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Badme: Woyane’s Fraudulent Casus Belli To Wage War Of Aggression- P2

On part one of this article, we said – ok the Woyanes were constantly provoking Eritreans (the EPLF government and prior to it) for war. We got that. But that doesn’t prove the 1998 Ethio-Eritrean war was started by the Woyanes. How could you prove beyond reasonable doubt that the 1998 Ethio-Eritrean war was instigated ignited and escalated by the Woyanes? Well, there is only one way to prove it: by making a compelling argument for it. And this is my take:

  1. The 1998 Ethio-Eritrean War Was Instigated, Ignited And Escalated By The Woyanes
  2. History Will Be Very Kind To The EPLF Government Leaders For Their Handling of The 1998 Ethio-Eritrean “Border” War

Now, I’m going to make the case for the above arguments and let the Woyane-cadres and their Eritrean agents debunk the arguments – and you just be the judge. Let’s roll:

Argument #1

The 1998 War Was Instigated, Ignited And Escalated By The Woyane

To make a compelling case for the above argument, let’s build two pillars of abstract reasoning to support the argument.

Abstract #1:

Anyone who believes nations could wake-up one morning and start full-fledged war the next day, is just plain stupid. War is a symptom; not a cause. War is a symptom of unresolved underlying problems that have been simmering for quite some time. War is not an independent phenomenon. It is a political tool aimed to achieve a well planned political and economic objectives. Though wars are fought under different pretexts, the cause of all wars could be traced to a simple objective: power control and influence. And the objective of asserting power control and influence through military muscle is to enjoy the spoils of war-success → natural resources, expansion of land, access and control of strategic locations and trade routes, to engulf and chock a competitor, to solidify internal power, for religious ethnic cultural dominance.…. And all these and more, wealth fame and influence in mind. Simply put: all wars are well calculated political decisions with clearly defined political and economic objectives. Therefore, anyone who couldn’t see the cause of the 1998 Ethio-Eritrean war beyond the few bullets that flew on the first two weeks of May 1998 is either extremely naïve, avid Woyane cadre with political agenda, or a hired agent who earn a living serving foreign interests.

Now, taking the above premise as a valid premise, we can say with absolute confidence that the 1998 Ethio-Eritrean war was never an accidental/random war but a well calculated, well planned, premeditated war of aggression (by the Woyanes) with the intent to reap the spoils of their war-victory. Again, the spoils of their war-victory being territorial gain for their Greater Tigray project; to liberate themselves from the widely perceived (then) public perception (pawn of ShaEbia); to assert political and military supremacy over Eritrea; to secure unfettered access to the Red Sea; to heal and restore the pride of a wounded defeated divided nation; to present themselves as true Ethiopian nationalists (as opposed to ethnic warriors) who would defend Ethiopia and Ethiopian interest; and most of all to “correct”/reverse the post 1991 dark boxed state of irrelevance that their Ethiopia found itself-in.

To be precise: if the Woyanes manage to reverse/correct their “mistake” successfully, they would become the mighty Neighborhood Sheriff with the biggest gun. And as a chief enforcer of Western policies and as a chief subcontractor of Western projects, overnight, Woyane’s Ethiopia would become highly influential power-player not only in the Red Sea-Horn Region but also as far as – The Arabian Gulf, The Indian Ocean, The African-Great Lakes, and beyond. And as a result of their mighty-power, greater control, far reaching influence and easy access to the ears of global powers, their Tigray (and by extension Ethiopia) would become a shining star on a mountain-top for years and decades to come. Well, nothing earth shattering concept here; just same old song and dance. At least for the past six decades, that has been the unbridled ambition of successive Addis-regimes; and that has been the blueprint of Western powers Horn-policy. And caught between a vindictive neighbor, and global geopolitics that is alien to them, the Eritrean people have been bleeding for the past four generations at no fault of theirs.

Abstract #2:

Again, to shed more light to the same argument, let’s add a little more in depth analysis to the argument; but this time from a different angle. Though every war has its own unique causes and characteristics, all wars have a common set of events and circumstances that precede the shooting phase of it. And these are the three common stages of war prior to the shooting phase.

Stage I. The cause of war: The cause of war is always a chronic problem (between the warring Nations) that has been simmering for a quite some time; but just a little below the boiling point. During this stage, emotions on both sides are extremely high but kept under the lid, the rage and anger is evident but pent-up, the situation is very volatile but contained. And if the underlying problems don’t get the proper solution they deserve, the eruption of violence is a sure thing.

Stage II. The Trigger of war: The trigger of war is always a tiny spark in a very volatile atmosphere. And this is how the spark start. At some arbitrary place and time, by some arbitrary event and players, a minor isolated incident (violence) would takes place by some people from Nation A1. And some people (someone) from Nation A2 are (is) killed. This minor incident (violence) that could have been ignored or easily contained under normal circumstance, becomes a catalyst for a violent chain-reaction, thus exacerbating the situation by opening the lid of the pent-up anger and resentment of the reactants (people from both nations). Then, before the ordinary small group of local players at the theatre fully comprehend the enormity and magnitude of their actions, the wheels of a bloody war are set in motion.

Stage III. Reaction and counter-reaction to the incident: At this stage, to defend itself (its citizens), Nation A2 reacts (or falls in to the planned trap instigated by N1) to the incident with fuming anger and emotion. And for the exact same rational (to defend itself), nation A1 reacts to the reaction of Nation A2 with even more anger and more outrage upping the ante. And before the people of the warring nations fully realize it, they are in the middle of a shooting war.

Now based on our abstract reasoning, let’s try to answer these questions. What was the cause the 1998 war? When did the 1998 war start? And who was the arsonist? And to help us identify the real cause, the precise time, and the real arsonist, let’s look at the chronology of events:

  1. Unprovoked, on May 06, 1998 Woyane militias killed about half a dozen Eritrean servicemen/women from the Eritrean Border Patrol Unit.
  2. Outraged by the Woyanes provocation on May 12, 1998 the EPLF government reacted to the incident with overwhelming force. Large Eritrean mechanized forces pushed the Tigrean forces in the area and captured, the disputed Badme border area and some uncontested sovereign Tigrean/Ethiopian territories in the LaElai Adiabo and TaHtai Adiabo Woredas (districts).
  3. Then, the Woyane led Ethiopian government reacted with outrage to the Eritrean reaction, and escalated the war by declaring war on Eritrea through its parliament (May 13, 1998); launching an air attack on Asmara airport (on June 05, 1998 which the EPLF government retaliated by attacking Mekele airport); deporting thousands of Ethiopians of Eritrean origin (starting June 18, 1998), widening the war theatre from the Badme area to the whole Ethio-Eritrean border region (Tserona, Zalambessa, Alitena and Bure) and by declaring their final war-objective – which was to march all the way to Asmara for regime change.

And that’s how the 1998 war started, and that’s how it quickly escalated from a border skirmish into an all-out war. Now tell me: when did the 1998 Ethio-Eritrean war started (as when did WWI started)? And who was the arsonist?

  1. Did the Ethio-Eritrean war start when the Woyanes pulled the trigger, bullets started flying, Eritrean blood was shed and Eritrean lives were lost (May 6, 1998)?
  2. Did the Ethio-Eritrean war start when the EPLF government reacted to the provocation of the Woyanes with excessive force (May12, 1998)?
  3. Did the Ethio-Eritrean war start when the Woyane led Addis regime reacted to the EPLF government reaction, and declared an all-out war including regime change?

Of course, the Ethio-Eritrean war started the minute the Woyanes pulled the trigger; of course the war started the minute Eritrean blood was shed; of course the war started the minute precious lives of young Eritrean servicemen/women was lost; of course the Woyanes were the arsonist who torched the 1998 war. What other logical explanation is there but the obvious?

And this is the Achilles’ heel of the “Isaias/Eritrea started the war” argument. When you ask the Woyane-cadres and their Eritrean agents – what was the cause of the war? Their answer is Isaias rolled his tanks and occupied disputed and undisputed Ethiopian territories around Badme. When you ask them – what was the trigger for the war? Their answer is, Isaias rolled his tanks and occupied disputed and undisputed Ethiopian territories around Badme. When you ask them – how did the war escalated from a border skirmish into an all out war? Again their answer is, Isaias rolled his tanks and occupied disputed and undisputed territories around Badme. According to their logic, the cause of the war, the trigger for the war, and the reason for the escalation of the war are all Isaias rolled his tanks to Badme and occupied disputed and undisputed Ethiopian territories. And that’s all baloney.

The truth: while the trigger and the reason for the escalation of the 1998 war is self evident, the cause of the war was brewing long before Isaias and his EPLF government showed-up to the theatre. The war just waited for such a long time:

  1. Because of the interdependence of the EPLF and the TPLF ultimate objectives
  2. Because of the EPLF leadership miscalculation or as the EPLF leaders would like to call it “ተገሪህና”or we didn’t see that coming. Let me explain:

The interdependence of ultimate objectives: the Woyanes desperately needed EPLF’s help to get to Menelik’s Place and to stabilize Ethiopia in order to govern; and the EPLF leaders desperately needed Woyane’s help for speedy referendum and full recognition of Eritrean sovereignty.

The miscalculation of EPLF leaders: the EPLF leadership (including most Eritreans) believed in their heart of hearts, after all the two people have been through together (Eritreans and Tigreans), the Woyanes would never double-cross their kin and burn all bridges. The reason:  (a) the Woyanes are always going to need free access to the Red Sea in order to make their Tigray, the Tigray they want it to be (b) the Woyanes are always going to need a reliable and trusted ally (people-to-people based) that would help them secure their southern borders to live in peace and prosper. Again the assumption being, any conceivable threat to Tigray and Tigreans could only come from one direction: their South. That was the sole reason, why the EPLF leadership and most Eritreans were looking the other-way even when the Woyanes were mistreating Eritrean citizens at the border. That was the sole reason, why the EPLF leadership was looking the other-way even when the Woyanes were in the business of recruiting and arming opposition to the EPLF organization/government (1983-1998) right under their nose. And that was the sole reason why the war was shelved for such a long time.

But as the EPLF government and we all Eritreans found out the hard way, the Woyanes had a political calculus of their own: to bleed, starve and humiliate Eritrea. And itching for a fight, first, they started incorporating large swaths of sovereign Eritrean lands to their Greater Tigray project; then they started evicting Eritrean citizens from the lands they called home for generations (settling the area with Tigreans); and to give-it a nice finishing touch to their Greater Tigray project, they started re-naming the newly inhabited areas with brand new “Tigrean” names. But again, don’t take my word for it. This is what the Washington Post said in print regarding the cause of the Ethio-Eritrean war. Note: “the major source of contention” is the operative word here, as land was not the sole reason for the war:

The major source of contention involved an area known as the Yirga Triangle, a barren, 160-square mile stretch of land that both sides claimed as part of their territory. Eritrea has accused Ethiopia of sending in thousands of settlers to the area in an attempt to push out Eritreans. Ethiopia claims the territory is part of its Tigre province. In 1996, a border commission was set up, but was unable to settle the issue.

Mind you: I’m not ignorant about the findings of the Eritrea Ethiopia Claims Commission (EECC). I know the EECC position is very clearly stated. It said “given the absence of an armed attack against Eritrea (since the May 06, 1998 killing was carried-out by “Woyane militias”) the Eritrean attack that begun on 12 May 1998 can’t be justified as lawful self defense under the UN charter”. Also regarding the May 13, 1998 Ethiopia’s decision to mobilize its forces for a full assault against Eritrea, the EECC said “Ethiopia’s move was in essence an affirmation of the existence of a state of war between belligerents, not a declaration of war (as Eritrea allege) and Ethiopia has notified the United Nations Security Council as required under Article 51 of the UN Charter.And these EECC words, and these words alone, are the only lifeline that the Woyane-cadres and their Eritrean agents have for their “Eritrea was the aggressor” argument. And I admit the EECC finding has been a valuable-tool to the Woyane-cadres and their Eritrean agents to confuse the naïve and the gullible. But that’s all. Just to confuse and mislead the naïve and the gullible. And let me explain the reason why:

Reason #1. At any given time, any Eritrean government has every right to defend its people, its servicemen and women, its sovereign territories from any foreign aggression (Woyane’s aggression in this case). And it is the Eritrean government’s prerogative how, when, were to respond if and when the rights of its citizens and the territorial integrity of its nation is violated.

Reason #2. The whole EECC finding is about a single event that happened in a single day: May 12, 1998. Yep, a one day event out of 7,300 plus days (20×365); as a single small tissue-sample in a complex human physiology; as a one page out of 7,300 pages of litigation papers. Now, even in the best of all findings (if one assumes the EECC finding is the final verdict of the whole war package – cause trigger escalation – which it is not) how impartial fair and balance could the EECC finding be if it is based on a single snap-shot of a moment in time? Not much. Right?

And if my understanding is right, the EECC didn’t deny Eritrea’s right to defend itself. The EECC didn’t deny the cause of the conflict (the simmering problems that existed for twenty long years). The EEC didn’t deny Woyane’s daily provocation prior to May 12, 1998. The EECC didn’t say Eritrea’s land-claim is unfounded. In fact Eritrea was awarded most of the “disputed” territories including the town of Badme. It just said (a) on that specific day (May 12, 1998) Eritrea’s use of overwhelming force can’t be described as self-defense because Ethiopia didn’t attack Eritrea with overwhelming force prior to that specific day (b) Ethiopia’s response the next day (13 May 1998) was not a declaration of war but an affirmation of a state of war between belligerents (c) Eritrea didn’t notify the UNSC in advance as required under Article 51 of the UN Charter before it made its military move; but Ethiopia did. That’s all. Therefore the only thing one could possibly argue about the 1998 Ethio-Eritrean conflict is, Eritrea’s failure to notify the UNSC in advance. Now, is, not notifying the UNSC in advance a big deal? Well, for a matter of optics? Probably! For substance that count? Hell No! Again let me explain:

Just for the sake of argument, let’s say Eritrea made a colossal diplomatic blunder by not notifying the UNSC in advance as required under Article 51 of the UN Charter. And fair enough, the EPLF government did fail to notify the UNSC in advance. Now tell me: due to the EPLF government diplomatic “blunder” what did we exactly miss? What would have exactly changed had the EPLF government notified the UNSC in advance? Had Eritrea notified the UNSC in advance, do you truly believe the UNSC would have forced the Woyanes to stop their nonsense and demarcate the border fair and square? And if the Woyanes refuse to comply, do you truly believe they would’ve came down on them like a ton of bricks? Do you think the Woyane militias and their Teraros would have stopped terrorizing Eritreans and encroaching deep into sovereign Eritrean territories the day after Eritrea notified the UNSC? Absolutely not!

One has to be extremely naïve and gullible to fall for that kind of nonsense. The argument that – Eritrea didn’t notify the UNSC as required under Article 51 of the UN Charter, and as a direct causation, “the whole world community” is standing against Eritrea is simply preposterous. The reality: it is not what a tiny poor black African country (Eritrea) did or didn’t do at any given time that determines the position of the UNSC and its powerful global powers, but the effect of that poor black African country’s move at the ground level vis-à-vis their regional policy and their national interest that determines their position. And that is always constant.

The impotent UN, the corrupted continental organizations, the worthless regional bodies, the commissions and agencies that are formed (delegated) by them, are all tools of global powers. Their findings and their decisions are not – fair balanced and impartial legal decisions. They are skewed and lopsided political decisions. Their findings and their decisions are so biased and so predictable, you don’t even need to read their final print to know what is in it. They are that predictable and they are that awful. But of course, knowing full well the findings and the decisions of these UN agencies is a joke, their findings and their decisions are used selectively every day by governments of all colors and stripes if it (the UN agencies findings) converges with their policies and interests.

So, what is new if the Woyane-cadres and their Eritrean agents conveniently cherry-pick and publicize the EECC finding like everything else?  Like UN agencies report on corruption, torture, failed (fragile) states index, fairness and transparency of elections (or lack of it), human rights abuse, rate of economic growth, social development index, freedom of this and freedom of that….. Isn’t that what all governments do every single day: Cherry-pick and publicize what they like and strongly oppose/condemn what they don’t like? Then what makes the EECC finding any different from the rest of them? But again, just to prove a point, let’s see how the “world community” (The UN, The SC, The Continental organizations….) run their daily business.

Whenever Israel rolls its tanks to Lebanon or Palestine and start carpet-bombing neighborhoods to the stone-age, the response of the “world community” is always – get over it; Israel has every right to defend itself. Bidding Western projects, whenever Ethiopia rolls its tanks deep into Somalia, killing citizens and destroying properties of a sovereign UN member nation, the “world community” doesn’t have any problem justifying Ethiopia’s aggression. Whenever Ethiopia crosses Eritrean borders (unprovoked) and whenever it declares regime change in Eritrea (which is a declaration of war in itself) in front of the whole wide world, the “world community” doesn’t have any problem looking the other way in silence. Whenever Russia violates the sovereignty of its weaker neighbors (Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Crimea) the “world community” just talks and talks and talks….. with no substance. Whenever the US and its allies unilaterally invade and topples governments of sovereign UN member-Nations half the world away, and whenever the US bombs countries covertly and overtly at will, the “world community” is just a silent witness. Now tell me: what good has done “notifying the UNSC in advance as required under Article 51 of the UN Charter” for the sovereign UN member nations who found themselves at the short end of the stick? Nothing! Right? And that’s exactly my argument.

The point: it’s a dog-eat-dog world. Sovereignty and territorial integrity of a nation are achieved and preserved through strength (sweat and blood), not by crying and begging at the lobbies and corridors of the corrupt AU/UN headquarters. In this planet – your only security, your only defense, your only safety, your only insurance, the only truth/democracy that matters…..is the size of your military muscle, and the size of your alliance (coalition). The bigger the size of your military muscle, the bigger the size of your alliance…. the safer you are. If you are a mighty power carrying a big stick, always every word you utter is “the truth”. But if you are a lone lamb in this vast wilderness, you are the first one to be consumed. That’s why, the small islands and the small communities who called those islands home for centuries (in the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian Oceans and near the poles) are not sovereign small nations but properties claimed by mighty global powers from half the world way.

And in a parallel reasoning, we can imagine, in a hypothetical distant future, if vital resources become scarce (over-population, draught, melting of polar ice caps.….) which “savages” would be the first ones to be “liberated” from their “homegrown tyrants”. Of course, vengeful locals lending a helping hand in the invasion of their country and in the mayhem and destruction of their communities – as history has attested time and again since the days of slavery. I mean – if the “savages” fail to notify the UNSC as required under Article 51 of the UN Charter that is. Well, I’m sure, the dead-souls who are down on their knees begging the Woyanes (or anyone with a big gun) to invade Eritrea in order to bring them to power, and the one man/woman institutions who are on the payroll of the West under the guise of journalists, human-rights advocates, faith based charities, pro-democracy movement leaders, media personalities…… would beg to differ. And that’s given.

ግን: ሓቁ ክነግረኩም ዋርሳይ ኤረ፡ forget about Badme a small piece of land, even when we fought for thirty long years to liberate the whole country, we never gave an advance notice (about our military plans and moves) to any global continental regional powers or their agencies. Never! Not out of arrogance or ignorance, not that we didn’t try or didn’t need their support, but because we learned early in the game it wasn’t going to do us any good – as we knew exactly where they all stood. We only notified them once. And that was from the gates of Menelik Palace. And to tell you the truth, they were not thrilled at all. They just accepted our sovereignty with a heavy heart. And the question that comes to mind is, with all their global reach, with all their influence, with all their mighty power, why in the world did they accept our sovereignty with great reluctance? Well, because we controlled the ground and we gave them two “bad” choices: to accept Eritrean independence or to witness the disintegration of their poster-child. And they chose the obvious. That’s how we made history. Of course our demand was wrapped-with “Genuine Northern Alliance” ready to serve their interest in the region for better or (for) worse. Guaranteed. At least that was what we thought it was. But, in any case, it served its purpose.

ሕጅውን: ሓቁ ክደግመልኩም ኣናብር ሳዋ Literally, “against all odds” – after our boys entered Addis and started smoking cigars inside Menelik Palace, for mission accomplished and for a job well done, we all patted each-other on the back Tegadelty-Style, and for months, nonstop, danced 24×7 ወሰደየ ጅግና በዓል ስረ….... from dawn to dusk to dawn…. in every corner of this planet including on the streets of Addis. Then, after all the non-stop crazy festivities and euphoria, and after we all felt Ethiopia was stabilized and our sovereignty was irreversible, we all danced one more farewell round ‘ኣንትን ትሃርማና፡ ኣንትን ትድስቓና – ካብ ሎሚ ምሸተ….’ in Addis and beyond. And then our mechanized infantry loaded their armored personnel carriers and headed home to turn the page and start a new chapter – of course believing we won’t be betrayed by those whom we helped and trusted the most. And you know what happened next.

But seriously, having said all that, no doubt, there are many honest questions that deserve honest answers. Does the EPLF government bear any responsibility whatsoever for the 1998 war? Did the EPLF government made any favor (be it to itself or to the Eritrean people) by rolling its tanks into the disputed and undisputed territories? If the Woyanes were itching for a fight as you (Semere) allege, was falling into their trap the wisest thing to do? Could we’ve done things differently? And more are honest questions that deserve honest answers.

And the answer for all these questions and more, is not rocket science. The job of any given government is to protect its citizens and to guard the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the nation it is governing. Back then, the EPLF government did exactly what any government worth its salt would have done under similar circumstances. And without a doubt, history will be very, very kind to the Isaias led EPLF leadership for their handling of the 1998 “border” conflict. And let me explain the obvious:

Argument #2

History Will Be Very Kind To The EPLF Government Leaders For Their Handling Of The 1998 Ethio-Eritrean “Border” War

To make a compelling case for the above argument, again let’s recap the facts:

Fact #1. Prior to 1978, Eritreans in the Badme region constituted the great majority of the inhabitants on both sides of the Eritrea-Tigrean border. But ever since the Woyanes showed-up to the theatre (around 1978) things started changing; and changing forever. Today, much less Eritrean clear majority on both sides of the Woyane controlled Badme border region, I doubt if there are any Eritrean farmers left in the area, and I very much doubt if there still exists, a single name of a place given by Eritreans prior to 1978.

Fact #2. Prior to 1991, the center of border contention was limited to the coordinates of point B at the Settit River, and some areas around the straight border-line that goes from the confluence of Mereb-Mai-Ambessa (point A) to the Settit River (point B). But after 1991, the “contested” border areas kept expanding. The Woyanes started encroaching deeper into sovereign Eritrean territories in all regions of the border. And each time,  after they claim the land, they were harassing and evicting Eritrean farmers from the very place they called home for decades  – Hazo at Upper Indeli 30 December 1993, a dozen villages of Adi-Mahrai (Zibra) June 1996, Denbe Hinbrty July 1996, Gheza Sherif August 1996, Adi-Murug July 1997, Enda Tchi July 1997…… just to mention few.

Fact #3. High level Ethio-Eritrean meetings were held many times (20 July 1994, 20 April 1997, June 1997, 08 and 16 August 1997……) to settle the border issue and to protect the rights of Eritrean citizens at the “contested” border areas; but only all to end in vain.

Fact #4. Spoiling for a fight, the Tigrean hardliners upped the ante (after 1997) from harassing evicting and killing Eritrean civilians and uprooting whole Eritrean villages in the ever-growing “contested” border areas, into dismantling local Eritrean government administrations and killing Eritrean service men/women. And the killing of half a dozen Eritrean border patrol unit on May 06, 1998 by the Woyanes was – so to speak, the straw that broke the camel’s back.

Back then, faced with such reality, any Eritrean government leaders (EPLF, opposition, or any other leaders for that matter) would’ve done only one of these choices:

  1. Bury their head in the sand, cross their fingers, and hope and pray one day the Woyane hardliners to change their mind and become Eritrea-friendly.
  2. Retaliate in a limited way – by dismantling few Tigrean local administrations and by killing half a dozen Tigrean militias, hoping the Woyanes to understand – and stop being hostile towards Eritrea and Eritreans.
  3. Use overwhelming force to stop Woyane’s adventure once and for all.

And we all know what the EPLF government did. And I believe (like most Eritreans do) the EPLF government-response was the right response. But don’t take my word for it. Assuming leaders of a nation are judged by history based on the accomplishment of their decisions, let’s see if the May 12, 1998 EPLF government decision could pass the strict scrutiny test:

  1. Did the 1998 EPLF government decision stop the cunning Woyanes, their unruly militias, and their vindictive ጠራሮ from terrorizing harassing evicting Eritreans and confiscating properties of Eritrean citizens once and for all? Yes it did.
  2. Did the 1998 EPLF government decision forced the Woyane dominated Addis regime, to sit and talk seriously about the Ethio-Eritrean border issue? Yes it did.
  3. Did the 1998 EPLF governments decision forced the Woyane dominated Addis regime, to sign a final and binding border decision knowing full well, it is a whole lot less than what they promised their constituents (in the shadow of darkness) and a whole lot less than they dreamt to achieve? Yes it did.
  4. Did the 1998 EPLF government decision, made the legitimacy of Eritrean sovereignty and the Ethio-Eritrean territorial borders crystal clear (for the second time I might add) to Eritreans, to Ethiopians and to the whole wide world? Yes it did.

Now, ask the ardent opponents of the 1998 EPLF-leaders decision what they would have done differently to achieve the same result without bloodshed. And all you hear from the self-acclaimed brainiacs is, a blank-stare, incoherent talks, unintelligible hypothesis and endless arguments about trifling issues. Yes, after a decade and half of badmouthing the PFDJ regime, after a decade and half of Monday-morning quarterbacking judging and criticizing with hindsight, still they don’t have any credible alternative idea they can sell to the Eritrean people; except to ride on the back of Ethiopian tanks from Mekele to Asmara. And  in the name of bringing change, to subject the Eritrean people to the nightmare of Ethiopian occupation (round two), is a political blunder that fly in the face of the three-generation Eritrean sacrifice at best, and downright treason at worst. That’s why the Eritrean opposition that are cuddling in bed with the Addis regime are in a vegetative state. And that’s why I’m saying, after all the dust is settled and the smoke is cleared, history will be very generous to the EPLF government leaders for their handling of the 1998 “border” conflict.

Final note: Every calendar year, (beside our religious and mass organizations annual celebrations) there are national holidays we Eritreans celebrate very religiously. And our national holidays are so personal and so touching to each and every one of us, every single year we make preparations for months to make them better than the previous years.

On the 1st of January, we all celebrate the New Year’s Day with music dance and fireworks….. wishing to have a peaceful and prosperous year.

On the 8th of March, as we all celebrate the unparalleled contribution of the Eritrean-Woman in molding the Eritrean identity and in achieving the Eritrean people’s aspiration to determine their destiny, we all gather to assess our achievements and failures (in the journey of gender equality) of the previous year(s). And based on our assessment, we renew our commitment with great vigor to work harder than ever, to empower the Eritrean-woman economically socially and politically. We pledge to achieve gender equality because – to us Eritreans – gender equality is not an issue of morality but an issue of national security; and our economic military social political…. strength is predicated upon the empowerment of the Eritrean-woman.

On the 24th of May, we all celebrate our independence-day united with great zeal jubilation and pride waving our flag, dressed colorfully, styled with different hairstyles, eating and sharing great variety of Eritrean cuisine, playing different music, dancing different dances…. to celebrate Eritrea’s birthday and to show the whole world our unique Eritrean identity.

On the 20th of June, we all gather together in silence, united by our shared experience: grief (as death and suffering was in every family) to hold candlelight vigil to honor, to remember and to appreciate the sacrifice of our fallen heroes and heroines. And each year, during our candlelight vigil, we renew our pledge to change the quality of life of the Eritrean people for the better, and to defend Eritrea (wherever we are) true to the spirit of our fallen heroes and heroines.

On September 1st, we all gather together with passion to celebrate the launch of our armed struggle, to honor and to remember our National hero Hammed Idris Awate and the selfless brave men and women who followed his footsteps to make Eritrean independence a reality.

And no matter how small of a community, no matter how far from home, each year, we all gather together with great passion and enthusiasm to celebrate our national holidays in every corner of this planet except in Woyane’s Ethiopia.

And that begs the question: is the Woyane dominated Addis regime, against the PFDJ regime or against the very concept of Eritrean sovereignty? If the current Addis regime is against the very concept of Eritrean sovereignty (which it is), how is it different from its predecessors? In Woyane’s Ethiopia, who is against Eritreans celebrating their national holidays? The regime? The Ethiopian elite? Both? Do we (Eritreans) have to tone-down celebrating our national holidays with enthusiasm and pride to have “good” relation with Ethiopia?

Many of the Eritrean opposition leaders are snug in bed comfortably with the Woyane dominated Addis regime. But the only right Eritreans inside Ethiopia (their “constituents”) have is, to be herded and to be paraded into anti PFDJ government demonstrations that are staged by the Addis regime. That’s a fact! Now tell me: Do the Addis based opposition leaders represent the aspiration of the Eritrean people? Is the love of Woyane worth, not celebrating Eritrean independence? Is the love of Woyane worth, not holding candlelight vigil to remember our heroes and heroines?

Anyway, when it comes to the Ethio-Eritrean politics, there are two types of people that baffle me the most: the sensible Ethiopians who couldn’t understand why Eritreans feel uneasy about Addis regimes and the Eritreans who swear – ‘the Woyanes are friends of the Eritrean people and defenders of Eritrean sovereignty’, when in reality, the Woyane dominated Addis regime is as hostile to Eritreans as its predecessors, and when in fact the Woyane-Dinosaurs (the only Ethiopians who supported Eritrean independence) are crawling out of the woodwork one after the other, making speeches and writing books “repenting their sin” (their prior position on Eritrea) right in front of their very eyes. How true the age-old Eritrean adage: ፈሊጡ ዘስቀጠስ (ዝደቀሰስ): ሓርማዝ ነይንቕንቖ::

Suggested readings:

WashingtonPost.com: Eritrea-Ethiopia Conflict
Badme border dispute: Why Ethiopia Won’t back down on Eritrean … www.youtube.com/watch?v=hDlN5cbjSfE
Greater Tigray
Eritrean–Ethiopian War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Cause of the Eritrean-Ethiopian Border Conflict
Ethiopian raid on Eritrean bases raises fears of renewed conflict …

About Semere Tesfai

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Negarit #21- Riddle — ኣዝግኑኒ

Reading time 5 minutes A family. A microcosm of an Eritrean family. Love, hope, and …

  • Wedi Chided

    ኣቶ ሰመረ፡
    መቸም ኣብዚ ሎሚ ግዜ ቴክኖሎጂን ኢንፎርመሽንን ኣብ ኢድ ዝኾነሉ ግዜ ግዜኻን ግዜ ኣንበብትን በሊዕካ ናይ ኣያኻ ኢሳያስ ሸንኮለል ክትደግመልናስ ብጣዕሚ ዘሕዝን እዩ፡ ኣንታ እንታይ ድዩ ወሪድኩም፡ ሓቂ እንተለካ ብዛዕባ እዚ ኣብዚ ግዜ ህጹጽን ኣተሓሳሳቢ ኮይኑ ዘሎ ህጹጽ ኩነታት ህዝብኻ ኣልዒልካ ምተዛረብካ። በዚ ዘቕረብካዮ ካልክዩለሽን ጌርካ ነዚ ዘለናዮ ኩነታት እንተትጽሕፍ እንተስ ክንቅበለካ እንተስ ክንቃወመካ ብሃናጺ መንገዲ ምተማያየጥና፡ ኣይኮነን ግን ነዚ ዘለናዮ ኩነታት( ኩነታት ህዝቢ ኤርትራ) ጎሲኻስ ደርሆዶ እንቁቑሖ ኣቐዲማ ዝዓይነቱ መወዳእታ ዘይብሉ ሸንኮለላዊ ክትዕ ከትእትወና ምፍታንካ ህዝብና ኣበየናይ ደረጃ ንቕሓት በጺሑ ከምዘሎ ዘይ ምርዳእካ እዩ ዘመስክር። እሞ ከኣ ኣብቲ ዓቢ ኣዳራሽ ናይ ዓዋተ፡ እዝስ ነዞም ኣብዚ መድረኽ ወይ ዌብሳይት ዘለዉ ጀጋኑ ሊቃውንቲ ምጽራፍ ወይ ምስትንዓቕ እዩ ዝመስል።

  • Semere Tesfai

    Selam All:

    No amount of lying and no amount of deception could camouflage the truth. The Woyane snake oil salesmen/women can try to tell us, it was all our fault. But there are no enough fools on the Eritrean side, who would be deceived by their lies. And to those who care to know, this is the stone cold truth:

    -Prior to 1978, the great majority of the inhabitants on both sides of the Tigrean-Eritrean border (Badme region) were Eritreans.

    -Today, (thirty five years later) there are almost none (Eritreans) – in the Woyane held Badme border region

    – Today, to be rewarded for their cleansing, the Woyanes are demanding to re-negotiate the border, in order to keep all Tigrayans (in the Badme region) to stay in Tigray proper.

    The rest is just political gymnastics.

    • ጨው የሕልፍ

      ኤህ፣ ኤህ ደኣ ሰመረን ሓያትንሲ
      ንድሕሪት ናብ 98 እንዳወሰድኩም ሸንኮለል ኣቢልኩምና። ሸንኮለል ዘየብሉ ዉላዳት ደኣ ውለዱ እምበር

  • Hayat Adem

    Dear Amde and all,
    I don’t know how to relate with the Greece/EU thing but I reflected on the Nakfa/Birr/Badume Issue. I am afraid this maybe longer and more than what you asked for. Sorry for the length and excess.

    Let me tell you why I characterize the Birr-Nakfa as a last straw effect. As you may remember both were benefiting from the Birr as a common currency while both were cursing it at the same time. The fact that Ethiopia’s birr was allowed to work as a legal currency in another country must be seen as an advantage to the issuer of that currency. Ethiopia was accessing Eritrea’s markets without needing to go through a dollar-medium. Port fees were being paid in Birr. All imports from Eritrea needed not pass through hard currency. Ethiopia had a leverage to influence Eritrea’s economy using its monetary policy as a tool and be mindful that had differing macro-economic policies. Eritrea’s economy was then shaping up as export-driven open economy. Ethiopia’s economy was investment-oriented import-control, highly regulated one. Both had one currency but divergent policies and views.

    A bit of background here: when Eritrea was liberated and before the referendum, the Mengistu regime left Eritrean banks empty. The EPRDF transitional government rushed 150 million Birr to maintain just the basics of market and livelihood in Eritrea. That 150 million Birr was not a loan nor was it a declared aid. And later in the years, the regime and PFDJ business branches were able to borrow up to 2 Billion birr at different times directly from the Ethiopian banks. That direct borrowing was only possible because birr was a legal-common currency in both nations. Many Eritreans, including those who were acting individuals on behalf of PFDJ business companies were able to secure loans from Ethiopian banks. Eritrea and Eritreans were able to have direct access to huge Ethiopain markets. All imports and exports to/from Ethiopia and to/from a 3rd country through Ethiopia were so easy and smooth with the use of Birr under the existing policy of the time.

    But Eritrea was impatient to declare divorce from the Birr and print its own note for a good reason. One is purely a policy issue and understandable. Eritrea wanted to exercise its own monetary policy, rightly so because it is one policy tool to manipulate and manage macroeconomic affairs. Eritrea didn’t want to continue depending on decisions coming from the Ethiopian national banks and bear the effects. The other reason has nothing to do with the economy and everything with image and pride projection. As you know money notes are also symbolic national tokens. As a new nation, Eritrea was ambitious of projecting and asserting its political identity aggressively to put herself on the map, and this, too is understandable. So Eritrea announced its plan to have its own money and rushed to print Nakfa and leave Birr.

    Ethiopia welcomed Eritrea’s move to replace Birr by Nakfa. Why? Ethiopia believed then that the disadvantage of sharing Birr with Ethiopia as a common currency far outweighed the advantage. Ethiopia thought Eritrea was unfairly maximizing gains at the expense of Ethiopian economy by abusing Ethiopian currency and products in black markets and practices of money laundry, creating parallel markets for currency exchange and products and service. The Ethiopian authorities thought the coming of Nakfa was a good thing for the Birr and were visibly as happy as the Eritrean authorities.

    If both embrace Nakfa, what was the problem then? The problem was both were welcoming Nakfa for different reasons and those reasons became very important that needed to be compromised or reconciled or transformed, or otherwise they would become a monster problem standing on the way. Eritrea wanted Nakfa without losing all the benefits and advantages it used to enjoy when it was using the Birr. Ethiopia wanted Nakfa to remove all unfair advantages of trade and exchange Eritrea was getting from using the birr. I have looked into ways I thought could have been better options (at least compared to what we had to go through and still yet), and it definitely was not a problem without a solution but for the parties it seemed it had to be handled the way they did.

    So Eritrea insisted for Nakfa and Birr to float in both markets in parity and without restriction, and for any imbalances of accounts and value adjustments of the two monies, Eritrea suggested both banks do inventories every 6 month and clear them off. Ethiopia categorically rejected this proposal stating once Nakfa starts circulating, Birr and Nakfa will have two separate and fenced market grounds and every transaction onwards can only be effected through a medium (dollar, euro, etc) and only bank to bank (using LCs). Please, appreciate that this was the only macro policy issue on which the two leaderships collided head-to-head since they became governments. It was the biggest macro inter-nation issue that brought them to a direct confrontation. All other differences before were not that big as an issue or if they were, the leaderships were somehow finding a way to work some common ground around them. So far I know this was, the only issue that seemed neither ignorable nor solvable without offending one side or the other.

    So Eritrea strongly objected the use of banks and dollar to reconcile transactions and insisted on Addis to accept the party and free circulation of Birr and Nakfa in both markets. When Addis Ababa failed to change its view, Eritrea insisted more strongly to at least write off the LC option and allow individuals to conduct transactions direct without having to go through the banks. Eritrea’s justification was that people of both sides interconnected and act as one market actors, and that both markets transact at micro scales and that they are more of traditional than modern. Ethiopia’s rejection remained firm and insisted that all transactions needed to be treated as two country transactions, and it would only treat it with the same policy it followed with other neighboring countries. However, Ethiopia came up with a minor concession proposal that it could allow 2000Nakfa/dollar transaction of border markets without banks and dollars. That was not good enough for Eritrea but it had to say “whatever” and leave it there.

    There was another issue both needed to agree and solve. When Nakfa come to replace the Birr, what happens to the Birr that would be recalled from the Eritrean market? It wouldn’t have been an issue if Ethiopia allowed Nakfa and Birr to work in parity but since Ethiopia blocked that option it now became an issue. Eritrea asked to be paid in hard currency for the collected Birr amounts citing the legal terms of “pay to the bearer” printed on the note itself. Ethiopia was, I would say either dubious or tactful (your pick) on this that it didn’t object and it didn’t agree. They said, “We agree to solve this in a reasonable and fair way based on advices and lessons from IMF experts and precedence of other countries that had passed though similar issues.” Eritrea agreed to Ethiopia’s proposal. Securing Eritrea’s agreement was critically important for Ethiopia because they needed to print a new Birr notes/coins at the exact time Nakfa comes out, it would have been impossible for them without the consent of Eritrea. Had Eritrea not agreed, the Birr collected from Eritrea’s markets to leave space for Nakfa would slip in to the Ethiopian market. This would have damaged Ethiopia’s economy because the economic price values of those notes were transferred to Nakfa, and now it was to be blended with a larger amount of value-carrying Birrr.

    Eritrea had old and not-so-modern light industries at a comparative advantage over what Ethiopia had then. Ethiopia was a nearly 100% destination for nearly all Eritrea’s export products. Eritrea’s import share of produce from Ethiopia was also very large. In the mean time, Ethiopia started planting similar light industries to substitute imports. And Ethiopia started taxing and regulating Eritrea-bound outgoing produces while trying to shift the trade to a bank-to-bank system. Isaias clearly spoke of disapproval of the Ethiopian “protectionist” policy at the expense of strangulating Eritrea’s economy. These things coupled with Nakfa/Birr-born complications were growing all kinds of pains and irritation, more so visibly on the Eritrean side. So, Eritrea wanted to influence change of policy to favorable conditions. When discussions and lobbying were not doing the magic, PFDJ started looking around on other options from under its table. This is clearly displayed on the personal letter exchanges between Isasias and Meles. You clearly see, Isaias initiating and bringing two clash points (Adimirug and Bada) into picture while Meles’ letter redirected the focus to the economic/currency issues.

    “Shock and shake them” so that they get back to their senses. That was all about it. That was Badume. It was not meant to be a total war. It was meant to be a measured dose enough to bring Addis to a favorable policy sense. The reason why Isaias was unreachable to Meles after the May 12 Badume incident was to let the event run its course and give enough shock to Meles so that he understands wellnto accommodate Eritrea. The reason why Isaias acted surprised and shocked when Meles took the case to his parliament was because it was not meant to be. The plan was: Meles and EPRDF top leadership get shocked enough; they feel so desperate and hopeless; they try to reach out Isaias, they try again, they try again, they try again; and when about to try something crazy out of desperation, Isaias calls back while EPRDF leaders were so weak, so confused and so helpless. Isaias acts god and the last savior, gives them a life line of hope, they behave well then after. Why did Isaias think that they will give enough time to play with it and that they would not shoot right back? It is obviously because he knew well that they were not ready for that. Not only that, he knew that they would be in split and disagreement on what to do. He knew that they were split on the possibility of conflict with Eritrea and Meles prevailed dismissing the warning against the rest of the ones who saw it coming.

    Exactly as Isaias planned it, Meles attempted to reach Isaias when Eritreans forces took over Badume. You can imagine how Meles might have felt disoriented on the development. He is the leader and he argued against what others correctly predicted, and it happened after six months. In a typical situation, that ends the political life any leader. But Meles survived it. But, I have a feeling Isaias might have gotten what he wanted to had he not overplayed it. If he was reachable the first or second time Meles called him immediately after May 12, he would get what he wanted. But after Meles made his move and involve the parliament, things were moving on different inertia and dynamics. Isaias always amazes me how he always missed the right bus for a few seconds. SO, IT WAS THE NKFA/BIRR STUPID.

    Had sober and cool minds been in control of the situation, harmonizing the monetary policy favorably wouldn’t have been difficult. They could have come even with a new currency for both (neither Birr nor Nakfa) or surgically remove the problems in million better ways than by war. So what SemereT describe Badume War as a symptom. How can you call a war a symptom? If someone dies of a certain illness, the cause of the death is the illness but the death itself cannot be a symptom. Therefore, Badume is a consequence, not a cause nor a symptom. When the Badume clash went out of control, Isaias thought he still was on advantage and he tried to expand it quickly to Adigrat and Shire, and cut the Djibouti line. When Wuchu reported to the commander-in-chief that he was halted to go beyond Zalazmbessa and Alitienna, Isaias hanged on him with a single sentence order: “ab adigrat koynkha dewileley, call me from Adigrat!”Isaias still didn’t have any ambition of taking land from Tigray. He was just injecting some more doses to the shock for necessary effect on the part of Weyane. He was trying to punish hard enough. When that was not possible, he still thought he can bring the wisdom of Nakfa (the place)- the art of trench warfare- little cost for Eritrea maximum cost to the Weyane, and for nothing: “the Ethiopians can come and die one by one if they want”. The mentality was one like: And when the chifra Weyane know the futility of taking the lands back, they would come to terms. When Isaias wanted to pass this message in no uncertain words he said: better for the sun to die than for us to withdraw from Badime. Instead there was something that you could have done and still could do and you know it. But if want to fight to the last, you will lose and it is your choice.

    Semere T is so naïve and he is not looking for facts and analyzing them or he is trying to act so smart and he can supply his own facts. If Weyane was planning such a war to take Eritrean lands, lets count the events again. May 6, Tigriay militia killed some officers. Then nothing happens for 6 days. So how is any government planning to expand territory by just killing 5 or 6 officers and go silent for a week? Shouldn’t they open fighting on all fronts and speak the language of war right after they opened the war? Even after 6 days, the one who acted was the Eritrean army by taking Badime. How is that to be counted as a war plan from the Ethiopian side? If Ethiopia open the Badime war, we wouldn’t see them taking it in their parliament and discussing it, mobilizing people for drafting. How would they ask Eritrea to withdraw from Badime if they were on the offensive? Shouldn’t they simply act to evict the Eritrean army from that place? After the Badime incident, the next wave of clashes came after a month. How does that gap show the fact that a full fledge war was planned from the south? So much about SemerT’s impeccable argument…and that is leaving aside EECC’s evidence and clear ruling, and PFDJ’s acceptance. The ruling said Eritrea committed aggression on the night of May 12, 1998 and took over Ethiopian territory, dismantled Ethiopian local administration. Every analysis on that fateful crisis should start from this fact or else, it suffers from basic deviation and becomes pointlesssss.

    Hayat

    • Papillon

      Selam and Semere T,

      There you have it! Now go nuts at full speed for the female version of Sal has come to the fore as a “naked Weyane cadre.” Not so fast! Learn, learn and learn on how to present a fact and evidence based debate and argument! Imagine if this remarkably brilliant piece was to appear right after the war, I am sure, the intellectuals, academics and latter-day koboro junkies would have laughed it off for little did they know that Isaias was taking them for a long ride down to the cliff! Hayatina, damn you’re so good. Thank you haftey natey!

      • selam

        Dear papillon
        I do know DIA was taking us to the cliff what i did not know yet is that, You will try the life of similarities like, ‘Twisted’ is similar to ‘Pretty Little Liars’ in that it’s about trying to find out who did it, but it’s more about the human relationships between characters and the strain that things can put on them. It’s also a little bit of a social southerners are good at creating lies. Here you have it papi, i thought you will not dare to try to buy at the bottom and sell at the top. It can’t be done except by liars.

      • Hayat Adem

        Papi,
        Haftey Natey ‘ba! This “haftey natey” signature of your is killing me. It sounds so close and gracious. I could work for a full day for you just for a price of hearing one “haftey natey”!
        Thank you so much!
        Hayat

    • selam

      Dear All

      Look at these pathological liars, and anything they say, they believe, and that’s one of the reasons they’re so convincing, because they have no connection with the truth. It’s a dead issue. It’s like they’re color-blind to the truth. So anything that comes out of their mouths is their reality. Sad time that hayat come to awate.com just to protect weyane.I do suspect lies over lies in order to keep weyane on a pure plate of their favourable machine . Lies could not make truth , writing so many hallow words and creating lies is not the norm that Eritreans grow. For your information massaw was the portof weyane for free and weyane was using their own track. All tracking from massawa to mekele was done with weyane companies and they have used the Eritrean line from massawa-Ghindae-nefasit-mai habar-dekemhare – ccontinue to Tigray.
      You have piled words full of lies that seem Eritreans were the only beneficial of the pre 1997 , your lies has no boundries and you are not even ashamed. I have no idea how lies come back again and again. What happen to the 80,000 Eritreans who you think take loan f3om Ethiopian bank ? You forget every thing as nothing happen , yet you come back to lecture some idiots . So many people have told you that you will fool no one except you wast your time on trash lies . Come another day with another hidden lies that Eritreans are not familiar with then you can have little time to spare.

      • Hayat Adem

        Selam,
        There are two parts to my piece: 1) recount of facts/events and 2) analysis. You can accuse me of lying on the former (1) if you can back it up, or you can ask me to verify further if you are in doubt. You can challenge me on the latter (2) with a better reasoning. Unlike I am not here to defend or curse anyone on behalf of anyone else. I owe nothing, not even to myself. You can be sure about that. If you feel you found me defending Weyane, that is you feeling but to me what I say is what I feel is the truth (facts) and sensible (analysis) just for the sake of it. If you feel you found me attacking the PFDJ unfairly, put it up and let see it.

        • selam

          Dear Hayat
          Have you ever wondered about a professional biographer in political campaign who has zero trust from the people ? Just sensible question for miss hayat . You never find me protecting PFDJ and you can’t accuse me of that because it happens to be i am against your idea of bombing asmara for 2 weeks. Did i mention from your old comments sorry.
          Of all liars the most arrogant are biographers: those who would have us believe, having surveyed a few boxes full of letters, diaries, bank statements and photographs, that they can play at the recording angel and tell the whole truth about another human life. Which one is fact ? And whi are you trying to fool any way ? Just pause one moment and be realistic .

      • Amde

        Selam,

        I thought I would count for you. You used the word “lie” and its derivatives thereof exactly 10 times in this paragraph. I won’t call it redundant like those people that say things like “lying liar” or “stupid idiot”.

        Anyhow, it seems to me some of your arguments were fair – such as “Weyane were getting preferential Massawa port usage and transit benefit”. Was the amount of benefit reciprocal? This is a fair question, and might shed more light on what transpired.

        Your other point – you tied 80,000 Eritreans to the ETB2billion bank loans. I don’t believe Hayat did. If you know anything more concrete, perhaps you can contribute to that.

        Thanks,

        Amde

    • Berhe Y

      Selam Hayat,

      You make a convincing argument and I think it’s more in tune to what transpired.

      The issue that I think some people have (including me), it seems really confusing what the intent and future outlook on Eritrea is from the TPLF/EPRDF leaders. For example, when we think we have (those in opposition) scored big with COI, and going for the kill, Ethiopian prime minister goes on and on punishing Shaebia etc.

      Didn’t they have 15 years to do so have they chose to? Even if no direct confrontation happens, wouldn’t this cause division and confusion in the opposition space similar to what happened since 2002, when they set foot in Ethiopia, that we are in disarray.

      What I mean is, just like Israel talks peace with Palestine and goes on and build homes and move settlers, etc etc, knowing after 100 or so years they will completely take over the land they wanted and they have no way to fight back.

      In case of Eritrea, the long we stayed in disarray and in miserly the more we get weaker by the day and it will be (they probably think) it’s easier to take what they wanted ala Cremia style.

      Off course may be there is a division within the ranks, could a prespouus, peaceful neighbour and trading partner Eritrea have far more benefit to Ethiopia, rather than disintegrated and weak Eritrea.

      Just to hear your thought and may be the other insiders.

      Berhe

      • Berhe Y

        Dear Hayat,

        Just to stay on the topic, you don’t have to respond to what I asked (unless you want to), perhaps we can leave it for another time.

        I had thought about a little more and I am not sure if you know what happened or that I missed it (if you can clarify).

        1) when Ethiopia was insisting on using US/EURO, does it mean that it was willing to pay for port services and or the Assad refinery use? If yes, then how is that to the disadvantage of Eritrea? Did Eritrea total economic benefit (other than the port fees) was larger? If so I find it hard to believe.

        2) I have suspected that IA insistance on using equal value currency, I thought he would be able to print as much as he wanted and buying Ethiopian goods using Nacfa and potential able to export and get Dollars in return. Do you think something like that could be the reason.

        Berhe

    • House of Stark

      Selam Hayat.

      Your presentation are as always, presented with clarity and argued with fact.

      I have one question to ask , if Ethiopia had allowed Birr/ nakfa to circulate in both countries at par, what is the impact on Ethiopia’s foreign exchange reserve, assuming Eritrea and Eritrean have full access to Ethiopia’s market as before 1998.

      Thank you

    • Amde

      Wow Hayat,

      See now, this is not a comment. This is an article (a magnificent one) in its own right. I don’t believe I have read anything as comprehensive as this, and in my mind at least provides a more realistic explanation of what transpired than the “two bald men fighting over a comb” metaphor which I always thought of as condescending and meaningless.

      Pretty much anyone who was in Addis during the 91 – 98 period can remember elements of what you stated that transpired in Ethiopia post-Eritrean independence, such as the Eritrean embassy in Addis Ababa being the leading black market center for foreign currency, huge loans approved and issued to Eritrean businessmen and fronts for the EPLFDJ, Eritrean contraband trade in Merkato undercutting established traders etc…. I say EPLFDJ because this started immediately after May 1991, predating the establishment of PFDJ, showing policies that were obviously crafted under EPLF and continued under PFDJ.

      You actually had me revisit the Wikipedia page on Mercantilism. It is not unreasonable to then see PFDJ as the Eritrean equivalent of the “East India Company”, involved in any and all trade, and able to call upon the the full weight of the military and coercive powers of the Eritrean State to bear to force/maintain advantageous commercial positions. It makes one wonder whether the war was waged by the Eritrean state on behalf of Eritrean state interests or EPLFDJ’s mercantilist interests. And thus the follow-up question – Is the post-war waged on behalf of Eritrean state interests, or EPLFDJ’s mercantilist interests? I suspect most will agree the current disposition is purely for PFDJ interests, but would they logically accept the war was also waged by PFDJ for its Economic interests?

      I think then the border is a distant secondary or more precisely explained as a contributory cause. In that sense, the EEBC process and decision were attempts at fixing secondary issues without getting to the heart of the main causes. In that sense, this problem remains undiagnosed and unresolved. It does not mean it should lead to war post-Issayas, but at least we should collectively open our eyes to where it put us historically and be wiser going forward.

      Thank you.

      Amde

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Dear Hayat,

      I can’t appreciate enough for your meticulous analysis on the genesis of the Ethio-Eritrean border conflict, so detailed and for most Awatistas it is an eye opening. This impeccable five pages comment deserve the front page of awate.com, and hopefully the team will recognize the right place of it.

      regards,
      Amanuel Hidrat

      • Ted

        Hi, Amanuel H, it is unfortunate the “Eritrean lady” have no face. No face,No front page. Now it is settled, it is all about money, not Weyane being Weyane. Meles and “the Eritrean Lady” knowing Money to be the cause of Eritrea’s aggression, they try to give IA the money he wanted at 70 occasions but he refused. Why would he do that? may be he is hoping the next Ethiopian Gov be a bit generous to him . i wonder the Eritrean lady talked over with Gebru Asrat before he published the book. He could had used fillers like this.

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Merhaba Ted,

          If you have different fact, can you share it with us, like what Hayat did in detail as to what was the genesis of the war and how it could have been avoided. That is what Hayat did. Please do so if you have the other side of the truth and how it could have been avoided. Remember both leaders called the war the “senseless war”. Besides, Can you detail the attempts of Ethiopian leaders wanted to give money to IA at 70 occasions, when, how, and who the actors in those occasions. Our Ears and minds are open for every thing to make an educated judgments. Go toe to toe, head to head to make your argument convincingly against here argument.

          regards,
          Amanuel Hidrat

          • Ted

            Hi, Amanuel. would you please let go the lady’s tail. “She” is dragging you all over the muck.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Hi Ted,

            Isn’t it better for you to say I can’t challenge her rather than running “atahdma Ibuyat”. Please argue against her to know who is doing the moist sticky mud or clean argument. And don’t worry about me, worry about yourself. I have a sober mind to make a sound judgement, just give you argument if you are apt to.

            Regards,
            Amanuel Hidrat

      • Bayan Nagash

        Aman Haway,

        Where is the consistency about staying the course on the momentum gained by Geneva? Hayat Adem’s piece deserving front page – be for real AH. The piece that you declined to develop is far more pertinent to Eritreans’ predicament today than Hayat’s, albeit well thought out and well argued, nonetheless, not a single shred of evidence to back up her claims. Not to mention not a single sentence in this five page well argued piece seized on the momentum of June 26. This is taking us to the realms of fantasy rather than focusing on what’s pertinent and what’s real in Eritrea today.

        “This impeccable five pages comment deserves” to be somewhere in the future negotiations between the two governments when we manage to put our house in order, not now. How this leads to keeping the Geneva momentum prominent in our heart and mind I fail to see. Couldn’t we let the experts in our respective countries handle the matter in due course in its rightful place and time. I wish a fraction of HA’s energy, intellectual prowess, and astute observations were spent along the lines of, say, Sal’s “The Churn”, she would’ve served the region far more constructively than this so 20 years old dilemma that can only be resolved through negotiations at an opportune time and place, definitely, not in the virtual world that we are wasting our time for. Remember, every minute we spend wallowing in issues that do not lead to the unseating of the regime in Eritrea is every minute the existence of our youths being compromised.

        All you need do is give a listen to the first few minutes of the news headlines of Medrekh from yesterday in which it is reporting some six Eritrean lives becoming victims of flooding as they were attempting to cross to Sudan. Here is the sad news that leaves one chagrined to the inner core. What’s real is young Eritreans are perishing every single day, if not the bullets at the border, it is man and nature made calamities. kan kemzi elu eyyu hiwet menisayat ertrawyan Hasiru? In fact, there is an interview being conducted that’s far more in tune than us preoccupying ourselves with our own exercise of intellectual prowess, being paper tigers, as it were.

        I didn’t much care about a letter being read, the segment that comes right after the news, the whole intention of which seems more for the record books from an elderly gentle Eritrean who is more concerned about his own legacy than anything else. The man at the helm of srAt PFDJ, the addressee of the letter, is beyond redemption. I highly recommend the last segment, an interview with former Ambassador Andebrhan is quite good. I know Amanom you have some serious reservations about the man, but this is not about the man it is about the young men and women who are perishing needlessly in Eritrea and the world over everyday.

        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QNFRJzMMIQQ&feature=youtu.be

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Kubur Beyan,

          Without going at length, I simply and sincerely accept your criticism for not sticking on the priority at hand. Thank you for your constructive criticism.

          Hawka,
          Amanuel Hidrat

          • Bayan Nagash

            Kbur Haw Aman,

            I appreciate you putting the brakes on this potential discourse that probably would’ve taken us into another round of back and forth rendezvous. I see the wisdom in the way you truncated your response – This is just an acknowledgment to that wisdom that I couldn’t possibly express by voting it up.

    • haileTG

      Selamat Hayat,

      A very rational and logical argument, after Semere’s old school rhetoric filled argument. Although I am one of those who believe there are more pressing issues for Eritreans at this junction, your piece left me nostalgic of our (Serray included) long debates on Ethio-Eritrea conflict. Resisting the temptation to jump in full swing, let me ask a couple of questions:

      My understanding is that there were few billion (close to 3) Ethiopian birr in Eritrean banks at the time of the Ethiopian currency conversion. The birr has found its way to Eritrea through various services, fees, trade and the likes. I am also mindful of the back and fro accusations of irregularities. But taken as a whole, the Eritrean bank birr stocks are required to be redeemed by the issuing bank (i.e. CBE). You note that after giving assurances to do so, the Ethiopian side had reneged on that commitment. I understand then that the Eritrean side then seized Ethiopian destined cargo at Assab port. Although I think that was naive from the Eritrean side, nonetheless the issue of the impounded cargo was included on the compensation package that was addressed by the EECC. But, what happened to the Ethiopian birr in Eritrea? Can the Ethiopian banks face legal proceedings by a democratically elected Eritrean authorities in some future date? If the money was generated through the state to state interactions that were sanctioned by the respective governments at the time, it surely is money belonging to the Eritrean state and the books need to be balanced somehow. So do you consider that the Ethiopian side should address the issue of redeeming that stock of birr currency at some point? Actually I haven’t checked it recently but I don’t think the abandoned birr issue had been included in the EECC compensation verdict. Can you expand a little bit more on that, because when I smell money it is all a different story 🙂

      • Fanti Ghana

        Hello Brother Haile TG,
        Until Hayat responds,
        “can the Ethiopian banks face legal proceedings by a democratically elected Eritrean authorities in some future date?” Hailat, democratically elected Eritrean authorities won’t have to sue us for 3b. They will have a bigger fish to fry.

        If, God forbid, for some crazy reason we are at loggerheads still and that demand for compensation comes up in the future, I am sure, legitimacy (how that money was acquired in the first place) will come up too, and we will be back to square one. I don’t exactly have ‘facts’ that I know of, but I have heard money laundering accusation in the past. However, let me add a modified version of your question, and I hope someone will answer it: Why did the EEBC exclude ‘Ethiopian birr in Eritrea’ from the compensation package in the first place?

        • haileTG

          Dear Fanti bro… please pass the the $150 million (by today’s exchange), let’s not make a scene about it…haha

          Seriously though,

          1 – laundered money doesn’t get stocked in the banks

          2 – according to Hayat 100% of Eritrean export (my sources put it to close 64%) were to Ethiopia and almost that much imports too.

          3 – All of the money running Eritrean economy (salaries, domestic trade and commerce, commercial transactions) were in birr. can we conclude all of that was generated by black market activities?

          4 – If Eritrean Central Bank is a legit financial institution, so is the money it keeps. Suppose Sudan changes its currency and refuses to redeem Sudanese old currency held by CBE, wouldn’t the latter be justified to sue? Can CBE be holding a money that it has not administered with due diligence through normal banking procedures? And if it did, would it ask to redeem it without the necessary paper work?

          We are keeping the big fish for a main course, this is salata Fanti arkey 🙂

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Haile TG,
            Strictly, legally speaking, and notwithstanding what Ethiopia’s position is/will be, of course, it definitely is legitimate question. The dreamer in me just can’t stand the word ‘sue.’ The laundering issue is quite strong in some quarters. It supposes that the Eritrean government and, may be, some banks are directly involved. However, all that is hearsay, so let’s forget that.

            I am hopping one of two things to happen instead:
            1) Either Eritrea won’t have to ask; i.e. Ethiopian authorities will just bring it up themselves and compensate. Or
            2) they will come to Asmara to great the new gov. with a bag of money as an ice breaker to a newer and better friendship, making it awkward for the new and poor Eritrean government to ask.

            Just imagine, an Ethiopian government saying “folks backwardness has caused us great pain for generations, and please, no more! We have been economically a little better off than you are in the last couple of decades, so here is $10b birr for you to start building schools and hospitals until you get back on your feet.” just think about how little and equally how big that is.

          • አዲስ

            Hi Fanti and haile TG,

            Was the involvement of the Eritrean embassy(the Eritrean government representative) around Addis Ababa stadium being a major player in black market at the time a hearsay too? just thinking about it never cease to amaze me.

            Thanks,
            Addis

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello አዲስ,
            I heard it third/tenth hand myself, so I have no choice but to call it a hearsay. Also, Haile TG made a good point with his salaries and trades, showing that, even if there was some laundering going on it cannot be all of it. In either case, I don’t see any legal ground that prevents Eritrea from asking for that money. Think about it አዲስ, the law will see it like so: Why didn’t the Ethiopian authorities arrest the launderers at the time of the crime? If they had notified the Eritrean government about the illegal activity of their ambassador, what was their response? If unsatisfactory response, why did they continue their diplomatic relations without resolving that issue? The fact that all that accusation surfaced after we had a fight just does not look good. Let’s just hope that Haile TG’s government won’t be the suing type!!!

          • አዲስ

            Hi Fanti,

            Of course like haile TG said, it’s safe to assume that not all the money in Eritrean banks were sourced using illegal means. And why didn’t Ethiopian government put an end to the embassy’s illegal activity? well it was all an example of EPRDF’s failed policy of looking the other way when it comes to Eritrean government and Eritrean businesses illegal activity and has been widely discussed not just after the fight broke but even before it.
            My hope is post PFDJ Eritrea won’t think of planning the nation building process by exploiting neighboring countries. Mutual interest should be the guiding principle.

            Thanks,
            Addis

          • Rahwa T

            Selam Adis,
            I am surprised to read Fanti Ghana’s comment on the illegal money laundering at the embassy. I thought this kind of comment would come from the like’s of Selam, Nitricc and Hope. Sad.

          • አዲስ

            Hi Rahwa,

            We give Fanti the benefit of the doubt 🙂 Obviously questioning something that he heard “third/tenth hand” as he put it shouldn’t put him in the categories of Selam et al. But it would be dishonest of me to say it didn’t surprise me reading that from him.

            Thanks,
            Addis

          • Rahwa T

            Dear Adis,
            You are right. I was a bit hasty to say what said above. I didn’t start reading the comments from the top. I just read your reply to him. That was my mistake. Sorry Fanti.

          • abrham

            The money luandary operators were ready to luanch a bank known as Horn which is exclusive to Ethiopians. The banks mission is obviously predictable, intensifying the luandary.

          • አዲስ

            Hi abrham,

            I don’t have the information on that bank. But it won’t surprise me if they plan to use it for that purpose.
            Thanks for sharing.

            Addis

          • Rahwa T

            Hi abraham,
            Yes, the “Horn Bank” office at Temama FoQ around Campo Asmera. The irony is that foreigners are not allowed to establish banks in Ethiopia even today.

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Brothers abrham and Addis,
            I think if they truly believed that their activity was illegal to that extent do you think they would be as bold as opening a bank for mainly money laundering? I strongly doubt it. In fact, it farther shows how lightly they took it. As I said somewhere else I am sure they knew the government doesn’t like what they were doing, but not to the extent of we are describing it today. It is equally possible that since it was such a wide spread activity that they were just being clever and on a hurry to build their war devastated newly born nation. That is the innocent version of that interpretation which I am stressing we adopt.

          • abrham

            Dear Fanti,
            They were just collecting even a penny though PFDJ was buildingstrong army in Sawa against your excuses. For me It is funny when someone accuses Tigrai regional state for just printing a map with “expanded version” of the region in a pease of paper not on birr or nakfa provoked full out war. To tell you my guess the intended bank could have been the second one in Ethiopia after CBE now. Then I will not tell what would happen. The move has been made not as you tried to show but to exploit as maximum as possible which was not addressed by the embassy after evaluating EPRDFs stance. Imagine the sector is only allowed tocitizens of the country.

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Rahwani and Addis,
            I know, I know! you two are not too far off. When it comes to Eritrea I am almost never in the ‘defending my country’ mode. I have this universal attitude that forces me to say “whatever it takes” for peace. We never had a chance to heal from our previous wounds before we keep adding a bigger wound generation after generation it seems. So, Rahwa T, no apologies necessary. Besides, I was missing you big deal for a while, so I am in the ‘as long as you say something… mood right now.

          • Rahwa T

            Dear Fanti,

            I also missed your “Rayan laza” and lesson a lot and am longing for the good “old” days and mood (time) we had some time back. Things have changed at Awate. Our brothers and sisters seem more or less much focused and wanted to discuss their issue among themselves, which is good.

            Back to the topic, I can see that some of your reasoning on the money laundry like “why did the Ethiopian government could not control them” is not convincing. You know that during those days, EPRDF was defending the interest of Shaebia. You should also know that Eritreans in every corners of the country were well organized and citizens were supposed to contribute to develop their new –born nation. They used to sand the song “teshamo, teshamowela”. So there were people who buy Dollar in almost all tourist destinations (although there were few tourists coming to Ethiopia during that time. That is the information I have from different sources.

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Embeytei,

            I think you just nailed it Rahwawai. “…during those days, EPRDF was defending the interest of Shaebia.” Although I wouldn’t put it as boldly as you just did, but the meaning is the same. For whatever reason Ethiopian government let it be at the time. So, we/they must accept the consequence.

          • Abi

            Hi Addis
            Fanti, haileTG, Rahwa , abraham
            That money should have been returned to the legal owner, ETHIOPIA. Period.
            It was obtained through all sorts of illegal activities. All those involved in money laundering including the good for nothing, Haile Menqorios, should go to jail. These include from the small shop owner to those businesses around Teklehaimanot neighborhood. Start from Assab hotel and go up and down you will find them. All thieves.
            The 150 million Hayat mentioned, we called it “yegojo mewchiya.”
            We didn’t mention the coffee business yet. It is another debacle.
            All the bad things which led us to the stupid war happened when the two governments slept together.
            We suffered when they fight , we suffered, at least one of us, when they sleep together.
            As the Amharic saying goes,
            ” zihonoch siTalu yemigodaw saru new.”
            In our case , zihonoch fiqir siseru yemigodaw saru new.
            When eritrean ” wenbedewoch” arrived at Asmara, they didn’t have a clue as to how a country is administered. All they new was money laundering which they continued until 1998.
            Diros keWenbede min yiTebeqal? They are still doing it in their own country. Slave labor and human trafficking are the continuation of money laundering.
            Old habits…

          • Ted

            Hi, Abi, aba Zeraf. I guess it the time of the month you have to unload your venom. Too bad the stupid ” wenbedewoch” didn’t charge you for port fee.To jog your memory, Ethiopia pays $700 million annually in port fee. If Ethiopia were to pay in Birr it would be 14 Billion Birr. If that is the case Ethiopia have to open up its market for Eritrea to use that money( for buying Milk;)). Weyane figures;we can have it all. You see, our stupidity and weyanes shrewdness in their way is what got us into this. Can you take a deal for 10 Billion Birr annual fee, of course this time you have to learn to like soy milk.

          • Amde

            Hi Fanti,

            The Eritrean embassy being the main black market center for dollars in Addis is not hearsay. I know for a fact because I had relatives asking me to send US dollars through the Eritrean embassy as it was where you can get the most Birr for dollars.

            Amde

      • Amde

        Hi HaileTG,

        I don’t understand how this works so please bear with me.

        1. Eritrea had a stock of currency called Birr within its territory let’s value it at 100.

        2. This 100 Birr represents the sum total of economic activity within Eritrea on Monday.

        3. Eritrea issues another currency called Nakfa. I assume that at the point when Nakfa is issued, the exchange rate is set at 1 to 1.

        4. Assuming nothing miraculous happened, the sum total of economic activity on Monday generally equals the sum total economic activity on Tuesday.

        5. Eritrea replaces the 100 Birr representing the sum total of Eritrean economic activity with 100 Nakfa representing the sum total of Eritrean economic activity on Tuesday.

        6. When a Birr is replaced by a Nakfa, the Birr automatically becomes just printed paper worth nothing, because it has been replaced by another token that has legal force. It has no – zero – economic value whatsoever within Eritrea any more.

        7. If the Birr stays within Eritrea as accepted currency, then in effect it represents a doubling of the money in circulation, since nothing has materially changed in the economic activity behind it. This causes inflation.

        8. Asking to exchange this token of zero economic value for something of value (like a Nakfa or USD), is a transaction that makes no economic sense.

        9. Alternately, using the zero-value Birr surreptitiously to buy items of real value (commodities, property etc…) in Ethiopia constitutes an unauthorized increase in the amount of Birr circulating in the Ethiopian market. This is undermining the sovereign power of the Ethiopian side to control its money.

        I do not understand how money that has been legally replaced by something else is still claimed to have value. On what basis was Ethiopia supposed to take this money back and compensate Eritrea?

        It makes sense for the Ethiopian side (and perhaps both sides) to physically destroy (burn/shred/etc..) every Birr Note whose economic value has been accounted for via a corresponding value of Nakfa. Without being able to come to an agreement on this, it looks like the Ethiopian side made a defensive move to print new Birrs and put them into circulation before the stock of old Birr in Eritrea made it way back in. The new Birr with a map of Ethiopia without Eritrea was a complete surprise and rushed into circulation. I did not understand it then, but now it makes sense.

        It also just shows just how deep the mistrust between the two sides were.

        Amde

        • haileTG

          Dear Amde,

          An interesting point. I admit I’m not in the field to give a firm answer. However, only the Ethiopian Bank can replace the Birr as it is the sole owner. I have sent money to my mother at the time in dollars to Eritrea for her to open a bank account and have a saving. The money I sent her was converted to birr and deposited under her name. Where the Ethiopian bank was the guarantor when I accepted Birr for my hard earned dollar. If Ethiopian bank invalidates the birr it issued, who should compensate for my loss of those dollars? The birr in Eritrea is earned and the birr in Ethiopia was printed. The black market issue can’t be a reason to shave me off my square and honest dollars that I earned by an honest day’s work. Every birr in Eritrea at the time had similar emotional story to tell too 🙂

          • አዲስ

            Hi haile,

            What Amde raised was bugging me too and as I am not a professional in that field, I just kept quite and reading. But to follow your logic, do you think if your mom goes to withdraw money from her account, the bank would deny her because it was first deposited as birr? I don’t think so. I believe they will give her in Nakfa. So now the Ethiopian bank need to pay that money too? Just trying to follow your logic here.

            Professionals input in the point Amde raised is much appreciated.

            Thanks,
            Addis

          • አዲስ

            Hi haile,

            To further follow on that logic. Since this is not a hypothetical scenario and like you said Ethiopia didn’t take the Birr in Eritreans bank, did your mom not get the money from the bank? did you lost your hard earned money because of this scenario? I hope it will shed light to the confusion if you can answer that.

            Thanks,
            Addis

          • Rahwa T

            Dears Haile TG, Amde, Adis, Abi, Yoty Topy,

            Interesting discussion. I, too, have no idea how the banks work. I like what big brother amde wrote. In my opinion, as the government of Eritrea has already changed the birr with Nakfa, the Bank of Eritrea has to collect all the Birr from its customers/clients account and burn it and ask for the expense it spent to print the same amount of Birr as both Banks from each country have produced new currencies. Does it make any sense?

          • haileTG

            Dear Addis,

            I see what you mean. The Eritrean state had to compensate the loss. Hence, it is not my mother that needs to be paid now, it is rather the state bank that incurred the loss.

            Regards

          • Abi

            Hailachin
            Can you also tell me how a country which started with zero cash in 1991 accumulated 3 billion birr in short period of time?
            The PFDJ you are fighting today has always been on the wrong side of any international or local law.

          • Yoty Topy

            Hi Abi,

            I think this topic will be very suitable for the soon-to-be-debuted Awate Amharic edition. Are you excited about it by the way?

          • አዲስ

            Hi haile,
            How did the state bank incur a loss? Didn’t it print a new currency? Isn’t that currency valuable? Again, I am not a professional so I may be way over my head here but they just printed a whole new currency and pulled all circulation of birr from the market and replace it with Nakfa, how is that a loss to Eritrean state bank?
            One other thing that I am thinking of is trade with Ethiopia, I think that’s where the details matter. Which is the exchange of Nakfa to Dollar then LC to trade with Ethiopia. In the middle of that did the Eritrean state lost value? But then again I think the exchange rate was 1 to 1 with birr so I don’t know how that will happen. Apologies for thinking out loud here. Just can’t figure out how the Eritrean state bank lost value.

            Thanks,
            Addis

          • Amde

            Hi Haile,

            I am not talking about any black market Birr. Actually your example is a perfect case in point. You sent legitimate dollars to Eritrea. The government does not allow dollars for circulation, so it releases it as Birr into the local economy. Your mother would presumably have the money in her account as Birr, not as dollars. She can withdraw it from her account in Birr.

            Once the Nakfa is declared as legal currency, if she had 1000Birr in her account, she will now have 1000Nakfa in her account (assuming a 1 to 1 exchange at least initially) and zero Birr.

            The key thing is that she will not have the former 1000Birr PLUS the new equivalent 1000Nakfa in her account. The Birr has been magically replaced by Nakfa, so the Birr that WAS in circulation (her account) has zero value.

            So then, how can the Eritrean side go to Ethiopia and ask to be compensated for the 1000Birr that was physically in your mother’s account? That is the part I don’t get.

            It seems to me the right thing is as you said for the Eritrean side to return the Birr to Ethiopia so the Ethiopian side will do as it deems fit. Most rational course of action is to destroy it, or put it in a vault and slowly put in into circulation based on the country’s policy on the amount of authorised money in circulation.

            Thanks,

            Amde

          • haileTG

            Dear Amde,

            The trick is in a the “magically appearing Nakfa” part. The 1000 birr needs to be redeemed by the CBE so that the Eritrean bank to give out the 1000 Nakfa. In this case the Eritrean state bank released the 1000 Nakfa to my mother, but the Eritrean bank that purchased the birr from CBE can no longer can no longer balance its books. My mother and the Ethiopian bank seem to be the winners and the Eritrean bank took the burnt.

            Regards

          • Amde

            Dear Haile,

            How so? The Birr in circulation was could not have been purchased – why would it be purchased? It was in circulation because it was in circulation since the Ethio/Eritrean space was for currency reasons a single area. Plus, as you yourself stated “My understanding is that there were few billion (close to 3) Ethiopian birr in Eritrean banks at the time of the Ethiopian currency conversion. The Birr has found its way to Eritrea through various services, fees, trade and the likes.”

            To my mind the Eritrean side would only purchase Birr if it becomes a foreign currency.

            Is the 3Billion physical cash or entries in various accounts or everything? I am assuming we are talking about the physical cash – perhaps I am wrong.

            Amde

      • Amde

        Hi HaileTG,

        Sorry, the more I thought about it the more confused I get.

        Does the “Redeem to Bearer” phrase make every Birr note a legal contract one is expected to obey irrespective of ….?

        If the Birr has no more economic value since it’s economic value has been replaced by Nakfa, on what basis can we say it has any retained/residual value that allows it to be redeemed.

        This just seems like a case where the law and economics are at cross-purposes.

        To use the equivalent of the current news, Greece looks in its bank vault, sees that it has a billion Euros, sets a 1 Euro = 1 Drachma exchange rate, creates new Drachma worth a billion Euro. Can it then take the billion Euro to Germany and say “I need you to pay me the Drachma or Dollar equivalent of these Euros I found in the bank vault. Since I use Drachmas now, these Euros are useless to me. You are obliged to do so because the Euro has on it language that says ‘Redeem to bearer’ ” ?

        will that work?

        Or, are we talking about Birr that Eritrea has not replaced into Nakfa, and is therefore holding as foreign currency?

        What am I missing.

        Amde

        • Abi

          Amde
          You will never figure this out . It was orchestrated by a bank robber turned a bank governor only to continue his robbery in a broad day light.
          The best way to send money to ethiopia was to go to one of eritrean community centers in the west and give your dollar. Your relatives collect the birr from the infamous eritrean embassy in addis.
          What is funny is no eritrean intellectual was aware of this money laundering. Ha ha ha ha ha ………

        • Fanti Ghana

          Hello Brother Amde,

          Now we are getting closer to the real question. There has to be some procedure governing what must an issuer country do before it changes its own currency, and when is the bearer obliged to replace or cash in its holdings?

          let that question simmer for a while, but let’s first divide the money in Eritrea into two parts: 1) the money owed or paid to Eritrea through legal and legitimate channels such as the Asab lease fee, salaries, and other trades and exchanges. and 2) the portion of money accumulated through unknown channels or sources. With all fairness Amde, money laundering we are accusing Eritreans for is really silly. The black market for the dollar is still going on in Ethiopia by Ethiopians. It always has been. From their perspective these groups and individuals are being street smart at most not necessarily criminals when they do this. Its like having an affair. Everyone knows it is wrong, but every body does it any way. Some social activities are so common we forget or down play their sting.

          As recent as 3-4 months ago, a bank employee in Addis innocently advised me ‘kefelegu minged lay ahunum endeza naw’ when I jokingly asked “where you just waiting for me to increase the value of our birr?” (I had send some money before I left and the rate was different from when I got there). So, in a fair world and keeping in mind that Ethiopia and Eritrea were one country in the immediate past which continued using the same currency as Hayat explained, the most that can be said about that money is “okay most of that money is deservedly yours, but some of it is questionable. So, do not ask for interest and we will not ask about your embassy’s activities, so here is $3b!

          • Abi

            Fanti
            I know you are the nicest perso on earth.
            You said black market still exist in ethiopia by ethiopians. Fanti, first of all, nobody is arguing it is right. Second, when it comes to eritrea, it is the government through its embassy was involved in the criminal activities.
            Do not try to defend the indefensible criminal enterprise.
            Also , the port fee you are talking about , according to eritreans, never happened. They are telling us ethiopia got free port access.
            Who shall I blieve ?

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Abisha,
            Aba mesTet alalkegnm ende beqedem? min ladrg. Seriously Abi, at the core of any legal preceding is the interpretation of the law. To clearly interpret the law it must be defined clearly in the first place. We can’t just be quiet or even give them a hand while doing their ‘illegal’ activities and arrest them for the same activity when we are in a different mood. This is a classic example of Ex Post Facto if there was any. The “status of limitations” is way passed its time to bring back the ‘laundary’ issue today. Pronto!

          • Abi

            Fanti
            EPRDF is equally responsible for not controlling the situation better. As I said in many occasions, they sent us to war while sleeping together.

            Fanti aba mesTet meche yisesital
            Lijochu sirabu gorebet yabelal.

          • haileTG

            Dear Abi,

            My Eritrean friend at the time had a business in Eritrea where he was selling chipolini shoes in Ethiopian markets. He was a good hard working man and collected birr after he sold each shoe in Ethiopia and deposited the money in Eritrean banks where his business operated from. I hope you’re not wearing one of his chipolini shoe as you wrote your comment above, because you are not talking from a point of a guy stepping in my friend’s shoe…:-) ahd GiTm eski siten ebakih:)

          • S.Tesfa

            Dear Fanti,Amde, Haile TG and ……
            While I’m reading your discussion about the Nakifa/Birr issue of 1997 and beyond, I tried to get some idea by looking into somehow similar case of our neighbors-Sudan and South Sudan proceed/settled their monetary matter when South Sudan issued its own new currency(bank notes).
            Here are links that might give some more ideas till someone who have got more knowledge/expertise about the legal issue of international monetary system add to the discussion here.

            http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2011-07-12/south-sudan-plans-managed-float-of-new-currency-correct-

            – According to an Al Jazeera article dated 11 July 2011 as well as a BBC article dated 11 July 2011, South Sudan—which just gained its independence on 9 July—will introduce its own currency next week [update: the notes officially entered circulation on 18 July]. The South Sudan pound notes feature a portrait of rebel leader John Garang on the front, while the backs contain images of the country’s culture and wealth. Finance Minister David Deng Athorbei said plane-loads of the South Sudan pound would arrive in the capital, Juba, on 13 July and would be in circulation by 18 July. The new notes, printed by De La Rue, will be exchanged at par for the existing Sudanese pounds. The Bank of South Sudan will issue six denominations – 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 pound – and the notes are signed by Elijah Malok as “Governor” even though he has not been officially appointed to the position.
            Meanwhile, Sudan has announced that it will issue new notes of its own. The Central Bank of Sudan issued a new series of pound-denominated notes just four years ago
            Regards,

          • haileTG

            Dear S. Tesfa,

            Thank you for the link. I checked it out and here is the relevant section to our discussion:

            ““The north is going to take the old pound,” he said. “The price is not worked out yet.””

            In our case, as per Hayat’s point above, the Ethiopian side assured the Eritrean side that it would look into how such matters are resolved from other precedents of such cases. This enabled the Ethiopian side to get Eritrea’s agreement to change its currency. And once it did, it has reneged on its assurances and instead the former is being accused of stealing the money! If Eritrean bank stock of birr was illegal, why did the Ethiopian government simply said so? Why the assurances?

            Again, this goes to Amde, Addis, Rahwa… that Eritrea was trading with Ethiopia. Eritrea can’t print Ethiopian birr but obtain it with its own economic collateral. Ethiopia can’t pay us 1 billion birr in port services and then tell us it has now changed its currency and the birr is a heap of waste and we should either print our own Nakfa and pay ourselves, or we just take the insult that we are thieves and live with it. It is not the money per se, rather how it would play out in other aspects of the Ethio-Eritrea relationship. Otherwise, Eritreans in diaspora were handing over the Eritrean government at the time $500 million in per year in free hand out and that much in all sorts of investment and other interactions. We are talking a mere $150 million (by today’s birr to USD exchange) and Fanti’s way of settling it would have been the ideal and judicious in my opinion.

            Please also remember that we also lack a lot of factual details in addition to the shortage of expertise we all have in the matter.

            Regards

          • Amde

            Hello Fanti,

            I am actually talking about the legitimate money in circulation. I really want to stay away from the more criminal aspect because it is not helpful and irrelevant to the specific issue I am trying to get clear in my mind.

            I am just trying to understand what the legitimate loss was to the Eritrean side when it replaced its Birr for Nakfa. It is not a trivial question, especially if we are talking in billions of Birr. It is not trivial, because, to me it sounds like the Eritrean side all of a sudden wanted to double its wealth at the Ethiopian currencies expense.

            I agree with you that this probably was not the first time this (meaning a currency separation)has happened in the world. There probably were many ways this could have been handled right, if everyone was above board and honest. And everytime I read something about it, it just indicates to me that there were very deep currents of mistrust between the two sides. It especially seems to confirm that the Ethiopian side was completely mistrustful of the EPLF/PFDJ as an economic entity, above and beyond the probably separate interests of Ethiopia and Eritrea as states.

            Indeed there are successful examples of currency changes at around the same time. Please read this o the Czech and Slovak breakup. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/12/08/us-eurozone-lessons-czechoslovakia-idUSTRE7B710V20111208. Note the sentence: “The old money ceased to be valid immediately the switch started.”

            The money laundering, the huge loans from Ethiopian banks to Eritreans (most likely EPLF affiliated) under coercion and political pressure, contraband goods dumped into Ethiopian markets by Eritrean traders simply because they can bypass any and all customs requirements and controls etc….. All these were an accummulation of abuse that in Ethiopia is considered non-controversial. And their repercussions were not simple either – for example – a lot of the bogus loans turned up to be significant non-performing loans for the Ethiopian banks. I would not be surprised if a good part of the accusation of property confiscation is simply the Ethiopian banks’ attempts to collect the collateral on these loans.

            It is better to just accept that EPLF used the 91 – 98 period for a lot of economic shenanigans (I like that word shenanigan – it accuses nothing and yet says a lot). The EPRDF was unable or unwilling to control it and when the Nakfa came about it found a good way to get out of much of the issues it was facing.

            As for foreign currency black market in Addis. Of course there were and will always be Ethiopians that do it, just as if you go to Sudan there will be Sudanese that do it etc… It is just another market – just illegal.

            I have a true funny story for you. A person I know second hand goes to Addis after living a number of years in the US. Having gone back, he decides to drive around. Unfortunately for him he does not have an Ethiopian drivers license any more. He was stopped by a policeman. The person offers to take care of the matter right then and there (of course via a bribe). The policeman agrees and tells him the price Then the person says, “Well I have only so much in Birr. I only have dollars for the additional amount” The policeman says – “Oh, no problem – I know where you can get black market exchange for your dollars.” So the policeman leads him to a shop that illegally exchanges dollars for Birr. They do the transaction and the police gets his promised amount. Unfortunately for the person, the problem did not stop there however, because this policeman then told all his buddies, with a description of the vehicle. A couple of weeks later, after the nth traffic stop the person finally got so exasperated he told them – “You know what, I am all out – you can take the car if you want!!” He was not stopped after that.

            Amde

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Shifta Amde,

            There is partial answer to the printing your own currency while demanding compensation for the now ‘foreign’ currency. Most of the world has their own currency, but they trade and honor the US dollar. So, I don’t think having your own currency obliges you to burn the foreign currency (I know that is not what you are saying, but I just wanted your attention to that angle too). What is making it difficult in our case is the fact that we were one country one currency, so the question must be did Eritrea notify Ethiopia that it was planning to print its own currency before the print?

            Regarding the ‘doubling their money’ should make no difference to Ethiopia at all, because the birr is good because Ethiopia says it is. Period. Eritreans printed their own money should not change the birr’s value in Ethiopia. What Ethiopia can say is however, there is a maximum limit to how much birr can be accepted from a foreign nation. If indeed there is such a law in Ethiopia then the question of “did Eritrea notify Ethiopia that it was planning to print its own currency ahead of time” becomes seriously relevant.

            Never mind the rest, because Haile TG is quoting Hayat that “… the Ethiopian side assured the Eritrean side…” so, continue reading here http://awate.com/badme-woyanes-fraudulent-casus-belli-to-wage-war-of-aggression-p2/#comment-2143938518 and S. Tesfa below which is more informative anyways.

            I was about to address the Ethiopian persived or otherwise “leniency,” but I am literally being pulled by my sleeve Amde. I will be back later and read some more.
            Thanks.

          • S.Tesfa

            Dear Fanti,

            FYI:
            The Nakfa banknotes were designed by Clarence Holbert of the United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing in 1994. It was introduced on 8 November 1997 to replace the Ethiopian birr at par.

            Regards,

          • Amde

            Hi Fanti,

            I started to respond to HaileTG but thought better of it. This is not meant to re-litigate the war, at this point i am genuinely interested in the mechanics of what happened.

            I am using Old Birr, as the common Birr before Eritrea issued the Nakfa, and Ethiopia issued “New Birr” post Nakfa. Technically the New Birr is not a new currency, just physically different notes of an existing currency. But, for all practical purposes, you could no longer use the New Birr to buy bread and clothing. The only thing it was good for was to give you the right to go to a bank and exchange it with a New Birr, with which you CAN buy bread and clothing.

            Haile used the analogy of a Billion Birr in Port Fees. Ok, let’s follow that and assume we are talking about a Billion Old Birr. Ethiopia paid a Billion Old Birr using the mutually accepted currency at the time. Eritrea accepted payment using the mutually accepted currency at the time. What Eritrea did with the payment it received is Eritrea’s business. Eritrea decided that 1 Old Birr = 1 Nakfa. Eritrea determined that a Billion Old Birr is equivalent to a Billion Nakfa. What you could buy in Eritrea using the billion Old Birr pre-conversion is exactly the same as what you could buy using the billion Nakfa post-conversion. End of story.

            OK then., Can Eritrea then turn around, bring the Old Birrs and demand to be compensated for the Old Birrs? What is the basis for it? In effect, Ethiopia is being asked to pay twice for the same service. Once using Old Birr, then using New Birr. That does not make sense.

            The only way I can make sense of it is if it goes as follows:

            If Eritrea exchanged ALL Old Birr into Nakfa, then I don’t see where the economic loss is, and what Ethiopia owes to Eritrea.

            However, let’s assume Eritrea exchanged MOST Old Birr into Nakfa, then the unconverted SOME Old Birr now still exists – now essentially as foreign currency.

            What is the value of this “foreign currency”?

            Since a New Birr has been issued, could Eritrea have exchanged these for an alternate currency such as Dollars? IF they could, then it is a moot point.

            However if they could NOT (because the market would only recognize New Birr as opposed to Old Birr), and the only way the Old Birr would have value is if Ethiopian side promised to compensate them for it, then I can see how they would feel screwed if the Ethiopia side doesn’t get it resolved.

            By all means I would agree Ethiopia should take the Old Birr back and deal with it, but I don’t see how they are obliged to pay anything for it. Technically it is not valid currency anyway, and it cannot be introduced back into circulation because it’s economic value has been transferred to Nakfa and it is physically the now unacceptable old form.

            If the whole thing boils down to “New Birr” / “Old Birr”, as opposed to just “Nakfa” / “Birr” I may be wrong about the inflationary fears the Ethiopian side may have had.

            Amde

            PS you can obviously tell it is a miserable day outside lol.

          • Destaa

            Dear Amde,
            How are you የተከበሩ
            regarding the old and new birr case, I think Haile is correct. A foreign currency holding is a claim that citizens of a country have on another country’s asset. If Eritreans had 3 billion birr, then they have a claim of Ethiopian asset by that amount. They should be paid by Ethiopia. The Eritrean bank paying them 3 billion nakfa by simply converting the birr is creating inflation in Eritrea. Consider America changing the dollar and telling China who own a huge amount of foreign assets to convert it in to Chinese currency. It simply creates inflation in China.

          • Ted

            Dear desta. It is simple as that. it would mean Eritrea printing 3 Billion Nakfa with no equivalent value in gold/or equity sitting Eritrean bank. It causes inflation. It is like you buy a gift card from a store and the store refusing to redeem your card in any form. What do you do with the card?

          • Amde

            Ted,

            I am sorry. How is that inflationary? You had a bunch of Birr. You removed them from circulation and replaced it with a bunch of the same exact value of Nakfa. Where is the inflation?

            Amde

          • Ted

            Hi, amde, Let’s put is this way, assume Eritrea save 3 billion birr from port fee to buy Electricity in Ethiopia using Birr. After the change of the currency, Eritrea’s 3 billion in Nakfa or birr currency would have no value to buy the Electricity. So Eritrea has to come up with dollar from its own saving to buy electricity from sudan. Don’t you think the 3 billion birr went to thin air. Of course you can circulate it in the system but it has no real asset backing it. its asset/gold backing is in Ethiopia’s vault.

          • Amde

            Hi Ted,

            But it did not go into thin air, and it theoretically have value. You had the purchasing power of 3 billion Birr pre-currency change. If you set the exchange rate correctly, you should have the same purchasing power post-currency change. One assumes that “purchasing power” is “purchasing power”. So if you could buy Ethiopian electricity with it, you could also just as “easily” buy US Dollars, or a tank of oil, or a ton of gold with it. I am sure Ethiopia would rather be paid in dollars than in Birr.

            Plus, are you arguing that the Nakfa has no value of its own, except what backs it in Ethiopia’s vault?

            lol

            Amde

          • Ted

            Hi, Amde, When a country own paper money it should be equivalent to the amount of Gold/asset it has in reserve. The asset reserve is in Ethiopia which is the owner of the currency.The 3 billion birr of Eritrea has Gold value in Ethiopia’s reserv but they didn’t not transfer it to Eritrea’s reserve. If eritrea want to print 3 billion ,it is printing money with out the gold/asset, thus inflation. If Ethiopia had paid in Gold, Eritrea will have no problem printing money its worth according its economy.

          • Amde

            Hello Destaa,

            That was a good analogy, expect it was not Ethiopia telling Eritrea to change into a new currency, at what exchange rate etc. As long as you remove the circulation of the old currency, how is it causing inflation? In fact, I would say, issuing new currency at par value of the old one, THEN adding the value of the old currency into your system is asking for inflation.

            I suspect you will tell me that for all intents and purposes a New Birr is like a new currency.

            Can we follow this from the ground up then?

            If I were an Eritrean and had 1000 Old Birr in my account today, then that gives me a claim on an economic value of 1000 Old Birr in Ethiopia, because the Old Birr Notes say that the government will honor them. Correct?

            Ok. tomorrow, there a new currency declared. I go to the bank.
            Will I see a 1000 Nakfa AND 1000 Old Birr in my account?

            No. Most likely, I will see a 1000 Nakfa in my account.

            What happened to the 1000 Old Birr in my account?

            The assumption is that it has been replaced by anther entity, having the same economic value. However, the new entity does not retain my claim on 1000 Old Birr of Ethiopian economic value anymore. The reality is the Eritrean central bank has confiscated it from me and compensated me with another entity called Nakfa. Or another way of stating it is, I have been forced to buy 1000 Nakfa for 1000 Birr.

            I think this is what you mean correct?

            Then what was the economic basis for the Nakfa?

            Why can’t I make money simply re-issuing new currency, gathering pre-existing now “foreign” currency, and asking to be compensated for it? If I can join a new currency union every twenty years, and double my money why not?

            Am I wrong?

            Amde

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Amde,
            Sorry for interrupting our conversation earlier and also if I repeat below what others may have already said.

            I think this is a good place to join in. I now see clearly where you are about the Nakfa – Birr in Eritrean banks. Let me first back track a little.

            Eritrea becomes an independent nation. It is friendly with Ethiopia, and most of its economic ties is with Ethiopia. It also has not printed its own currency yet. So, it continues using Ethiopian birr for x amount of years. Now, whether it is national pride driven haste or not Eritrea wants to print its own currency. Up to this point all is well, and we are still friends. Eritrea prints its own Nakfa and asks Ethiopia to honor the birr already in Eritrean banks. This also is good. The confusion and the beginning of the friction happened around that time. The chance to discus details about how to make a smooth transition to Nakfa based economy in Eritrea and how Ethiopian banks can honor all the birr in Eritrea and prepare issuing a new bill got less and less attention (I am guessing) also around this time. Now, Eritrea would have to sue Ethiopia and that would have been the end of it.

            However, the bill issue got completely back burned because other more pressing developments began to occur. In addition, what also complicated matters was that Eritrea was not planning to get rid of using birr altogether. Its intention seems to have its own Nakfa, but also to continue using birr expecting that Nakfa will be accepted as well in Ethiopia one-to-one (per Hayat above, and also that is my recollection). That way cooperation continues, national pride is satisfied, and we continue doing business as usual. On the surface this was what looks like Eritrea had in mind. As I said earlier I don’t think all these was discussed thoroughly before the fallout. So far all indicators point toward Eritrean innocence about what it was planning to do regarding currency. Let’s now imagine how any country would react if we accuse it of purposely misusing and abusing Ethiopian economy. If innocent for the implication and if guilty for getting caught that country would react negatively. That looks like what may have happened in Eritrea’s case.

            Now, addressing your question about ‘doubling its wealth scenario,’ no it does not. Two reasons: one, as I stated above Eritrea was not replacing Birr with Nakfa once and for all. It was collecting and exchanging Nakfa- Birr to ultimately have a fresh start of the two currencies simultaneously. Two, printing currency does not add economic value because the physical presence of the bill means nothing. Otherwise why not just everyone keep printing trillions of papers and call themselves a trillionaires, right? Governments print money as long as banks will borrow that money from it for a small interest. That is how governments influence markets and economy. They lower the interest rate to encourage banks to borrow and lend it to the public with low interest rate in return. More people borrow, they buy houses or party, and the economy gets some life. If banks are unable to lend their money for whatever reason, nobody borrows and spends, the banks close, and the government makes no money at all. The country gets poorer. However, you cannot keep lowering interest rate too low, because everyone will have an easy access to it as the next person, so why sale their goods for the price of yesterday? What used to cost 20 will cost 200 today, and that is what “high inflation” is really.

            So, if Eritrea prints Nakfa and distributes it to the banks and then gets more Nakfa for its birr it simply means it will hold that pile of paper in a warehouse until enough currency is damaged and needs replacement.

          • Amde

            Hi Fanti,

            Welcome back.

            You said, “Eritrea prints its own Nakfa and asks Ethiopia to honor the birr already in Eritrean banks.”

            On what basis are the Nakfa printed? What determines the amount of Nakfa printed and issued?

            Are you saying the amount of Nakfa printed and the amount of Birr in Eritrean banks (including those pulled in from circulation) are not related at all?

            Amde

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Amde,

            The amount of birr in Eritrea may simply serve as an indicator to the Eritrean government to how much Nakfa to print for a stable market, but nothing more. When Nakfa leaves the country however, there has to be some way of reassuring the foreign entity to accept and expect to get back its promised value at a later date. That mechanism is what is internationally known as the “gold reserve” of a country to reassure bearers the country in question is indeed able to pay. It is not collateral. It is simply a reassurance. It is really up to the foreigner to trust or not whether that country will honor that currency. Unless of course the two countries have a signed pre agreement on how to handle each other’s currencies they are really on their own.

            “On what basis are the Nakfa printed? What determines the amount of Nakfa printed and issued?’

            The amount of currency in the banks. The more people save, the less money banks ask the government to print. The more they spend, the more banks ask to be printed. Which in turn forces the banks to lower the interest rate they pay to savers, and thus encouraging people to spend more instead. So, the government’s job is to balance the need for the currency, the interest rate banks pay to the government, the interest rate banks collect from the people, and the ratio of spend/save by the people.

          • haileTG

            Dear Amde,

            An Eritrean man sold a shoe to an Ethiopian man. The Ethiopian man paid the Eritrean man using birr. The Ethiopian bank was the guarantor of the value of birr as being equivalent to the value of the shoe. The Eritrean man was happy with the sale because he can now make more shoe and pay his other costs. The Ethiopian man was happy too because the shoe fit well and was just the perfect fit he was looking for. Now something else happened, the Ethiopian bank decides the birr the Eritrean man got is worthless. The Ethiopian man has gone away with a shoe that he paid for. The Eritrean man can no longer get back home because Ethiopia has invalidated the value of the money he accepted in good faith. Are you suggesting that the Eritrean government gives the Eritrean trader the equivalent of the value of the shoe in Nakfa (for which no determinate exchange rate was worked out as that is the core issue per Hayat’s premise) and case be closed? Why should the Eritrean bank pay for a shoe an Ethiopian consumer is wearing? What would the Eritrean bank use to fund such bailout for the transaction that went bust?

            As per Hayat, at independence there was no money in Eritrea and the Ethiopian side gave 150 million birr. At the time of conflict, again as per Hayat, there was billions in Ethiopian birr at Eritrean banks. Hayat also said that most of Eritrea’s imports and exports and port service was with Ethiopia. If you agree with all then when Ethiopian banks refused to honor their currency then Eritrea is left (-)2.85 billion birr in the red as per the details above. You can’t possibly say Eritrea should print 2.85 billion (3 billion – 150 million), and compensate every single business and trader or service provider in the land. You forgot that Ethiopian banks control the value of the birr and by reneging to honor their promise to pay the bearer, they left the Eritrean banks on the ditch.

            You are also assuming that the birr only need to be used inside Eritrea when you say one can buy the same things with Nakfa equivalent in Eritrea. That is not necessarily so. The birr is the property of the CBE and as such it is responsible repay on demand transactions completed using its tender. Eritrea, in your analogy, isn’t seeking to double its holding but balance the sheets because it reads -3billion birr on the red. Just like the guy who walked away with the brand new shoe, so did many others out of that 3 billion. Where do we get our money back from? Are you suggesting we print our own and call it account settled? Let’s then revert this and we demand to get all shoe back? What do you say?

            Regards

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi HaileTG:

            The Eritrean holding the Birr doesn’t lose the value of his Birr, because he can get a Nakfa exchange for the Birr he was holding. He can’t have his X amount of Birr and then get X amount of Nakfa and thus double his wealth. Just a thought.

          • haileTG

            Hi Amde and SGJ,

            The Eritrean bank replaced the birr for Nakfa in the expectation that Ethiopia will redeem it. That was the assurance given by Ethiopia before getting Eritrea’s agreement to change currency. However, Ethiopia then refused to live up to that and the Eritrean bank was left out in the lurch. If Ethiopia didn’t give assurance, then the Eritrean man would have been left to deal with the guy wearing his shoe or the CBE (Ethiopia).

            Amde: let’s pose your parallel atgument on the technicality of currency conversion. Let’s finish this one. The Eritrean bank converted it hoping to be reimbursed by Ethiopia. That is the crux me thinks.

          • Amde

            Hi Haile,

            I am sorry I am obviously lost. Thanks for the explanation. I see two perspectives.

            I can see from the Bank’s accounting perspective. They had a bunch of Nakfas which have some value in Eritrea. They exchanged it with Birr which has no value in Eritrea. The exchange happened with the assumption the bank is giving out something of some value with another thing of “equivalent” value. The Birr has no value in Eritrea, but is promised to have some value according to the Ethiopian government. The Ethiopian government then “reneges” on its promise. So the bank is out of the Nakfas it gave out, and it is screwed because it is also out of the value it thought it was getting for the Birr.

            OK, from the Eritrean national perspective of having currency in circulation that represents the economic activity of the nation, an equivalent purchasing power has been maintained, except what used to be Birr is now called Nakfa. Nothing else has changed.

            Let’s say the Ethiopian side agrees and redeems the old Birr. Perhaps with something like US Dollars.

            So, the bank is whole on its books. So from the Bank accounting side everything balances out.

            But, how does this affect the existing and already issued stock of Nakfa? How does this not show as a scenario where you had 3 Billion Nakfa worth of currency in circulation, plus another 3 Billion Nakfa worth of currency in deposit?

            I don’t know how these are reconciled. They obviously are but it is not clear to me how.

            Amde

            PS I have no trainng in finance or banking, so I assume some of my questions might come across as naive. I appreciate your indulgence.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi HaileTG,
            I don’t think I explained myself clearly. Let me try again:

            Currency represents the wealth of a country. If you are a country and have an ounce of gold, you represent that ounce, by say, one Nakfa. You have your gold and what represents it. If for some reason you wanted to change the representing currency, you still have your gold and issue a new currency that will still represent your wealth. If Ethiopians gave you one Birr, then you have one Birr (that you can convert) and one Nakfa. It means you have two values for a one value gold. And you will be twice as wealthy without any justifications. If Erirea’s products are worth 5 billion birr, the government printed 5 billion notes to represent its wealth. If it gets 5 billion birr as representation of its wealth, it will have 10 billion combined birr and Nakfa. That is as far as currency is concerned. However, if there are owed accounts between the two countries, they can be settled though agreed upon mechanism, not by replacing bills. If that was the case, then the Eritrean government should have printed 10 billion Nakfa for the 5 billion worth wealth of Eritrea–inflation.

            Note that I am strictly explaining my understanding of currency bills (not all financial instruments). But true, there remains some settlements to follow the introduction of currency; maybe other unsettled financial transactions,sharing of what both countries owned, ec. But that I believe falls withing the realm of political solutions more than naked currency adjustments.

            The shoeman had two birr with which he could have bought a kilo of sugar. but since he had Nakfa in place of the Birr, he losses nothing. He could still buy his kilo of sugar. If he is given another two Birr on top of the two Nakfa, he could buy 2 kilos of sugar. But he only had bills only enough to buy him one kilo–how come he wants two kilos for the price of a pair of shoes that are equivalent to one kilo of sugar? That is the dilemma. I wish a kilo of sugar was that cheap 🙂

          • haileTG

            Hi SGJ

            Your line of reasoning makes sense say if Eritrea converts Nakfa to a new currency called Gel’alo or something else:) The shoe man in that case is required to destroy the old Nakfa because he can’t circulate it again along side his new Gel’alo notes. Both Nakfa and Gel’alo would be serving the same purpose of representing say Eritrea’s gold reserve. However, we are dealing with Birr that was acquired from external source by exchange it with other value items such as products, services, fees and the likes. Eritrea can’t print birr. The birr has nothing to do with Eritrea’s gold value. Eritrea renders a service, e.g. port, and earns birr. Eritrea has no power to replace the birr but issue its own currency to use for its own purposes. If the Eritrean bank known that Ethiopia will not honor the birr then the shoe man has no means of getting Nakfa for the birr he’s earned in by selling a product to an Ethiopian. The Eritrean bank will simply decline to exchange his birr into Nakfa. It would say it had no hand in the business he conducted with the Ethiopian national that he sold his products to. The Eritrean bank can print its own currency as per your model and yet demand the Eritrean shoe man to give them a new pair of shoe for the nakfa he is looking for. His shoe he sold to the Ethiopian is entirely none of their business and he can sue the buyer, the CBE or curse his luck. In simple terms, the decision of CBE to dishonor the birr he received is the end of the road for him and he’s just lost his merchandise. Do you see my point?

          • Amde

            Haile,

            But the statement “Birr that was acquired from external source” is not accurate. The Birr exists in Eritrea because it was part of the same currency zone. It freely circulated in Eritrea because it was pre-existing currency. Hence “internal” source.

            Amde

          • haileTG

            hi Amde,

            That is the crux of it all. Eritrea and Ethiopia did not join their economies in that way. They merely shared currency that was fully owned and controlled by Ethiopian banking sector. There was no common economic policy either, as stated by Hayat too. Ethiopia was allowing its paper note to be used in Eritrea but nothing else. Both nations benefited by it but not to the extent of a common market. Mind you, Eritrea introduced new currency, it wasn’t changing a currecny it had full control on. If it had known Ethiopian birr was not going to be redeemed, it would simply refuse to accept to change it.

          • Amde

            Hi haileTG,

            Yes I will echo Saleh J.

            The Eritrean has got Birr.

            Has the Eritrean also got Nakfa? That is the crux of the matter.

            On what basis did he get the Nakfa? Did he sell a shoe to the Ethiopian for Nakfa – the right shoe for Birr, the left one for Nakfa 🙂 ? Was there a transaction involving the Nakfa at any point?

            Amde

      • Nitricc

        Hi Haile; i just noticed you are complimenting Hayat for the same subject while you trashed Semere. are not both of them talking about the same subject? also; what do you think the issuing a new map of Tigray; including large lands of Eritrea is ignored by Hayat?

        • Amde

          Nitricc, Mahmud

          Hayat was clear in using the “last straw that broke the camel’s back” metaphor. She was not saying this was the only reason, but this was one of a number of reasons.

          A map of a Tigray region. The actions of a Tigray militia, etc.. are all issues pertinent to political units lower than a national one. Currency is an issue pertinent to a national one. If the war was between National entities, I would look at the National level issues first.

          It is quite interesting that even after so many years, and the amount of exposure Issayas’s regime has undergone on its trustworthiness etc, the same pseudo-causes stated by the Issayas regime are still considered the go-to responses.

          Amde

          • Mahmud Saleh

            Dear Amde
            I will give my response once I hear it from Hayat. I would advise you though if you don’t insult our intelligence. My position is original, it is far from political demagoguery, and I don’t resort to IA explanations to make my point. May be you haven’t followed my comments.

          • Amde

            Dear Mahmud,

            I did not mean to be offensive.

            I thought Hayat was clear that the currency issue was one of a number of others. She characterized it as “the straw that broke the camel’s back”, whereas you were challenging her that she was implying as it being “solely blaming the conflict on policy disagreement issues.”

            Wasn’t the issue of unilateral Tigray administration actions very much discussed before? Is it not used (just like Nitricc just did) as the standard explanatory narrative of the war from the Eritrean side ever since 1998? Is it not an accepted narrative of the PFDJ?

            I do not know where I went wrong.

            Amde

          • Nitricc

            hi Ato Amde; let alone PIA even your Tigyans have people like you are defend and trust them. it is true, the currency issue was there but no the one that led to this ugly confrontation. insted of buying what everything the Tigryans telling you; how about you think for your self. if the Tigryans wouldn’t issue a new Tigryan map; none of this could accrued.

            here are how the events unfolded. once they drew the new map; they had to act according the new map.

            “” April 20-21, 1997

            A meeting to discuss border issues that had surfaced in the course of the previous year was held in Shire, Tigray, Ethiopia between the vice president of the Tigray Region of Ethiopia, and the deputy administrator of the Gash-Barka Region of Eritrea.

            June 22-27, 1997
            A sub-committee, designated in accordance with the Shire decisions, met to make a tour of the “demarcations,” a length it determined at about 40 kms. It was established then that, not just one, but a set of at least three demarcations, each creeping deeper into Eritrea had been laid on the ground. This was, naturally, highly objectionable to the Eritrean representatives.

            July 18-19, 1997
            “Three truckloads of Ethiopian troops entered the Badme area and planted radio communications equipment. Eritrean territory inside the “unilaterally demarcated” area was, thus, put under patrol. Subsequently to these massive expulsion of Eritreans begun.”

            July 24, 1997
            Ethiopian administrators instructed the Eritrean administrators to disband — they were taking over. They declared Adi Murug Ethiopian territory and appointed their own administrative committee.

            August 8, 1997
            Two Eritrean officials traveled to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to discuss the matter with their counterparts in Ethiopia. They tried to register their protest on what was happening at Adi Murug and in Badme and that it was inconsistent with the friendly relationship between the two sides. They argued that using force to create facts on the ground was not acceptable. They also asked that the Ethiopian government reverse the steps it had taken. Any outstanding matters, they maintained, could be handled in a spirit of understanding and taking the welfare of the border population into consideration

            October 17, 1997
            Weyin, the official organ of the TPLF, printed a new map of Tigray Region, which for the first time, in almost a hundred years, altered Eritrea’s colonial border with Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Mapping Authority also officially printed this “illegal” map of the Tigray Region. The map later appeared on the new Ethiopian currency.

            November 1997
            The Joint High Commission met in Asmara, Eritrea and agreed to meet again within three months. There was no discussion on substantive matters. In the meantime, in January 1998, Ethiopian troops were deployed to the border on the Assab line to demand that the Eritrean border post situated on the Assab-Addis Ababa road move several kilometers towards Assab, as the area was being claimed by Ethiopia. A patient handling and quiet diplomacy on the part of Eritrea averted what could have been a dangerous confrontation.

            January 1998
            :Ethiopia tried by military means to occupay sovereign Eritrean territory on the Burie area (Assab-Dessie road ). Unfortunately, Eritrean efforts to solve the problem amicably and bilaterally failed as the Government of Ethiopia continued to bring under its occupation the Eritrean territories that it had incorporated into its map.

            May 6, 1998
            Ethiopian troops, unprovoked, fired at an Eritrean patrol unit on routine duty along the border around Badme. Several of its members were killed. This triggered off a chain reaction on both sides.

            May 13, 1998
            The Ethiopian Parliament declared war on Eritrea!””

          • Amde

            Nitricc,

            I would defer to what HaileTG said. The maps, hegemonic competitions etc have all been discussed ad nauseum. What transpired during the currency transition have not. We may find at the end of it that indeed there is nothing to it. But you know as well as I do Money makes the world go around.

            So far, what I can make out was that the issuance of the Nakfa and the New Birr were most likely done in an atmosphere of complete mistrust and second judging of each others’ motives. even without knowing the details.

            Haven’t you heard the new mantra? Bank have replaced Tanks.

            Amde

          • አዲስ

            Hi Nitricc,

            I have seen this kind of chain of events cited by PFDJites many times that the first thing I do to see if there’s any valuable input in it is to go to the very end. Unfortunately I usually see the attempt of cover up of one crucial event logged in the statement ” This triggered off a chain reaction on both sides”. This followed by Ethiopia’s declaration of war. How funny is it to try to cover up, for all intents and purposes, what is THE decisive event. But then again, this method of mine saved me from reading a garbage. So I suggest to anybody who wants to save their time, whenever you see this kind of lists of events, go to the bottom and check for that fact.That way you will know whether it’s worth a read or not.

            Thanks.

        • haileTG

          Selamat Nitricc,

          Far from it bro. Semere is peddling PFDJ politics in service of PFDJ but nothing else. Besides, do you read wanton insults as “you are stupid if you don’t agree…” type brandishing from Hayat? BTW PFDJ interests and Eritrean interests don’t intersect, they are the antithesis of each other.

          Regarding the territorial issues, it has been legally concluded and it would be futile gymnastics to engage in somersaults about it now. I can link you hundreds of pages of discussions that were developed about it by the EEBC. Besides PFDj’s position is that those discussions can’t be opened now.

          The money issue we’re debating hasn’t been settled. If PFDJ has already burned it, then that is a dead issue. Otherwise if it still is sitting in Eritrean banks and given PFDJ doesn’t set it alight when the day comes to vacate, then it is a future issue too because the Eritrean National Bank will still need to account for it.

    • Mahmud Saleh

      Dear Hayat
      Eid Mubarak
      Very interesting analysis, not as biased as I expected it to be, given Gual Adem’s notoriety. I want to ask you, if you would give us some reference as to when the 150 million Birr was transferred and where you got that figure from, (I have not been aware of this and a close friend who worked in the Central Bank Of Eritrea is questioning it. He thinks the figure is too inflated. You said, “That 150 million Birr was not a loan nor was it a declared aid.” What was it then? And how was the transaction settled?
      The second question would be: If you would tell us how you see the magnitude and the effects of the unilateral actions by Tigray Authorities in drawing Tigray’s Kilil map which Meles was downplaying whenever he met Eritrean officials. What is your say in regard to Eritreans’ grievances related to the unilateral border expansions ምጥራር which resulted in the displacements of villages and the harassment of farmers? According to some readings, Meles was explaining them as irritations caused by local authorities which would eventually be settled once the two central governments agreed. So, I want to see why you chose to ignore this area by solely blaming the conflict on policy disagreement issues.
      Regards.

  • KeihKsad

    Semere,
    First let me thank you for your sacrifice to write this long articles at AWATE. I thought YG was one of the most verbose writer among Eritrean opposition writers. You come close in terms of the circular argument you utilize to defend PFDJ line of arguments if one has the patience to read your long winded writing. In one of your chronological description of the Badme incident you said: Weyane killed six Eritreans ( militia and the like); according to you Eritrea retaliated by using heavy mechanized force deep into Tigrai and captured Badme.
    Next Ethiopia declared war against Eritrea including bombing Asmara airport. As much as I love my country and I am as patriotic as the next guy, you don’t have to be a Colombo type detective to reason out that Eritrea is the wrong party in this case by not using proportional response to the killing of the border patrol personnel. For example, the retard could have ordered to kill five or six or ten Ethiopian/Tigraisn border control personnel at a later time ( few weeks or few months or few years later) ;meanwhile the tensions could have cooled as cooler heads hopefully prevailed. Therefore, although Ethiopia is guilty by provoking the trigger happy Issaias -the capo mafia – stupidly got into Weyane trap and started a full fledge war. Conclusion: Weyane provoked the illiterate Issaias and he fell for their bait thinking Eritrea’ s military force at that time was superior than Ethiopia’s. A decade later after the Badme war, the slow learner Isaias with his current hollow army only capable to harras Eritrean civilians, Weyane have penetrated Eritrea sovereign land several times and invariably he acted like a mice in a cold bucket: no response, no war and would not even publicize the incidences in his state controlled media. So Semere don’t insult our intelligence : Eritrea started the war no question about it; stop acting like a revisionist historian in residence of Isaias’dictatorship.

  • Kokhob Selam

    Dear Micheal,

    you are doing fine. unity is possible while still differences are there. there are no known political differences honestly speaking. what I was talking is different and should not mentioned at this very moment. I am after those who committed crime and are flexible roaming around blaming one man and his party. it seems I am in wrong time to talk about it. Where are they going to hide? I have decided to see them dancing at this moment. the day is not far to expose them and bring the them for justice. sorry my friend keep your hope in unity. forget what I said above for now.

  • Semere Tesfai

    Mahmud Hawey:

    Please listen to what you’re saying, and please correct me if I’m misquoting you.

    – The Woyanes were harassing evicting and killing Eritrean farmers, and confiscating their properties.
    – The wayenes were encroaching deep into sovereign Eritrean territories.
    – The Woyanes were dismantling Eritrean local governments
    – The Woyanes killed half a dozen Eritrean servicemen from the Eritrean border patrol unit
    – The Isaias government didn’t do enough at best, failed at worst in protecting Eritrean citizens and in defending sovereign Eritrean territories.

    Therefore:

    – The 1998 Badme war was ignited by Isaias/PFDJ for no rational reason.

    Am I missing something here? Did I misquate you somewhere?

    • Mahmud Saleh

      Salam Semere
      A skeleton is a skeleton. It’s bare, dead, cant really walk, because it’s a skeleton. It’s even difficulty to know whose skeleton it’s unless assisted by the magic of DNA.
      Now, with all due respect, you are giving me a skeleton. Without its connective tissues, flesh, a well intact nervous and circulatory systems PLUS other sustaining systems, the THING has no life. You left out the sustaining reasoning of my reply (above), and without the connective reasoning, it’s just a skeleton.
      I really appreciate your manner, but, dear Semere, disconnected excerpts are just disconnected chunks. I don’t feel like I have to say anything anymore. My last comment stands as it is.
      Regards.

      • Amanuel

        Dear Mahmud
        With due respect you are helping Semere Tesfai achieve his goals unintentionally. He knows well that the Badme issue is done and dusted. However he is taking away your time and energy discussing it, hence opportunity cost discussing the current issue of humane rights report.

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Dear Amanuel (mekusi),

          I agree on your concern. The border issue is already settled. We are simply giving semere a platform to derail our priority. I hope and I think Mahmuday is done now. He knew the intention of semere and the purpose of his piece.

          Regards,
          Amanuel Hidrat

          • Amanuel

            Thanks mekusi.

      • haileTG

        Selam Mahmuday,

        We have an old tradition to summarize fallacious argumentation, it goes:

        ክልተ ቡርኩታ’ዶ ክልተ ግዜ ተቦራኹተን? እወ ተቦራኹተን። ኣበይ ደኣ’ለዋ እተን ክልተ ቡርኩታ? እነሀለዋን’ዶ ክልተ ቡርኩታ!

        It is good to see that you’ve identified the fallacy through precise analogy.

        Regards

  • Semere Tesfai

    Dear Belay:

    I agree with you 100%. We all are servants; at least I know I am. You made my day. Thank you for understanding. But still, I shouldn’t have said what I said. Thanks.

  • Nitricc

    Dear Mahmuday; it is an honer as well as a pleasure to read your response. I acknowledge your amazing response and i will like to respond in avery short order. i do appreciate you for taking the time to write this much while maintaining the demands of work, family and the little once in your family, sir; I thank you and i shall have a response by tomorrow.
    nothing but respect; Sir!
    Nitricc!

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Nitrickay,

      I see you maturing by the day when you start respecting people irrespective their views. Keep it and argue regorously what you believe as far you are in the battle of ideas. And don’t forget there is always give and take in our collective endeavor.

      regards,
      Amanuel Hidrat

    • Pass the salt

      Lol Nitricc,
      Are you taking some kind of diplomacy class or something? Distribute it to the undiplomatic diplomats, Ambassadors, or whatever they’re called.
      Abassadorship qedem Halifu be’al Beraki G/Silassie kelewu:-)

    • Mahmud Saleh

      Dear Nitrickay
      Thanks for the cordial reply. I look forward to reading your reply. As always, the respect is mutual.

  • Semere Tesfai

    Selam AMAN

    Very hectic day on my end. Now, back to your questions:

    – The answer for your question(s) 1,2,3 is, I don’t really know. Your guess is as good as mine.

    -Q 4.1 “While the US is negating and ignoring Eritrea; why is the PFDJ insisting to get US attention? Why are we sacrificing ourselves for the US and Israel?”

    Well, you can disagree with the concept, but at least starting from mid eighties EPLF/PFDJ/GoE has made a strategic decision to side-with (be an ally) the West. The reason: for insurance protection (security), peace, stability, and economic gain. If we don’t, in the absence of insurance policy, Western powers will bleed and starve us to death, as they are doing now. And what we are going through is not sustainable, and that is not even the worst punishment they can inflict on us. That’s why.

    -Q 4.2 ” Why is Eritrea bleeding and loosing too much by not making relations with financially rich countries like Saudi Arabia, Gulf States and Libya and others, which, even the US itself has deeper relations with?”

    We’ve good relations with them, and we will always have, at least to some degree. But they have their own demands as well. And the question is, how close? For example, there are many Eritreans (from both faiths) who argue (especially when Ethiopia roars from the South) Eritrea should join the Arab League. Now, how close is, close relation to you. How close should Eritrea be (militarily, socially and culturally) to the ” financially rich countries like Saudi Arabia, Gulf States and Libya….:?

    Q 6 “Why are we allowing ourselves to be held back by backward Ethiopia and its Woyane gov’t by insisting to make relations with them more than other richer and more peaceful and stable neighbors/countries?”

    We need good relation with Ethiopia for many reasons; but make no mistake, Eritrean prosperity in not contingent upon Ethiopia. And I mean it. For every penny we get from Ethiopia, we can get a dollar from our Northern neighbors. Case in point: Eritrea is eight times the size of Djibouti, and Ethiopia has been using Djibouti ports for its “booming” economy since Adam and Eve. Now, how rich have the Djiboutians become as the result of Ethiopian money (port/transit/storage fee)?

    To answer your question directly, the main reason why we want be close to Ethiopia (for all the grief we get from them) is to please the West. To be a team player in the Horn region under Ethiopia’s leadership on the war on terror, if you will. So we can live in peace and have normal life. Wodehanka.

    Semere Tesfai

  • Kokhob Selam

    Dear Michael,

    we have one common small part of 2 circles (mine and yours). for me unity is just impossible without cleaning the mistake even if we manage to remove the man. it is the same what we have done to national independent – EPLF thought removing ELF by any means is a must. that was done. confilict was solved in wrong way. we thought that “ምሉእ ስምረት” and ” ስሙር ግንባር ” arguments has gone to dust bin. we proudly said Eritrea freedom was accomplished and forgot all those killed and even the entire ELF as the game is over. we support fully EPLF but the result is here. nature keep for us the old mistake in her bank and asking us to repair it. the dictator was there since ever. it is our way of thinking to have it. in short we deserve it. today every house is crying for having PFDJ and everyone is talking as if only IA is criminal. that is not true my friend. for me removing IA is just very tiny part of the solution. the solution forever is one and one – the golden rule “don’t do to others something that pains you if it is done for you”. it is all our mistake and we need to correct it.

  • tes

    Dear Mahmuday Saleh,

    I will open a new school of thought for you and saay7. The School of Chauvinists is almost closing its doors. Only the confused Nitricc is there.

    Your school is now:

    “School of Horizon 2025” far beyond Awate 2020 project. This school is super-rich with super star analyists and chain-breakers. I see the future Technocrats under incubation here.

    Distinguished professors for this school of thought are: Professor Saleh Younis, Professor haile TG and Professor Mahmud Saleh.

    “The School of Fine Thoughts” is still keeping an eye on you. This school has continued to maintain her only and only honorable, resident and all time Professor Saleh Johar.

    Recommendation: Do not let Chauvinists again to follow your discourse. they will have a difficulty to be transcended to the level you wanted to be. Recently Ted and Nitriccay’s lagging of the dynamic and light speed change of Eritrean opposition landscape after Geneva incidence is the best example. Ted came to condemn it and Nitricc got confused as usual with the abrupt change.

    tes

    • Ted

      Dear tes,

      Leave The Great MS alone, you wouldn’t like him that he is a dynamic thinker(unlike your Weed-out anthem), with sharp eye for errors and can criticise without mercy if he see the success of a justice seekers is endangered. Remember, all Geneva/ 26 are not your friends and all Geneva/22 are not your enemies. Again, i agree with Nitric we(nobody else) need to and have to own the struggle.

      • tes

        Dear Ted,

        It is not because he is a dynamic thinker that I may not like him but his negligence of the youth cause. His reference is all about before that of 1994. In fact, Eritrean problem has mainly started with year in reference afterwards.

        1994 was a birth of National Service (whom MS could not hide his support even when a campaign to stop national service was initiated).

        1994 was the death of EPLF and birth of PFDJ.

        1994 was the year of Land ownership proclamation by the state.

        1994 was the year where summer service was started (forced child labour -under age students forced to work during their summer break-time)

        and very soon

        1995 – Hanish war etc etc

        Therefore, MS has both qualities: static and dynamic thinking. I like his dynamic thinking but not his static. I am therefore against his static thinking.

        tes

        • Mahmud Saleh

          Salam tes
          WOw…What’s up tes? Why is that you feel so entitled to attack individuals at will?
          Is this you saying “…It is not because he is a dynamic thinker that I may not like him but his negligence of the youth cause. His reference is all about before that of 1994.” It’s FALSE, and UNWARRANTED. Please use your potential efficiently. Let me undo what you messed tes. Aliek allah, suq ilka iznTeln eyu.

          FYI: The hallmark of my comments are:
          1. Injustice is injustice wherever and to whomever it occur. Among the injustices that have gripped our country, the single most I care about is the injustices our youth have been subjected to, be it as part of the National Service, or as a result of policies the totalitarian and repressive regime has pursuit in the past 24 years. Let me repeat this:
          a/ The national service, as an idea, is not new. Many nations use it. If the regime could not turn it into a social control mechanism; if it were according to the spirit and the letter of the law; if guarantees that address abusive malpractices were laid into it (laws that prevent abuses and an enforcement mechanism that governs the application of those laws; people’s control over the PLA through their legislative or civic committees…media…); it would be a wonderful program. I hope future governments do that. In the article that you continue referring to: The article contains the above ideas, including:
          – My belief that the members of the NS are not slaves (I go in detail what I mean by this); I believe like any maladies that our country is suffering from, our use have been subjected to a prolonged (never ending) service; it must stop.
          – I have repeatedly condemned the abuses that occur in the service; as late as my last comments of this month; my comments on COI; my letter to Amb.Gherahtu…and actually it is the horrendous experience of our youth that propelled me to write against them openly. So, frankly, as much as I want to engage you, I am finding it time consuming replying to unfounded accusations. It’s not only unproductive but it sows confusion and rancorous atmosphere. I don’t know why you chose 1994. Dear, tes, individuals have different levels/thickness of life experience, and their ideas are expressions of their experience (be it through schooling or life encounters) that they have accumulated. So, what’s wrong if we talk about history. When I hear my older friends talk about things that happened before I had developed the mental faculty to weigh in them, I don’t frown. I learn from them. Consider this as a friendly exchanges; I
          2. Any Eritrean who fights PFDJ is a member of a righteous alliance; the alliance of fighters for liberty.
          3. Any foreigner, anyone, who helps Eritreans on the basis of sympathizing with our will to getting rid of an atrocious dictatorial regime is a friend. The only thing we should consider is the motive of that foreign party, and its scope of involvement. Its motive should be congruent with our motive,i.e., establishing an a truly independent and democratic Eritrea; and its scope of involvement should stop at supporting us, not controlling us or setting our agenda.
          3. Any Infighting on trial issues is a victory for PFDJ.

          • tes

            Dear Mahmuday,

            1. I would like to tell you first, I am not entilttled to attack individuals at will but I realized that I became increasingly sensitive to lines I read often. As we are all fighting for justice and democracy, I understood that such sensitivity will not be helpful. Understand me therefore, as I shared with awatawyan, I have changed that course. Therefore, it is not at will but just it was overssensitivity. I learned such kind of behaviour growing fast in my daily life too and I decided to change. Sensitivity is not good. Therefore, please do not take it personal. I was just going after each and every line put here in this platform.

            2. I agree with you on the general notion of NS. And I don’t call members of NS as slaves too but the system is enslaving our people by the name of declared national service. My take is therefore to stop the kind of “PFDJ national service”. Whether Eritrea needs national service or not, let the people decide on their constitution and be in line to that. National Service should not be an identity creator but “a respect for identity”.

            3. Regarding 1994, I think we had an exhaustive discussion before when we had an argument with you for an extended period of time. I was referring to that when I address to Ted. Now, we did a lot of progress from that day. I can tell you you are more than anyone a truth bounded and reconciling man.

            The rest I can’t agree more. As you said, let’s move on. If you allow me, I will join to the “School of Horizon 2025” though I admit I am not well fit to that school.

            With all respect Mahmuday and I mean it.

            tes

          • Mahmud Saleh

            Dear tes

            Thanks. Let’s move on, let’s focus on the single most important thing at hand: giving our youth hope. Divided, we will remain helpless and divided. Every now and then I find differing lines with folks I follow, but taken in their totality, I agree with them. Therefore, the 90% of what I consider their strength outweighs the 10% of what I see as their weakness. As you will agree with me, even clones will have different take on the same subjects, although biologically they are identical. That’s just how intelligent beings happen to be/think. That’s why our species is called intelligent, since each individual holds his/her unique perspective…which, that.in itself will compel us to communicate/bargain in order to come up with a coherent common ground that bind us. Therefore, focusing on what makes you closer to someone is more important than fixating on small aspects that separates you (This is a general message to all awatistas, because I see a lot of time and energy wasting on arguments that have nothing to do with substantial differences). I read your Eid message and I commend you for that. If you read brother Amanuel Hidrat in his totality, I’m sure you will find him to be a generous man. I have had differences with him on two areas.

            1. Petty quarrels on ELF/EPLF, thanks to SGJ, we have both agreed to let them rest in peace. Now, we are focused on the “Valineki clique.”

            2. Role of foreign assistance: Both of us now believe the importance of unity, both of us understand the importance of number three of my comment above, i.e, “Any foreigner, anyone, who helps Eritreans on the basis of sympathizing with our will to getting rid of an atrocious dictatorial regime is a friend. The only thing we should consider is the motive of that foreign party, and its scope of involvement. Its motive should be congruent with our motive,i.e., establishing a truly independent and democratic Eritrea; and its scope of involvement should stop at supporting us, not controlling us or setting our agenda.”

            It seems most of the “disagreements” displayed are manifestation of unfounded suspicions, and mistrust. Once we engage people with open mind, we find out that we have been wrong.
            Anyway, take this as Eid’s good wishes, and happy Eid alfaTr ,again.
            I miss Qcha Bultoog.

          • tes

            Dear Mahmuday,

            You will see how much sensitive I am to sentences Mahmuday. But first, when you put it that way, it could be in the same way I interprate but how I feel is different. Here it goes:

            You wrote, “..; let’s focus on the single most important thing at hand: giving our youth hope.” You might be wondering then what I am going to say. Oh yes, my over-sensitiviness had washed so many things.

            This is how I interprate this line: “Who is going to give hope (Giver) and who will receive hope (Acceptor)? Hope can either be generated from innerself or put hope on someone else. Then, why Mahmud is saying this? You see? Then, I react, hope is not a donation. Either be hopeful on us or leave us to pursiue our own hope.”

            You see, you might think that I am going after you, noh, I am just reading your sentences, too much sensitivity. In statistics, there is a branch called sensitivity Analysis. I had many courses and probably it might have a contribution in my way of measuring sensitivity.

            Let me tell you this from my first hand experience.

            I started to communicate with one who is a member of one of the leading opposition organizations. The leaders of that organization are all old. I asked him why and if there is any nearby future to include young peopel? (There is almost two generation gap already). he told me, “NO”; I asked why again? He replied, “we don’t trust them”. Now, think on this and why I interprate your line in the way I did?

            Dear Mahmuday, unless we build hope on what ever it is (in fact, it is one of my major disagreement with Amanuel Hidrat), there will not be future. WE can not give hope but we can build hope when we see hope generating.

            I am sure you are saying, “this is what I meant”. But I don’t know exactly. I just became so sensitive to your sentence and went that far. This is what people call it, “attacking”. For me, it is just sensitivity analysis”.

            Coming out now from the left behind subject, I am concurrent with your foreign aid formula. In fact, weh we were talking on solutions, I brought the notion of lending money from WTO, IMF, EU, China, what ever it is based on future positive engagement, peace and development, amounting $200 million plus so that we can be totally independent and able to be organized as a strong and alternative governing body in Eritrea. We should be free from any economic dependency of PFDJ resources during the transition period.

            If I have such kind of thinking, then, your number (2) point is fully in line to my advocacy.

            The rest, again I can’ agree more.

            tes

    • saay7

      Oh no Tes!

      “The School of Chauvinists” is closing? We don’t even get to sing our childhood separation-anxiety-curing song “ፍቓድ ኣምላኽ ኮይኑ ሎሚ ንፈላለ ኣለና! ፈላልዩስ ኣይተርፍን ከይኣኻኸበና!”

      But seriously, Tes, what is chauvinism? I see that word used a lot in Eritrean and Ethiopian context. An Ethiopian is a chuvinist if he questions ethnic federalism. An Eritrean is a chauvinist if he shows traces of patriotism. Does it have a different meaning besides the ones we all know, ie: “excessive or prejudiced loyalty or support for one’s own cause, group, or gender” and “excessive, exaggerated, aggressive patriotism.” If that is all it means, did you ever see that in me or Mahmuday? Remember, the one who throw that word around would call you chauvinist because you refuse to accept Ethiopian Airforce bombing raids to help liberate us. And you do have “excessive and prejudiced loyalty” to your cause (weed out) and you have killed many who deviated an inch from your orthodoxy.

      Ted and Nitriccay are in Eritrean Solutions for Eritrean Problems school. Have you opened that school?

      saay

      • tes

        Dear saay7,

        The main problem with Chauvinists is “pride, under-estimation, belittling other’s cause, caring less on minority causes”. In addition, they are affected by nostalgia. What is happening right now for them is most of the time secondary.

        Patriotism is their main quality and I agree with them in this regard. It is because of this that I always wanted Chauvinists to engage with Fine School of thought.

        Look, awate.com is the perfect example of a hosting university for these two School of thought. The agreement of these two schools has a perfect harmony for the progress of peace, mutual respect and development.

        The problem comes when chavinists are blind to the cause of people’s suffering and lead by irrational thinking. This happens most often.

        Here ate Awate University, it took us more than a year and probably more than a decade for some to refine and talk with the same wave-length though many are lagging. In general, I am happy to see such progress.

        Concerning me, my orthodoxy is true and it will be as such till PFDJ vanoishes. On my Ethiopian stance, it is simply because I know my history. I can not do a mistake by allowing that. Those who support are either opportunists or war mongers who love to see innocent people bleedings (the vampires).
        tes

      • tes

        On the Eritrean Solutions for the Eritrean Problems,

        This school has not yet established as a school. In principle, I am for Eritrean solutions for Eritrean Problems urdent advocator but not in the way these folks from Bologna are advocating. These folks are creating confusion on our endeavors. Their basic foundation is FEAR of hegemonial control of opportunists.

        As for me, I don’t fear opportunists. Opportunists are always opportunists: if you want to win them, you have to be strong. Strength is the enemy of oppostunists. And we can attain the highest strength through a clear of strategy.

        Therefore, Nitricc is a lost former under-graduate student of school of Chauvinism. Now you can only find him in TN or madote. He got a perfect destiny there*.

        Ted, he belongs to the Institute of PFDJ mindset replication center. he is confortable there. Leave him there please.

        tes

        *I read some comments posted from Nitricc.

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Ahlen Mahmuday,

    You have travelled a long distance in the Eritrean politics. I salute you for being yourself and evaluate the history you were part with, to educate others and learn yourself from our failures, in which as people are still traumatized and brutalized by the wrong decisions of our leaders. Though the causation of the current predicament is part of our negligence of being lending unreserved trust to the leadership to do whatever they want, the accountability of our crises is strictly falls to PFDJ and its leadership. Despite we are privy to the cause and the result of the catastroph that befallen to our people and our nation, your candid self-evaluation and standing on the side of the truth in the aspect of the border war is commendable. Talking the truth makes you free from being an accomplice of the regime and consequently will help to free our people. The good thing is once we start to walk on the road of truth without bravado, it is sweet, rewarding with uplifting consciousness to put us on the right side of history. So my friend you have it and keep to retain it for the sake of our people and your conscience. You are striding by the dictation of your concience without the influence of you past history – the first step to emancipate “the self” and eventually our citizens. keep up the new path my friend.

    regards,
    Amanuel Hidrat

    • Kokhob Selam

      Dear Amanuel,
      I 2nd you sir, being bold he has gone long already. I hope you and Mahmuday understand what I am requesting to him. they might be some misunderstanding here.. If you think I am wrong, correct me please.

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Kokhobay,

        I will get back to you after work.

        Amanuel Hidrat

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Kokhobay,

        Sorry for a belated response.
        I read your question to Mahmuday and I agree with the response he gave you. Let us focus on mobilizing our people to keep the momentum. Saay’s recent article is a good blue print how to go forward, and I am sure you will hear more along that line in the near future. The effort on structured collaborative engagement is quintessential to a meaningful struggle and its success.

        Regards,
        Amanuel Hidrat

        • Kokhob Selam

          Dear Amanuel,
          thank you.

        • tes

          Dear Amanuel Hidrat,

          Thinking that you represent you and yourself, and you represented only for yourself to be member of ENDC and now writing sentence that reads, “The effort on structured collaborative engagement is quintessential to a meaningful struggle and its success.” is all what is a big mess in your political approach.

          How can a lonely person, who belongs to no one but himself call for a structured and collaborative engagement?

          Please either stay as an educator or be a real and live politician by joining one of the more than 15 opposition parties. if you stay in one, you will be respected but if you act as huge political party organizer while you are alone is just a flaw.

          I am going to follow you and apply my Newtonian law for every line you put when I see such meaningless sentences that represent no one. You are the only one now left in which I can use my law. The rest are done*.

          tes

          *You know how Abi lost the dirty game he initiated.

          • Abi

            Tes
            Did you grow up in orphanages. You sound like someone whose life is devoid of a father figure . You have no idea about the social norms that govern a society. If I were you I would show the highest respect to Ato Amanuel. You should be happy if you get a chance to polish his shoes.
            You are acting like someone who grew up on the street. There is an Amharic saying that describes you well. ” Deha adeg.”
            I have proved beyond any reasonable doubt you died as Tes . You are still dead . tes is a ghost.

            Ende ante aynetun andido memoq neber !

          • tes

            Abi,

            Are you still around? I know how to call you back and play with like a toy. You are now my favirite awatista in deed.

            Between Amanuel and me, get away from us please. We are Eritreans and we can solve our own problems by our own self.

            Just be the joke maker as usual.

            tes

          • Abi

            Tes
            Where is your avatar? You are a nameless, faceless ghost.
            Tes, I know both of you are eritreans. You are the perfect examples of the old and new face of eritrea . I like the old one.
            You are mannerless, disrespectful, arrogant, ignorant, disgrace of eritrea.

          • tes

            Dear Abi,

            I let you say what ever you want about me. But remember, you are saying it.

            You are so funny dear Abi. Just cool down. tes is now a new tes and you won’t be able to find him. If you prefer, stay there and repeat your hee-haw.

            tes

          • Abi

            Tes
            You are amazing. You said,”tes is now a new tes and you won’t be able to find him.”
            You see my problem? I can’t see you because you are a ghost. No wonder you spent most of your time at Tes cemetery.
            Learn some manners.
            Fara.
            BTW, what happened to the old Tes? Who killed it? Did he kill himself and showed up as tes? I mean as ghost?
            Beljinetu teqeche ! Wendmen! Yet yidersal yaltebale jil.
            ” yemayadg lij tazlo yafwachal.”

          • tes

            Dear Abi,

            I want to tell you this with respect.

            If I did some valuable thing during my stay here so far, at Awate University, it is tour exposure of your inner true identity. I am so happy for this. You were such a very complicated forumer and you hide yourself through fake jokes and poems.

            When Great Awatistas told you about me, you couldn’t stop creating another trial. They told you to close that chapter as you were not in the right take. Now, please stop it for your own respct if you have some traces left. You had a respect from others but now most probably you are losing it. Accept your mistake and move on. If not, still I will use my thermodynamics law to absorb your unger.

            I am tes always and Great Awatistas proved it. If I changed, it is only now and that is to stop my Newtonian Law and for that the Great Awatistas will be number one to be happy. You will not be happy simply because your objective is very clear now and very transparent to the forumers. In fact, I started Newtonian law with you and finally I did my job and I am done.

            tes

    • tes

      Dear Amanuel Hidrat,

      I hope now you got what I was saying. I didn’t simply try to reconcile you with Mahmud. I knew what ahead we can achieve into.

      One more for you:

      Advance you idea like what Mahmud, haile TG and saay7 are doing. Don’t post an article and invite people to look into it. Articles are a means to communication. They are not meant for final and binding say.

      Still I will look into your lines. take note this. I need to see a complete resurrected Amanuel Hidrat.

      tes

  • Kokhob Selam

    Dear Michael,

    true. he won all the way from the first day he came to the field. I personally also won enjoying my stand from the fist day I went to the filed for being aware of the nature of the struggle in general as the saying goes in Amharic “ንሮ ካሉት መቃብር ይሞቃል – ይመቻል”. If it wasn’t for those who paid their life I could have said our revolution is totally useless. But then there was no U turn and there will never be except saving the hardly found national independent and go through hard time and journey till we have democratic, new Eritrea. This will be possible only when we are tough to ourselves – openly saying we have done a lot of mistakes that put us in this mess. Yes, if we say it openly we or at least people among us have given the chance to this man and his group (it doesn’t mater if it is purposely or due to ignorance). if IA wasn’t there (didn’t born) we could have another dictator anyhow since the ground that creates him is there. do you agree?

  • Kokhob Selam

    Dear Mahmuday,
    everyday you are going stronger in your stand over all those political messes we are in. you have said all the truth and this is what we the people expect from a man with good knowledge and experience of our struggle. I share and have common understanding in what you said all. Yet, it seems to me you didn’t still start to openly answer the questions like, how comes we Eritrean people were cheated for so long? why do we even give chances? I am really eager to see you wonderful logically analyzed reasons listed boldly.

    • Mahmud Saleh

      Dear KS
      Qesey bel ikha. AyttehaweK (slow down).
      Those are big questions that scholars can help us examine them. They will involve societal, historical, political, ideological…facets. I believe different awatistas tackled them from their viewpoint. My knowledge isn’t going to be better than yours, but will continue discussing them as relevant topics emerge. This is the general opinion that I uphold. If you are asking me to answer them from my narrow angle/experience, then you will find them answered sparsely in my latest comment and comments I have made in the past. I look forward to reading your take on the questions you posted.

      • Kokhob Selam

        Dear Mahmuday,
        thank you. we have been too slow to say and hear the truth. PFDJ blame others and create problems instead of accepting their mistakes. we being bit better keep blaming PFDJ (at least it is an Eritrean group) but didn’t face the truth that we have created it. that is the biggest problem we Eritreans keep hiding as secrete while it is not and everyone of us knows it. some may say EPLF is not PFDJ but they can’t debate and convince that PFDJ was not part of EPLF and that it is a result of all Eritrean revolution and especially the crimes of EPLF leadership . in fact it is the same leadership that was stronger always that we see today. booth are ours. all fronts are our fronts. IA is ours too (we can’t escape from this truth). we need to say it loudly and ask forgiveness first to each self and to those who were killed, disappeared, that is what I want to say. we can’t be proud of the good and try to shoulder all bad to this man and his group today. when we announce our mistakes only the solution will emerge.

        waiting for scholars ? who are scholars when are they going to born? who can witness more than you how bad was our revolution? for example, don’t you bear witness that IA was killing and petrose Selemon, who is arrested was his partner? what special knowledge do we need to say what has taken place in our struggle? our enemy is in our mind Mahmuday.

        • Mahmud Saleh

          Dear KS
          It’s time to focus on the big picture. Part of the reason why IA is still in power is because we have focused too much on our “little organizational pride” and the business of assigning blames. Let that area be left for researchers, I’m not one of them (I’ve told you repetitively in this forum). Learn from your experience. Had the leadership of ELF been better, it would not end up ditching a legendary organization with tens of thousands of truly patriotic and battle hardened tegadelty; if the leadership of its offshoots were better, the resistance would win Eritreans long before the war of Badme, and we would have saved the nation from PFDJ.
          The lack of a culture that fosters the emergence of a dynamic leadership is at the heart of all our ills. I’m afraid it’s still evident in this desperate times. Therefore, my approach will be broader than the experience of a specific organization, and it will be forward looking, reconciliatory…and enterprising. As SGJ put it let us focus on the common target menacing our nation. Eritrea is suffering from the conspiracies of a small weirdo clique bonded by personal motives (rewards: material, power/psychological), cult-like loyalty, and the all known practice of blackmailing and appeasing tactics of the dictator: if you serve me you get this, if you don’t you get frozen, or worse, you get thrown away into the black holes dotting Eritrea- unofficial prisons…
          It is hurting you; it’s hurting its founders and people who brought it to power; it’s hurting the whole nation. That’s the common threat. Let’s waste our munition on the appropriate target. I believe, today, the active actors for change care less about what Petros Solomon did in the struggle era. But they care that, at any rate, he one day woke up and took the right decision of challenging the dictator, ultimately paying the price. Unfortunately, we did not follow him and his colleagues. The least thing we can do at this time is recognizing his/and his jailed comrades contribution in breaking the taboo in placing nation’s interest before organizational prides. I wish the current opposition leaders do that. I wish everyone, including you, embark on soul searching and real self-examination. This is a new era KS and a total shift of the paradigm is needed.
          Regards.

          • haileTG

            Dear Mahmuday and KS

            ለባም ክመውት ልቡ፡ ንጉስ ክመውት ግንቡ።

            We have now arrived at a stage where there is nothing more left to convince anyone of us about anything relating to our politics. Our focus need to fully be seized with matters of the here and now, about today and tomorrow and be frugal about cost and benefit. It is true and necessary that the justice train serves the widest possible spectrum of views and opinions, however, it is the engine car that will pull the entire assortments of freight cargo. And it is that engine car (leadership) we need to focus on cranking up and get it to roll to a safe harbor. Let’s keep our heart alive for that fine mile to the home run 🙂

          • tes

            Dear haile TG,

            To filter line of thinking is not easy but finally I think here I can see purity coming. It gonna be “Université d’Awate: La Grande Maison de la Politique Contemporaine de l’Erythrée ”

            tes

          • Kokhob Selam

            Dear haile,
            I don’t want to disturb the new development – the feeling of unity that you guys are building. I love you all and I am pulling my view that says ” we have done a lot of mistakes in the past” for now although I wish we announce it to start fresh page. Here I am with you on now and now only. thank you.

          • Bayan Nagash

            anta kbur Haile TG,

            How and when though HTG? Every time we blink a new advocacy of this, a new civil society of that seem to burst to the virtual scene – left and right – making one’s head spinning and not knowing what to grab hold of. And now we have this: ሃገራዊ ዕርቂ፤ እንኮ ኣማራጺ ንሰላማዊ ፖሊቲካዊ ምስግጋር ኣብ ኤርትራ
            ብ ኤርትራውያን ንብሩህ መጻኢ
            ግንቦት 2015
            eritreans4brightfuture@gmail.com

            How does one begin to channel and streamline all these micro energies into a macro one – I have not the foggiest idea. If you’ve read their communique in which they list the names of these good willing Eritreans, there are some impressive titles contained in them, but to what end?

            Duplication & replication might become the mark of our incompetency and inefficiency that is beginning to take its tolls already, at least on me.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Dear Beyan,
            Yes indeed, duplication and replication is hallmark of Eritrean sociopolitics throughout our history without any ideological difference so to speak. Such multiplications is for purposes of group interest only, and not for competative of public and national interest. That is why the Eritrean politics has never been a healthy. Politics. I remember we had hot debate on ” multiplication of organizations and how to unite them” or “abazha widubatn ataranefe’an” in the social affairs of ELF department to assess the causes of multiplication and to discover contours for unifying them. Since then I haven’t seen such an elevated live debate in the Eritrean politics. It was very educative and mature debate. So haw Beyan until we create such atmosphere of mature civil , elevated, and educative debate you will see the multiplication of group interest now and then in perpetuality. I will edit it later on.

            Regards,
            Amanuel Hidrat

          • Bayan Nagash

            merHaba AH,

            Thank you Haw Aman for this important reminder of historical
            precedence. Perhaps, lessons learned from that could serve in not only mitigating but also assuaging it all so as we may begin to sharpen the focus and prioritize our opposition house in order.

            In the process of editing, I am hoping it takes its own due course prompting you to turn it to an article. This is really important endeavor worth giving a shot at even talking it out with your former comrade in arms could provide some more salient ideas. I know you got some sharp minds in your neck of the wood – talk it over brother, you never know what might come of it on the other end of the conversation.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Kubur Beyan,

            For the sake of the priority at hand, I will postponed it for another time. But it helped us at that time to understand the nature of the contradiction of our society and how to handle it. That was in 1976. The topic was prepared by a “colleague and myself” for the second round course of social workers aka as “Nabra Ebiet” at that time, in the office of social affairs. When time and space permits I will share with awatistas in the future. I don’t want to be a spoiler for the current issue at hand. Actually, the topic “arabha widubatn Atarenefe’anin” is very important that demand scholastic approach to understand, to dissect, and to design a structured resolution for it.

            Regards,
            Amanuel Hidrat

          • haileTG

            Selamat Kbur Bayan,

            Let’s put this in perspective, else our spinning heads would spin even faster:) Suppose you are in a town where certain commodity is in acute shortage. Until the big men/women come to the scene to turn the shortage into potential goldmine and take to swing playing the movers and shakers of the opportunity presented to them to shine in solving the big problem, many small men/women would show up. Some of these small men/women would be trying to deal with the chronic shortage insufficiently and haphazardly and others would be downright cheats. Yet, others would be criminal and manipulative. But what is obvious is that all the small men/women are out to make quick bucks declaring to do a job that they are not capable of doing. Such situation is a natural part of widespread shortages that lower the standard of expectation from those with a demand’s perspective.

            After Geneva 2015, it is clear beyond doubt that the demand for change is sky high in the Eritrean minds and hearts. The big men/women who would bridge the gap haven’t got here yet. What we see is the small men/women (not all are with bad intent but by virtue of coming up with such shabby approach, they’re obviously declaring to do a job that that they can’t handle – i.e. lead the people). Through Geneva 2015, the Eritrean people have shown that they are extremely serious about their need for change. They have shown that they are prepared to go to any length to do that too. It is no secret that Eritreans as a whole are LEADERLESS as we speak, which is also a dangerous for more reasons than just the obvious. The existing opposition groups and civil organizations need to proactively approach each other for unified action. They don’t need another new organization to facilitate that.

            The small men/women showing up in the morning and withering in the evening and claiming to sell the real stuff in between can only be considered to have time to burn. Geneva 2015 has shown that the people are quite willing to side step them and deal with external bodies directly.

            In the end, there are definitely going to be the big men/women to step in, because opportunities have their own innate pull force that attracts a matching people to the exploits they present. However, we are likely going to see more of the small men/women declaring “bright future”, “Freedom for all”. “the end of tyranny”, “Brighter than the sun future”…. but they really are bluffing the acute desire for change and trying their luck for quick gains. Actually, it doesn’t take much to publicize a word processed document nowadays. But beyond Geneva 2015 (where Gedab News rightly predicted as “all future activities will be measured using that yardstick”) the issue is clear, Eritreans for justice are posting a job vacancy and it reads “LEADER WANTED”.

            Regards

          • Bayan Nagash

            zKeberka Haw HTG,

            mechem agebab Tsehfetka gud eyyu – not only does it place issues in perspective, but also you have a way of putting your readers at ease as you offer sound perspective; whereupon reading your note above, that’s exactly what just happened here – ease of pressure as though in meditation.Thanks to you sir!

            Sincerely & Respectfully,
            BN

  • saay7

    Selamat Tesfa:

    First on SDGs. Not only are they known but the interest groups have already lined up to argue why their cause if the most impactful. Here, for example, is one argument: how education can have a positive income on SDGs

    http://www.globalpartnership.org/blog/17-ways-education-influences-new-17-global-goals

    Now, why I say there really is not much negotiation. On the things that matter:

    Will the rich nations committ 0.7% of their budget to SDGs as they had promised during the MDG phase or will they plead poverty?
    Will the rich nations and their banks (IMF, World Bank) come up with lower discount rates?
    Will anything meaningful be done to change the “race to the bottom” where African countries continues give tax “incentives” to multinationals to leave country A in favor of Country B?

    Now on Ethiopia’s position. I think we have to wait for more authoritative reports from people at the scene. My understanding is that Ethiopia was not an articulate spokesperson for the Developing Nations because it has no IMF/World Bank issues. Its creditors are China and Turkey so it doesn’t feel their pain.

    saay

    • Tesfa

      Hi Saay,

      Thanks for the reply. I knew there were goals, but didn’t know there were targets as in MDGs. The link you provide makes a case for the goals. Just found out there are even proposed targets (304 of them – see link below). I’m a little behind on this, gotta catch up!

      https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/6754Technical%20report%20of%20the%20UNSC%20Bureau%20%28final%29.pdf

      On whether rich countries will commit 0.7% of their GNI, it’s not clear to me. In the UN document linked below, different figures are bandied around. It appears they agreed to recommit 0.7% for official development assistance (ODA), but 0.15%-0.2% is committed for least developed countries? Something looks a bit fishy to me here. Most of the money goes to the relatively alright countries?? I appreciate why you are suspicious that they will at all (and they didn’t for MDGs – except the UK if I’m right).

      http://www.un.org/esa/ffd/ffd3/press-release/countries-reach-historic-agreement.html

      I don’t know whether it’ll be concessional loan or not, but the WB has “agreed” to avail 400 Billion for the SDGs. We’ll probably know more as the details of the agreement come out (disclosure: I haven’t read the 35 page draft document).

      Your point on the “race to the bottom” is a big concern, but we (that’s Africans) as a people can’t cry foul about that. It’s just markets working at their best, taxes are the cost of doing business (on average). Direct (tax holidays, low taxes etc) and indirect (low input prices – including wages) incentives have been around, and will continue to be. Business follows where incentives are best. There is enough business out there we don’t even have to start “price” wars to attract it (I know lots of flower farms left Kenya and Uganda for Ethiopia, for example), if only we had the right institutions and less corruptible (not incorruptible – I’m not that optimist) politicians. I don’t have a problem with differential incentives across countries, but I do if incentives constitute more lax tax enforcement in some places than others, by design (not “accident”).

      On Ethiopia’s role in G77 (to be clear, I’m not sure it should be leading G77 in the first place), one can read the outcomes however they wish really. One can see it as Ethiopia (and South Africa) facilitating a compromise agreement or just as breaking ranks. I don’t have a strong view against both. If you recall a similar thing happened during the climate negotiations a few years back. Ethiopia was accused of betraying the developing world and settling for less climate fund – whatever happened to the promised money btw? I guess not much… except the carbon trading bits here and there.

      Cheers

      • saay7

        Hi Tesfa:

        Thanks for the feedback and resources. On the 0.7% target that the OECD pledged (emphasis on “target”), I heard but I haven’t seen any writing that Sweden got an ovation when it pledged 1%. So, it’s time to buy Volvos and…what else do they make? Yeah, furniture.

        I think it was a missed opportunity for Ethiopia to lead the G77 because it is for a number of reasons at its most listeneable now. But that’s just my opinion.

        On the taxes and race to the bottom, I hear you and I am generally (almost always) on the side of unhindered competition. The problem is that when you couple that with very low capacity, technology, data (all of which are goals now for OECD) it sounds like legalized thievery.
        saay

        • Tesfa

          Hi Saay,

          True, Volvo and IKEA are big, but ABBA and “The girl with the dragon tattoo” (not that one, the original in Swedish) are cooler, no?

          On the taxes, you’re spot on. Not much to add there.

          Thanks for the exchange.
          Tesfa

          • saay7

            Hey Tesfa:

            And let’s not forget telecom Ericsson. We have a fine Swedish Eritrean writer Dawit Isaac imprisoned by the Eritrean regime (no charges, no due process, no family visitation since 2001.) A few years ago, journalist (Balstrom) asked our Brutus (IA) on Eritrea’s relationship with Sweden and he told them the country is not important to him and it would slowly disappear from his consciousness.

            http://hrc-eritrea.org/president-isaias-afwerkis-interview-with-swedish-journalist-donald-bostrom/

            I think they will do something to jog his memory: Just this year, I heard that the Swedes are thinking that name of the street that the Eritrean Embassy is located in “Dawit Isaac Street.” Now that would be poetic justice. But El Brutus is so vindictive he would probably then move the embassy.

            ABBA, a happy band, has no appropriate lyrics for small vindictive minds.

            saay

  • Ted

    Abi, witty you said. You must like how your protégé ruffle our feathers.

    • Rahwa T

      Dear Ted,
      You are right. Abi has described me beyond my real capability. I appreciate him, anyway.

  • Semere Tesfai

    Selam AMAN

    I like your critical thinking. I promise, i will say few things to answer your questions. It is getting late in my time zone now. But I promise that’s what I’m going to do first thing in the morning. Good night, and thank you for your thought provoking questions.

    Semere Tesfai

  • selam

    Dear Ethiopian friends of awate forumers , here is a short presentation of weyane in account to reall people interviews.
    After some time I got arrested and detained. They had a list of people I had spoken with. They said to me, “You called person x and you spoke about y.” They showed me the list—there were three pages of contacts—it had the time and date, phone number, my name, and the name of the person I was talking with. “All your activities are monitored with government. We even record your voice so you cannot deny. We even know you sent an email to an OLF [Oromo Liberation Front] member.” I said nothing. “I have a right to be a party member, I have a right to contact ONC. This is not a crime.” I refused to acknowledge I was OLF because I am not. They put me in cold water and applied electric wire onto my feet, they plugged the wire into the wall. They wanted me to admit that different people I had called were OLF and I told them I do not know if they are or not, which was true. They played one call with an Oromo where I said, “How are we going to meet?” “That means you are planning something” is what they told me. That was not a crime, they were a member of my party—I needed to speak with them.[110]An Oromo artist who wrote about political issues was charged under the Criminal Code after being accused of being a member of the OLF along with several dozen other people.[111] She described her interrogation in Makalawi prison in Addis Ababa:I was presented a six-page list of phone calls. They had calls highlighted and asked me specific questions about those calls. They also had my email address and showed me it but I denied that I had an account. They put a gag in my mouth and tied my hands behind my back to the chair I was sitting on. They said, “You spoke with somebody called [Oromo name] at time x from place y.” Many of these calls were to people in Moyale.[112] They told me to confess I was OLF. They pushed me on this every night for one month.… When I wouldn’t confess they kept going back to my list of calls, and wanted to know who different people were. They played several phone calls I had with friends demanding to know what I meant when I said different things. I had nothing to tell them, we were just arranging to meet up. They kept telling me, “All your activities are monitored.”[113]The phone call recordings were not used in court and the defendants were all convicted and sentenced under various provisions of the Criminal Code. On appeal, her sentence was substantially reduced because of lack of evidence.[114]

    Another Oromo man described the authorities’ use of phone records against him:

    Eventually I was detained. “You have been communicating with a, b, and c. You are collecting money for students and giving to OLF.” It was a plainclothes security man who detained me in Moyale and took me to the local police station and asked me all these questions. I was scared. “If you are talking through this telephone we record all conversations.” They mentioned around five peoples’ names I had been communicating with. They described in detail what I was saying to these people. On those calls, I talked about the constitution, about international human rights law, and how it exists only on paper. Government is not doing any of this. They told me this was considering “mobilizing” and that was why I had been arrested.[115]A journalist who was arrested after a demonstration in Oromia said he was mistreated in a military camp because he was communicating with “enemies of the government.” His 2012 telephone records were used to monitor his activities. He described the experience to Human Rights Watch:A demonstration was being planned in (name withheld). I went and recorded video of the demonstration as I was instructed. We were targeted because of this. They smashed our camera. Our press manager was arrested at the demo, they followed me home and arrested me there and many of my other colleagues were arrested as well. I was taken to (name withheld) military camp. “All your records belong to us. You talked to x, a Muslim activist. You talked to person y, he is OLF.” I think they mentioned five people inside the country, and six or seven outside. “Since you started your job, we monitor all your activity. We know everything.” The ones outside [of Ethiopia] were all friends and family … the five inside [Ethiopia] were all from work

    For more information visit human rights watch website. It will be nice for you to discuse about your own issues than Greece economy and bail out thing

    http://www.hrw.org/node/123976/section/7

  • selam

    Dear selam

    This is Tesfabrhan redie from France , who has one girl in Eritrea and i was sent to study agriculture in china but i come to france and bragg about every thing on earth. I am an idiot who think I know every thing . I am sick and fara hagereseb . In our village they called me Anjal . I change my stand from time to time . If I come to awate.com I became against the invasion of weyane and if I go to assena.com I begg weyane to wage war on Eritrea. I am flip flopper , you can not hold me for any thing because I am an idiot . I Tes love to insult selam and others , some times I call them vampire with no reason to . I Tes come to awate.com after 10 o clock when I am drank . Please selam forgive me because wine and white people are changing me to some thing I have no clue.

    • Kokhob Selam

      Dear Selam/tes
      I am confused on this one please help me. is that selam writing to selam or tes writhing to tes? or…. help.

      • selam

        Dear k.s
        it is the shadow of tes that simply exist due to Tes arrogance and replying to selam on a kind words. He started this and we are ON. You see he can’t make it with out me insulted . I have no idea what he want.

      • sara

        Dear kokob
        don’t get confused, today is france national day and selam is kind of congratulating tes on that occasion.

      • Amanuel

        Hi KS
        It appears that Selam is slagging off Tes. Moderator this kind of comments don’t deserve to be on aware.com

  • tes

    Dear Aboy Semere Tesfai,

    You awakened a sleeping PFDJ for nothing Tiger, the lady from Asmara. She is always a crap. Worse, she is asking why woyane has spent $1 million for hacking bloggers. She is funy. She could have better asked TN, aka, Turning News, on her page and use their vacant head to analyze.

    She should have remembered those terrorist groups (ESAT/EPPF/TDPM etc) residing in the heart of her current city before wondering. I thought she was a banking specialist. Nah, she is not.

    Coming to business, your article remembered me my History 101 hand-outs of my fresh year course. I was almost cramming every single sentence and as a confirmation, either I highligh (bold) or underline the words I wanted to cram most. Good job for reminding me my freshman year. Else, wake-up Aboy Semere.

    You have joined Abi (the old awatista with a broken eye-glass) suddenly.

    tes

  • selam

    Dear All
    Good news that Iran and the west make it to the last minute and hammer a deal.

    http://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2015/jul/14/iran-nuclear-talks-deal-historic-vienna-live-updates

  • selam

    Dear Belay
    I am not trying to defend any one but Eritrea. You are misunderstanding the issue . PFDJ doesn’t care about badme nor do they care about the people. You are thinking that Weyane are your friends or may be they will help us in bringing a democratic govt in Eritrea ,you failed to understand the issue at the crest level. Badme and the EEC ruling is one coin with two faces . Weyane are our enemy so do any one who try to misrepresent the Eritrean sovereignty. I would have said much but it seems you are trying to play the hawuzen , alamata, mekele game here , no I do not do that. If you think UN is the friend of our people , well I do not have vocabularies for you sir because from 1952 to 1991 you can read them back to 1998. Good reading time about the UN. It is good to oppose PFDJ while keeping Eritrean sovereignty at place and defending Eritrea interest. So amny opposition leaders lack on defending Eritrean interest so do they sing one song for 16 years.

    • Rahwa T

      Hi selam,

      Can I ask you a question? We have been reading repeatedly that UN has been hurting to Eritrea since “the creation of the earth”. I don’t know if you have watched the video where Ambassador Gherahtu responded to the report on the human right situation in the country and the warning he received from the chairman on his language and the baseless claim that UN has been working against Eritrea. My question is, if UN has been working against the interest of your country for many decades, then how do you explain the fact that Eritrea decided to become a member of this organization?

      • Abi

        Hi sistu
        Until Selam come back with some answers, I got a joke for you. It is very old . I heard it in the derg time.
        There was a fierce debate in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to establish a ministry of agriculture. Those who oppose the idea said there is no enough farming, fisheries, or cattle to justify the establishment of the ministry.
        Those support the idea argued , well, why not? Even ethiopia has a ministry of finance without the money.
        If you don’t like it wait until Selam tells you a better joke.

        • Rahwa T

          Dear Abinet,
          In fact I like it and almost all of what you have been sharing us. Of course, there is an exception. I didn’t like your effort to replace the oldest alphabet of Geez with “Qubie”. I read a comment in another website that in the late 1980s EPLF was planning to replace Geez with latin alphabet so that they would have a country that have nothing in common with its southern neighbors. It seems that you have some hidden blood of EPLF as you seem to have similar tendency despite your claim that you proud Gonderie.

          • selam

            Dear Rahwa
            comments shouldn’t be a references , I guess there is a difference in between us on holding the truth or may be recording. Or we have something quite different on our upbringing , you know like difference on mother to say to her children this is wrong . You know like saying lying is wrong.

          • Rahwa T

            Dear selam,
            I didn’t get your point. are you saying that I am lying since my childhood? Please make it clear.

      • selam

        Dear Rahwa
        It is not the membership that should be questioned , the question should be why UN let weyane to drive as fast as they wish over Eritrean land after the EECC ruling. The question should be , what and when do you see UN do good work on behave of the victim. I have seen the Ambasador reply to COI and I guess his english was far better than your puppet PM desalgn , I am not saying this to defend the Ambasador but just to tell the english thing. By the way he does not have fake degree not to make him free from the crime of his regime but just the truth.

        second thing , what does he want to tell the tigrai people for saying he will wage war over Eritrea. He investedover 1 million dollar to hack ethiopian dissents yet again he want to wage war over Eritrea under the pressure of weyane.

        Your question should be why Weyane regime invested 1 million to hack ethiopian people.

  • chris

    [Begin your comment with salutation]

    How sad. Eritrea now has the craziest dictator in the world and, because of him, it has the highest percentage of its citizens escaping of any nation. The UN should invade and change the regime. There would be no opposition from the people

    • selam

      Dear chris
      Tell that story to dergi reminants and weyane lunatics. UN work is evil and Eritreans do not accept their cry . Do you think UN care about the victims , is you say so , you are the last lunatic and an idiot to come to this site ever. You want prove go ask Iraq , libya , afagahnistan and so many other nations , are not your brothers ethiopians dying still at the hands of somalia people.

      • sara

        Dear selam
        just an article in defence of eritrean occupied land and its ramification ,lest we forget -has brought back all your enemies into the forum—-thicken your skin selamina.

        • selam

          Dear sara
          There is no need to have more thick skin than I already have , I come to awate.com just for free and say what I feel is right and comment on the d2f3nse of the Eritrean interest. I am not like them employed by the weyane regime for some backs . Do you think the italian hacking team sold remote control hacking tools to weyane for nothing. Weyane has paid over 1 million such work.

  • Saleh Johar

    #MiriamwasHere Tigrinya version ሚርያም ኣብዚ ነይራ now available @, winner #PFDJ #bookseller prize. I can tell you the story of the PFDJ prize on request 🙂

  • Mahmud Saleh

    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.

    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.
    Sorry, I’m a bit tired, but thank you for the reply.

    • Fnote Selam

      Dear Marhmud,

      ኣገናዕ ዝሓወይ!

      ፍሰ

    • tes

      Dear Mahmud Saleh,

      Why you did this to Aboy Semere Tesfai, the only resident Awate article contributor of diehard PFDJites? Why you did this to this man*

      You wrote, “It is obvious why you call it the EPLF government; PFDJ is not sexy anymore.” You have put it in an exceptional and noble way.

      Most probably, Aboy Semere is an ELF reminant who contributed a negative role during its political turmoil as Saleh Johar hinted out in support of haile TG’s assumption.

      Thank you.

      tes

      *It is a surprise but I was saying this in fact: “Injustice to Aboy Semere Tesfai, the hibernating propagandist and justice to us, the justice seeker’s camp.”

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Haw mahmuday,

      This time I am a comrade to your view – a view I could defend all the way till we realize the struggle of our Justice. We seek justice for all types of issue demostic or non-demostic. The strategy of Semere Tesfay and his types have never been on the side of justice and this article was surely intended to derail the issue of hman right and justice in our nation. Nothing else. The border issue debate is recycled many times in the last 15 years. The PFDJ club always invoke the border issue when they lost in the debate of demostic issues. After all ST knows that the despot was satisfied with “virtual demarcation” and kick out the UN monitoring forces. He didn’t raise the issue at that time, because Issayas and his colleagues were removing the mechanism of the process in order to hold our people as hostages of the border. Your rebuttle and Haile-TG’s pionting out his ” piled fallacious argument” and telling him to get out from his ” samll village mentality” debunked his baseless and irrelevant argument. Good job both of you.

      Regards,
      Amanuel Hidrat

    • Kokhob Selam

      Dear Mahmuday
      ኣብዚኣ ርግጽ :ዓትዒትካ ሓዝ ::

    • Semere Tesfai

      Dear Mahmud Saleh

      Sorry for the late response. You said:

      “we should take a bold initiative to engage Ethiopia…… in short sit down and negotiate on finalizing the border according to the EEBC ruling and in a way that ensures future peace and stability”

      What would your “bold initiative” be? Are you sure Badme/border is the core issue? In my opinion the issue was never and is not a border issue and I wouldn’t re-negotiate a finalized and signed document.

      – “You (Semere) said the sole purpose of this article was to make a watertight argument that Ethiopia/wayane instigated and ignited the border war……… I beg to differ on the ignition stage”.

      Ok then, what level of provocation would amount to instigating provoking and igniting a war?

      – You said “When farmers were harassed along the border IA dismissed the voices”, In several occasions, senior officials (Hailemenkerios, the then Eritrean representative to Ethiopia, and Ambassador Andebrhan) implored IA to address the looming border issue…… he was dismisisve”, “, “When in 1997, Wayane/Ethiopia crossed the border occupying Adi-Murug, IA orders EDF not to retaliate…………”

      So tell me: is it a timing issue for you? Would you’ve been happy if Isaias listened to the poor Eritrean farmers, and the advice of his Generals and minsters a lot earlier – say 1994, 1995, 1996 or 1997 and retaliated in kind, prior to 1998? What are you trying to tell me?

      – “After, the cease fire, ex-EPLF top leaders asked the president for a regular meeting. He refused. They asked him for the executive committee of PFDJ, he refused. They asked for the general assembly (national council, he refused. All of these were within their constitutional right”.

      Had he done all those you mentioned, would you’ve supported him today? Had he done all the things you mentioned above, do you think Eritrea’s predicament would’ve been different today? How so?

      – “How could you tell me there was an EPLF government?”

      Well, may be I’m misinformed. Tell me: when did EPLF cease to exist? What government did we had in 1998? The reason I said the EPLF government is simple. Back then the whole EPLF leadership was the provisional government of Eritrea including the G-15. For better for worse, the G-15 were part it. The division within EPLF occur after the war. That’s why I said the EPLF government. What am I missing?

      Mahmud, this is my take. You can talk about the PFDJ internal governing failures all day long – ethnic/religious/Tigrigna/regional dominance, erosion of Islamic culture/language, land, distribution of power, zonal-districting, election, constitution, rule of law, transparency, accountability, freedom of speech…… and that is fine. These are issues and challenges we need to tackle. But I can assure you that is not the reason why Eritrea is in the predicament it is now. Eritrea is not, in the predicament it is now because of its internal governing politics. It is where it is because of its regional policies vis-a-vis Western interest. We are not as free to mind our business as you think we are. The “World Community” is not against Eritrea because of its internal governing policies. We are as peaceful, as stable, as prosperous, as free to mind our business… as global/regional players want us to be. That is where you are wrong.

      Now tell me: what political party, who (leader) would do a better job (internally and externally) to end our current predicament. What would they do that the PFDJ government failed to do? And I’m afraid you don’t have an answer.

      Semere Tesfai

      • Mahmud Saleh

        Salam Semere
        Thanks for the reply. I’m afraid I don’t have time to give you a detailed reply, I will get back to you when time permits. Here is a quick response:
        1. I never said renegotiating the border ruling; and I’m not aware that Ethiopia demanded that. I support the least costly way, and that is negotiations on the implementation of the court rulings. There is nothing in the Algiers agreement that deters us from doing that. I don’t know how you see it but whether it’s today or tomorrow, we will have to sit down to demarcated it. Better doing it today than tomorrow. It would have been better doing it ten years ago. I care more about the kids who will die again in another ” unnecessary war” more than swapping meters of lands. There are Eritrean villages which are condemned to switch allegiance against their will. In short, Badme, a land that had been ignored without our consent suddenly became the flash point of an atrocious war for a political convenience. It became the causes of untold miseries. It became the causes for dictatorial menace to take root, it became the causes of Eritrea’s isolation. We are where we are because of a government that made badme a reason for its abuses on our people.
        2. I will come to the points later, but, for all the arguments you make there is an easily reachable explanation, without looking south or west.it is right at home. We have a deep reaching structural deficiency concerning governance and the running of a state. This fundamental political structural deficiency has made us:
        A. Not to be able to avoid what was obviously gathering in the horizon.
        B. not to make the right choice out of tough choices.
        It is our domestic political situation. Imagine if Eritrea were a democratic state where the rule of law reigned, most of the factors that earned us to be isolated could have been avoided through a live and deliberating state mechanisms. A lot of the abuses would have been curtailed, a sound economic plan would have been in place. ..
        Therefore, for anyone who wants to look at your argument from a “what would democratic Eritrea do?” angle, they would get a different conclusion. But more later.

        • Kokhob Selam

          Dear Mahmud,

          great! put it more wider and clear when you get time. you are leading to the correct path. I love this one ” …..without looking south or west.it is right at home.”

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Haw Mahmuday,

          These are the highlight of your argument that are sincere, factual, and a way forward to resolve once for all:

          (a) “Badme, a land that had been ignored without our consent suddenly became the flash point of an atrocious war for a political convenience.” To be specific it was ignored up to 1998 leaving the excuses that comes from the regime. We are eye to eye on issue-1.

          (b) “whether it’s today or tomorrow, we will have to sit down (on round table) to demarcated it. Better doing it today than tomorrow.” Whether it was to early for the Eritrean political mind to grapple with reality or not I made the same argument against Dr. Tekie Fessahazion’s (RIP) argument on his “demarcation watch” and many times in this forum. You see Mahmuday you don’t lose anything by sitting on a round table as far as you stood for the interest of your country. Eye to eye on Issue-2

          (c) “There are Eritrean villages which are condemned to switch allegiance against their will”. Very true. Politics is the art of compromise and horse trading. If a round table can bring back the Eritrean villages who are condemned to switch allegiance, I am welcome it. Eye to eye on issue-3.

          (d) ” I care more about the kids who will die again in another ” unnecessary war” more than swapping meters of lands.” If swapping land, the villages which are condemned to switch allegiance, could bring peace and stability between the two countries I am for it. Eye to eye on issue-4.

          Keep this issue as fundamental to the resolution of the border conflict for there is no other discourse to bring it to an end to this conflict. When peace reigned and with the dictation of global market economy, surely we will reach where borders are only significant for internal political administration and open for the flow of goods and services for mutual development. We can’t live as isolated island in this new world order.

          Regards,
          Amanuel Hidrat

      • tes

        Dear Aboy Semere Tesfai,

        Since you are too much hibernating, I will be very cool for you (Amanuel Hidrat’s advice* will only be applicable for you).

        You wrote, “Now tell me: what political party, who (leader) would do a better job (internally and externally) to end our current predicament. What would they do that the PFDJ government failed to do? And I’m afraid you don’t have an answer.”. Aha, this common and an argumentative flaw.

        Here is two things for you:

        1. Control the future to succeed
        2. Let the future controls you to fail.

        Sure PFDJites and diahard hibernating propagandistas will fall in option (2). That is why you ask this senseless question.

        We don’t have time to engage with sleeping propagandistas.

        tes

        *tired of such hollow advice

    • Nitricc

      Greetings Mahmuday. i read your take and i can say you have point but still wrong. i will explain my stand but the Tigryans are not asking for dialogue; but they are asking for open-ended dialogue. can i ask you what that mean? remember the court of law has spoken. I do understand your point the debacle of PIA but do we throw our hand in the air and accept TPLF’s shameful harassment or fight? if you ask me; i am prepared to fight to the end. It is about Principe. if you let this go; what are they coming with next? it is a tough region and we must established our own assertion. i hope you think about it. it doesn’t have to be solved now. leave it up to us; we will solve it the right way and the only way; according the rule of law.

  • haileTG

    Dear Guest,

    In all fairness, people must have the right to decide how they interact (especially in such debate forums). Everything thing else we do in practice doesn’t allow the same level of decision. I don’t believe we are asking any personal info from Semere other than what he volunteered. If we need to engage with him at other level, then we definitely have to review that. In reality even an “EPRDF apologist” or not, any one is FULLY entitled to challenge ideas and view points. And unless our ideas stand the test of other ideas, no amount of self exposure will substitute for that. I need Semere to clarify why he chose to hammer “EPLF government” consistently and repeatedly when that is not a commonly referenced point, I need him to be humble and not call those who disagree with his view point “stupid”, “woyane Cadre”…, I need him to supply valid and credible FACTS to back up his claims. I and many others have done so several times in arguing Eritrea’s case on this issue with Ethiopians, former TPLF, fellow Eritreans and others. I don’t need to forward menqesaqesi and ID to debate such open issues in an open forum. This is not behind the scene discussion per se, it is an argument that has been out there for as long as the problem has been. It doesn’t require anything more than pure exchanges of views. As far as the penname issue, I have given my position so many times and let’s take our individual point of view at that. But regardless of that ideas need to be scrutinized. No?

  • Amde

    Abi,

    On a more serious note, I was following the Greece/EU thing this weekend, and it struck me just how overall ignorance of money, currencies and budgets actually drive historic events. Apparently, the Greeks love the idea of being Europeans and of being in the Eurozone so much they are willing to sign off their sovereignty. The Germans like their Euro so much they are willing to destroy Greece and make it an example so other poorer countries stay and behave. France loves the idea of Euro so much it would rather have Greece stay and suffer within than leave and find perhaps better fortune.

    I am sure there are not that many that weigh the financial causes and costs of political decisions, but in the end it seems we all end up tied by them. How would the financial history of the Eritrean ghedli and the Badme divorce be explained? If we take the legal, military and political causes, events and causes aside, is there another purely financial cycle/event that could be an explanatory cause for the war? If so, is it still active? Where are we collectively on it? EEBC and EECC resolved legal issues. Have the financial issues been resolved?

    Or I could just shut up. sosteNa shih enkuan alderesem… min qorToN amoTamoTeN? alech tadelech

    Amde

    • saay7

      Selamat Amde:

      Welcome back! The way EuroGroup is treating Greece is of interest if nothing else because I expect OECD treat Africa the exact same way in its financing of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which is all we will hear about for the next 15 years.

      Ed Conway of Skynews leaked the “confidential” documents that the EuroGroup presented as take-it-or-leave-it to Greece which should should make Portugal, Spain and Italy very nervous. You can read the documents here:

      https://twitter.com/EdConwaySky/status/620272062771429377

      It’s basically Germany telling Greece “nice referendum you had there rejecting bailout terms. It would be unfortunate if something were to happen to your country. Now, your sovereignty is quaint and all: now go back and vote on what we tell you to vote on.”

      A few years ago, EuroDad reported that for every $1 in aid Africa gets, it loses $2 to illicit financial inflows and Africa is asking for: (a) Global Tax body (b) Reduce Illicit Financial Inflows
      (c) Illegalize Tax Avoidance By Multinationals (d) Financing to Help Bridge Infrastructure Gap
      (d) Reasonable Discount Rates (RoI) for Investments. I saw a sign by activists which reads “if you are not on the table, you are on the menu”, which is apt given that OECD, IMF, World Bank are meeting without African economists to decide how much they should lend us, what the interest should be, and how little the multinational corporations should pay in taxes. Phew.

      But Africa has no articulate spokesperson who is taken seriously by economist since the passing of PM Meles Zenawi. Maybe Paul Kagame…but I think he is busy ignoring petitions to amend the constitution to give him a 3rd term.

      I don’t know how I got here; certainly has nothing to do with Semere Tesfai’s article which, sadly, I haven’t read.

      saay

      • Amde

        Hi Saay,

        I read this joke somewhere. The guy goes to job interviews and whenever he sits down, he overfills his glass of water so it spills. When they ask him what gives, he says “I just want to show you I always deliver over 100%” This response of yours is typical. Great, and more than expected and I always learn something new. Thank you.

        Part of what I found so shocking about what transpired over the weekend was when I thought about how – if they are willing to do this to their “own” civilizational (even racial) brethren, with whom they are bound with innumerable treaties and institutions, I can only imagine just how expendible the rest of us are..

        I had actually not heard of the “sustainable development goals” Are they different from “Millenium development goals”? If the OECD can act collectively in a similar manner as the Eurogroup did over the weekend then God help us. But I feel that if African countries play their cards right, the coming on board of China, and the new BRICS financial infrastructure might give them some options. At least some alternatives to leverage. Definitely though this would have perhaps been Meles’ best contribution, but he left us at too young an age.

        Amde,

        • saay7

          Hi Amde:

          That’s funny; is Mr “I give 110%” an American football/basketball/baseball player? That’s the cliched sports figure in the U.S. I think even arm wrestlers and poker players say that.

          The MDGs are expiring in 2015 and the SDGs are coming March 2016. And from now (in Addis) until December 2015, the OECD will be twisting the arms of G77 until it breaks. Think of it this way: the entire GDP of Africa is 1.5 trillion and OECD is coming with 4,5 trillion a year for 15 years deal. The G-77 have a list of very reasonable demands, top of them being a new taxing system…one that gets them to keep more of the money that the multinationals make and the host country, Ethiopia, broke ranks and sided with OECD/IMF/World Bank.

          Abi, insert appropriate Amharic proverb now.

          saay

          • Amde

            Hi Saay,

            I think the “I give 110%” is an ihadeg vote counter 🙂 ….

            Well I did not know about the whole SDG. A trillion here and a trillion there and pretty soon you are talking serious money. Is it a coincidence that the timing matches the TPP etc push in the US?
            About Ethiopia breaking ranks. I facepalm …..

          • አዲስ

            Hi Saay,

            You said “Ethiopia broke ranks and sided with OECD…” , when did that happen? at the current Addis conference? do you have a source on that? I would like to read more about it. Assuming this is about the new taxing system being negotiated.

            Thanks,
            Addis

          • saay7

            Hi Addis:

            The information is not in the public domain now; please tag this message and remind me to provide it. Here’s what happened:

            * The entire G-77 contingency (all the developing nations) were hoping for their voice to be heard publicly since they were not allowed in the closed meetings that the “donor nations” had to discuss tax policy, illicit inflows, etc.

            * Only Ethiopia and Kenya spoke in Addis yesterday and there is nothing in their speech that expresses the priorities of the G-77. It was all IMF/World Bank script about public-private partnership. This is what I meant with “Ethiopia broke rands and sided with OECD.”

            * Worse: the Addis conference was just to give the FFD3 (the 3rd round of financing development) an “African” rubberstamp. The whole thing was cooked in prior meetings. They now have binding agreements which will become final in New York in September. (Final and binding.) Also, come on PMHD, UN meetings are webcast: so stop eating, drinking and fidgeting the WHOLE time. (Funny video not included; Nitricc will probably do that.)

            The way this issue is being handled and the way Greece was handled….well, these guys are going to make a commie out of me in my advancing years. I already have the greying goatee.

            saay

          • ghezaehagos

            Selam Saay and Made,

            On 100% and/or execute…from the hottest comedy duo in town;;key and peele..

            https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-l9SDAqAV3U

          • Amde

            Hi Ghezae

            I approve a 100%. He just did not execute his dinner.

          • አዲስ

            Saay,

            Very well. I will try to remind you. It looks like you know more than the rest of us, peasants know 🙂
            But the negotiations are still going on and we’ll find out the outcome in few days.

            Thanks,
            Addis

          • saay7

            Selamat Addis:

            We are all peasants my man; sometimes we stumble across something that’s behind a paywall.

            And, um, there is no negotiation going on now Addis. Your city got a new pavement; the religious leaders flexed their muscles and threatened hotels who would accept their interpretation of their religion tells them they shouldn’t…there are a lot of “bilateral discussions on the margins”…and I think Eritrea is represented by a nice 20-yr old looking kid (Biniam) because Isaias Afwerki likes to sleep 9 hours a day and he is waiting for the world to appreciate his genius.

            But the deal was cooked in New York months ago:)

            saay

          • አዲስ

            Insider Saay,

            So this is just lip service?

            http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=51411#.VaXCX_lVhBc

            Thanks,
            Addis

          • Pass the salt

            Addis,
            Did you watch yesterday Hailemariam at the meeting? It was kinda funny. I was watching live and Hailemariam, Ban Kimoon and Liberia’s Sirleaf were chairing. Ban was talking, Sirelef was listening and Hailat was eating dabo live. I assumed it was dabo because he was eating by hand, I thought that was unusual. At one point Ban thanked Ethiopia and Hailat for hosting, and Hailat nodded while eating. Haha. I actually thought that was cute.

          • አዲስ

            PtS,

            No I didn’t watch it. Was it defo dabo? or ambasha? lol

            Addis

          • Pass the salt
          • አዲስ

            PtS,

            That was pretty funny. All those meetings must have done a number on him.

            Addis

          • saay7
          • saay7

            Selam Addis:

            Here’s what the “nefotiations” brought. And it’s named after you! Congratulations:

            http://www.bmz.de/de/zentrales_downloadarchiv/Presse/Addis_Tax_Initiative_Declaration.pdf

            Saay

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Ahlen Saay,

            Who were the participants of the conference who came up with the “Addis tax initiative declaration”? Are they the developed countries or the third world countries? Do you know the countries who subscribe to the commitment to the tax initiative declaration as of now? In any case Addis become the hub of International meetings.

            regards,
            Amanuel Hidrat

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Sorry Saay,

            I didn’t read the first link you gave to Addis. Now I got it. Forget my first comment below.

            Amanuel Hidrat

          • አዲስ

            Hi Saay,

            Thanks for the link. All I read indicates Ethiopia along with SA are trying for a compromise that leads to the creation of intergovernmental tax body eventually. But it looks like that proposal didn’t go far. I don’t consider that as siding against G77. Do you?

            Thanks,
            Addis

          • saay7

            Ah Addis:

            Fine, fine,I take it back it is not siding against G77. As a regional power, It is just not showing leadership of G77:) I should say G77 and China as they say.

            And South Africa… umm… check this out:

            http://www.africaranking.com/top-20-most-indebted-african-countries/

            saay

          • አዲስ

            Saay the legend,

            Haha thanks for taking that back and about the Addis initiative though it does have my name on it, I have little knowledge about it 🙂 my understanding is it only focus on domestic resource mobilization right? I will read the document later. And it’s not the only agreement to come out of FFD3 though am sure there won’t be any agreement on UN tax body.
            one more thing, showing leadership is putting a proposal for a compromise when both sides dug on their hills right? lol Thanks again for all the links as this is a very important issue.

            Thanks,
            Addis
            p.s i wrote a bit longer response a few minutes earlier but lost it somewhere in disqus.

          • saay7

            Selamat Addis:

            Ere tew with the legend stuff. If you didn’t read the Addis Tax political doctrine, here’s Reuters version of it. Hint: they use “collapse” in the headline of the article:

            http://af.reuters.com/article/ethiopiaNews/idAFL5N0ZV3TH20150715

            In the African ranking of debt that I sent earlier, Ethiopia is in the Top 10. But I am told by a smartypant that the creditors are not IMF and Worldbank but China and Turkey. So you won’t have a Greece but other African countries, specially in Western Africa, might.

            saay

            PS: That video of PMHD eating dabo at the Conference, I guess he is taken your advice of “Dabo Now, Democracy Later” literally.

          • አዲስ

            Saay,

            I am emphasizing that your follow up of FFD3 is legendary 🙂 But I take it back if it bothers you and refer you as commoner Saay as the rest of us 🙂
            And yeah I read that one they don’t seem to agree on the UN tax body, But do you know which 20 developing countries they are referring to in the below excerpt from that Reuters report?

            “…The OECD said in a statement that it had supported inclusive processes. Its “Base Erosion and Profit Shifting” reform initiative, due to be finalised in November, includes 60 countries – the 34 OECD members plus G20 nations and 20 developing countries representing geographical regions, it said.”

            Thanks,
            Addis

          • saay7

            Addis and Emma:

            30 countries and organizations are signatories to it (including Ethiopia and Kenya of course).

            For the list of the countries, refer to link provided. These guys have changed an initiative (we will see what we can do but don’t expect much) into a compact (something binding.) A victory for marketing:

            http://www.taxcompact.net/activities-events/addis-tax-initiative.html

            Simply saay 🙂

          • አዲስ

            Saay 😉

            I was actually referring to the 20 developing countries mentioned as part of the 60 countries in OECD’s “Base Erosion and Profit Shifting” reform initiative. Not the signatories to the Addis initiative. They are different. Aren’t they?

            Addis

          • አዲስ
          • saay7

            Yes sir, Addis:

            That is OECD trying to head off the G77 demand for a UN tax body. Who did they get to sign up? BarelyCountryStan? 🙂

            saay

          • አዲስ

            Saay,

            True that!

            Addis

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Thank you Saay.
            You took off the blinders from my face for the world of “business and marketing”. I am sure you wouldn’t surprise.

            Amanuel Hidrat

          • Abi

            Saay
            I don’t have a proverb for the time being. I have a joke about the 110% . It is patented.
            In the last election, eprdf didn’t use all the votes to win. It asked a rollover plan to be used for the next election.
            If you don’t like my joke you must be weyane.
            Saay, Amde or whoever with some comic cells left , can improve it.
            You welcome.

        • Amanuel

          Hi Amde
          Sorry for intrusion here, but some thing was said about Greece and their European lenders which I think was not fair. I realise it is a side issue but I think to throw some facts will help us to understand both sides of the argument. First, why the Greeks are in this mess is their own making. They don’t know to live with in their own means. Taxation is a voluntary activity in Greece, their working day is between 4 to 6 hours, get paid 14 months and retire at 45. Compare this with Germany where, taxation is compulsory, working day is between 8 to 10 hours, get paid 12 months, and retire at 65.

          • Amde

            Hi Amanuel,

            I am just genuinely curious. Were you personally ever in Greece? Is this your personal observation? I only say this because sometimes I have found myself making assumptions based on press reports that are nothing more than exaggerations of some extreme examples. What you say may be quite true, but sometimes those kinds of characterizations of Greeks also become politically very useful so that people do not question the systemic problems with the way the Euro itself is designed. There seems to be consensus among economists that the Germans are rich precisely because poorer countries like Greece are part of the Euro. Check this article out for example…. http://www.bloombergview.com/articles/2015-07-13/europe-s-insane-deal-with-greece

          • Abi

            Amde
            I don’t know much about Greece. I can say a little bit about Italy.
            A person I know very closely was a sole importer of Perilli tires from Italy. I remember his frustration because nobody is answering his calls in the months of July and August. They don’t work at all.
            The same person was also imported Hatz generators from Germany. He had no problem at all. They work 12 months.
            My two cents.

          • Amanuel

            Hi Amde

            I don’t want to make this a full blown out debate about Greece, but to answer you question, yes i have been there and worked with Greeks. I wrote what i know and it is not exaggeration what the Germans are asking Greece is to bering their retirement benefits in line with other European countries. Do you think is is fair for a German worker who has not have the privilege of a Greek civil servant’s retirement benefit to fund his pension? This is not a rocket science.

            The damage was done when Greece joined the Euro. Greece cheated and others kept blind eye. Thanks for the link and I am sending the following link to help you understand the main cause of the symptoms we are witnessing now. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2011-05-26/greece-cheated-to-join-euro-sanctions-since-were-too-soft-issing-says

          • Haile WM

            Hi Amanuel,
            I guess you live in Germany and you are well fed with German propaganda… the reality is quite different story. Have a visit of Greece, they are hard working and earnest people, just as much as Germans…

          • Amanuel

            I Haile WM
            I don’t live in the Germany and don’t speak the language. I have been to Greece and worked with them. I have also many friends from Greece who run their own business and are hard working but when it comes to paying tax they are very shy. The working hours and retirement age I mentioned on my earlier reply was about the civil servants whom consume public fund. I showed your claim that the Greeks are as hard working as the Germans to my friend Tony who is from Greece he is lol.

          • Haile WM

            Hi Amanuel,
            maybe you are right then 🙂 I have lived in Greece for a short period of time, i knew some Greeks, who were not public servants, I can assure you very hard working people, what I find a little murky is the generalization of an entire nation and its people as the lazy ones… for sure there are problems in Greece mainly caused by the public sector and the mismanagement of the national debt… but hey in Africa we had the same problems for more than half a century now…(and not because we are lazy..) the debt economy is always to the advantage of the creditors… unless your country is called the USA 🙂

      • Berhe Y

        Thanks saay,

        That’s too bad for Greece, now the Germans want to hold all Greek gold reserve and move it as collateral. This will defiantly make any future prospect of Greek default and switch to Drachmas really difficult.

        Not sure if you had a chance to read the latest interview of the FM…it’s too bad the Prime minster blinked and i think they would have been better of defaulting and getting out of Euro.

        http://www.newstatesman.com/world-affairs/2015/07/yanis-varoufakis-full-transcript-our-battle-save-greece

        I live and worked in Greece and they are the most hard working like any other people. The issue is NOT the people, or their pension, etc PRIVATE banks that took the loan and made the mistake. WHY should the Greek people PAY for the mistakes of their banks.

        All Eurogroup doing is protecting the loan they gave to the private banks and wanted the people of Greek to pay for it.

        Iceland banks failed and few years now, it’s probably doing the best in Europe. Greek should have done the same…Papandreo made the mistake back in 2010 when he agreed to bail out and this prime minster is making the worst mistake…Greek is just a colony of Germany now..

        http://www.forbes.com/sites/traceygreenstein/2013/02/20/icelands-stabilized-economy-is-a-surprising-success-story/

        BY

        • Semere Andom

          Hi BY:
          How is Greece better off leaving Euro? Also remember why would the other countries pay for Greece without austerity plan. The referendum was stupid, it was a leadership issue not what people want, and the PM should have agreed before wasting time on the votes. Think of it what should Angela and others tell their people, we gave money to Greece without any responsibility. The people should not pay for the mistakes of the banks, if this was the fault of the banks, I am not sure but at times there should be some belt tightening. You cannot have all the perks that the people have for ever without the repercussion like this.
          Leaving Euro zone will be disaster for both Greece and the rest, without the bailout the economy will fail until it fixes itself and the rest of Europe will be dealing with the migrants from Greece looking for work in the countries that are doing better, Europe will pay for Greece in both scenarios.
          Holland is also a country with comparable benefits, population and they have earned the tile the Dutch Miracle by managing the economy

          • Berhe Y

            Hi SA,

            I will agree with your last statement that the U.S. bailed out banks and GM. Which is a good thing, save jobs and they printed money like no tomorrow and they deflated (devalued the dollar ) so they can have economic advantage.

            The difference is Americans are not selling off their assets, their gold reserve or what have by another country that has the sole control.

            The banks fail and too bad on those institutions who lend them. They did not spend the money building schools and hospitals for the people. The pension people get is around 500 euro, how is that people to survive with that kind of money.

            If they leave the Euro, they will be able to print their own currency, deflate the value say half of Euro. This will give them competitive advantage for example for tourism and other exports, because it’s cheaper.

            They have no debt to service so all the money they earn they will keep.

            That’s exactly what happened in Iceland and they are way better off.

            Exiting from Eurogroup doesn’t not mean, Greece will be cut off and moved to Africa. It is still Europe and Mediterranean.

            So being in Europe what exactly are they benefitting, they don’t need a VISA.

            I don’t know if you read, you don’t seem you have but read the ex foreign minister interview in the link I sent you. He is no joke, he is series economist and knew exactly what he was talking about (hardly to call that waste of time), had the prime minister agreed, Germany would have agreed to better terms.

            Because the market reaction (would have eaten trillions of dollars), compared to few dollars of debt to cut.

            It’s not sustainable the debt greek have and they can’t service it.

            Exactly the same reason why Germany/Hitler started WWII to tear up the debt agreement from WWI.

            Germany debt was written off afterWWII, including from Greece and they

        • Yoty Topy

          Hi Berhe,

          What can you expect when the destiny of an entire nation is entrusted to a buffoon such as this man.

          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BUda0YrrQ3Q

          • Amanuel

            Dear Yoty Topy
            Hi is no more the Finance Minster. He has resigned on the 6th July 2015.

          • Yoty Topy

            Hi Amanuel,
            A day late a dollar short. He started all the name calling and the immature brinksmanship, which lead to the five months impasse. In my opinion,I think he is responsible to some extent for the current quagmire this nation finds itself.

            Fun fact: Greece has not balanced its budget for 96 years since it declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Yoty,

            I like John Oliver and I thought he is a smart guy based on his past rants.

            In this case he had no research done on the former FM or he purposely ignored and focused on his outfit and style rather than substance of his argument. As far as economy goes, he is the best that can get. Learn about him and his writing way before the current crisis. No wonder the Germany FM, the head of orchestra as he calls him, did NOT want him back after the vote.

            BTW, all syrizia members do not wear ties so they can identify with the working class rather than looking like the bankers who are responsible for the mess.
            Berhe

          • Yoty Topy

            Hi Berhe,

            I thought he nailed it ,which I found hilarious- a grown politician parading in a purple shirt. I don’t know what is appalling;- his weird sense of fashion or just his daft political skills. He’s another buffoon whose reputation precedes any tangible talent. My curiosity in his writing is as much as as my interest in a magazine in local grocery a check-stand. Yea- he made some wise cracks about the impediment of austerity measures to growth few years ago which is hardly any news. Dressing up like gap store stokers hardly makes them ‘men of the people.’

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Yoty,

            I agree in comedy all is fair, and if what the joke was about his sense of fashion and style or his stand up comedy skills, I think it’s fair. But Oliver use that to make a point of his appearance as reason that he has no economic back ground…and he can’t be trusted with the Euro money. I dare say there was no person who was more qualified than him when it comes to economic terms in all those eurogroup members..a fellow at Cambridge, phd in game theory etc.university of Texas, Australia, University of Athens…..who care what he looks like….he knows what he was talking about…and that also should be mentioned, I think…which is more relevant than…

            but it’s a scare tactic, may be Oliver was paid to to scare of the public during the vote…which he calls it rightly so..economic terrorism…they try to scare the public…

          • Yoty Topy

            Hi Berhe,

            Yeah, ‘scare tactics.’ I wonder what the lativian senior citizen who does by $250/month ,subsidizing the Greek citzen who gets paid $750/month has to say about that.

            Game theory ?:) I didn’t know what it meant untill now but now I know.[overlook the most optimum offer, hold on for the least favorable outcome.] Nice!

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Yoty,

            Sure equality by subtraction. No ordinary Lithuanian have anything to do with it and so does ordinary Greek.

            Let me ask you this: how much of the 252 billion euro bail out Greek got went / spend in Greece (creating jobs, making credit available for small businesses, infrastructure spending etc) or going to the spoiled Greek pensioners?

            Let’s talk facs, otherwise this is fruitless exercise.

            BY

          • Amde

            Hi Berhe

            The numbers are what give me pause too. Per JubileeDebt

            http://jubileedebt.org.uk/reports-briefings/briefing/six-key-points-greek-debt-weeks-election

            QUOTE
            “1) European banks were bailed out, not the people of Greece

            It is not the people of Greece who have benefitted from bailout loans from the IMF, EU and European Central Bank, but the European and Greek banks which recklessly lent money to the Greek State in the first place.

            When the IMF, European and ECB bailouts began in 2010, €310 billion had been lentto the Greek government by reckless banks and the wider European financial sector. Since then, the ‘Troika’ of the IMF, EU and European Central Bank have lent €252 billion to the Greek government.[1] Of this, €34.5 billion of the bailout money was used to pay for various ‘sweeteners’ to get the private sector to accept the 2012 debt restructuring. €48.2 billion was used to bailout Greek banks following the restructuring, which did not discriminate between Greek and foreign private lenders. €149.2 billion has been spent on paying the original debts and interest from reckless lenders. This means less than 10% of the money has reached the people of Greece.

            Today the Greek government debt is still€317 billion. However, now €247.8 billion – 78% of the debt – is owed to the ‘Troika’ of the IMF, European Union and European Central Bank, ie, public institutions primarily in the EU but also across the world. The bailouts have been for the European financial sector, whilst passing the debt from being owed to the private sector, to the public sector.END QUOTE

            These unbelievable debt numbers are just for 11,000,000 people.

            What we have are basically the power of the compound interest and the idea of the sanctity of contracts. When it comes down to it that is all there is to it.

            Hats off to you for pointing out potential debt risks to Ethiopia in its current economic leap. I hope Eritrean debt can be foisted on PFDJ when the day comes. Some writers have pointed out that the Eritrean State owes PFDJ companies for many services. This may work out in the end…

            One more thing I remember on debt. If I remember correctly, much of Ethiopia’s debt was forgiven after the Badme war with one condition being that Ethiopia would not restart the war with Eritrea. This provided Eritrea with another layer of protection. Now of course that did not mean Ethiopia lost its right to defend itself.

            Amde

        • saay7

          Selamat BY:

          I don’t know how Greece has an option here. Highlights from the leaked documents that the Eurogroup gave Greece:

          “The Eurogroup expects continued full involvement of the IMF… This is a precondition for the Eurogroup to agree on a new ESM programme.”

          “adopt more ambitious pdocut market reforms with a clear timetable for implementation of all OECD tookit 1 recommendations, including Sunday trade…”

          “proceed with the privatisation of the electricity transmission network”

          “On labour markets…review of collective bargaining, industrial action and collective dismissals…”

          “develop a significantly scale up privatisation programme with improved governance.”

          Longer grace and and repayment periods will be dependent on all of the above PLUS

          “The government needs to consult and agree with the institutions on all draft legislation in relevant wareas with adequate time before submitting it for public consultation or to Parliament.”

          So this is what what new European Union flag and motto look like:)

          https://twitter.com/search?q=%23itsacoup&src=tyah&vertical=default&f=images

          BUT, BUT… I think my bad cousin is right: Greece cannot default and get out of Europe. I was asking a smarter friend what that would mean to it in real terms and this is what he wrote:

          “What will they repossess? The country. No bank will work with them; their currency will be worthless; no ship will dock on their shores because no insurance company will insure it. Import export will plummet; they lose their foreign currency deposit.”

          In short a total bank run, panic in the streets…

          saay

          • saay7

            PS: new European Union flag and motto

          • Amde

            Hello Awatistas…

            I always wanted to buy Ouzo on Sundays – Sunday Ouzo is Best Ouzo :-). I have always thought rel sovereignty is just an aggregation of the things one has control over – the little things like this of a external bureaucracy telling you when to shop is prime example. This is just the start.

            I don’t understand the latest from the IMF. They are calling the Greek debt unsustainable and calling for large write-offs or pushing out for 30+ years. The timing and content is just strange.. it is as if they want to destroy the weekend deal they were just party to. Tsipras wanted to get them pushed off but it looks like they are coming in with what appears to be his best lifeline. Or it could just be the US stepping in.

            Makes one wonder what debt bombs are buried in Addis / Asmara.

            Amde

          • Berhe Y

            Hi saay,

            I think the obvious question one needs to ask is, where did the bailout money 252 billion Euro went? only 10% is spend in Greek (for example compared to the US, which spend massive in infrastructure and public spending) but the rest went out of Greece to pay the private creditors to service debt and (HIGH) interest, and the public is forced to major austerity and paying for it. After five years, it increased the debt, unemployment is way about 25%, GDP had decreased by 30%, nothing close was seen in the western world, except during the depression. And the IMF said, Greek can NOT service it’s debt.

            In actual terms, Germany is not protecting Greek but it’s protecting it’s private banks, that’s what the bailout for. The Greek government want to negotiate a better deal so that the debt is sustainable, similar to what happened to Germany after the war, lots of forgiveness but most important fact was, they can only spend 3% of the export revenue to service the debt. Which means, ONLY if their economy is doing good (meaning exporting) that they need to pay, and they were given a lot of time to pay it.

            Anyway, spending too much time on this, it’s not that relevant for us (will focus on COIE), your article and Beyan and Haile TG…

            I think this is more relevant to Ethiopia, and how the banks, the world bank, the IMF are pushing the government to open it’s financial sector so they can create havoc by allowing / easy money for the public to borrow in the name of growth, which in turn they will crash it and force the government to take bailout at great expense and in the process will force it to sell it’s key assets (like Ethiopian airlines, future infrastructure (power generation etc) in order to control and own the country.

            I think Ethiopian economist, Ethiopian scholars needs to pay attention to what is happening in Greece today, what happened in S. America in the 80/90 and pay close attention to NOT give in to the demands of those cartels….

            BY

          • saay7

            Selamat BY:

            I hope you continue with the discussions and, if we are lucky, we will get Sabris viewpoints.

            I don’t think the discussions are misplaced and here’s why: between the Isaias Afwerkis “improvisational absentee politics” and the Eritrean opposition orgs decision to stay at the platitude altitude (ertra ftHn democracin zsefna: Hres Harestay…), there really is not discussion about what Eritrea’s direction should be in post Isaias Eritrea. So what smart people like u write here are the seeds for our future.

            saay

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Saay,

            TiHisho deA. First I am going to hassle my good friends SA and GH to contribute to AT and then the rest good stuff like COIE, etc.

            BY

          • saay7

            Hey BY:

            Here’s what happens after Germany gave the Greeks a “financial water boarding”. Greek parliament vote roll call. Lots of “meh”, “meh” I think that’s Greek for “yay.”

            http://live.reuters.com/Event/Greek_Debt_Crisis_4/mobile&utm_source=twitter&Theme=39

            Saay

  • Amde

    Lij Abi,

    Wuy minnew…

    yante amed bun kemil
    yene eTi dub yibel

    ay wez beezzie yilal yagere sew bhere-ohio
    my Tsome-ramadan was to abstain from posting for a while.

    Amde

    • Abi

      Amde
      Yemaybejih, kifu asabih eTiw dub yibel !
      Endet new negeru ? Yante Tsome-Ramadan qedmo tefeta ?
      YeOhio chereqa min yanqeZeqZatal ?
      Rega bey belat. Yerega dem gubet yiweTawal.

      • Amde

        Abi,

        True story. I know this girl. When people ask her religion she goes. “gimash Orthodox, gimash PenTe” Her father is Orthodox her mother Pente.

        So when people ask her to explain this riddle she goes…”Arb enna Erob I am PenTe, Monday, Tuesday, Thursdays I am Orthodox, I take a break from religion on the weekends”

        • Abi

          Amde
          This orthopente girl is smart. She doesn’t have to fast at all.
          My mothers yenefs abat never come to our house on Wednesdays and Fridays because there is no quwanTa in those days.
          He never liked me because my Hadere friends refused to kiss his cross.
          Ende imperialism yegoriT neber yemiyayugn.

  • haileTG

    Hello Semere Tesfay,

    My understanding is that you are an ELF veteran who was pushed out of Meda, in your own words in the past, “ደም ጃሕ ጃሕ እንዳበልካ”. Please correct if I have my facts wrong (i.e. without prejudice). I have read your piece start to finish, and find that it was full of rhetoric, one sided and insulting and patronizing at times. I can go point by point to show the weak and fallacious arguments you piled up, but let me first point out that you can’t have a premise that goes; “Any one is stupid if….” or “any one who believes x or Y is a cadre of Rwanda, Benishangul or Tigray…’. that is pathetic and self incriminating of being those very things. If you would care, please sort out your A1 A2 N1… who is N1 when you were only dealing with A1 and A2 in your so called “abstracts and stages”. When you insist we go through such lengthy diatribe, please bear the responsibility of tidying up your synthesis. The whole use of “EPLF government” almost 23 times throughout your articles, calls your motive into question. Why use such unorthodox term in place of the formal reference of the GoE or the PFDJ regime or the regime? What is your beef here? EPLF championed the conclusion of the independence struggle that ended in 1991 and enabled free and fair referedum to take place in 1993. Why are you trying to impose a politically concocted reference here? Semere, even Mahmuday didn’t say anything to be asked in that unwarranted “EPLF government” context. Your arguments would make for an embarrassing defense of Eritrea’s case. You lack a single factual basis to back up you claims and you try to second guess others formulations that doesn’t support yours by patronizing dialog. Semere, what time is it? Get out of your small village mentality and camouflaged sorcerer’s role to tell us what you haven’t got a clue about. ELF/EPLF problems are a by gone historical artifacts. Deal with it.

    • Saleh Johar

      Ehehe HaileTG,
      Do you know the favorite song in the ELF in the mid-seventies? Okay. It’s “afki msay lbbkhi ms debessay….” There were many people in the ranks of the ELF but they hated it so much they worked day and night for its destruction. Many found their voice in the PFDJ and that is why you find many of them supporting the PFDJ. When you talk about the PFDJ support base, don’t forget there is a big chunk from the old ELF.

      • haileTG

        Hey SGJ,

        I know one such case (not sure about how he felt in his ELF days though), but he is a highly irrational regime supporter now. Though I am still puzzled with the word-construct of Semere’s article. In reality he is presenting the side he purports to support as idiotic and novice. between the lines he also said that much when he categorized TPLF as part and parcel of all successive Ethiopian rulers, despite the former was comrade in arms of EPLF and opposed to those regime’s (see his Abstract #1). I could have poked a hole in his expansion and sea out-let theory by providing incontrovertible material evidence that the Ethiopian side agreed to demarcate the eastern sector including Assab side and IA’s regime insisted on all sectors or none. Including that it was the Ethiopian side that returned areas awarded to Ethiopia by saying they were always Eritrean. Semere is trying to argue from the regime narrative side and not that of Eritrean. When it comes to Eritrean case, he appears to construe linkages that are besides the main point at hand. He is not being faithful in purpose and intent in my opinion (just opinion:)

        • Saleh Johar

          HaileTG,
          You also find that those who were faulting the ELF for insisting on Badme, and were making fun of it, are now obsessed with Badme. I remember in 1998 someone in Dehai saying Badme is important because his grandfather who migrated there had bough a bell fora church. It was not argued because it belongs to a segment of the Eritrean society. I believe the entire rivalry is among the elite of on the two sides, a small group which is playing the rest of Eritreans and Ethiopians. They do not care if the entire population of the two countries perishes provided they give their rival a bloody nose. No concern for life, at all. This is how the war was cheered from the Diaspora in 1998, and it seems they are agitating for a new round. The never ending war mongering is abhorrent. Tell you what, can we lease a desert area in Nevada where we can bring all of them there to fight it out once and for all? Why should the poor people be burned by wars they ignite?

  • Amde

    Awatistas,

    So,

    Looking at events of the weekend vis-a-vis Greece and the EU, perhaps this sad article might be the proper area to ask about how much and whether the Birr-Nakfa currency divorce was the cause of the war? I understand there was a policy disagreement on convertibility rates, currency of use as a medium of exchange etc… But what is the consensus on this board as to how much it may have contributed to the war (can’t believe it is 17 years already)? How were Eritrean national interests affected vs Shaebiya’s narrower selfish interests?

    • Abi

      Hi Amde
      Is this the old Amde we love or a new comer?

      • Amde

        Lij Abi,

        It is the older Amde. See, it is not even “amde” 🙂

    • Semere Andom

      Hi Amde:
      This question is complicated. I believe there was no singular cause for the war as any war, it is the confluence of many things, whose roots go back to Ghedli, simmering for decades, on the surface to the lay person, it was all good and dandy, but I think the seeds have been sown long time ago, but circumstances that required cooperation for organizational and strategic needs suppressed those seedlings. When EPLF slept with Woyane to crash 100k strong Eritrean national army and counted on a smaller and the rookie new kid on the block, the TPLF and then cashiered it. In 1981 TPLF was in stagnation period after a phenomenal guerrella success for 5 yeas, EPLF endangered the Eritrean aspiration for independence by gambling and it was a fluke that the six offensive was foiled after bloody civil war.
      EPLF an TPLF, the precursors of Eritrean and Ethiopian government respectively undermined each other during their almost half a decade divorce and the war seedlings germinated during those years, but then continued undermining each other was dangerous to their survival and they made up until 1998. The populations on both sides of the border did not learn their lessons from the 30 year carnage, they acted like
      a person with “Quelle” and demanded to bleed more. And bleed they did profusely
      The lay person, the intellectual, the businessman, the ex-freedom fighter, the elderly the mothers, the youth, the diaspora, the successful, the unaccomplished all backed the war. Those who suffered the most , the people are not exactly innocent in both igniting and escalating the war.
      Without having access to the meeting minutes , correspondence and documentation we cannot know for sure the turning point that added gasoline to the dormant volcano that erupted in May 1998

      • selam

        Dear semere Andom
        is that what you think while reading Canadian anthem ? Do you remeber the day of the canadian national day , you bragged all the way up to insulting erittran national anthem. How come you have the courage to paint a false and idiotic idea about EPLF ?
        Semere tefsay is completely wrong on saying EPLF regime and here you are not far from his mistake . Please invest your time in the debate about the KEYSTONE pipe line coming from canada all the way to america , I think that is the best place for you to debate for your interest not Eritrea. we have moved from what EPLF and ELF thing. We have Eritrea.

      • Amde

        Hi Semere

        I was hoping to see if anyone had ascribed financial motives to the Badme issue specifically. So far it doesn’t seem like anyone has any input to that. The “mistrust” and hegemonic competition reasons have been discussed ad nauseum. Maybe I was wrong.

        Amde

        • Yoty Topy

          Hi Amde,
          How I wish it was the case i.e. currency played even a minor role in this conflict. That would be really an exotic reason, at least in the eyes of international analyst. wouldn’t it be?Nah, and this just my guts telling me ,that it could have started for a simple reason as someone got ‘fish’ instead of the ‘chicken’ 🙂

    • Hayat Adem

      Amde*,
      I had a long note on your question but when about to upload it flew off nowhere and no energy left retype it. May be another time if enough appetite remains on board. But the short answer is YES, the single-most important factor that brought us the Badume war and the rest. I say, Birr-Nakfa was the last back breaking straw no one saw coming.
      ———–
      *I admit it to Abi, I have been missing you. Good that you are back.

      • Amde

        Hi Hayatina dear,

        I blame you on why I get addicted to Awate.com sometimes… haha…

        Good to read you again too. I will try to be a bit more present, but I find I tend to be sucked in more than I would like or rationally justify, especially when work/life gets demanding.

        You stated “Birr-Nakfa was the last back breaking straw no one saw coming.”. That was really what I was trying to get at – that we are all well versed in politics, ideology, nationalisms etc, but if what we are seeing the current events in Europe, finance/economics are as important and probably more important. “No one saw it coming.” because I think we are collectively ignorant of its true role and/or power. The fact is we killed/died by the thousands over it, but are we even wiser about it?

        I would be interested to know what you know/remember. In due time of course..

        Amde

  • Semere Tesfai

    Papillon

    “Certain things are predictable and I must say you ain’t an exception”. You got that right!

    ኣላ “ጓል ዓረዛ” rotten, stinking, spoiled, brat kid as that; or as we (ደቂ-ደፋእ ድንኩል) would like to call you (በሽቃጥ). Still the same old you. Good to hear from you though.

    • Rahwa T

      Dear Moderators,
      I can’t see why this reply was allowed or stayed “live” for more than 9 hours.

      Respectfully,

      Rahwa T

      • Semere Tesfai

        belay, Abel and Rahwa:

        I apologize to Papillon and to all who are offended by my comment. I just scrolled down sifting through the comments and saw your comments. I know, Papllon disagrees with me on every issue but never disrespected me as far as I know. And my response to her was supposed to be humorous response. And this is the story behind the joke.

        Here at Awate, I don’t exactly remember when, in the comment section, due to her rejection of the Eritrean Ghedli and the sacrifice of Tegadelti, some people said “she is not Eritrean, she is Tigrayan” – as they have said to many others.

        In response – Papillon stated that she is Eritrean born from rich Eritrean parents. She stated that she was raised Asmarino (mentioning Asmara landmarks, time, and events to prove her claim), she said she never did any house work, she said her parents had Tegaru Kedemti (servants) and her father was mean to their Tegaru Kedemti (servants).

        That in mind, I said hi rich brat kid – which in Tigrigna is BeshQaT. An I truly apologize for that; and I hope she understands the humor.

    • Abel

      Semere T.
      Inline with expectations, you have expressed with a typical HIGDEF language and attitude towards women.

  • T..T.

    Hi Aman,

    EPLF versus PFDJ

    Tell me the difference between the two and I’ll prove to you why the Eritrean people failed to make their choices between the top criminals of the two [because they are the same people, the same faces].

    Like they say, if the fish’s head is rotten it only belongs in the dustbin. Not even fit to be given to a cat. With the rotten head sitting on top, the two (yet the same organization) continued and continue to have the same policy, the same style of leadership, and the same practices of deception that make the two interchangeable. Yes, the two are interchangeable because the leaders in the two believed and continue to believe they have the right to inflict harm on any person (any time, any place) and condemn the whole nation to hardship, starvation, and throw out any Eritrean at any time from her/his warm place and flatten the house. Many families became victims of their rampage bulldozing games demolishing the whole village. Yes, the two are interchangeable because they played and are playing with false promises of better tomorrow, fear and frustration.

  • Guest

    Dear Semere, the ciber “tegadalay”, there are dozens of countries in the world that have border disputes yet none of them use it as an excuse to oppress and deny their citizens the basics……the problem with Eritrea is the nation was conceived out of a pipe dream to shine at the expense of “landlocked” and non-colonized “mogn(naive)Ethiopians and when that doesn’t materialize, hatemongering and fear mongering became a way of life for Eritrea since it is the only way it can justify it’s failure….Otherwise they would have at any cost moved on long ago given the desperation they showed to distance themselves from Ethiopia let alone crying over a tiny piece of land and using it as an excuse for all their failures as a nation….
    Dear Semere, at times you have to understand why few Ethiopians whom you fear for being a threat to you identity find it difficult to see you as a country, it is because your behaviour as a nation makes it difficult to see you as an independent nation when your president acts more like an Ethiopian opposition leader than a leader of an “independent” state, always crying woyanee woyanee woyanee, and you the relatively knowledgeable supporters excuse him because you share his dream and you are finding it hard to hate him for not delivering the dream…I tried so many times to imagine a leader of any independent nation who excuses his inability to govern and provide the basic on another country..it is only in Eritrea that there is this distorted sense of entitlement to hate Ethiopia, yet using the absence of peace with Ethiopia as an excuse for all their failures becomes normal..Of all the neighbors that have disputes with Eritrea, one wonders why lack of “peace” with Ethiopia affects Eritrea’s progress ? …….Obviously, what is happening right now is the 30 years struggle has taken it’s toll and Eritreans have forgotten how time has changed, and Ethiopians are no longer the naive feudal or communist era Ethiopians whereby Eritreans could sell Italian bombolino as a cake and flourish, which I have no problem with, had they not used those colonial skills for a wrong cause…, but now with independence come a whole new game and you just can not sell Naqafa to an Ethiopian be it because it is north it or we simply don’t want to….full stop! we don’t have to justify it because we have our interest and you have your own interest,,but not having trade with Eritrea has not stopped Ethiopia from building Mega dams and we don’t see why you can not do the same with yours………but of course the unsaid truth is, die hard Shabian “Tegadaelyas” like Sememere did not read the itinerary to independence before they embarked on Gedlhi that they forget independence comes with responsibility…you just can not continue using pre-independence propaganda for post-independence consumption…it just doesn’t work, cos however much you try to undermine Ethiopia, Ethiopia is it’s own country with it’s own interest and most importantly, it has proved what it can do without your love..

  • Tewelde G/mariam

    You raised good points. And I like to add that Badme was some how made to fall to the hands of woyane just before independence , not by act of war but by simply letting it go, and remained there after independence. The people did not take part in the 1993 National Referendum.

    Suddenly,1998, Badme become the cause of war. Why would any one
    let it simply go and then wage a war to take it back back? This is fishy.
    I hope Semere Tesfay will clarify it.

    I think there is also another point worthy of attention. If I am not mistaken, in accordance with the Algiers Agreement, a commission was to be set up to investigate the minute details that caused the war , but as of yet, it has not happened, nor does it seem isaias afewerki made a push for it. Could it be as we say, sagla blaE aytqlaE. Semere, I guess it is your responsibility to defend the indefensible.

  • Tes beyene

    What is this? It is deliberate action of HGDEF to divert the focus of justice seekers. Can someone elaborate the relevance of this article to our current issues? It defies any logic to put this article in to public. It is full of flaw which the author provided what he want to hear rather than balances judgement or support. With due respect Mr Semere Tesfai makes himself silly or fool. You tried to justify PFDJ went to war because of provocation. what a sensible government ! you are a joke

  • Semere Tesfai

    AMAN

    Honestly, I don’t know when EPLF ended and when PFDJ started (if there is such thing). For all I know, the 1998 Ethio-Eritrean war was fought prior to the arrest of the G-15 and independent newspapers journalists. Back then, there were phrases like እቲ መንግስቲ: እቲ ውድብ: እቲ ግንባር: being used to refer to the Eritrean provisional government. I’m willing to be corrected, but prior to the 1998 war, I don’t I think there was such thing as PFDJ government.

    Please, please don’t wast your time. I don’t have any hidden agenda; I’m not into the business of conspiracy, insinuation, implication, trick or trying to implicate to anything. I’m just here for an honest discussion. Thank you.

  • Wonder

    Dear Semere Tesfay,
    Your priority is badly misplaced. In recent years, have you heard our dictator and his media mentioning the horder or being asked in his annual interviews? Nope.
    Talk about current affairs like the CoI report and Geneva. Don’t be left behind.
    Speaking of which, what do you think of the CoI report? Just wondering.

  • sara

    Dear all
    How did this article made it to the forum ? to spoil the ongoing celebration of the coi report? this must have offended many
    of our southern neighbors who are always available at this forum. maalesh! we are at the end of Ramadan and getting ready for Eid celebration.

  • selam

    Dear Adis
    You are wrong , we Eritreans only forgive not forget. There are millions of people who are committed to regain what we deserve after DIA. It is general truth we Eritreans see weyane as criminals and idiot leaders but this is not the time for them because we do have our own urgent issues unless you know , what is on the bag .Eritreans where ever they are comjitted to get what is theirs . For your weyane cadres , please let them hear what this idiot war mongering leader so called desalegn is saying. He is saying he will open war with Eritrea , he must have a bad day on the court of weyane meeting , some people are saying he cried and get insulted by weyane high level criminal group.

    • Brhan

      Dear Selam,
      Watch! Soon DIA will get lashed by “idiot war mongering leader so called desalegn” on his bottom.

      • selam

        Dear brhan
        is that what you talk in weyenti meetings , for your course ask dergi reminants .

  • Abel

    Semere,
    Simply put,your argument is nothing more than halowlew, hateftef, deiberate distortion of facts. I am sure another five to ten years of PI and HIGDEF rule will put the history of Ethio/Eritrean war in its perspectives.One thing I agree with Semere is the validity of EECC ruling or Algiers treaty, It is dead,null and void,get over with it…

    • selam

      Dear Abel
      EECC ruling is well alive and if you want to say it is null, well we have nothing to say to people who doesn’t obey ruling , weyane lunatics are just on power due to their services to America unless , what do they have 100% election win. I am sure so many weyane lunatics are on the way to cemetry as their father meles.

      • Abel

        Hello immortal Selam,
        Weyane are in power due to service to America… how is HIGDEF in power for 23 years and counting? half smart asusual.

        • selam

          Dear Abel
          It is your sychotic leader who is calling for more blood and I guess , he is making you happy . Every weyane lunatic is hungry for more blood. We will see

    • Yoty Topy

      Hi Abel,
      It is that movie, ‘Groundhog day’ again.

      • Abi

        Hi Yoty Topy
        That was one movie to remember. I still have the tape. Murry ( Phil Connors) is excellent in that movie.
        If you loved that move as I did, there is a musical coming in the near future.

        • Yoty Topy

          Hi Abi,

          Indeed one to ‘remember’ . I heard it is the official movie of the American Congress. The quality of scriptwriting isn’t really what it used to be. Has it ? These days , everyone resorts to ‘shock & awe’ to draw people’s attention.

          Thanks for the tip . I will no doubt enjoy it given that I’ve watched the movie a dozen times.

          • Abi

            Hi yoty Topy
            You are write ! Nothing like old movies. I love them.
            That movie is one of the official movies of The Library of Congress.
            Speaking of movies, the world just lost one of the greatest movie stars. Omar sharif. Big loss. (RIP)
            I’m sure you have watched ” Lawrence of Arabia.”
            Another one always to remember.

  • Mahmud Saleh

    Dear All
    What year is it? Haven’t we passed the stage of discovery? Haven’t we gone through the court? Haven’t we heard the verdict?
    The legal aspect of the border issue has been dealt with. The political aspect needs a political will from both sides. What’s required of responsible citizens of both countries is to pressure their respective governments to do the right thing. Courage is needed to break free from entrenched blind hatred and stereotypical assumptions. Eritreans burning issues should be the establishment of elected government. It should be the ascertainment of the rule of law, the restoring of hope and confidence to our youth, the reversal of the perilous exodus of our youth. Once we have a government by the people and for the people, once we have our right of free speech, then independent scholars can research and leave lessons for future generations, not to fall ever for warmongering politicians and their cadres. Time permitted, I will specifically comment on this article.That is with the caveat that this issue has been exhaustively covered and consumed.

    • Ted

      Dear the Great MS, how is it irrelevant(What year is it?). We are back to square one. That is what happening, with all hoopla and propaganda the Eritrean enemies are coming out of woodworks to claim a moral high ground contrary their true nature and malicious intentions. It was not a week ago we heard the Weyane leaders beating its war drums against Eritrea making a case for our human right and dignity. It is not irrelevant to tell the history of the group(weyane) who continue to caused great harm and division among us. Dont you think It is a mockery/insult to Eritrean people’s intelligence them to appear to care by organizing events and recounting our suffering. Knowing our history with Weyane and taking appropriate stand is not contradictory to the effort of Eritrean justice seekers struggle to attain freedom and rule of law to our people, rather it supplement, enhance and complete it. Opposition or not, you know the drill, every time groups try to wash off or cover Weyanes’s sins just it fits their line of thinking: they get the usual stiff resistance to their ultimate demise. If we have not learned this lesson , i am afraid we are back to square one.

    • Nitricc

      Mahmudayyyy! what is up? from the get go; I disagree with you strongly but respectfully. what Semere Tesfay doing is, giving the greatest gift for generations to come. I will explain; there is rumor i will get a day off : – ) then i can say peace. but before that; i have this question for you. I read you somewhere giving Sebhat Nega a credit for admitting or saying that ” Weyane leadership were converted in to animals” during the war between Ethio-Eritrea. what do you think Sebhat Nega meant?
      in the mean time what TPLF wants is the border issues to be forgotten; aren’t you helping to what the TPLF plans and wants, when you ask what year is it? do we have a moral obligation to get the bottom it for the issues we paid our 20K?

  • Ali

    I feel shame when I read this script written by Tegadalayi if he is tegadalayi, TThe main objective of this script is to change the mined of Eritreans that Woyane is our eternal enemy. Nooooooooooo, Our eternal enemy is HIGDEF. you know why? Woyane can kill an Eritean but can not kill Eritrawinet and our Eritrean unity. BUT HIGIDEF is killing both Eritrean and Eritrawinet they are killing Eritreawinet by killing our unity. For sure the war was started by HIGDEF this is witnessed by different Gedayime tegadelti who where in the area at the incident. Anyway since the objective of this script is to confuse our people I advise the writer do not be false prophet for HIGDEF because all this secrets are exposed by real Eritrean Tegadelti who were in the event. Please lesson who started the war

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WbZyTmyPIuk

    • Nitricc

      Mr sunshine; who do you think fooling? Stupid.

  • Semere Andom

    Dear Tegadalai Semere Tesfay:
    Who cares, who started the war at this time, a time when the government you so confidently proclaim that history will be kind to it is suspected for systematic crimes against humanity, at a time when Eritreans are on the cusp of defeating their fear and demonstrating with numbers that dwarfed the PFDj supporters in Geneve, about 5000 of them. At a time when Eritreans believe that living under Woyane is safer than living under the PFDJ, who cares who started the war. The war started, it was stupid and 100k lives were squandered, both people believe that. Now Eritrea is in dangerously hanging on the edge of the cliff to jump off and its children poised to save it. The burning issue of our day is that Eritrea has been shamed for its crimes against humanity and sexual enslavement and you have nothing to say about that except to point out that UN is useless and Eritrea is a member of the UN, so are many tyrant.

  • Ahmed Idris

    Let me see the conflict from a different a perspective. The boarder conflict and bad me is not the reason but the symptoms of the war

    The real reason of the war is on who is going to be the regional power in the horn of Africa. The war was a message to the white house and the white house put all its eggs in the Ethiopian basket, at that is what makes Isaias Afeweki , disappointed from America and the West when they choose Ethiopia. .

  • Ted

    Hi Semere T, it is timely and important article you brought back the issue of Weyane aggression back then and the coordinated attack and smear campaign what we have witnessed after the war to achieve the same goal. The failed war plan of theirs have taken many routs with unrelenting obsession to bring down Eritrea.No amount of lies and justification can hide the very true nature of Weyane. By the same token, No one can take away the Wisdom and resolve of Eritrean Gov(warsay -Yikaalo) handling and annihilating the Weyane aggression and ploy of its backers. The same people who wanted us humiliated and defeated now pretend to be the torch bearers of our well being, how ironic.
    GLORY TO OUR MARTYRS

  • Hayat Adem

    The controversial Sebhat Nega, the Rasputtin of Tigray has spoken again. The one question related Eritrea and his explanation:
    ውራይና (question)፦ ኤርትራ ብዝምልከት ብርክት ዝበሉ ኣብ ውሽጢ ውድብ ዝነበሩ ዝፀሓፍዎም ፅሑፋትን ናይ ደገ ተዓዘብትን ዘልዕልዎም ነጥብታት፦ ርክብ ህወሓትን ሻዕብያን ናይ “ጊላ”ን ጎይታን ኢሎም ክገልፅዋ ይፍትኑ፤ ሕቶ ኤርትራ ሕቶ ባዕዳዊ መግዛእቲ እዩ ዝብል እውን፣ ጉዳይ ወደብ ብፍላይ ዓሰብ ዝምልከት ….ንዚታት ከመይ ትገልፆ ብኣኻ?

    ኣቦይ ስብሓት (answer)፦ ሕቶ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ባዕዳዊ ድዩ ወይስ ካልእ ዝብል ሕቶ ንምንታይ ተደጋጊሙ ክምዝለዓል ኣይርደአንን። ናይ ኣፍሪቃ ሓድነት ማሕበር/OAU/ ናይ ሕድሕድ ሃገር ዶብ ናይ ገዛእትና /ኤውሮፖውያን/ ዶብ ተቐቢልና ንሕንፅፅ ይብል፡፡ ኤርትራ ንምንታይ ናብ ግዝኣት ጣልያን ኣትያ ንግዚኡ ንግደፎ ‘ሞ ናይ ጣልያን ግዝኣት ምንባራ ግን ኩላትና ንፈልጦ። ድሕሪ ካልኣይ ኩናት ዓለም ‘ውን ኣብ ትሕቲ እንግሊዝ ትፀንሕ። ድሕሪ እንግሊዝ ምስ ኢትዮጵያ ብፈደራል ምትዕርራይ ትዛመድ’ምበር ከምካልኦትና ጠቅላይ ግዛት አይተባህለትን። ፈደረሽን በቲ ዝተመስረተሉ አግባብ እንተይኮነስ ብኢደወነኖም እንተፍርስዎ ባዕዳዊ ወራር ይበሃል። እዚ ስስዕና ኣጐል ጀብደኝነት ኣብ ክልተይና ዘምፀኦ ዕንወት መን ይጠየቐሉ’ዩ ክኾን ዘለዎ እቲ ሕቶ’ምበር ባዕዳዊ ድዩ ወይስ ካልእ መገመቲና’ዩ። ርክብ ህወሓትን ሻዕቢያን ‘ውን ንምንታይ ተደጋጊሙ ከምዝለዓል አይርደኣንን። ብወገነይ ከም ታሪኽ መጠን ንሕዚ ይኹን ንፅባሕ ብዙሕ ጥቕሚ ዘለዎ ኣይመስለንን። ምኽንያቱ ህወሓት ነቶም ናይ መንነተይ መግለፂ ‘ዮም መለለይ’የ እዮም ዝበሎም ኣይተዓፃፀፈሎምን። ኩነታት ህወሓት ናብ ዋጋ ዕዳጋ ዘየውርዶም ምኳኑ እንኳይ ፈተውትና ፀላአትና ‘ውን ይፈልጥዎ። ሻዕብያ ፈተውትና እናበልናዮም ፀላእትና ምስኮኑ ‘ውን ህወሓት ጊላ ከምዘይኮነ፤ ኮይኑ ‘ውን ከምዘይፈልጥ ደጋጊሞም ገሊፆሞ። ዝገልፅዎ እንተሃልዩ ትሕትነት /Inferiority complex/ዝደፍኦ ሓጊዝናዮም’ዩ። ሓጊዝናዮም ምባል እኳ ኣይመድለየኩምን ግን ናብኡ ካብ ወሪድኩም እወ ሓጊዝኩምና ንብሎም።

    ናብቲ ሕቶኻ ንምምላስ ግን ንሕና ምስ ሻዕብያ ዘራኽበና ሕቶ ኤርትራ ስለ ንኣምነሉን ፀረ ደርጊ ወታደራዊን’ዩ። ንሶም ምሳና ወታደራዊ ጥራሕ’ዩ ። ናይ ህወሓት ፖለቲካዊ ቁመና ይፃረር’ዎምበር ዝድግፍዎ ዝቕበልዎ ነገር የለን። ኣብነታት ንምጥቃስ። ብ69 ዓ.ም. ድሮ ጉባኤኦም ኣብፋሕ ዝበፋሕ ዝበሃል ቦታ ብሄራዊ ሕቶ አብ ኢትዮጵያ ኣይንድግፎን በታኒ’ዩ ኢሎምና። ንሕና ምሳኹም ብምትሕብባርና ንውቀስ ኣለና። ደገፍትና ናብ ሕቶ የእትውና አለው ናይ ባዕልኹም ከይትገብሩ ምስ ንኢትዮጵያ ዝበታትን ውድብ /ህወሓት/ ትተሓባበሩ አለኹም ኢሎምና ይብሉና። ድሕሪ ጉባኤኦም ኢሳያስ ንኣባይ፣ ተወልደ፣ ዘርኣይ፣ ንዓይ ረኺቡና፤ ካብ ደጊም ምሳና ክትራኸቡ እንተኾይንኩም ምስ ኢህኣፓ ፅቡቕ እንኾተኾይንኩም እዩ። ቃል ብቓል ንምዝራብ “ርክብና ምስ ኢህአፓ ብዘለኩም ይውሰን” ኢሉና። እዚታት ኣብ ሳሕል’ዩ። ብድሕሪኡ ክልተ ልኡኻት ናብትግራይ መፂኦም ኣብ ዓጋመ ምስ ኢህኣፖ ረኺቦምና ነቲ ናይብሄር ሕቶ ደጋጊሞም ንሕና ካብ ደጊም ኣብ ኢትዮጵያ ጀብሃ ዓይነት ውድብ ክንርኢ ኣይንደልን ኢሎምና፡፡ ናይ ኢህኣፖ ተቐበሉ ኢሎምና፡፡ ብትዕግስቲ ኣይንቕበልን ኢልና።፡፡ ጊላነት ካበይ ይመፅእ? ፀኒዕና ኣብቶም ዝተሰለፍናሎም ፀኒዕና። ንፖለቲካዊ መንነትና ይቕረዶ ንሻዕብያ ነታ ናይዓለም ሓያል ሃገር ንኣሜሪካ’ውን ጊላነት ኣየርኣናን። ሕዚ እዚ ይፅናሕልና።

    ሻዕብያ ዶብ ኢትዮጵያን ኤርትራን ይካለል ኢሎም ተደጋጋሚ ልኡኽ ናብ ትግራይ ሊኢኾም። ከእሙኑና ፅዕንቶታት አዕሪፎም። ናህና ስራሕ አይኮነን ኢልና ብሰላም ክነእምኖም ፅዒርና። እናመረሮም ገዲፎሞ። ንግዲ ዝምልከት ጀብሃ፣ ሻዕብያን ኢህኣፖን ኣብ ሓደ ምርድዳእ በፂሖም። ኣብ መንጐ ትግራይን ኢርትራን ዝካየድ ንግዲ ብኤርትራውያን ጥራሕ ይካየድ ኢሎም ወሲኖም ከም መምርሒ ኣውጆምልና። እዚ ማለት ናይ ኤርትራ ሸቐጥ ኤርትራዊ ናብ ትግራይ የምፅእ፤ ካብ ትግራይ ዝኸድ ድማ ኤርትራዊ ጥራሕ ገዚኡ ይኸድ’ዩ። ንሕና ድማ ናይ ትግራይ ነጋዳይ ካብ ኤርትራ ይገዝእ ናብ ኤርትራ’ውን ይሸይጥ። ማዕረ እቲ ሓደ ናብቲ ኻልእ ይንቀሳቐሱ’ዩ። ነዚ ናይ ጀብሃ፣ ኢህኣፖ፣ ሻዕብያ ንዕቐት ህወሓት ንህዝቢ ሒዙ ደው አቢልዎ። ብቕፅበት ብዘይወዓል ሕደር እናመረሮም እንተይኣመኑ መስመር ሒዞም።

    ምስ ኦነግ ናይ ምትሕግጋዝ ምርድዳእ ተገይሩ በዚ መሰረት ንኦነግ ዝሕግዝን ዓይነታዊ ለውጢ ከምፅእ ይኽእል’ዩ ዝበልናዮ ሓይሊ ናብ ኦነግ ናብ አሶሳ ሊኢኽና። ውፅኢት አየምፀአን። ናይ ውፅኢት ጉዳይ ንግደፎ እሞ ሱዳን ኦነግ ሻዕብያ SPLA/m ብደርጊ ዝድገፍ ሓይሊ ስለዝኾነ ህወሓት ንSPLA ክትወግእ አለዋ ኢሎም ዓብይ ፅዕንቶ ክሕድሩ ፈቲኖም፡፡ ፅዕንቶ ሻዕብያ ድማ ይዓቢ ነይሩ፡፡ በዚ ምኽንያት ናብ ኦነግ ተመዲቡ ዝነበረ ናይ ህወሓት አካል ናብ ትግራይ ተሳሒቡ፡፡

    ጊላነት ይትረፍ’ሞ ህወሓት ሻዕብያ ከስተኻኽሎም ዝግባእ ጉዳያት ብትረት ትሕብር ትፀቅጥ ነይራ። ወታደራዊ ስትራተጂኹም ኣስተኻኽሉ ዝብል ሓሳባትና፣ ናይ ህዝቢ ስራሕትኹም ድኹም’ዩ፤ ናይ ህዝቢ ፖለቲካዊን ምምሕዳራዊ ስራሕትኹም ዳርጋ ዘየለ’ዩ ዝብል ሪኢቶታት ብራድዮ፣ ብፅሑፍ ኣብ መድረኽ ንሕብረሎም ነይርና። ሻዕብያ ናይ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ድልየት ብፅንዓት ተቓሊሱ ከይቕፅል ይኽእል’ዩ። ኣብ መንገዲ ክሸማገል ይኽእል’ዩ። ካልእስ ይትረፍ ንነፃነት’ውን ዝእመን ሓይሊ አይኮነን ኢልና ናብ ኩሉ ገሊፅና። ብናታቶም ራድዮ ’ውን። መልሲ እንተይሃቡ ነዊሕ ፀንሖክም ድሕሪ አዋርሕ ኢሳያስ “ትም ዝበልና ትም ክንብል ስለዝደለይና’ዩ ቆይቂ ስለዝፀላእና ኢና” ኢሉ መግለፂ ሂቡ። ጊላን ጐይታን ዝብል ካበይ መፀ? እዚ ከምዚ እናሃለወ ግን ምስ ሻዕብያ ፅቡቕ ክበሃል ዝክእል ርክብ እዩ ነይሩ። ከም ጀብሃ ምስ ኢህኣፓ ኾይኑ አይወግአናን። ሻዕቢያ ሕዚ ኣብ ጉዳያት ሰላም፣ ልምዓት፣ ዲሞክራሲ ብዋናነት ንህዝቢ ኤርትራ ጠሊሙዎ ‘ምበር ለባም ነይሩ እንተበልኩ ዓብይ ጌጋ የብሉን። እቲ ንኽልተይና ዘራኽበና ፀረ ደርጊ ወታደራዊ ምትሕግጋዝ’ዩ ነይሩ። ነንረብሓና ኢልና ዘየናስሕ ምትሕግጋዝ ነይሩና። እዚ ድሕሪ ምስረታ ኢህወደግ ‘ውን ፅቡቕ ቀፂሉ ነይሩ።

    ህዝቢ ኢትዮጵያ ንኻልኦት ሃገራት ኣብነት ዝኾን ኩሉ መዳያዊ ታሪኽ ምስራሕ ይጅምር ኣሎ። ብወገን ኤርትራ ዘሎ ኩነታት ንህዝቢ ኢትዮጵያ፣ ካልኦት ጐረባብቲ ሃገራትን ኤውሮፖን የተሓሳስቦም ኣሎ። ናይ ዓሰብ ወደብ ዝምልከት ገብሩ ኢሉ ምስ ሰማዕኹ ብዙሓት ዝፈልጡ ጠይቐ። ህጋዊ ጭብጢ የብልናን ኢሎም። ጆቤ ዝበሎ’ውን “ዲኘሎማሲያውን ካልኦት ዓቕምታት ፈጢርካ ነዚ ናይ ህጊ ክፍተት ተጠቒምካ ክመዓራረ ዝኽእል’ዩ”እዩ ዝበለ። ካብ ነዚ ጉዳይ ዝምልከት ሕጊ ቀንጠብጠብ ኣይንበል እየ ዝብል፤ እቲ ፈፂሙ ዘይቐሪ ተደጉሉ ዘሎ ምሕዝነት ምስ ሓው ዝኾነ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ስትራቴጅያዊ ዝምድና እዩ ዝጠቕመና።
    http://aigaforum.com/Wurayna/aboy-sebhat-interview-wurayna16.pdf

    • selam

      Dear Hayat
      Mr.sibhat nega criminal is not fit to talk about shaebia and he never was unless you are trying to remake your own sibhat nega . Please bring other thing than your usuall weyanti references , for your own time , let us know if you believe weyane are cheaters and they still are disobeying international rule , I am sure you will not do that but run to other known tactic.

      • Hayat Adem

        Dear Selam,
        A piece of advice: don’t tear yourself apart between saying it and unsaying it. Why don’t you talk about what he said or ignore it altogether instead of saying just say nothing?

        • selam

          Dear hayat
          it is not a big deal for me to repeat what he said , I already told you he is a criminal but you have called him as interesting guy , so go run your wish nothing negative if you want drink wine with him.

          • Hayat Adem

            Selam,
            SebHat is interesting as much as you are not. It doesn’t mean I like him and it doesn’t mean I dislike you or it doesn’t mean it matters at all.

          • selam

            Dear Hayat
            It is an honorary thing for me that you call me not interesting by comparing to a criminal man . I actually wish you dislike me because I am not a believer which means I am free from any high morale of the heavens and the hells you are afraid of. I am Eritrean who doesn’t care what a broker of a messed up market think. It matters to me when somebody try to paint EPLF the wrong thing . The cheapest commodity for Eritreans is sending a pissed off person to defend weyane, we can and will afford to let them lose but not by framing wrong thing about Eritrea.

          • Hayat Adem

            Selam,
            “I actually wish you dislike me because I am not a believer…”

            Too many problems here: 1) a grown up person openly begging to be hated and you think that is okay, 2) a non-believer braggingly displaying it for public exhibition, 3) do you seriously expect to be interesting with such qualities?

    • Kokhob Selam

      Dear Hayat,
      do believe what he is saying is correct? what about waiting for due time and hear the real history of those two fronts…I think that is better.

      • Hayat Adem

        Dear Kokhobay,
        SibHat is an interesting guy, which mean not necessarily correct. I haven’t formed a strong opinion yet on the history of EPLF/TPLF ganging up against ELF or ELF/EPRP against TPLF because 1) it still remains too soapy for outsiders who were not close enough to those events at the time due to geography or time gaps then, 2) like you said, there are more urgent and immediate matters at hand.

        • Kokhob Selam

          Dear Hayat,
          thank you for the reply. Let us put aside this one for now we will have enough time to bring the true nature of those fronts in the future.

  • Shabbash Kerenite

    The author is the type of “Tinfer ay-Tinfer begi’e eya….”

  • Ali

    Awate should talk about the true colors of these EPLF aka Shabias and how they worked together with the Woyanes in the 80s and conspired the destruction of Eritrea and turning everyone into refugees. They should also talk about their political deception and acts as if they are enemies. “Government should, should should” Really? These mafia regimes are not the people to be trusted.

    Meles and his Tigrean cousin Isaias conspired and carefully planned the war in 1998 so they could stay longer for an indefinite time by emptying and turning the region into the vast majority Tigrean while the others flee so in the end, they could reach the Red Sea and succeed their establishment of Tigray Republic. Eritreans should be warned about this!

  • Hayat Adem

    Dear Semere T.,
    With all due respect, it is not that you have so twisted, so untimely and so worn-out perspectives that bores me to death. It is that you always think you can pass them to me. The Badime issue has become obsolete and is no more a burning issue. But when it were, like Emma said, both sides argued and it was decided by a 3rd party, accepted by both sides. Now, get back to the recent and relevant issues and discuss the Geneva events.

    • Semere Tesfai

      Hayat:

      The objective of my article is to present a compelling argument that the 1998 Badme war was instigated provoked and escalated by the Woyane hardliners. Your job is to debunk the argument. So far you failed. In defense of Woyane all you can come-up with is “Badime issue has become obsolete and is no more a burning issue”. And I take that as I can’t defend the Woyane.

      As to the “Badme issue has become absolute” – not in a million years. You’re occupying sovereign Eritrean territory and we are not going to sleep until your Woyane leaves our land.

      • selam

        Dear semere T
        Even though I can’t see the importance of badme and the war at this time , I do think you have said enough to crush some weyane cadres and their ESHI GOYTAYE people. People some how tend to forget things as if it was 1961 not 1998 , can you imagine some one like hayat bring a reference like aigaforume.com to defend Weyane and tell us she care about Eritrea . It is irony and bad time , what does it tell you when she mentioned SIBHAT NEGA seraki , komal , telam weyanay to her references ? Can you imagine one Eritrean to spend all his or her time to defend weyane and bash Eritrea? What does it tell you ? Weyane crooks have said enough but as usual Eritreans where ever they are defended for what they believe is their own and the truth. Lairs has very short time span on their defending capacity so they jump to other twisted topics.

        • Wedi Chided

          ሰላም ሰላም፡
          ብዛዕባ ኢትዮጵያውያንን ትግራዎትን ከም ህዝቢ እንታይ ርኢቶኺ?

          • selam

            Dear wedi chidad
            Ethiopians in general are very nice people , honest , hard working people , this all good things is to the majority minus all the leaders who misused the honesty of the people. Le it make it clear that you shouldn’t misunderstood me sir , i have Ethiopian friends , not only me my family has a trusted Ethiopian friend in Gima , Adis abeba , i can go on and on but it will be a starting point to make the leaders engels. You can ask me every possible question , my intention is not to blame the Ethiopian people in general nor do i wish any evil to them.

  • Amanuel

    Hi Semere the issue you are raising now, has been argued for by both sides and an independent body has made its final and binding decision. Another significant point you need to consider is that the regime in Eritrea has accepted it and don’t be a catholic above the Pop. Is this a synical ploy to keep people’s attension away from the report of CoIEritrea?