Wednesday , January 19 2022
Home / Articles / My Genes Are Perfect; So Are Yours

My Genes Are Perfect; So Are Yours

Racist remarks against our region remind us that wars have cost us dearly. And we should think like winners; that we are backward because we have been subjected to circumstances of history which predestined us to find ourselves where we are, not because we are genetically condemned to suffer the backwardness we endure. The question of how intelligence is attained, whether it’s genetically determined or environmentally imposed, or both, is an old debate. Theories are abundant, from the fringes of racism to contemporary “sensitive” or “blank slate” advocates, and the debate still rages. But most educators agree a combination of innate and environmental influences. There are thousands of studies with critical/rebuttal, viewpoints. Even well-researched and repeatedly replicated studies may not last a decade.

The Genome Project tells us about areas in which human race converges sharing commonalities and in which it diverges. It won’t tell us exactly which combinations of genes will result to what degree of intelligence or the type of intelligence determining the fate of some “condemned” races. Simply, because we don’t yet have a computer powerful enough to simulate astronomical circuits and possible neuronal combinations. The problem with predicting intelligence may have to do how related regions interact rather than how many genes affect what traits.

My father who was an illiterate would have been more intelligent making the best out of his punishing environment than any westerner farmer who used modern marvels of technology provided that both were tested within their domain, anything and everything else controlled. He would have scored higher IQ test simply because his environment challenged him to be extremely resourceful and innovative in order to manipulate whatever limited choices he had for the sake of survival. His collective experience would transfer to his off springs, and refining those skills and marrying them with technologies, those upcoming off springs would have fared better. And so, after generations, it would all turn out into survival instinct, it would be a part of his society (environment) information system. Sub-Saharan Bushmen’s amazing skills at adapting into their harsh environment and the manipulation of the meager resource they have is a marvel, the mixing of science and skills.

Europe had benefited from migrating ideas. The birth of modern science, math, astronomy, biology, etc. is Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, The Middle East, including the Mediterranean realm. History will tell us that our region was a bastion of knowledge and discoveries when most of Europe was dark and miserable. How could a mere 2000 years make such a difference? If progress is due to genetic variation, the pattern of civilization should have taken a South-bound path at least 50,000 years ago. What you see is a Europe which has been saved by confiscating thousands of years’ worth of collective ‘Southern’ civilization. So, picking names of modern era scientists, like Einstein, a man who is genetically closer to Sub-Sahara than he is to white Europe, in order to show the disparity of modern “Southern” era predicament in comparison to the much developed “Northern” hemisphere is disingenuous.

The fact that just a couple of thousands of years ago the North was much backward than the South tells us that the North’s modern time leap in terms of its development is not due to the blessing of genetic alignments, but due to circumstantial factors. The North was much “purer” in its genetic pool a couple of thousands years ago. We should have seen the arrow of ‘development’ directed to the south thousands years ago. Instead, until as recent as less than a thousand years ago, the migration of civilization was South-to-North– and that is some African contribution to human knowledge. And here are some lists of Middle Eastern scientists, philosophers and politicians, ancient scientists of our region who predate European scientific renaissance. That renaissance itself was influenced and actually inspired by the Middle East, Mediterranean, and African civilizations and scientific contributions.

  1. Science_in_the_medieval_Islamic_world
  2. List_of_Arab_scientists_and_scholars
  3. Ancient Stones Hint At How Humans Migrated Out Of Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa’s genetic pool could not be explained outside that region. The same is true with other regions of Africa; I am talking about Sub-Saharan Africa since I am explaining why Ethiopia and Eritrea are backward.

It’s a settled fact that humanity had evolved in Africa, and migrated to Europe some 70,000-130,000, a blink of an eye in terms of evolution. Environmental factors and intermarriages with other sub-species like the Neanderthals are believed to have morphed migrating humans to the physical features Westerners (Whites) are now identified by, external bodily features which do not explain intelligence. While our genes may explain why we act smarter than chimpanzees, environmental factors are essential for those dormant genes to express themselves; both social and geographical environment, with the social environment more dictating on how certain communities exceed in some activities but not on others.

Early coastal dwellers would have excelled in sea navigation, fishery and technologies related to them, and would have outperformed others on those areas until such a time those “others” were given the same chances of adapting to the environment, relative length of time of mitigating circumstances, and undisturbed existence of consolidating their experiences to a degree where those experiences were turned in to internalized skills and traits of their culture. Similarly, Eskimos would have developed unique skills and traits of conquering the frigid polar climate. Saharan caravan custodians would have known heavenly bodies. Their survival would depend on how good observers they evolved to be in order to navigate a desert that lacks physical reference point.

My father would have to know the climate and forecast daily weather patterns in order to ensure his farm and livestock survived. He would tell you which mountain or valley would get the rain just by looking at the formation of the cloud. He used to say ዝላም ቀር ወኣት/ብዕራይ ትፈንቴ- rain marks its landing by the width of a cow’s horn- meaning a ridge may get a rain while the one close to it won’t, that’s African rain. There is a wealth of information regarding soil and its conservation, and raising livestock and their diseases, etc.

Here in the Western Hemisphere, African-Americans had achieved a rather remarkable achievements despite their condemnation to ignorance and abject life of slavery. Below are some lists of black scientists and inventors who overcome the harsh treatment of racist America.

If we take the Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study, for example, we have also have to control all factors within their normal setting, to equalize the groups. There are subcultures within any culture. So, African Americans, rich or poor, have certain values they consider cardinal to their families’ life. Those certain values may not be the same with what white America, rich or poor, considers cardinal familial values. Adoption itself is a pressure to kids, and therefore, affects them adversely. I hear colored children voice the same issues: “What is the value of wasting time and money in spending years of schooling for an opportunity that won’t present itself or hard to gain?” So, here political and societal hurdles are expressing themselves more than the poor genes. Other factors would include family environment and prior generational luck at knocking opportunities.

Children born to families who place education higher in their priorities usually do well. They see their parents reading, they get directions and supports from them; and generally, they are oriented towards the campus. Perhaps, their parents had gone through higher education and know how to navigate the educational system, and certainly, the frightening paths of getting into higher education. My wife and I had faced challenges in sending our son to college, because we just could not figure out how to circumnavigate the application processes. Both of us paid out of pocket to go to our local colleges; we chose an easy and practical way for a working family. We now know we could have gotten financial support, but due to our ignorance we had to pay almost all the tuitions. The same thing happened when the time came to send our son to college. In our case, we have been fortunate to absorb the financial pressure by sacrificing whatever little we earned. What if a similar challenge faces even poorer families?

One person’s experience or a generation’s case may not suffice an argument, but accumulated, it explains when stolen civilizations come back to repress their initiators. The ‘North’ has benefited from civilizations of the ‘South’ yet when the ‘North’ refined and internalized those civilizations, it owned them; and it applied the benefits of those civilization in repressing the ‘South’.

People often forget that the interference of Europeans, which could explain the interruptions of normal pace of indigenous civilizations in our region had occurred earlier than most of us tend to recognize. Most of us read about the scramble for Africa, yet we ignore the fact that Europeans had long established their contact with our region as merchants, navigators, religious missions, etc. Every trip or settlement that Europeans had made to our region had an impeding effect in the natural pace that our region had conducted with its surrounding. Each and every visit was accompanied by domineering attitude of “civilizing” Africa resulting in the disruption of evolutionary pace of our civilization. Had the transfer of North-South civilization been conducted in a way it respected indigenous information and belief systems, Africa would have benefited as much as the ‘North” had benefited centuries earlier from Africa and its surroundings.

But those European “civilizing” missions were anchored on the belief that Africans could not possibly be cued to voluntarily marrying their pre-white knowledge with those which were brought by whites, which the whites believed were superior to indigenous civilizations and belief systems. Worse, they would not let them do the adjustments in their own pace and terms which should have been driven purely by peaceful transfer of know-how through business and commerce. They disrupted African societies, altered African ways of life, suppressed their technologies and accumulated knowledge by substituting it for European values. They bribed kings and chiefs, pitched tribes against tribes, drew artificial divide lines which continue to create unrest. They exploited their historic artifacts and wealth. They dismantled or disrupted their evolving political systems and their indigenous rituals. They created a situation in which the South could not advance at par with the North. This has nothing to do with genes. Even in areas where genes are known to play greatly, if you don’t have a controlled environment, there is little that can drive one to an overwhelmingly biased conclusions.

Each species would have been intelligent enough to control elements which would pose unique challenges for survival. Those skills and technologies would have improved through generational inputs which would have resulted to an accumulated expression of excellence or intelligence. Most readings I have come across suggest that environment plays an important role in gene expressions.

Although areas of our brain and genes responsible for them are mapped out, only God knows how these areas influence each other; and only God knows how a merely one gene variation could screw up trillions of possible combinations. There are experiments being conducted to target psychiatric illnesses, for instance, based on genetic makeup. However, our brain is so complex that scientists still have to figure out how to target particular disorder causing genes without sending the complex network of our brain in disarray. Although those genes are known, their interactions and networking combinations is such an immense universe that it’s been challenging to cure a disease without causing adverse side effects to the neighboring region, or even to the whole brain. This is to say, that the science of genome has just begun, and any assertions alluding to conclusive generalizations is dishonest.

A glimpse at IQ tests

I am not an expert nor claim to have a good understanding of the tests. But this is my personal testimony. In the year 1991-92, I had an opportunity to seat for University exam. The testers were from Asmara University. I had not seen a college exam prior to that. I didn’t have any expectation of going to college; independence arrived and I, like some other comrades, had to dust ourselves clean and attend school. Despite work pressure, we got University entrance points. I was ill prepared for one of the tests, the IQ test. I had not seen such unorthodoxy exam before that time let alone seating to figure out answers to fancy questions, diagrams and figures. I did not know what I was doing. I was confused. Then a man, who later became my Psych101 instructor, Dr. Haile, noticed my discomfort. He came to me and asked, “Are you tegadalay?” I said,” yes,” very nervously. He said, “Do you have questions?” I replied, “I just don’t get it. What is this all about?” He stopped everyone, and explained that it was called an IQ test and that we should look for patterns, and that it was based on general readiness to tackle unfamiliarity with tools we had acquired thus far. I remember him saying, “Memorizing of formulas and theorems won’t save you, relax.” Fortunately, I was later told my IQ score was among the highest, and I got 4 on Dr. Haile’s course. I don’t know where he is now.

The racist article claims that “a backward people will never be able to create a successful society where not only human rights are protected, but also society is able to provide the basic economic/health related needs of its people (roads, railways, a sewage system, hospitals, electricity etc.).”

Here, the writer tells us that we should not expect a backward society yielding a progressive governance. As pointed out, this is an indisputable truth. However, a bit later in the article, he insinuates as though this backwardness is due to genetically explicable factors. That’s the pitfall of the article. The writer and many racists (I am not saying the writer is a racist, but many known racists openly disseminate similar assertions) fail to recognize that Africa, and more closely, Ethiopia and Eritrea are consisted of genetically different ethnic groups. They speak of black people as though they are genetically identical.

Normally, race is a social concept, that’s a means of people defining each other. We designate all pale colored people as whites, and all chocolate colored folks as blacks. That’s what we see. But genetically speaking, we may be wrong. We call Barack Obama a black man. Well, if we stick to the socially accepted way of categorizing people according to how they appear to our eyes (phenotype), we are right. He definitely looks more black than white. However, genetically (genotype wise), he’s half black and half white. We know he is an intelligent man. So, whose side is responsible for his intelligence, the white one or the black? Our region would pose similar challenges because it’s a melting pot of races. So, are we going to say the lighter skinned, which borrow that trait from the ‘North’, are more intelligent than the darker skinned? There are European racists who don’t consider the Greeks and the Italians, who had given them the torch of civilization, as people who are not white enough. Hence, they consider them not as intelligent as the ‘pure’ whites.

Consider Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. All these countries were once at the pinnacle of civilization. However, they have lagged behind in all indicators of advancement compared to their European peers. They all gave Europe the advantage of getting a springboard to modernity, yet due to political and historical disadvantages, they have become the poor of their neighborhood. History (environment) dictated them becoming who they are, not genetics. If it were for genetic disposition, what changes could have occurred within these two centuries that would bring such a big developmental variance?

Additionally, the danger with this kind of generalizing assertions is the risk it poses in causing us to fall into racist traps inadvertently or subconsciously; that’s, when such a fact is carelessly linked to biology. Europe was the worst backward continent which burned scientists alive; it was a continent where human bondage reached its worst expression under feudal systems; where wars and human carnages were the spectacle of the day, and where plagues loomed the landscape. It never existed enlightened all the time. Today, it may boast for landing a probe on half a billion miles away comet; or may raise the hypnotizing tunes of Mozart and the genius of Einstein, but it was known for centuries for its dark and gloomy; and yes, bloody history. South of its borders, the world had seen a relatively prolonged era of enlightening discoveries. But Europe woke up through renaissance and capitalized on achievements that had been made in the South making those migrated civilizations its own; notwithstanding the fact that there have always been brains of the world participating in these researches, Africans, Asians, Arabs, etc.

There is nothing that’s backward when you explain differences in societies. Each society should be judged within its stage of development. Furthermore, each society has its own consideration of what constitutes excellence. In some cultures, communal networking, reciprocity, and altruism may hold a higher consideration compared to western values such as pursuit of individual happiness and adventurism for personal fame and gains. Therefore, their collective push to excel would be towards each society’s prioritized preferences. That explains why we hear stories of Western explorers, naturalists, adventurers, etc. Every expedition and every pursuit of adventure will pose certain challenges which would entice artisans to come up with solutions which would provide profitable returns to them. Any new venture would lead to new scientific discoveries. Each new scientific discovery would result into new business opportunities. Societies that have ‘monopolized’ this path early on have exceeded in the accumulation of wealth leading to the haves of the North and have-nots of the South.

To The Gene Mall

Genes… genes…, they are everywhere. They are in the commercials; they are in the news; Oh, yes; and they are in fertility banks. If the trend continues, certain races are in trouble, and you know which ones I am talking about. The era of fertility freedom is here. Women are taking advantage of it; no more pressure of getting a man for the purpose of creating a child. Today, in most western countries, the opportunity to bear child at her own time of choice and from her preferred biological menu has arrived. She has many willing sperm donors and sperm banks ready for business. She can now even save some of her eggs, and do the child bearing long after career success. Therefore, the biological clock has been shuttered. Good news? Well, depends on your family values. Geneticists have promoted what we fear; that there is a perfect human race, a race that’s with perfect physical traits, intelligent, handsome, and tolerating diseases. Basically, you could have the perfect designer babies on your lap and the following is even scarier; creating a digital baby. If you don’t watch the entire clip, please start at at 22:36 – 27:28.

Here, we see biology coming to a severe clash with ethics, religion and social philosophies. No doubt, at the end, driven by business interests and corporate government policies, science and personal choice will prevail. So, brace for the end of the colorful mosaic of humanity as we know it today.

Anecdotal break

In the late 90s and early 2000, I was shocked to see Sudanese women bleaching their skins. At first, I thought the station was inviting audiences only from the light skinned northern part of the nation. However, I noticed the facial features did not match the skin. One day, I asked my wife why all those ladies where white with typical African facial features. She told me the mystery. I hear many women harmed their beautiful African skin in their quest for adopting foreign looks. I hope they have learned from their mistake, and start teaching their daughters self-confidence, and the golden rule: all that glistens is not gold.

It’s true we are backward in terms of development. We are not preordained to languish in poverty and backwardness, though. Our genes are as capable of being stimulated towards growth and development as those genes of the “pure” race. History and bad political choices have condemned us to be backward. Asian Tiger countries which have become the envy of developing nations had similar experience until recent times. Those Asian countries which have been able to register remarkable advancement in a short time have done so by putting a “period” on their long history of misery. They have, until recently, experienced similar challenges similar to what we are experiencing. They have been able to shake off the shackles of poverty only when they chose alternate political paths. Their neighboring countries, which have not done so, don’t fare better than us. So, it’s clear that genes have little to do with national or regional development. If we fail to par with our competitors, given similar opportunities and having taken similar sound economic policies and relatively enduring peacetime, then we may scratch our heads and pause contemplating, “Gee, it may all be true. We may need to shop for better genes.”

As mentioned above, our backwardness could be explained by referring to history; and the search of ways of how we pick up ourselves out of this predicament will continue to be central to debates we conduct nationally and/or regionally.

About Mahmud Saleh

Check Also

Hafeez Saaddin Mohamed Badlay: a tribute

Grief struck the Eritrean community in Melbourne following the sudden death of Hafeez Saaddin Mohamed …

  • Nitricc

    Hahaha what is up Ermias? Why hide under guest? Can you guess when I knew that is you?
    Anyway, Semere is known and documented his love to white people. I could have took Semere to task but luck him I am freakingly busy. So, Semere A has to wait.
    Mahmuday we will continue on that conversation, hold your thoughts.

  • saay7

    Attention all Eri-ghedli skeptics:

    In these fine pages of awate, we have heard from Ghedli Skeptics who questioned the justness of Eritrea’s cause for independence. They have described the “ghedli generation” (a term they used to describe every independence pioneer form the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s) as a confused person: clueless Arabist or clueless Ethio-refusenick. We have said that they were revolutionaries inspired by the revolutions around them: anti-colonialism (the 1940s pioneers) and anti-imperialism (the 1960s pioneers.)

    Jack Kramer was a person who was, quite by accident, in Eritrea in 1967. Actually, he was in Sudan and he stumbled upon an Eritrean who convinced him to go to the Eritrean field (ELF) and he happened to arrive right around the time that the ELF launched its ill-fated Halhal operation. His report (the Jack Kramer papers) were given to the Hoover Institute at Stanford University. Here’s what’s new: the Hoover Institute released the audio recordings of Jack Kramer which includes the audio mail of one of the ELF combatants (Abera Mekonnen ) as well as the famous Abu Sheneb (Osmal Ali Idris.)

    Ghedli skeptics! Listen to the recording (Abera Mekonnen is in English), listen to the interviews. Do these people sound “confused” and “Arabists” or do they sound like revolutionaries driven by the higher cause–that of justice?

    Listen to the recording here:


    • Mahmud Saleh

      salam Saleh;

      – That’s quite a treat for ghedli
      “romantics”, here you hear from the pioneers of ghedli’s own words that Eritrean revolution was popular; it was a reaction to Ethiopian “scorched earth” policies which around the time this recording took place would have
      culminated in the razing of almost all villages in lowland Eritrea (which caused the first exodus of Eritreans to Sudan), killing and maiming thousands of Eritreans, poisoning of water sources, killing and rustling animals, etc.
      – You also see that early liberation fighters were not as confused as we are lead to believe with regard to the task which was ahead of them. They knew they were fighting to liberate their land and
      people and to usher freedom; in several remarks, they made it clear they were not gun taunting bandits but organized political force which depended on their people. There is no trace of the “Arab Project” either in the
      weaponry Kramer saw and in their thinking as expressed in this raw and original encounter, no smoking gun at all. It was a pure Eritrean mind in display. Abusheneb, basically, said that the revolution was the people and the people was the revolution; the people sustained the revolution; and that their fight
      was a response to the brutal subjugation policies of Hailesellasie, which came with heavy handedness upon a people who asked nothing but to be free.

      – I am really struck by the clarity of thoughts of those early pioneers.
      – Where is Saadia? What happened to/of her? Anyone who could help. She is among the first female fighters, I think Mohammed Burhan listed her in the names of the first female combatants in ELF. On that occasion, it appears she was the only female among males and her answer was the best. She said she was fighting for the freedom of her people, she was a Fedaeein (a member of a suicide squad or special operations fighter), nonchalantly.
      – Abera Mekonen clarity is amazing.
      – Mr Kramer’s penetrating questions help us get an in-depth insight in to the thinking of those early tegadelti. He appears to have had good understanding of guerrilla movements, he must have been a soldier
      experienced in guerrilla warfare.
      ** I read his correspondence with Kidane Kiflu,
      in Kidane’s own writings, in Issayas’ blog. Kidane’s intellectual maturity is
      clearly displayed in his correspondence. But what can be said, we have all been
      hijacked at the end. Our history has been mutilated by opportunistic factions,
      interpreting it in accordance with their whims, and the hard-earned Eritrea is
      crying for help. But there is hope of resurrecting the old Eritrean spirit if
      we become honest with ourselves. Self-criticism is warranted on all
      “justice seekers” to neutralize ideas and individuals who have become
      a liability and a drag force in our search for establishing rule of law. This
      is not to suggest that we should display PFDJ’s arrogant and hostile reactions,
      but foiling inaccuracies with accurate narration, defeating false ideas by
      bringing civil and focused agendas will do the work of clearing our camp. Living
      and feeding on blunders of PFDJ, by itself, won’t do the job. A clarity of
      mission is needed. A mission which is as clear as the mission those early
      tegadelti embarked on.

      Thanks say.

      • saay7


        I forgot to say that with the exception of Aberra Mekonen’s Mao-quoting revolutionary clarity, which was in English, the rest of the interviews were either in Arabic and Tigrayit.

        Therefore, I am putting forth a motion:

        Whereas, Semere A (iSemere) has demonstrated his mastery of Arabic and Tigrayit
        Whereas, Semere A (iTegadalay) has repeatedly said that his argument is not with Ghedli but those who ended up kidnapping it (Alliance of Killers)
        Whereas, Semere A (iSewerawi) now has an obligation to awatistas to put to good use his mastery of two of Eritrea’s languages

        I put a motion to ask the good and honorable Semere A (a Jebena junkie and a satirist) to transcribe/summarize the interviewees comments, submit them for publication to, and end once and for all the defamation of the Eritrean revolution by irresponsible people.

        Mahmuday, second it.


        • Mahmud Saleh

          Ustaz SAAY;
          I second it with a ceremony of sword-dancing, but with the correction that it should read Semere A, not Semere T.

          • saay7

            Baw! Aze bedeyna!

        • Saleh Johar

          Ya Mahmuday,
          This is an important service to our history (our defamed history). I am introducing a motion to give Semere A a one week leave (or ban) from this Forum and when he returns after finishing the job, he will be promoted to a 4 star member of this forum 🙂 Any objection? No! Motion adopted 🙂

          • Mahmud Saleh

            Ahlan Saleh J;
            I think if you help us leash nitrickay for a week, Semere will do it. If Nitrickay is lurking around, I know Semere won’t be able to concentrate. I will help the forum by not invoking the word EPLF, that’s a big help. Provided we do these, I have come to know Sem A to be resourceful, and yes, generous too. He will do it.

          • Saleh Johar

            Don’t underestimate Nitricc, I hope he will not let me down! Nitricc understand that Semere is on a mission of Hagerawi Emmam, and he will hold a truce for the duration of the mission, maybe he will like it and they might hold a peace agreement 🙂

          • Semere Andom

            Abu Salah(SGJ)
            Quwluaka la yukalef, bes you promise not to accuse of mutilating Tigrayit;-)

        • Rodab

          Sir Sal,
          MaHmuday and SaleH seconded the motion, and I third it:-)
          Good luck with the assignment Sem Arkey.
          Since ygistas are no longer mounting attack or counter-attack, what Sem will submit will be the concluding or closing statement on the subject.
          Wait a minute! Isn’t Sem himself a semi-ygist?

    • destaa

      While I read the hot debates among Hameed, Habtom Yohannes, Tesfabirhan, Saleh, crocus and others, this comment of yours came to my mind. And in my view, it just disproves your claim. I will be happy to hear your view.

  • haileTG

    Selamat Awatista,

    The historic Independent International Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in Eritrea, kicked off today. Read

    According to Reuters report on the subject “The inquiry is similar to previous U.N. investigations into Syria, Sudan and North Korea. Those inquiries recommended referral to the International Criminal Court, but the U.N. Security Council approved such a move only in Sudan’s case.” Read


  • saay7


    You make the case for how high IQ is simply a function of experience. So here’s an IQ test (those of you who can read Tigrinya can refer to the image). For the rest of you here is the question:

    If an Eritrean opposition organization (Org X) makes a reference to its long term efforts to satiate the people’s dream for a united effort and then tells you that it has acted on the people’s wish and is uniting with another opposition organization (Org Y), then what will it tell you next:

    a. The effort was completely successful.
    b. The effort was so successful that Org Z is also thinking of joining.
    c. The effort was a failure and it was all Org Y’s fault.

    Please circle the correct answer using a #2 Pencil. High IQ not required. The correct answer will be posted tomorrow:


    • haileTG

      Lol saay:-) watchout, these guys are armed and their arm is longer than you think:-) IMO, this is the first time I read a press release that announced ብፍሽለት ተዛዚሙ (word for word)! True that one feels sorry for them but can’t help to appreciate their candidness:) Regards

      • saay7

        Haile TG:

        Extra credit (stratospheric IQ) if you know why there is the word “Hidri” after the name of the other organization, Eritrean national salvation front (ENSF) which broke away from ELF-RC, which broke away from ELF, and changed its name to EPP and merged with EPDP to become EDP.


        PS: This is the stuff that people complain we don’t post at awate and described as “censorship.” It is a classic case where two of our tag lines, INFORM and INSPIRE get into a head-on collision and we are torn by either decision: to publish or not publish.

        • Semere Andom

          And in this case becomes publish And perish as instead of to publish OR perish 🙂

        • haileTG

          Hey saay, you kidding me, right? That is MENSA (intl. high IQ Society) level IQ test! 🙂

          On a serious consideration of your post scripted note, I understand that it is a damn if you do and damn if you don’t type of situation. Given the audience infrastructure provided for by, these organizations could have been served better to utilize it for engagement with the public. The reality is however, to permit a floodgate for their oft highly polarized amateur boxing matches would also invariably end up making you part of their squabbles (by being accused of fanning it). On the other hand, turning them down in blanket would also get you chastisement for not facilitating the efforts of the opposition (each and every single one of them considers their latest press release to be the most earth shaking event in the annals of Eritrean struggle for democratic change), and hindering the imminent emancipation of our people had it been published.

          From your side, I guess you would want to maximize the opportunities to be had in order to push the struggle forward. Hence, what is the optimal position to take seems to be the core of the problem. From a simplistic and practical point of view, I would have recommended to have a dedicated page for opposition organizations to post notices, communiques, PR material and clarify their positions and facilitate their grassroots activism. But, I have to warn you that my IQ isn’t very high and I am less experienced in the field. But the page could be called something like “Face The People” (FTP) or something else:-)

          • saay7

            Haile TG:

            …. or, as the climbing-up-the-charts Shum once wrote about a different group of people, “Create a page for them. It’ll be sort of a virtual room with rubber walls where they can tell us 24/7….” how great they are:)

            Your favorite part of the announcement was “bfeshel tezazimu.” Mine is the part where they say they asked Ethiopia to mediate. Antum sebat, how many times must you learn that:

            (a) Weyane is very suspicious of Tigrinya/Kebessa movements because “Tigrinya/Kebessa” are chauvinists who have “to learn a lesson they will never forget”;

            (b) Weyane is very suspicious of lowland/Muslim movements because an empowered lowland/Muslim movement will empower the “Muslimoch” of Ethiopia which would be a dire “national security threat.”


            btw, this press release by the new group (who are mostly millenials–hello Millenial?) is the same one that was written by an old group, oh, ten years ago, twenty years ago, thirty years ago. Same ______, different toilet.

          • haileTG

            ተኣለ! ተኣለ! በዓል ጻዕዳ፡ ማዕዳ፡
            ፍሬኖ የብላን እዛ ሽግለታ….

            Haha saay:-)

            now what’s up with declining to host those releases and then poking fun at them?! 🙂 Reminds me the following Tigrigna joke, hope Sem/rodab could translate it:-)

            ሓደ’ዩ፡ ኣብታ መንደቕ እንዳ ማርያም ልሕግ ኢሉ “ተባረኺ ማርያም፡ 200 ናቕፋ’ባ ሃብኒ” ኢሉ ጸሎት የዕርግ።
            ቀሩብ ተጸብዩ ግን “ትም” ኮነት
            “እዋእ እሞ ደሓን ዋላ ሓንቲ ሚእቲ በሊ” በለ
            ቁሩብ ተጸብዩ ግን “ትም” ኮነት
            “እዋእ እሞ ደሓን ዋላ ሓሙሳ በሊ” በለ
            ሕጂ’ውን “ትም” ኮነት
            “ካላእ፡ በሊ ይትረፍ” ኢሉ ክኸይድ ምስ በለ፡ ንእሽቶ እምኒ ካብ ናሕሲ ኮረር ኢላ፡ ኣብዛ መንበስበስትኡ፡ ኳዕ ተብሎ፡
            ወዮ ሰብኣይ ጸርጸር እናበለ “ወይለይ፡ ገንዘብኪ ዘይተርፈኒ፡ በሊ ኣይትፋግኢ ደንጎላኺ ኣክቢ” ኢልዋ ዕዝር….Haha

          • saay7


            I think you just revealed your age with:

            ተኣለ! ተኣለ! በዓል ጻዕዳ፡ ማዕዳ፡
            ፍሬኖ የብላን እዛ ሽግለታ…

            It was a famous story from “KenwagaAkum?”, a collection of Tigrinya jokes that Semere A did not read. You should check it out iSem – no ምሕዝነት ቀተልቲ (alliance of killers) in the story:)


          • Semere Andom

            Abu Salah:
            Thanks. I coin you translate, very good alliance, the alliance of Tinglishers 😉

          • saay7

            Haile TG:

            The serious answer, here’s why I poke fun at them because if I don’t I will be crying and so will you:

            Now, the EMDJ, actually, there are two of them.

            * There is the EMDJ that formed an alliance with the Saho Liberation Front (yes, there is such a thing: thank you Weyane).

            * Then there is the EMDJ that formed an alliance with Salvation, but not any Salvation but Salvation Hidri. (Yes there is a salvation without Hidri: thank you very much Weyane.)

            * The military leader of EMDJ is the brother (wedi abo, wedi ade) of the military leader of Salvation Hidri.

            * This big PRESS RELEASE may be a disagreement on principles or two brothers who don’t get along.

            * All these guys are young and former Agelglot (are you listening Millenial?) That is, the oldies fought about substantial issues: identity (ethnicity, religion, region.) Who knows what these guys are fighting over.

            And, wait for it: all these guys want us to publish their family feud on this fine (some* say the greatest Eritrean website ever) website that you are reading.


            * some = me, SGJ and our team.

          • Mahmud Saleh

            Dear, Ato, Assaid/Ustaz Saay

            I believe this is when Awate first reported on this group
            But I remember at one time awate published an article detailing the anatomy of Eritrean opposition groups (splintering and uniting, growing and dying off, their number and the relations among them. I tried to locate it, but I could not . Is there anyway, you could retrieve that and may be update it. It may be necessary to help us see the trend.

          • saay7

            Hala Mahmuday:

            I think you are referring to the one we produced on March 2007. At the time, we though that the dozen organizations in existence were too many for small Eritrea. Little did we know that the incubating machine had a lot of surprises for us: 12 became 24 and 24 became 36 an 36 became 45.

            But back in the “good old days” of 2007, this is the report we had:



          • Mahmud Saleh

            Salam saay,
            Yes, thanks saay. It may need an update; if no other priorities.

      • saay7

        Selamat awatistas:

        Haile TG stole my thunder (ነጎዳይ ሰሪቍዎ)… but here is the punchline for those of you who were taking the IQ test.

        The correct answer is c: the effort is a failure and it’s all “Org Y”s fault.

        Thanks for playing.


    • Mahmud Saleh

      Your test is even harder than the ordeal I had to face under Dr. Haile watch. So this organization is called Eritrean Movement for Democracy and Justice. Sem A, help, but if

  • saay7

    Selamat Tsegai:

    I read your piece too fast. I thought you were telling us about the famous Ethiopian movie director Haile Gerima and not the CPA Haile Girma:)

    Add Haile Gerima to your list… he is a Californian:)


  • Tesfabirhan WR

    Dear Awatistas,

    I am today coming with a crazy petition directed to the International Society of Communication Specialists.

    here it goes:

    Eritreans inside Eritrea are living in dark ages of communication. The cause is obvious but the effect is unkown. Here is then writing this petition Eritrea to be covered by “FREE WiFI” Services. I am quite aware about the missing means to use the access but at least the world should provide and the rest will go as expected.

    Inspired by “Pirate Party Movement”

    Thinking the Unthinkable can look crazy but why not?

    A petition to Internation Society of Communication Specialists


    Smooth read in a breath within the comfort of a crowded bus, missed my stop before its wrap-up.

    Thanks keep it up.

  • Mr. Mahmud Saleh,
    A thousand times AMEN to that. Thank you.

  • Nitricc

    Mahmuday, very nice read. I will comment and share on personal level with the issue you have raised, time permitting, but I felt guilty for not helping when you were stack with the collage thing. I think, we can do better in sharing in formations regarding school, Collage applications and some advise what to major and what have you. Hopefully in 8.0 awate forum will consider a blog section for such community service. Even students posting their questions, assignments, seeking advises and all that thing; I will be the first one to participate. I think I can be very effective and helpful.
    For now, let me say this regarding race and intelligence. I don’t give a flying hoot if the whites believed that they are better, but I hit the walls and jump over the barrier when black people concede to the white superiority. Ask your friend Semere A, he believes that whites are superior over blacks.
    No, blacks are as smart as whites, as intelligent as anyone but we are just lazy! Instead of out do the whites; we hide behind the race card and victim mentality. The truth!

    • Semere Andom

      Can you stop mentioning my name when you feel you want to lie. What is wrong with you, you started with a positive note and then you turned into a loose cannon.
      when did I say white are superior to blacks? First anti PFDJ person like me cannot say that, it is against justice. But I remember saying that if the YPFDJ, who are in the west, educated and brought up in the first word countries took power, the doctors among them will make the rest of us guinea pigs and would attempt to isolate a gene that is predisposed to be a slave for tyrant and the engineers and computer scientists will crack our passwords and those trained in the military will become cruel Ela-Elo prison guards.

    • Mahmud Saleh

      I will be your first reader, I still do have kids who will go through the pipe. Sadly, what’s missing in our communities is these types of services. I tried once to get involved, and then came 1998 war which put me at odd with many Harbegnatat of the community, followed by 2001 purges which drove me nuts; and hence, I packed and headed for “far away” place. What’s running our communities are hotheaded cadres who have no clue what EPLF was and even what’s PFDJ. They lack real social or community services’ skills, and worse, they are not ready to listen to you. They are muddied in regional politics. Once a while, I visit them (we have more than 4 Eritrean communities (bless their hearts, they love splintering) and what you see is old men playing pool and billiards, and of course drinking. They brought Asmara-men’s life here to the west. What’s more saddening and frightening is the fact that our children, particularly the boys, are won by gangsters. I see many fathers complaining, and what I ask them is ” how many hours have you spent with your children last week?”
      So, yes, I will be the first to support such a blog, particularly when one of their own talks to them, it’s effective. It may bring out the youth to care about their roots. It will also make Awate a place where these youth can get resources.
      Now, concerning Semere, come on Nitrickay, you just don’t have to maul this man every morning, can’t you have eggs cereal for breakfast instead?. I think of him as more tolerant than average Doe or “ghebre”, he has a blood of the great Seraye, a flesh of the great Asmara and a soul of the great lowland, particularly, my own Tigre society. Oh, yes, he has also Sudanese and Canadian strands in his DNA. You know his DNA is more than the double helix. Well, he got everything, until memories of shaebia smack him hard. Oh, boy, you don’t want to be on his way when that happens. Only saay and the almighty God know how to make him come to his senses. That’s Tuesday treat for you. Thanks for the complements.

  • Semere Andom

    The Tragically Genius:

    Hi everyone speaking of intelligence here is a video link about a bouncer, who is also the smartest man in the world (IQ of 210) There was a documentary about him over 10 years ago in CBC and when I remembered that after reading Mahmud’s article the search found this one, a different one.
    It is long one and not fair to chop it so please watch it if you can. High IQ doe snot necessarily lead to success or discovery

    • Tesfabirhan WR

      Dear Semere A.

      This is wonderful sharing. Thank you!


  • Mahmud Saleh

    Salam Awatistats the greatista
    Thank you for your encouragements, I have read them; thanks for providing additional materials. I initially thought I was responding to the article in a way of a reply, my triple shot latte and the smooth jazz music that kept seeping through the walls of my favorite Starbucks kept me writing; it was Friday, I was off and the weather was drizzly, so, I kept writing. The problem with novice writers is that they don’t know when and where to stop. Anyway, by the time I thought I was done, and ready to push the ” post as mahmud saleh” button on disqus, something caught my attention. It was a minor editing issue, one of those red underline you see when disqus “thinks” you are overlooking an error that needs to be corrected. I did that and then when I checked further up, I knew it was too long for a comment. So, I thought about tweaking it a little bit and sending it to Awate. I did that. I must thank Saleh Gadi for giving me ideas; he took it upon himself and clipped the material from the head (introductory paragraph, and huge chunk from the bottom, made some magic readjustment and I could not believe how the article looked; well, it looked like an article. Thanks Ustaz.
    I wanted to address particularities of the two countries, which means, “OK, we know we are backward, and if the poor genes could not be considered as the culprit, who do we blame for our weakness, and what do we need to do to get out of the vicious circle of poverty” are some of the ideas which we need to discuss as a continuation of this topic. I had some ideas which Ustaz SGJ advised me to frame them separately; his suggestion made sense to me so I agreed on making this article broadly framed.
    Ustaz Aosman: You brought an important point. Culture is fluid, there is no purity and impurity in cultures. What seems not pure to us is pure to others. But there is a universal truth- that’s we are one community, we learn from each other. That’s how technologies, languages…wealth diffuse through humanity, by way of contacts, peaceful transactions and learning from each other. I believe these ideas permeate the article, but as you suggested, we can narrowly frame next articles to address just that.
    Thanks all.

    • Tesfabirhan WR

      Dear Mahmuday,

      Thank you and thank you for your honest way of presenting on how you reached to the front page. I know you can from the very begininng. Oh yah, AT in general and SGJ in particular are like, “Behind any successful man, there is a wise woman” This is what it goes to your experience here. I shared the same experience too.

      Dear Mahmuday, you wrote, “my triple shot latte and the smooth jazz music that kept seeping through the walls of my favorite Starbucks kept me writing; it was Friday, I was off and the weather was drizzly, so, I kept writing.” Yes Mahmuday, this is what it is making your article of original in its form, smooth and as a carriage to the truth. Your sentences were sourced from deep inside, you let your ideas to flow. This helped us to be part of you. We are lucky.

      More, I think and I do believe such articles are helpful for people like me and Nitriccay “the racist”. Hopefully he is taking lessons as I do.


  • saay7

    Selamat Seare:

    Ted Talks had an address called “the fractals at the heart of African design”…you will like it. It is 30 minutes: and it answers the question: is it intuition or algorithm? Hint: pseudorandom number generation. Most of the presentation is about West Africa; I hope East Africans who are intimately familiar with design of our villages, fences, games can share their knowledge. (I am looking at you, Horizon:)


    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Kubur Saay,

      “Africa continent” is still “a dark continent”. Its history and its contribution to human development is still unknown. Indeed with the advent of modern archaeological techniques, belatedly, we start to learn that the origin of human being is from Africa. Here we know now again, the “fractals of African design” as taught by Ron Englash in this video. I am sure we will learn more as we go forward. Long live to science. Eritreans are more receptive to science than politics. Am I right Saay? Thank you again anyway.


      • saay7


        Is politics and science “either/or”? The moon landing (science) could not have happened when it did without JFK (politics)–politics of fear at that (the Russians are coming!)

        Back to Eritrea: are we more receptive to science than politics? I think we are more receptive to whoever can meet our needs (still at its most basic and psychological, to use Maslow’s hierarchy: food, security, safety. Who is responsible for that: politicians or scientists?

        Let’s see: in my and your lifetime, they will find a vaccine for malaria–a huge killer of Africans, particularly children. Will this be due to excellent leadership of our politicians (politics) or stunning advances in science (science), or huge prioritizing–funding $500 million from people like Bill Gates (science, commerce)….?

        So, it is not either/or 🙂

        I have a suspicion that this will be a DAN. (Sem A will explain what DAN is since he coined it:)


  • Tzigereda

    Great article, great Mahmud!

  • Semere Andom

    Hi Mahmuday: Great piece. Make it a habit 🙂
    Can you imagine if an Eritrean asked how come the “akat” was falling to the ground and instead of falling the sky in Eritrea, they will take him as Abbe once sang they will take their kid to “derAnto” and “Sheika Zaid” for cure. 😉

    • Mahmud Saleh

      Sem wed abuye Andom
      remember, we’re all waiting for something! I can’t believe how easy saay is on you?

      • Semere Andom

        Hi Mahmuday:

        I guess you missed my reply to you here two day ago :
        Sal is easy cus “tser-tser” kaybil tesekifu 🙂

        • Mahmud Saleh

          Ahlan Sem A
          No, I read it; nothing escapes my gravity; but because that falls within our usual chatters, I did not want to continue it on that thread. But make no mistake (George Bush, with Ehhhhhhh…. type giggles), I understand you. As long as you stay safe on getting right on describing “Hafash tegadalay and hzbi” missions and sacrifices, I have no reason to look for “asyuf ferenji” the ferenji swords. Any word why they call it that?
          Earlier, I sensed you were fixated on the idea that our predicament was rooted in EPLF leadership. I don’t disagree with you. PIA himself announced “back to old times” ናብ ክብርታታትና ንመለስ when he had hauled his “opponents” to prison. Even now, PFDJ says that openly and actually, up to this moment, it’s living on cashing in on old glories of Hafash tegadalay and hzbi. What I find myself disagreeing on is the fact that we let PFDJ be proud of our sacrifices in our futile attempt to find an explanation to why we are stuck into this situation. The inability of folks to wrest that old glory (that which most Eritreans believe they had made it and own it) from PFDJ, and making it their own is leaving unrestricted propaganda field for PFDJ. Remember, if WE condemn everything of our past struggle, that’s good for PFDJ. If we downplay our struggle, which there is no way of completely explaining it without the role of EPLF, that’s good for PFDJ. We are giving them what they don’t deserve while alienating ourselves. So, do whatever you want to do with your “alliance of killers” but make it in a way that’s clear, that’s without throwing statements which could be construed as debunking the struggle or ghedli. You’re good in most cases, but sometimes you exhibit some “shataHtaH” (saay’s word). I have to say, though, your last comment on history was much more clear and to the point, still we may continue on some minor areas, but I have to tell you, I’m more comfortable with you than ever. Let saay hear that!

          • Semere Andom

            Ahlen Mahmud:
            I have a theory about the “asyuf ferenji” and it comes from the following story.
            There was this Sudanese poet by the name of Idris Jemae, he had some mental problems, but he wrote good poems. When the Sudanese romanticize him they told me this story, he was admitted to a hospital and the nurse who was taking care of him had the most beautiful eyes so he kept staring at them non-stop, she sensed it so she wore here sun glasses , the poet in the passion of the moment sai “ena aseyfu fi qemdhi aAmenu, wo lakin sayfiku fi alhaletein betadu” 🙂 . So maybe the ferenji sword is potent even in its case
            I never read this story, it maybe just a joke, but the translation is left for Sal, not SGJ who has his own sword that mutilates mutilators of his Tigrayit and Arabic:-)

          • Mahmud Saleh

            That’s a typical Sudanese joke, a funny joke. Now here is an old source regarding Tigre people swords (asyuf); as you can see some of the transliterations are not quite good. It was collected by a “ferenji” more than 100 years ago. Go down to the Afrangi swords and see their descriptions and where they came from. My theory is this: since they called any white as “ferengi” probably imported swords were called Afrengi. Or may be the Turks and Egyptians who might have supplied either the swords or their swordsmithing in to Tigre lands, might have brought those skills from the real Ferenji” (North of them) in the first place and passed the names to Tigre people as they made contacts with our indigenous ancestors. Anyway, God knows. Here is the link.


          • saay7

            Kbur Harbeyna Tegadalai Mahmud Saleh:

            On behalf of many people who love Tigre music and Tigre dances and customs but wince every time they see people waving swords, balancing multiple swords, biting swords…could you please our message to ዝምልከቶ ኣካል (whom it may concern) to stop doing that? It is getting in the way of my inalienable right (መሰለይ!) to enjoy music, culture on demand:)


          • Mahmud Saleh

            Ustaz saay;
            Let SGJ decide the fate of your fear. My prescription would be to wrap you up nicely, a bowl of pop corn within your reach and get the great Harbegna semere do his seif berj wo dgdeg, let him have all the swords of our beloved republic of Tigre, I mean all the remaining (rumor has it his excellency PIA collected most of the collectible during his inspection toures). Hamd Abddallah songs could be handy from youtube. The idea is to let you watch all those warcries, sword wielding dances…until you get squeezed off dry of your sweat. SGJ believes that worked for some in the past in conditioning them. The other idea would be to ship out to MeHaz Barka. A quick ritual of rabbabah and swords’ dances could be held there; you could be done before our intelligence guys in Asmara hear the news and scramble to catch the fish.

          • saay7


            Isn’t it obvious? The Starwars light saber, of course, Jedi Knight!

            Honor, chivalry… Here’s why George Lucas explaining why he switched from swords to lightsaber.



  • saay7

    Wo Mahmuday:

    Thanks for the article; here’s my payback:) I have chopped awatista a remarkable video, “The Incredible Human Journey: Out of Africa.” It is a disputed theory, that all humanity traces its origins to Africa (particularly in China), but it is a compelling theory nonetheless.

    “Out of Africa” argues that not only is humanity from Africa but that only one tiny band of pioneers made it out of Africa and gave rise to all people who “don’t look African.” Not only was it a tiny band of people, but they took only one route out of Africa: which route? I chopped it before that. So you will have to guess or watch the full 6-part video. Those of you who have been to lush Oman have a clue:)


    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Good scoop saay. But still unconcluded theory or unproved hypothesis. Still it is a long scientific path for researchers to go through.

      • saay7

        Ah, Emma:

        I gave you an inch (disputed theory) and you take a mile (unproved hypothesis.) How about we meet halfway: it is the dominant theory in the scientific community.

        I will give you something better to support Mahmod Saleh’s great article. We all heard of civilizations that cropped up in Tigris/Euphrates; Indus; Nile, the Yellow River. But how many of us have heard of Garama in Libya? A civilization in the Sahara desert?

        How I know about this is because my state (California) is going through a 4 year drought and there are a lot of inter-faith prayers for water (that’s why Ethiopia lost to Algeria; instead of organizing an inter-faith prayer for Ethiopian football, I was at an inter-faith prayer for Califonria water*)…and the first ones to make a science out of ground water to sustain a civilization were the Berbers of Libya (Garamantians). This was 2.5 thousand years ago when Europe was…I don’t know what it was then:)

        Go to the 24:23 mark…it goes to 30:27


        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Merhaba Saay,

          Thank you for the link again. I am totally with you on the strides so far science has made discoveries especially with the advent of genome. What I am saying is, while I accept the data so far as to the origin of human being, there are still rooms for research to consolidate and settle the truth of the matter. That is all.



    Dear Awate Admin !
    Is this title open without censuring to debate openly
    and express our opinions or is just symbolic and that
    cuts and takes away some parts of our opinions and
    tell us we have to say this and not that ?
    Want to know before I make opinions about the topic !

  • Dear A.T

    This is the second time my comment is tagged “pending” and not
    appearing. Can’t understand it. Does it mean anything? Thanks.

  • haileTG

    Merhaba Haw Mahmuday,

    A very well thought through analysis of the pertinent issues. I like the way you progressed your arguments on the twin tracks that complemented eachother throughout the body length of the essay. In one aspect you developed the argument against the genetic differences camp where you argued that the genetic comparisons were too incomplete to demonstrate what gene is missing where and also the subjective quality of intelligence precludes it to be mapped objectively to a specific gene. On a seperate track you also made excellent counter argument on the North-South time-scale (directional) arrangement of how social, political and economic progress/regress took place.

    A point of observation that I have here as regards the position of those who use racist conclusions to assert biological differences is that there seem to be a mismatch of “means” and “Ends”. I.e. if people were biologically backwarded then the end result would have been that they wouldn’t have organized on coplex social order. Nature wouldn’t permit such process to get started to begin with. There has never been a case of the same species falling to different intellectual strata that limit their functions in any of the other vast animal kingdom. There is no functional, biological failing that is manifestly obvious that can be linked as an indirect example of such intra-species distinction. So, the “end” that we have social problems is strictly linked to the “means” that is explained by how our social organization has been subjected to ordeals. If the biology was to be taken as a “means” then the “end” would have been no society rather than a society that compares relatively well to others. So, this mismatch is always there, i.e the wrong “means” is joined as a tail argument for the wrong “end”.

    Otherwise, a good read and thank you.


    • Mahmud Saleh

      I also read your original reply to the article, which was similar to this; actually, your logic goes deeper. I like it, thanks buddy.

  • AOsman


    You reminded me of a saying by Amru ibn Al’Aas on the West
    (or Romans):

    ان فيهم

    لخصالا أربعا: انهم لأحلم الناس عند فتنة، وأسرعهم افاقة بعد مصيبة، وأوشكهم كرة
    بعد فرة، وخيرهم لمسكين ويتيم وضعيف، وخامسة حسنة جميلة: وأمنعهم من ظلم الملوك

    The gene talk was absurd there was no need to even debate it in the previous article. However, some took refuge in blaming the white man for the state that we African find ourselves in, instead of identifying some of the social traits that helped the west and direct the discussion on how to internalize them to move forward.



  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Dear Mahmuday,
    Good reading – an article of common sense and an antidote to an article titled “the world looking at Eritrea and Ethiopia” a baseless argument. Keep up coming bro.

  • Bayan Nagash

    Dear Mahmuday,

    This is not ONLY well thought out article but also so coherently, logically, and penetratingly addresses issues of IQ that have universal implications that I wish you would consider developing it with an eye toward general public – i.e., have it published outside Eritrean & Ethiopian circles. I have had thoughts about this whole notion of IQ in bits and pieces but not the way you have soundly laid out. Well written piece!

    • Mahmud Saleh

      Ahlan Bayan
      Thanks for the encouragement, I know you have a lot to give us on this topic.

  • Kokhob Selam

    ወለከ ! ከምዚ ድማ ኣለካ ማሕሙዳይ ? ይበል !! ተዓዊቱልና :እዚ ሲ ብግጥመይ ክንበልብሎ ምፈተኹ “እንታይ እሞ እንታይ እሞ ዛ ዓለም ዚ ኣሞ ” ጀበናይ እንዶ ም ተዓጽያ ::

    • Mahmud Saleh

      Sorry, I will check that out. ሹቅል ወ ኣጀኒት ጸብጠውኒ Thanks again.

  • Hayat Adem

    Dear Mahmuday (I’m now growing less formal with you),
    It looks like I share a vaster commonness with you than I thought to be. Like you said, humans are too complex, too unknown and unknowable for any science to decode them with certainty. How close is the invention of a helicopter to know the working internalities of a dragon fly? That is to say what is known (science) is too little, and what is known is not the last knowledge for any certainty..This is a great article and I want to reflect a bit more on this when my time allows, and this is just to fire off my praise for your worthy article.

  • tafla

    Haw Mahmoud!
    Good Writing as Always! This is a great article to read for any African growing up in the west.