not a big deal and surprising that the Muslim Arab armies defeated both the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) and Persian empires. The two empires were fighting each other for many, many, many decades. They were exhausted. In addition, they were utterly corrupt and were hated by the people. Someone was needed to kick their doors in for their whole structures to come falling down. But if the people thought the Muslim Arab invaders would be a better alternative, they were hugely disappointed.

            Some of Caliph Omar’s laws. To stay alive, non-Muslims must obey these laws.

            Non-Muslims must pay Jizyah (poll tax).

            Prohibition against building new churches, synagogues

            Prohibition against rebuilding destroyed churches, by day or night, in their own neighbourhoods or those situated in the quarters of the Muslims.

            The worship places of non-Muslims must be lower in elevation than the lowest mosque in town.

            The houses of non-Muslims must not be taller in elevation than the houses of Muslims.

            Prohibition against hanging a cross on the Churches.

            Muslims should be allowed to enter Churches (for shelter) in any time, both in day and night.

            Obliging the call of prayer by a bell or a kind of Gong (Nakos) to be low in volume.

            Prohibition of Christians and Jews against raising their voices at prayer times.

            Prohibition against teaching non-Muslim children the Qur’an.

            Prohibition against teaching non-Muslim children the Qur’an.

            Christians were forbidden to show their religion in public, or to be seen with Christian books or symbols in public, on the roads or in the markets of the Muslims.

            Palm Sunday and Easter parades were banned

            Obligation to show deference toward Muslims. If a Muslim wishes to sit, non-Muslim should be rise from his seats and let the Muslim sit.

            Prohibition against preaching to Muslims in an attempt to convert them from Islam.

            Prohibition against preventing the conversion to Islam of some one who wants to convert.

            The appearance of the non-Muslims has to be different from those of the Muslims: Prohibition against wearing Qalansuwa (kind of dome that was used to wear by Bedouin), Bedouin turban (Amamh), Muslims shoes, and Sash to their waists. As to their heads, it was forbidden to comb the hair sidewise as the Muslim custom, and they were forced to cut the hair in the front of the head. Also non-Muslim shall not imitate the Arab-Muslim way of speech nor shall adopt the kunyas (Arabic byname, such as “abu Khattib”).

            Obligation to identify non-Muslims as such by clipping the heads’ forelocks and by always dressing in the same manner, wherever they go, with binding the zunnar (a kind of belt) around the waists. Christians to wear blue belts or turbans, Jews to wear yellow belts or turbans, Zoroastrians to wear black belts or turbans, and Samaritans to wear red belts or turbans.

            Prohibition against any possession of weapons.

            Non-Muslims must host a Muslim passerby for at least 3 days and feed him

            Prohibition against non-Muslims to lead, govern or employ Muslims.

            If a non-Muslim beats a Muslim, his Dhimmi protection is removed.

          • said

            Greeting
            Simon,
            You come up with your one line view and you said recycled from ‘The Protocols’, that is all you can say .even those I summarized for you twice . why do you not refute and show us which part is from ‘The Protocols’, The subject was about the faith of Jewish people and about the doctrine is of “Talmudic Judaism “ since you have nothing to say about the article .you choose to talk about Omer Ibn Khattab ,what a jump of an issue that was related .

            It is interesting you said fact ,you are not held accountable to the truth, you could not Fact check. Trump lies, let alone event of thousand year ago . you can deal with truth , you have an inability to deal with reality and fact, let me remind you. Trump’s 35,000 documented lies. you believed his lies .Trump failed over and over and over to persuade the judicial branch to sanction their usurpation of the Constitution..

            This was in January of this year and you continue to believe till the very end. The assault on the Capitol on January 6th was the most conspicuous effort to overthrow the legitimately elected government of the United States. As a Trump devotees you are fully behind his false claims of a stolen election and you argued till the end with me. you remember, don’t you? – he tried to overturn the results. As devotees you believed Trump’s big lie that the 2020 election was stolen, and that President Biden is not legitimate.

            As devotees of right wing “Stop the Steal” you can not tell truth from lies and you believed never-ending torrent of lies, idiocies, and absurdities you ve been programmed to fear and hate and blame . The endless effusion of lies ever turn out to be true did not matter to you.so you did repeatedly abandoned in favor of newer lies for the next news cycle. You win the gold standard for shamelessness.

            According to Britannica .Umar was universally respected for his justice and authority. His role in decisively shaping the early Islamic community is widely acknowledged. According oxford reference he, Establishing the Islamic calendar, organizing state pensions, and upholding justice.

            I want refer you Michael H. Hart wrote a book entitled “THE 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History” in 1978. Michael Hart’s choice of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab among the 100 influential persons, 52nd on the list. Higher than Julius Caesa.
            Among many achievement Michael said his contributions to humanity are great. Omer said that every human being was born free and no one should have to abase himself in front of others. “Since when have you turned men into slaves, whereas they are born free of their mothers?”

            Simon you do not know the history Islam ,other your hate like Christian Zionist and you do not know about fact of Omer and you are not remotely qualified to call him dictator ,it is disgraceful and an insult, that is your habitual hate and you have nothing else to say . Umar Ibn Al-Khattab was the second Caliph of the Muslim Ummah and the first Muslim leader to be called the Commander of the Faithful.

            And Hart says achievements are impressive that Umar Ibn Al-Khattab ordered the Muslim armies to leave the natives of the conquered land in peace and ordered the military personnel not to force the natives to convert to Islam. He was a leader, a statesman, a pious and God conscious Muslim who showed respect for all individuals including non-Muslims and he ordered the Muslims to treat non-Muslims with respect. Michael says. He showed us how to apply the Quranic injunction “there is no compulsion in religion.” Omar (r) was a superb administrator. He established a Shura (consultative) council and sought advice on matters of state.

            As reported Ardkun, the Bishop of Damascus, accepted Islam after the Islamic armies entered the city. The followers of Ardkun became attracted towards the new faith and became Muslim. The chief administrator of the city of Shata in Egypt, left his town with two thousand men and went to city of Damietta where the Muslim army was camped and embraced Islam with his followers. At his time . two superpowers .The Persian and Byzantine empires held the balance of power in the region . Omer altered this balance of power. It was a situation that neither the Byzantines nor the Persians could ignore.

            As reported Khosroe, the emperor of Persia, was on record as having ordered an assault on Madina. The Byzantines had attacked on the northern frontier and had killed the Muslim general Zaid bin Haris (632) in short with great detail we know what happened . The triumph of Omar (r) over the mighty empires of Persia and Byzantium within a brief span of ten years is one of the most remarkable stories,.
            For Omar Simply put ,humankind is born into freedom and is beholden only to the transcendence of God. The Battle of Yarmuk (636) had broken Byzantine resistance. the Patriarch of Jerusalem offered the keys to the city provided the Caliph himself came up to accept them.

            A huge Persian Empire army of 150,000 was assembled and put under the command of Mardan Shah who had already seen action against the Arabs at the Battle of the Euphrates. Persians empire was defeated in the plain of Qadasia. and the Muslims were victorious. And marked the end of the Persian Empire.

            Umar (r.a) had special characteristics .As I mentioned above treaties were signed. In short “They shall not be required to change their religion “ , nor shall any interference be made in their religious practices.” the non-Muslims enjoyed freedom of religion. They were free to perform their religious rites, ring bells to start their religious ceremonies, take out the Cross in procession and hold religious fairs.

            Omer was known for his justices unlike no other. in his inauguration he said, “Oh people, know that I have been appointed to govern your affairs, so recognize that my roughness is now weakened, but I will continue to be rough and harsh on the people of oppression and transgression and will put their cheeks into the dirt. Know also that I will put my own cheek into the dirt to defend the people of piety.” As I mentioned above he never felt it necessary to have a body guard. he went to Jerusalem alone with one of his helper? Umar considered himself an ordinary and lived a life of humility. He is a role model for compassion .equality strength, justice, love, and he treated people with mercy to all mankind .

            Under the leadership of Umar ibn Al-Khattab Islam spread widely by virtue of its beauty, simplicity, transparency, openness and the leadership provided by him. And conversion of some high-placed religious personalities from among the Jewish and the Christian communities. These religious personalities saw Islam as a continuation and affirmation of the Abrahamic faith.

            Crusaders killed and massacred tens of thousand of Muslim and Jewish people .main while history tell us Omar (r) treated the conquered people with unsurpassed magnanimity. The capitulation document signed with the Christians upon the fall of Jerusalem provides an example as above treaty, no need to repeat .The document speaks for itself. The Muslim armies were fighting for the freedom of worship, not for religious conversion.

            .

        • said

          Greeting
          Reclaim
          Thank you .I was responding to Simon as you can see ,he is good with written few line that are not relevant to context. The ideas to the modern world it is open to every society . our region are still in the darkness of the Middle Ages.
          We need to catch up with three hundred years of human progress. The Enlightenment age ,Western world following the Middle Ages. Its ideas gave birth to the modern world. other nation contributed to the Enlightenment.
          We have not yet meet the minimum standard of the social contract, the rule of reason, the rule of law, consent of the governed, natural rights, constitutionalism, separation of powers, checks and balances, and freedom or, more concretely, “the right of self-determination of peoples” and others. The dictators of our region agenda is a direct assault on all of that, never to see bright day.
          The liberation of our peoples from the modern dictators ,the like of old despotic rule of kings and princes still in place. leaving your Abyssinia aside for example, the Austrian Hapsburgs and French Bourbons who ruled the Italians, the royal despots were foreign, Just as the case of Eritrea kings and the Derge were foreign, the necessity of setting the alliance of the oppressed against the alliance of the oppressors in order to achieve freedom political realism dictated. Eritrean peoples were strong enough to mount armed resistance to colonial despotism of Ethiopian and our next struggle is liberal democratic constitutions. To be a citizen with full rights And creation of the new states of Eritrea .freedom with out right, It was all a mirage
          Our region dictators do not want to reform ,they assaults on the Enlightenment thinking and modern world is its rejection of Reason. Reason is the way we know what we know today ,is human progress . Reason It is not through revelations from God, or the pronouncements of priests or monarchs as had been the case before the Enlightenment. We are still stack in the mind of darkness of the Middle Ages.

  • kokhob selamone2

    Selam Dear Saleh,

    You have done very nice job, and as usual I enjoy it, and this is not easy job, and we all will wait for the last part of this Thank you very much..

    KS,,

  • said

    Greetings
    Thank you Saleh for the article

    Article By Pepe Escobar. So what if the Ottomans shaped the modern world?

    Book God’s Shadow on Earth. By Author Alan Mikhail, chair of the Department of History at Yale. Mikhail does his best to show how, “from China to Mexico, the Ottoman empire shaped the known world at the turn of the 16th century.” the Ottoman Empire – in over 600 years of history – remained the hegemon in the Middle East and one of the most important states in Europe, Africa and Asia until World War I. From 1453 up to the 19th century, the Ottoman remained “at the center of global politics, economics and war. By the start of the 16th century, what sprang up was a multi-religious and multi-ethnic empire that – pragmatic and tolerant – ruled for four centuries over the Balkans, Anatolia and Southwest Asia.
    Pls see link to Escobar article
    So what if the Ottomans shaped the modern world? | The Vineyard of the Saker
    http://thesaker.is/so-what-if-the-ottomans-shaped-the-modern-world/

    Editors’ Choice • New York Times Book Review

    “A stunning work of global history. . . . Alan Mikhail offers a bold and thoroughly convincing new way to think about the origins of the modern world. . . . A tour de force.” —Greg Grandin
    Long neglected in world history, the Ottoman Empire was a hub of intellectual fervor, geopolitical power, and enlightened pluralistic rule. At the height of their authority in the sixteenth century, the Ottomans, with extraordinary military dominance and unparalleled monopolies over trade routes, controlled more territory and ruled over more people than any world power, forcing Europeans out of the Mediterranean and to the New World.
    Yet, despite its towering influence and centrality to the rise of our modern world, the Ottoman Empire’s history has for centuries been distorted, misrepresented, and even suppressed in the West. Now Alan Mikhail presents a vitally needed recasting of Ottoman history, retelling the story of the Ottoman conquest of the world through the dramatic biography of Sultan Selim I (1470–1520).
    Mikhail’s game-changing account “challenges readers to recalibrate their sense of history” (Leslie Peirce), adroitly using Selim’s life to upend prevailing shibboleths about Islamic history and jingoistic “rise of the West” theories that have held sway for decades. Whether recasting Christopher Columbus’s voyages to the “Americas” as a bumbling attempt to slay Muslims or showing how the Ottomans allowed Slaves to become the Elite of society while Christian states at the very same time waged the horrors of the transatlantic slave trade, God’s Shadow radically reshapes our understanding of the importance of Selim’s Ottoman Empire in the history of the modern world.
    Selim—known by his subjects as “God’s Shadow on Earth”—fostered religious diversity, welcoming Jews among other minority populations into the empire; encouraged learning and philosophy; and penned his own verse.

  • Woldegabriel Tesfamariam

    Selam Saleh,
    As you pointed out once, we Eritreans are not readers.
    Thank you for filling the gaps, through your tireless efforts to educate us by your well researched story (history) telling.

  • AMANIEL PAULOS

    Hello Awates
    I used to appear on your media and and the platform
    you generously offered here when it was impossible
    for us to find one where we could express our opinions
    and experience our rights of free speech until I realized
    I need to go to for more learning of 2 or more years and
    return back after learning and study.
    Now I am back after studying and learning extensively
    for a period of two years.
    And I do not want to lie to you that I learned some new
    but most is what I learned from you Awates here @ AU
    So I am still puzzled where I missed all that learning and
    precious lessons that was lagging behind and were
    offering them freely and pointing me towards them to
    understand it better.
    Unfortunately it took me extra another 3 more years
    to understand what you were saying or teaching here.
    You were there when there was none. And I commend
    you and your courage to stand up unshaken and face
    all the odds against you to defend your site and extend
    your serving hands to those all in need of your service.
    I like your philosophical courses than the politics courses
    you freely offer here at AU and this Article is one of them
    I like.

    • Berhe Y

      Dear Amaniel,

      Welcome back. The fact that you knew you have a lot to learn and took the time to learn makes you that some of few people who have this kind of humility. A lot people go on pretending they know everything and learn nothing.

      I think Aristotle who wrote “The more you know, the more you realize you don’t know.”

      Keep it up and keep learning.

  • Brhan

    Thank you Saleh for the episode and since today is Sunday, I will invite you and all Awatistas to this songs
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=au99IMGU_ZE

    • Barrole

      Selam Brhan,

      I was like what in the world is this and then realised it’s the comedian Yonas… 😂

      Question: Do you think it is correct to call Rashaida an Eritrean ethnic group? If so, please elaborate why you think they ought to be considered an Eritrean ethnic group.

      • Brhan

        Hello Barrole,
        Hmm….why don’t you and I ask them ….what do you think about a principle yhsy peopl have the right to self expression? By the way this is not only for them but also for all. Who decideds who you are or what you want to be called? Is it from top to down or the vice versa.
        Happy Independence Day!

        • Barrole

          Selam Brhan,

          Immigrants in the West become citizens, be it German, or Swedish, for example. I am knowingly not bringing in America and Canada, among certain few others, to the discussion, because most people living there have ancestors who immigrated to them.

          Going to state the obvious for clarification. They aren’t indigenous.

          For those of us in Europe, as in Germany and so forth, we become citizens and can call ourselves Germans, or German Eritrean. However, it is clear that our origin isn’t from Europe, or Germany to be specific.

          Opinion: Rashaida should be Eritrean citizens, but they shouldn’t be counted as an Eritrean ethnic group.

          Also, the subject of how long a foreign people should live in a country to be considered an ethnic group is interesting.

          • Brhan

            Hi Barrole,
            If you are Rashaida, I respect your opinion, if not who are you to speak about the other?

          • Barrole

            Hello Brhan,

            What we do in this forum is sharing opinions and the only time we aren’t sharing opinions is when we post fact checked history, or news/information.

            Your logic is faulty and you’re not arguing against my opinion.

            I can’t become a Nigerian ethnic group in Nigeria because I choose to. It doesn’t make any sense. The only sensible course of action is discussing it by sharing our opinions. If a Rashaida were to join the discussion it would’ve been good, but his, or her opinion would be challenged.

          • Brhan

            Hello Barrole,
            I did share my opinion: do not you see it like that?

          • Barrole

            Hello Brhan,

            No, I sadly didn’t get any clear answer/opinion if you’re for, or against it. Instead I was told that my opinion only matters if I’m Rashaida.

          • Brhan

            Hello Barrole,
            If this is your opinion , I respect. You do not to have to agree with me , at the end majority rules. BTW the song has over half of milion views and the majority appreciate Yonas to come with such kind of artisitc production!

          • Barrole

            Selam Brhan,

            Indeed, let’s agree to disagree. However, I didn’t say that I don’t appreciate Yonas Maynas’s music video, but I understand why it might seem like I did.

            I in fact enjoyed it as well and shared it with friends, so thanks for posting the link.
            Prior to that I had only seen the Wedi Shuq series, which is hilarious as well.

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Selam Brhan,

          Solid argument hold your ground please.

          • Barrole

            Selam Aman H,

            The argument he made and that you are supporting is solely based on emotions. Emotions of said people and their rights to call themselves what they want.

            This is not a topic about what they choose to call themselves and it’s becoming strikingly similar to the Jeberti discussion, which is completely different for a plethora of reasons. I belong to the later myself.

            This is about being giving status as ethnic group when you don’t even hail from the same continent.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Barrole,

            No emotion at all. I have been debating the same issue about the same social group for about 45 years since I joined our struggle. Do you know when your own ancestors landed in the land called Eritrea? Who is indigenous in Eritrea by the way? May be they are extinct. Have the attitude of embracing the building blocks of Eritrea. You don’t have the authority to determine the identity who is Eritrean and who isn’t, who has group identity and who hasn’t. This is my test to see you whether you are an Engageable citizen or not.

            Regard

          • Barrole

            Selam Aman H,

            Check the video bellow to inform yourself about Jeberti ancestry. Also, interreligious marriages and sebekhti haymanot making people Muslims is not something many take into equation.

            It’s 2021 and a simple DNA test is enough nowadays. No need to argue about what can easily be proven. After you’ve watched the video we can go further and compare results. As in Tigringa Christian vs Tigringa Muslim DNA, if you want to of course.

            Watch from 11:20 to 25:43.
            https://youtu.be/TWptwjT16tE

            I am simply sharing my opinion the same way you are and I have never claimed to have any authority.

            Why test me when I’m open for discussion in a civilised manner, or do you mean to say that I should become a public figure for you to know I’m Eritrean?