Inform, Inspire, Embolden. Reconcile!

A New Book: Abyssinian Orthodox Tewahdo Church History By Semere Habtemariam

A New Book by Semere Tesfamicael Habtemariam
Reflections on the History of the Abyssinian Orthodox Tewahdo Church

Paperback: 312 pages
Publisher: The Red Sea Press, Inc.; First edition (February 20, 2017)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1569025681
ISBN-13: 978-1569025680

If is often said that, “If you can’t read the book you want, you gotta write it,” and writing it is exactly what I did in “Reflections of the History of the Abyssinian Orthodox Tewahdo Church.” It was an intellectual as well as a personal quest; I had a burning desire to know the story of my past. Today there are many Abyssinians who are Muslims, Catholics and Protestants, but this is their story too; it is their heritage. It is a shared past that, irrespective of religious affiliations, binds all of us together, and as such it has to be cherished, celebrated and be used for good purposes. And it starts by knowing about it; by reading about it; and by discussing it.

The book tries to understand how Abyssinia (most of Modern-day Eritrea and Ethiopia) was favored by the three Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and how the Orthodox Tewahdo Church has evolved to be the source of glory and quintessential identity of the people and country. The Orthodox Tewahdo Church is the oldest and most venerated institution in Abyssinia where the simple piety of the people has remained untouched throughout its long history. It is not only a religious institution but a repository of art, music, culture, poetry, and literature which has an immense influence on the very essence of Habesha identity. It is a carrier of high culture (Gebre-Medhin, 1989). To some degree, understanding the Tewahdo Church is similar to understanding the last 17 centuries of Abyssinian history and civilization. It is the unveiling of this distinctive conglomerate and its forms and expressions that had long become the store-house of the cultural, political, and social life of the people (Ullendorff, 1973, p. 93); and the unearthing of the Tewahdo fossil where Abyssinian history is ensconced. More importantly, it is also the religious story of how the purest prayer of Orthodox Christendom (Hansberry, 1974) had risen from the source of the Nile to the mouth where St. Mark planted his seed. It is the embodiment of the purest seeds of evangelism, the miraculous story of how the baptism of an Ethiopian eunuch on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, had given birth to the baptism of millions of Abyssinians back home.

In Praise of the Book:

Semere Habtemariam’s “Reflections on the History of the Abyssinian Orthodox Tewahdo Church” is a welcome contribution to our knowledge and understanding of a crucial institution that has shaped the culture and helped influence the politics of Ethiopia (and Eritrea).

To those who have heard of, or had the good fortune of having read the writings of Philosopher/Emperor Zera Yacob, and have had a modicum of knowledge of the various religious disputes in Abyssinian history; to those who have seen and marveled at the paintings at the Gondar Church of Debrebirhan Selassie; and to those who have had the rare privilege of listening to the  sermons of Abune Yohannes at the Axum Tsion Church in the late 1960s near the end of Emperor Haile Selassie’s reign (as this reviewer had)….and to all the devout followers of the Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox faith, Semere’s book is a boon. It is a welcome companion and an essential guide to understand the significance of what he calls the Abyssinian (i.e., Ethiopian and Eritrean) Orthodox Tewahdo Church—its origin, development, challenging history and its impact on the life of the people and governments of Ethiopia as well as of highland Eritrea. Semere’s book, based on an immense research and personal thought, plus a devotion to the faith, may raise some eyebrows but will excite and inform all readers irrespective of their own religious orientation. It is indeed a timely and welcome addition to the scant literature on the subject. I recommend it highly.

Prof. Bereket Habte Selassie, author of Deliverance: A Tale of Colliding Passions and the Muse of Forgiveness

Based on extensive research and well-written, “Reflections on the History of the Abyssinian Orthodox Tewahdo Church” represents a significant addition to the existing body of knowledge on the evolution of the Orthodox Tewahdo Church; the basic tenets of its theology, liturgy and rituals; and the preeminent role the Church has played in conserving, defending and developing the multiple facets of Abyssinian literary culture for nearly seventeen hundred years. In a very real sense, the book connects, in systematic fashion, the dots in the relevant literature to date and surveys the writings, teachings and practices of the Church as it evolved over the centuries. Branched into the Eritrean and Ethiopian Churches since Eritrea’s de facto independence in 1991, the Abyssinian Orthodox Tewahdo Church remains the repository of spiritual guidance and moral compass for tens of millions of adherents in the two countries.

I congratulate Semere Habtemariam for his excellent work and highly commend the book. On top of being a gifted writer, Semere is a committed pro-democracy activist with a demonstrated capacity to reach out and work with the entire spectrum of the various hues and colors of the Eritrean Diaspora political opposition in search of common ground. In an era punctuated by the resurgence and proliferation of sectarian politics and its destructive consequences, I believe that “Reflections on the History of the Abyssinian Orthodox Tewahdo Church”, in highlighting the history of essentially harmonious coexistence between Christianity and Islam in Abyssinia, would contribute to the continuity of religious harmony in modern-day Eritrea and Ethiopia.

Ambassador Andebrhan Welde Giorgis, author of Eritrea at a Crossroads: A Narrative of Triumph, Betrayal and Hope.

A quest for knowledge and understanding of his culture is what lead Semere Habtemariam for writing this book. When I went through his text, I figured out that the manuscript that I was reading does not seem written by an outsider to understand the core values of his religion, as the author claims. It is a thoroughly researched and well-organized work that examines the values and principles of the Abyssinian Orthodox Tewahdo Church and its history in relation to Christianity in general and the history of the horn. I learned a lot.

Dr. Girma A. Demeke, author of The Origin of Amharic

The book can be purchased by clicking on this link: Africa World Press, or Amazon

For questions concerning the book, contact the author through e-mail:<weriz@yahoo.com>

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  • Simon Kaleab

    Selam Abraham and Berhe,

    Gheteb, is unable to provided any credible references other than a quack such as Crawfurd. He is making up Fake history Enda Siwa [traditional pub] style.

  • ‘Gheteb

    Selam Abraham H.,

    This a response to your rejoinder to my earlier comment.

    First, regarding maps in the case of Abyssinia and the Axumite kingdom, they will end up telling differing and conflicting stories. For instance, if we take Lobo’s map based on his book ” Voyage to Abyssinia”, we will end up including Congo, Egypt and India to the kingdom of Axum. So, I am of the opinion that should be of interest only to the dyed in the wool Abyssinian fundamentalists. What we should focus on, I think, is what is on the ground in Eritrea and to some extent on Tigray.

    Speaking of Tigray, the Eritrean Kebessa via-a-vis the kingdom of Aksum, you are of the opinion that:

    ” considerable areas of current day Eritrea, particularly the central highlands and the central part of the Eritrean Red Sea coast. But beyond this, we have essentially one people that straddle both sides of the Mereb River with almost identical language, religion, traditions, customs, way of life, etc…”

    You have NOT mentioned any specific areas of “current Eritrea” or “the central highlands” or “the central part of the Eritrean Red Sea coasts” that you are claiming to have been included in all and any maps of the Axumite Kingdom.

    These are the places in Eritrea that are mentioned in relation to the kingdom of Aksum:
    (1) Metera
    (2) Adulis

    And to a lesser extent:
    (3) Kohayto
    (4) Keskese

    Can you mention any other place in Eritrea that has had verifiable Axumite presence? Buildings/ archaeological findings or coins just in areas that you have specified as ” particularly the central highlands and the central part of the Eritrean Red Sea coast”.

    Here is something quite interesting that some historians and archeologists studying the Axumite kingdom have found. In Axum they have collected a large quantity of coins found by the local populace. These ancient coins were brought up to earth by water flow and flooding after it rained in Axum. The local people picked them up as they were ubiquitous. Now, the question that arises on any a sentient mind is this: why is that these Axumites coins have not been found readily and brought up the surface after every time it rained in these specific places?

    The only place in Eritrea where Aksumite coins were discovered was in Metera. These silver coins were identified of belonging to the era of king Armah. Now was there any other place in Eritrea where the ubiquity of Axumite coins was confirmed because they were readily available or present. If not, why not and what does this tell us?

    You ask:

    ” how do you think such a relationship has developed if there wasn’t close contact between these peoples? How many centuries would it take for these similarities to develop”?

    Yes, the close relationship or close similarities, to be precise, of the Tigrigna speakers on both sides of the Mereb river is undeniable. However, have you ever considered that these people may have spoken Tigrigna way before the advent of the Axumite kingdom as has been asserted by Professor Sebhatu of TsenA Degle based on the information he has gathered from the likes of Memhir Matosulla.

    What you have to also take a note is this: If ‘the Axumite experience’ led to having “have essentially one people”, why then we have people who speak languages other than Tigrigna and whose tradition is not the same with the Tigrigna speaking people and whose religion is NOT Orthodox Tewahdo in the central highlands and in the central Red Sea coast? The areas you mentioned were polyglot with people of different tradition and practiced religion other than the Tewahdo Orthodox religion.

    • saay7

      Hey Cuz Gheteb:

      This exchange is very educational and I would like to echo SGajs call for restraint on all sides so we the students can learn without worrying about the friendly fire.

      An Eritrean historian once wrote (I won’t give his name so he doesn’t get subjected to abuse because he is a quiet scholar) that instead of defining Axum as a civilization with a port named Adulis, we should probably call it an Adulis Civilization with its administrative center in Axum. This is because, he argued, there are more remnants of the civilization in Eritrea proper than Eritrea proper.

      The one that intrigues me the most (because I like to think it’s true) is that Eritrean and Tigray were heavily influenced by two civilizations: Axum and it’s push all the way from Tigray-Eritrean highlands to the Eritrean Western lowlands and Meroe (Kush, in modern Sudan) and its eastern push to the Eritrean highlands and Tigray. There is, as the Ethiopianist and Meroeist readily concede, no conclusive evidence for this but the diggers are digging.

      What is your view of that theory Gheteb?

      saay

      • Abraham H.

        Saay, *than Tigray proper

      • Fanti Ghana

        Selamat Saay,

        The Habesha test:

        1. Peanut Butter
        2. Popcorn (plain and/or salted)
        3. flaxseeds

        If you like one of these you are related to Habesha.
        If you like two of these you are 50% Habesha.
        If you like all three you are 100% Habesha.

        This has been the only effective method I use to sort out Habesha’s from non-Habeshas.
        It is not copyrighted, so feel free to use it and save your self unwanted headache.

        • saay7

          Fanti:

          I will self-administer the test:

          Flaxeed but only on GaAt, half check
          Popcorn 🍿 but only popcorn America because popcorn habesha is lame* No check
          Peanut butter? U just made that up. Do u mean roasted peanuts? Need clarification

          Saay

          * just like the qolo ater part

          So how did I do?

          • Fanti Ghana

            Selam Saay,

            ጽግዕ ምግዕ ኣይትበል ስቕ’ልካ እተዋ፤

            Any popcorn counts, and roasted peanuts is also fine (lightly roasted and diced peanuts
            or cashews is what peanut butter is anyway, I think).

          • saay7

            Fanti:

            What if between a bowl of sunflower seeds (a Sudanese obsession) and embaba habesha, I will always pick the incredibly unhealthy sunflower seeds?

            Meroe-axumite:)

            saay

          • Fanti Ghana

            Selam Saay.
            It is settled!

          • saay7

            Wait, Fanti:

            Using this formula, guess who else is? This* is from an Armenian heavy metal band talking about their ancestors:

            Eating seeds as a pastime activity
            The toxicity of our city, our city

            Ergo Armenians are Sudanese 🙂

            Saay

            * toxicity, System of A Down

        • Saleh Johar

          Hi Fanti,

          How dare you forget the most important test:

          If Abaake was made or consumed in your house, at least occasionally (Fenugreek seeds)

          Now I can list other measures/tests:

          If you have/had TsaHli in your house.
          If your grandmother carried silver ear cleaner.
          If your mother served coffee from Awel, through five rounds, to Baraka.
          If your moter cooked chicken zigni with eggs for engedot (reception of a notable guest) and counted all 12 pieces of chicken and spelled the names of the parts as in Feresegna, etc.
          If you ate with elders and waited for permission (aqwasiyu) to pick pieces of meat from the stew.
          If your mother made popcorn when a child was struck by Nefio (can’t remember its English name)
          If in a wedding you sung seleso ye, seleso daa ‘blakha…
          If your mother and aunties dances with Mokhombia in their heads.
          If you have/ever had, mosob for keeping injera –also if you had mogogo to begin with.
          If your sisters or relatives had mqnTat before they were wed.
          If you know what Kutisha is.
          If you had medeb in your old kitchen
          If Qategna was served to a guest or children in your house.
          If your elders had Qirqab (the wooden shoes)

          I think I can go on and on, but this will do for today…

          • Fanti Ghana

            Selam Memhir,

            Oh Abaake! How could have I forgotten the mother of all tests? Abaake tea was the universal medicine for all sorts of illnesses in my house. Abaake and TsaEda Shugurti are perhaps the altimate tests of Habeshawinet. What a list!

          • Berhe Y

            Dear SGJ,

            Wow the amazing memory you have. I checked all of them yes. Except the last one “Qirqab”, I don’t rember that one.

            Nefio is measles I think. I am sure Fanti knows.

            And you wonder all the hoopla they make about measles breakout.

            Berhe

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Berhe,
            I am not sure but Qirqab was the common shoe among the jeberti in the old times, including Ambar, hijlet, etc, all bulky silver ornaments that I remember old women wore until the sixties. Today, only the rashaida use those silver ornaments.

          • iSem

            Hi BY:
            Come one now Nefio killed lots of children, you and I and many who survived were the privileged ones, access to come vaccines and so on
            But science through vaccination made measles preventable. The discovery of smallpox was so huge that president Lincoln wrote a letter to the scientist who invented, it saying to the effect: “future generations will never know smallpox ever existed”
            So it is not hoopla, all the people who are anti vaccinates are spoiled brats, modern Luddites, if not for science they would be limping walking with cranes and strapped like what many people were going throungh before the turn of 20th centruy

          • Berhe Y

            Dear iSem,

            It’s a joke:).

            Ok I will take it back..all the vaccine invented before 1960 are good, all other vaccine after that are just money grabbing, quota filling hoopla, specially the flue shots….

            I know you or saay would jump on me.

            Berhe

          • Abraham H.

            Selam Berhe Y, what if the scientists discover a malaria a hiv, and ebola vaccines? Would they also be hoopla?

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Abraham,

            May be I am a sucker for Big Pharma Conspiracy theory. But makes me wonder why they haven’t find a cure/ vaccine all these years later but the industry has grown to be a trillion dollar industry.

            Berhe

          • Abraham H.

            Selam Berhe, I share your skeptical view on the big pharma companies, though I’m a strong advocate of the vaccination programes.

          • iSem

            Hi Ab H
            Sure big pharma is after profit as they should and it is good, it is good to make even huge profits provided that they do it without cheating the consumer. And it is human nature to cheat and cut corners so that is why we have regulation and the clinical trials and approvals and followups and going monitoring
            But the idea that big pharma hides the cures for many nasty diseases to make profits, idea that many eri I have discussed with hold is nuts. Because it is risky, how about if a start up comes up with a cure, it is a dog eat dog area so they cannot sit on a cure to make money so they could make money on the medicines that ppl need to take for the rest of their lives
            Berhe’s aversion of the vaccines, specially the flu vaccines is also not valid because virus are moving targets and u cannot make a vaccin every day a virus decides to mutate
            there are orphaned diseases like MS, ALS who are rare and pharama does not invest lots money because they have no incentive and cannot make money on it, u cannot blame them.But governments instead of spending the seed money on these diseases they opted for lengtheing the patent on the medicines that cure the orphaned diseases to give the companies time to recover cost and make money
            As long as you have agencies that regulate, monitor the pharma and conumer advocates who complain about everything, and strict laws to punish white collar crimes, as long as we have the free press that is not the enemy of the ppl big pharma is good:-)
            If the ppl like R Nader, who wrote “unsafe at any speed”, the car companies would not make safer cars, so big pharma or big banks and big auto are made up of ppl and ppl steal and cheat
            so even the flu shots are good, they are not made in underground bunker in Hishkeb ( MS, Joke:-:-)

          • Abraham H.

            Selam Semere, I understand your take, but the skepticism towards the big pharma is not what Eritreans only, but it is the concern of the general public. This doesn’t mean these drug companies have not and are not contributing hugely to the health of human beings.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Berhe Y and Fanti,
            As promised, here is the wooden shoe that I mentioned yesterday, I think I misspelled its name as Qirqab, I now found out it was “Kibkab.” It’s commonly described as Turkish sauna shoes, but was also common in old China. Maybe the Turks introduced it to us, but I remember when I was a kid, the old women had similar shoes though with shabby finishing–no one would consider exchange their Dutch clogs for the Kirkab I know.

            https://goo.gl/BIqnBh

          • iSem

            Hi Saleh:
            let me add this:
            If you look for a greenery to take a photo
            If you favor the hyena of your village to the hyena of a neighboring village,”mblaee mbliuu…”
            If you bless newly weds with: ” kem Saran Abrahamn, ferytin tsegetin ygberkom” when Sara and Ab had only one son between them

            🙂

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi iSem,

            1) The green background (touching a flowed) is an Asmara invention.
            2) spot on, fully adopted by modern day Habesha.
            3) Here, I am talking about a multi-religious Habesha, the Sara and and Abraham vow excludes me 🙂

          • Abraham H.

            Selam SGJ, I think the second most prominent social group in Eritrea, the Tigres, do not fit into the most of your ‘criteria’ for a typical Habesha. Yet, it is said that most of the people in current day Eritrea are the product of the interactions between the indegenous Kushites and those Semitic people/ the Al-AgaaEz and Habshat tribes from your previous comment, who migrated into our region. The question is how do we reconcile this marked difference between, for example, the Tigres and the Tigrigna/Habesha peoples? Could the Tigres claim to be Habeshas according to your ‘criteria’?

          • MS

            Hi Abraham
            Oh dear, Saleh had long told me I’m out of the Habesha claim. So, I will wish you all a “be’awet tezazimu” feast.
            Ok, back to you. Saleh brought an interesting perspective to the discussion. He said the claim to Habesha could be out of race or culture. In this case, Tigre could get a bit of space in the racial claim, but on the cultural aspect, it is out of luck. I think.

          • Abraham H.

            Selam Mahmuday, thanks for the explanation. Though there are many cultural differences, there are also many similarities between the two. Baking ‘kicha’ and cooking ‘ga’at’, the coffee ceremony, are just some examples.

          • Saleh Johar

            Ahlan MS,

            If you ever publicly claimed that you are “Hebeshtay” then you are. Otherwise, settle for whatever you have. It’s not like Habesha is a superior race as some chauvinists think. It is just… an identity like any other 🙂

          • MS

            MarHaben Ustaz Saleh
            Ha…ha… you want to put me in a cultural hot potato? OK, how about non-Habesha folks who enjoy enjiera+zigni; love the kuda dance, the music….? Not even an honorary membership? Well, I may as well stick with Bejastania, or with my Ethiopian friends who ask me ” Habasha new wey?” Or with my Amara friends who call any one north of AlamaTa as “Tigre”. My friend Belachew is across the street.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Mahmouday,
            You can enjoy anything and be anything you like. The problem is: I like Bryant rice and nan bread yet I am not Indian. I like Berber/Amazique music, I am still Habesha. I could tell you tons of jokes to make what I am saying easily understood. But I don’t want to land in a cultural hot potatoe that you are avoiding. Ashaa deeye mebrahtu!

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Abraham,

            I tried to simplify it but it seems it is complicated based on your comment.

            I do not know a Habesha who doesn’t fit in the ifs that I provided, but if there are Habesha as I know it, not the thousands of years old extrapolation, I would like to learn. If the Tigre were part of the Habesha polity at a given time and now do not feel they are Habesha, then they are not. I know the connection of Habab, Betjuk, and other social groups with Habesha, but that is a fluid identity. New groups can adopt /assimilate, other can separate or disown it. Can you tell me more about those non-Tigrinya speaking groups who identify themselves as Habesha? Also, please explain what you mean by “marked difference between Tigrai and Eritrean Habseha”?

            If you mean language and accent differences, you find it within smaller regions: the Tigrayet of Massawa, Haiget, and Mensura is markedly different, but it is still Tigrayet. The same applies to all Tigrinya language regardless of were it is spoken…there are noticeable differences in Eritrean Tigrinya as well.

            Please do not go to Kushite, Semite etc for our discussion. If you did so, explain why you can’t go beyond that to Adam and Eve. Please limit the discussion to the Habesha that we embrace and know about. Otherwise, it become a scholarly debate, which is boring.

          • Abraham H.

            Selam SGJ, according to my observation most of the Tigre/Tigrayit people do not fit into most of your unofficail ‘criteria’ of habeshawinet. But I now understand that many changes might have taken place through the centuries, and many tribes might have arrived in our area at a later time than others. The marked difference that I mentioned was that of cultural difference between the Tigre/Tigrayit (not Tigrai) people and the Tigrinyas in Eritrea, hence, what prompted my question ‘could the Tigrayit people consider themselves as habesha’ based on your unofficial criteria. If I understoond your reply correctly you”re of the opinion that only the Tigrinya speaking people could claim to be habesha, right?

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Abraham,
            I want to see someone who believes to be Habesha but doesn’t fit most if not all the criteria. Don’t just say they don’t fit, show me how they don’t.

            Also, consider that children who grow outside the Habesha habitat would not have a clue about the criteria. Are my children Habesha? I don’t know. Though I raised them like Habesha.

            As for Tigrayet speaking Habesha, show me one who says I am Hebeshtay and I will learn. Most avoid the cultural hot potate that Mahmouday explained.

            As you know, in the mind of many non-Tigrinya speakers, Hebeshtay came to be a description of a Tigrinya speaking Christian person… the rest you know it. Believe me I come from that hot potatoe culture I know enough about the popular psyche.

          • saay7

            Hey SGJ:

            On behalf of Eyob Medhane, who is absent without leave, I would like to make his arguments:

            Your habesha-identifiers appear to apply only to its historic home: Eritrean highlands and Tigray and Amharic-speakers. It exclusives people like the Harar who swear they are Habesha (according to him) as well as the Gurage (again, according to Eyob.)

            Of course some of us (Asmarino) have transcended habesha identity: we are not mocking you habesha, we just hope you guys will evolve to reach our level 😂😂😂

            saay

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Saay,
            Context is vital. I understand that the self appointed custodians of Habesha wish to expand the franchise. However, when they talk about Habesha, they don’t think of anyone outside the historical hotspot. I am addressing it from the utilitarian point of view. Let alone the hareri who loudly say they are Hareri, even a Norwegian guy can claim he is Habesha and I do not deny him that. But in the context we raised this Habesha identity issue, is eritrean and north Ethiopian. By the way, it is The transcended Asmarinos who think they can own an impose or stripe and discard that identity on the rest of us habeshas. Mention of any bad trait of Habesha and I assure you one of the laces it is made in is Asmara. Transcend ilka khe intaay malet eyyu?

          • Kim Hanna

            Selam Saleh Johar,
            .
            Sorry for this cringe inducing endorsement. I am 97% with you. People have, of course, the right to deny their membership to the group. Some of us deny being Africans.(in broad day light) What can you do other than shake your head and move on.
            .
            I specially agree with you about the boring scholarly discussion of Abeshanet, just read the supreme expert of scholarly discussion on the subject, our own Gehetab. It gives me migraine headache.
            .
            After everything is said and done, none of it matters. This fact brings me to my following MARCH SERMON.
            .
            Few months ago there was an Awate graphics that accompanied an article. I don’t remember the article.
            It was a great artistic picture that grabbed me. I went back to identify it for this post. No luck.
            The picture depicts a group of people waiting in line to jump of the cliff. In the picture you see someone has jumped off and another one was getting ready to follow.
            If you take that picture and expand that waiting line with the reality that All of us and other living things march along the same line, that is the definitive story in a nutshell. Some, of course, cut the line and jump off early. (accidents, wars, epidemic etc)
            .
            I presume every educated person knows and takes this, march to the edge of the cliff and then jumping off, as a fact.
            .
            I am wondering if we have other pressing problems on the horizon, until we get to the edge of the cliff. I have no answers, only questions.
            .
            Mr. K.H

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Kim Hanna,

            I think you are looking Saay’s article titled as “Eritrea: of pressure valve and self-inflicted wounds.” Go to his column “Alnahda” you will find it. Or if you click on Alnahda on the listed columnists on the front page, you will find one of the 4 current articles in his lists.

            Regards

          • abysinay

            wow I Remember our 6th grade history book mention it that the present day population is the out come of the sabeans,agazean and the habeshite . later the agazeans become dominant in the region. firstly the civilization was called de’amat with the center at ye ha..and worshiped on the sun God AL MOQAH..similar to the south Arabian one.. we can see the crescent on the obelisks @ Axum,ye-ha (mukrab) and seafe sabean Stella field.. as far as i have seen. later they made their center to Axum and Judaism become the religion after queen Saba vised king Solomon according to the bible and Quran. and the Christianity during the 1st century which become official at the time of ezana 4th century. refef eritrean 6th grade history.

    • Abraham H.

      Selam Gheteb, again I want to remind you I’m commenting not as a historian but as a layman observer. When I mentioned the maps I was talking about the core of the Axumite kingdom, becasue it is known as you pointed out the Kingdom had expanded both west occupying the Kush/Meroe and east towards Arabia. If there was Axumite presence in those Eritrean highland areas that you mentioned as well as in Adulis, the ancient Red Sea port, then it follows logically the kingdom must had all areas in between and all the way upto Tigray under its control. Plus if we agree that Axumite Kingdom was one of the most influencial ancient civilizations, also in terms of world history, with trade routes that criss-crossed the area, then it is natural to conclude it had a significant presence in today’s Eritrea. If as you pointed the people across the Mereb spoke Tigrinya before the rise of the Axumite kingdom, well and good, it only reinforces the claim these people had close relationship, if not they were one and the same people. And yes, there are other minority ethnic groups that live in the said area such as the Saho, and the Jeberti; could we say these people were Christians before the arrival of Islam? Also we need to remember the movements of people in the area and beyond because we are speaking in terms of time frame of millennia.
      In conclusion I’m not denying the presence of other civilizations in the area such as the Beja kingdom, before the arrival of the Axumite; but when Axum had a strong presence in the whole region, even controlling the Meroe, I could not imagine it would allow the presece of other independent smaller kingdoms within its reaches.
      PS. I repeat my earlier comment that the history of our region is barely studied, probably what we don’t know is more than what we know today, so it is upto people like you Gheteb (if you’re a historian) to work together to uncover the wealth of our ancient civilization.

      • Saleh Johar

        Hi Abraha and Gheteb,
        Habesha can be seen from two angless: racial and identity. As I said before, the Axumite kingdom covered laege areas in the region. It’s an established fact that its sea gateway was Adulis (Zula/Azzuli (?)). At one time the domain of the Axumites included Sourthern Arabia. I hope that much we agree upon.

        History tells us that after the the great dam in Southern Arabia, the people moved to everywhere, including North Africa, North Arabia and the levant. Most Arabs consider themselves Adnaneyeen (the progenies of Adnan or the tribe of Adnan) and that Adnan is traced back to South Arabia (Yemen).

        The great migration is believed to have happened after the flooding and fall of the dam in ancient Yemen; the Al-AgaaEz and Habshat tribes crossed the Red Sea to our region and gradually, out of that interaction, displacement of peoples, and conflicts, the Axumite kingdom came into being. Now, people can claim their ancestry from those ancient people (racial affiliation) or from that political entity (identity affiliation)–in both cases, they consider themselves Habesha.

        So far, I am not interested in scholarly quotes or archaeological challenges–I don’t believe it is relevant. People are who they believe they are because in our region, no one can trace his fifth grandfather with certainty (in a place that do not keep reliable records) because even among our generation most do not know their birthday thus all Eritreans are born on January 1, as Saleh Younis says. Why not?

        If Romulus and Remus were raised by a wolf and then founded Rome, if Sheba begot Minelik from Solomon, if Greek gods can intermarry each other and beget strange looking half-animal half human beings, why is it difficult to accept my claim, (for example) that my ancestors are the first Muslim migrants to Abyssinia?

        Seriously though, when I was growing up there were many people who proudly stated they were second (and first) generation Tigrayan. I even know of people who frequently traveled to Tigrai for family occasions or to tend to their farms and others interests. Then comes the PFDJ and makes people feel comfortable for having ties to Tigrai (1991-1997), then it switcehd policy and literally portrays Tigrai ancestry as a taboo. The anti-Tigrai racist rants become too bad everyone started to deny it. In our time, some people with Tigrain ancestry become too uncomfortable they are going crazy with Tigrai-Tigrinya projects–remember the feud of Abyssinian elite, Ethiopians and Eritreans claiming Pushkin for their side! Laughable)

        As far as I am concerned, I am Habesha, and that doesn’t contradict with any of the layers of identities that I carry. What I find significant in this situation is Islamic history which is abundantly available and it reinforces my belief. I do not have any problem with people claiming to be Scandinavians born in the Axumite domains, or claiming to be Beja, Below, or anything else. They just do not have to try hard to change my Habesha identity.

        Abraham: You asked what some groups were before the advent of Islam. I bet no one can tell you with certainty–but for myself, my ancestors were never pagans 🙂 Before Christianity, they were probably Jews or believed in Ashtar. Then they were any of the two including or Christians. When the Muslim migrants arrived in the region, they lived for 16 years (some longer) they intermarried and produced children. I trace my ancestry to those Habesha or Habeshized people. The onus is on those who want to disprove my claim 🙂

        • Simon Kaleab

          Selam Saleh J.,

          A very good summary!

  • ‘Gheteb

    Selam Berhe Y,

    You said:

    ” But I am Habesha, I am Ortodox Christian and I believe I am and my ancestors are integral part of the Axumite Kingdom”.

    I was not looking for what you believe in, but to provide evidence that Eritrea was an “INTEGRAL PART of the Axumite Kingdom” such as antiquities, historical sites, archaeological findings, buildings in all over Eritrea that proves that what we call now Eritrea was under the TOTAL administration or what was the Axumite kingdom.

    I am not interested to find out what you believe in. You can believe that the Earth is NOT round and that you believe in Dr.Seuss’s advice as many kids/children do. That is your prerogative, but you can’t just make such a baseless claims like:

    “..I am Habesha, I am Ortodox Christian…” and expect me to take your claims at face value. What makes you think that you are a Habesha because you “ortodox christian”. What about a person who happens to be Catholic or Protestant or even a Muslim? How can they claim to be Habeshas if they are not members of the Tewahod Orthodox church? What is Habesha, anyways? What makes a Habesha a Habesha? Eating Injera/Zigni, wearing Ejetebab/ Zuria? Having a coffee ceremony with popcorn? Or, is there something else to it? Before claiming that you are a proud Habesha, can you tell me what in God’s green earth does term Habesha means what does it entails?

    Do you have genealogical proof based on DNA tests that shows that you are a descendant of the original Habashat tribes of ancient Arabia or Yemen?

    What I am looking for is for you to show me where the archaeological/ antiquity/ historical sites in Eritrea are that show us that indeed Eritrea was under the total control or an integral part of the Axumite kingdom. Here are some examples to help you understand what I am looking for:

    (1) Metera (2) Qohaito (3) Keskese (4) Adulis

    If you can provide names of the Eritrea regions/ provinces towns that show that they are of Axumite origin.

    • Berhe Y

      Selam Gheteb,

      First some clarification. I did not imply that, others who are not orthodox Christians are not habesha. I told about my self, who I am and what I believe who I am, because you were making the argument that there is no evidence that today’s Eritrea was an Integral Part of Axumite Kingdom and I told you that I am, or believed to be.

      So let me ask you this? Do you think today Axum in Tigray was integral part of Axumite Kingdom? Do you think today residents of Axum were integral part of the Axumite Kingdom?

      And what about Adi Quala? And how far is the distance between Adi Quala and Axum?

      The second point it, in order to prove that there is no connection because there isn’t any archaeological proof found. I have some book that I am going to refer again if I find something to share. Let’s assume what you said is correct, there isn’t any evidence to suggest that. Are you 100% sure that there will be any evidence EVER will be found? Has there been research / excavation done to suggest that, there is nothing will ever be found in the future?

      Humans are going to outer world to find evidence of life form. And here you are making an argument that, we are a sneeze away from each other and you think there is no connection.

      Sure there may not have been DNA evidence done, between those people in Eritrea/ Ethiopia and Yemen. I don’t think it will be that hard to prove that there was a link…just google search people of yemen images and compare that to Habesha Eritrea/ Ethiopia images and be your own judge.

      So where do you think the residents of Eritrea highlands come from? I am just curious what you think….

      Berhe

      • iSem

        Hi BY:
        You asked: “So where do you think the residents of Eritrea highlands come from? I am just curious what you think…”
        Good luck getting an answer from Gheteb.
        But let me say that the residents of Eritrea did not come from anywhere, they have sprung from the fertile soil of Eritrea, just like the worms, they germinated from the ground, that is why wheneve Gheteb goes to Keren and huddles with his buddies in the coffee shops to brag about how he “nezen enda awate sheqqotqot yeblen..” and in his absent minded state spills the tea, he shouts “ana wed msmmar middr. But his anscestors that he is driving you crazy with never invoked msmar middr, he stole it from the natives of Keren.

  • sara

    Dear berhe,
    Frankly….b Saraha..the last 2-3 paragraphs of your comment is just to spice l the main content of your views or thoughts……..and that’s fine, but…but be considerate to accept others views.

    • Berhe Y

      Dear Sara,

      I wish you take your time to respond or comment on what I said/wrote rather than you speculate what I wanted to say. I don’t have to spice anything to win an argument, what I write and say is what I believe. The other day you told me to read history books but when you were presented with facts, you disappeared. Based on what you write and say, I sense that you have a bias of your own that you need to deal with, and come to terms with ALL Eritrean people and region/religion.

      I can tell you that there is no body that I know of who doesn’t believe in an independent and free Eritrea. Our fathers tried the union/federation thing with Ethiopia and it turned out to be a disaster and there is no body who wants to see that repeat.

      However, if you forget about the current boarder impasse out of the equation (TPLF/EPLF) fight..our people in the highlands have lived along side south boarder for centuries without any body telling them what and where to go. The same can be said about our people in the Semhar / Afra region with those from Djibouti / Ethiopia. And the same in the Easter part of Eritrea.

      Yes we had disputes and wars in the past but nothing out of the ordinary during those times. So I don’t see it any different than the wars waged in the Arab countries or the European countries…or Asian countries. And if these countries find a way to settle their differences after shedding so much blood, our past problems really pale in comparison and there is nothing that will stop us from moving forward.

      I personally believe, Eritrea will be best served if it makes peace with all it’s neighbors, South with Ethiopia / Djibouti, North/ East with Sudan, West with Yemen and S. Arabia. With our immediate neighbors, free movements including free trade and other mutually beneficial for both of our people.

      And beyond that, with the horn and north African countries, rest of Africa and the middle east and Europe and far east and north/south America.

      Our diversity in both our religion and our language should be an asset to trade with all our immediate neighbors and beyond and should serve us well.

      Remember at people to people level we have no hate or animosity towards any of our neighbors and those who do are very, very minimum and they shouldn’t be the people to set the tone for our people.

      Berhe

      • sara

        Dear Berhe
        thank you for taking the time to respond to my comment. As you know some of us have so many things to do in between work,home chores that we end up saying little or nothing.
        look Berhe, you saying so much and i would need whole pages to respond to you each and every point you stated that this forum will not allow it-and i don’t see the necessity of it as it is going to bee a repetition to what was told by many forumers.-but again dawn the line you are making a broad statement that many people will not agree with, except few and you –that there is no hate and animosity etc— i know this is good politics to say so in the diaspora west, but imagine what majority of eritreans at home,in the middle east think specially those who paid dearly and still doing so with their blood-flesh-sweat and their life children’s future.

        • Berhe Y

          Dear sara,

          I understand that you are pressed with for time and believe it or not I am too. But I sometime comment because I give it a priority. What I ask you to reconsider is, I do not say and write anything because for politics.

          I do hope you find the time to say what you need to say and it’s the best way we can learn about each other and our problems and eventually find a solution.

          One thing that I can say, and I am not saying you have said it is that, some times people tend to make assumption that the Isayas Afeworki regime, because most of them are made up of Christian Eritreans, that they think it’s supported by all Christian Eritreans. As far as I know, the Christians are it’s primary victims as well like all other Eritreans. And proof to that is, as you can notice in every day news the number of them perishing running away from the regime. Yes there a lot of loud supporters Nhna Nsu all over in Diaspora, but still their numbers pale, specially compared to those inside the country.

          This website and the founders mission is: to Inform, Inspire, Embolden and Reconciliation. And I hope we see the days comes to see all that when we have the right leaders.

          Berhe

  • said

    Detected as spam .Thanks, we’ll work on getting this corrected.
    riposting
    Greetings,
    With all my utmost respect to all the believers of Christianity from all kind domination and sect. I would like to ask my Christian reader to answer few question. Muslims sincerely believe that everything Jesus (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) preached was from God; the Gospel (Injeel): The “good news”
    where did the word Christianity or Tewahdo come from and was the word ever mentioned to Jesus? where Jesus called himself a Christian.
    1 Thessalonians 5:17 which says; “pray without ceasing,” that lingered heavily in my mind. I often wondered how a person (Christian) was supposed to pray (be in a state of worship) without ceasing? Without any biblical or divine guidance, the only way I thought this to be possible was to always do good deeds and keep the remembrance of God on my tongue and in my heart. How do Christian do their worship.
    Jesus prophesied that people would worship him uselessly and believe in doctrines made by men (Matthew 15:9).
    If Christians are Christ-like, why are they not greeting each other with the words; Peace be with you (Salamu Alaikum), as Jesus did in Luke 24:36.
    There are MANY Bibles on the market that are used by different Christian sects and all of these sects say that their book, though different, is the word of God. The Holy Bible; New International Version, the Living Bible, Roman Catholic Version and the King James Version. The Revised Standard Version 1952 & 1971, New American Standard Bible,
    Biblical scholars themselves have recognized the human nature and human composition of the Bible (Curt Kuhl, The Old Testament: Its Origin and Composition, PP 47, 51, 52), there should exist in the Christian’s mind some acceptance to the fact that maybe every word of the Bible is not God’s word.
    Luke 1:2-3, you will learn, as I did, that Luke (who was not one of the 12 disciples and never met Jesus) said that he himself was not an eyewitness, and the knowledge he gathered was from eyewitnesses, and not as words inspired by God. Incidentally, why does every “Gospel” begin with the introduction According to. Why “according to?
    Matthew 9:9 proves that Matthew was not the author of the first Gospel which bears his name: but a third person writing what he saw or heard –not words inspired by God. In summary and nutshell, the present four “gospels” of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) were imposed in the Council of Nicea 325 CE for political purposes under the auspices of the pagan Emperor Constantine, and not by Jesus.
    well known throughout among historian and Christian scholars, History tell us pagan Emperor Constantine’s mind had not been enlightened either by study or by inspiration. He was a pagan, a tyrant and criminal who murdered his son, his wife and thousands of innocent individuals because of his lust for political power. Constantine ratified other decisions in the Nicene Creed such as the decision to call Christ “the Son of God, only begotten of the father.
    hundreds of gospels and religious writings were hidden from the people. Some of those writings were written by Jesus’ disciples, and many of them were eyewitness accounts of Jesus’ actions. The Nicaea Council decided to destroy all gospels written in Hebrew, which resulted in the burning of nearly three hundred accounts. If these writings were not more authentic than the four present gospels, they were of equal authenticity. Some of them are still available such as the Gospel of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas.
    the Protestant word, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Seventh Day Adventists and other sects and denominations condemn the Roman Catholic version of the Bible because it contains seven “extra” books. The Protestant have bravely expunged seven whole books from their word of God. A few of the outcasts are the Books of Judith, Tobnias, Baruch and Esther.
    what Gospel did Jesus preach? Of the 27 books of the New Testament, only a small fraction can be accepted as the words of Jesus, and only of the 27 books are known to be attributed as the Gospel of Jesus. The remaining 23 were supposedly written by Paul. The earliest Gospel is that of Mark’s which was written about 60-75 AD.
    Luke’s Gospel was written much later, and in fact, drawn from the same sources as Mark’s and Matthew’s. Luke was Paul’s physician, and like Paul, never met Jesus. By the way, did you know that the names Marks and Luke were not included in the 12 appointed disciples of Jesus as mentioned in Matthew 10:2-4? John’s Gospel is from a different source, and was written in about 100 AD.
    Luke 10:25-28:Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbor as thyself. And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do, and Thou shalt live.
    These verses tell us that the inheritance of eternal life is for anyone who believes and worships no other God, but the One True God. Luke 10:25-28 agrees with Matthew 19:16-17 which says;
    “And behold, one came and said to him (Jesus), Good teacher, what good things shall I do that I may have eternal life? So he (Jesus) said to him, ‘Why do you call me good? – No one is good but One that is, God. But if you want to enter into eternal life, keep the commandments.”
    Jesus is the son (servant) of man is Mark 14:26 where Jesus is mentioning the Day of Reckoning. Jesus specifically said we would see the son of man, not the Son of God, sitting in the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.
    Did Jesus ever claim to be God or say, “Here am I, your God, worship me”? statement in the Bible whereby Jesus himself declares God .

  • Selamat Awate Forum,

    Apparently, there is a concerted efforts by our knowledgeable top heavy folks. They are well organized with strict adherence to a pre planned script to assure the a certain topic is to remain priority for the dissection for the unforseen future. The conductor and orchestra, consisting of directive following with script in hand musicians as well as expected to play their well measured positions and instruments with full acceptance by the meticulous architects.

    I have down loaded the disqus 69 pages long moderator tools and suggestions. I have created my own website and read extensively on the “Engage, Reveal, Retain and Expand” Disqus API model. I have done this out of my necessity to seek understanding of my ineffectiveness to penetrate the foroumers to accept a role that does not type cast each one to act and re-enact centuries old biases that has stagnated a significant move forward towards the set objective. But it is perhaps my trustworthy, naive and gullible as well as lazy self that empowered the tireless opposition leaders and technocrats by leaving all the heavy lifting to them. The belief was that these leaders are more knowledgable, accomplished and wise than I could ever strive and be. I would constantly shy away from real work, believing and trusting the leadership elites of Eritrea will lead us the blind and strewn in every direction of this vast globe both physically and conceptally. Eritreans including yours truly, I believed are in good hands. What can a Failed State of a man such as myself possibly contribute towards the avoidance of a Failed State Eritrea is endangered by.

    By schooling, I have the full knowledge of Electrical and Computing Engineering as well as Applied Mathematics. And so, after over a decade it was but a day’s crash course to foresee an independent simulation design to rival for superior than the simulations readying for a momentous impact turn to effect the issues as they have collectively agreed would be best. These new phenomenons and echelon tier programming, however, has not settled well with my understanding based on sound academics I base them on. My corporate work has exposed me to extensive forecasting modeling under numerous scenarios. The vast worst case to best case scenarios balancing Liabilities and Assets under interchangeable favoring or averse to conditions and valuation methods to either side of the ledger has conditioned me to scan the array in any opposing arguementations. And though I have been hiding under the mask of mental madness and a nuisance pebble throwing myself into the smooth machine in order to bring it to a full stop grinding halt, with each challenge the over decade and a half head start by our Eritrean Opposition has proven not only quite formidable but also determined to sacrifice collateral damage in order to commandeer their set objective as leaders of a significant following. As for myself, albeit unorthodox and on the far fringes from what is accepted as the norm, my unique dispossition and empirical journey was not necessarily over a decade obsessive following and studying the chaotic development up to this point. Clearly there is conflicting interest to be a party of an undefined very long conversations amongst nationals, neighbors and friends by serving as an amusement anomaly with no space carved for its fit into the consensus forseen society of the future objective. It would also be not only delusional but also pathetic panhandling for the alms of validity to authentic rational academic perspective arguments from my own equals if not lesser examined point of views.
    I am aware of the tools and my flagged status, (could be carried out without the “banned” commenter’s knowledge. And I respect the decsisive actions of leadership in unison for sidelining what they deemed counterproductive to a once upon a time and perhaps existant still mutual just goal. Appreciative for the kindness and growth that leads me to two the line of the well wishers and dreamers by choosing try try less traveled road at this fork.
    I will take artistic and academic liberty on painting from my own perspective with the intent of having a greater impact positive effect than all the complementary roads traveled since 1991. I have a full arsenal at my disposal to utilize without the bandwagon influence.
    I do believe this aggresive launch defiant challenge to the already in progress simulation will only be enhanced when by first made to shine in the light characteristics and strategy by the Eritrean Opposition the flaws and detrimental desperate irrational modus operandi will be exposed fully. And The Filter shall separate and elevate the True, just and competent leadership that Eritreans, Ethiopians and the Horn of African in general is in dire need of.

    I suspect that this may not appear on this forum, but do expect to read it soon never the less.

    AmEritrean GitSAtSE Spinning Off.

  • said

    Detected as spam Thanks, we’ll work on getting this corrected.
    Detected as spam Thanks, we’ll work on getting this corrected.
    Greetings,
    With all my utmost respect to all the believers of Christianity from all kind domination and sect. I would like to ask my Christian reader to answer few question. Muslims sincerely believe that everything Jesus (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) preached was from God; the Gospel (Injeel): The “good news”
    where did the word Christianity or Tewahdo come from and was the word ever mentioned to Jesus? where Jesus called himself a Christian.
    1 Thessalonians 5:17 which says; “pray without ceasing,” that lingered heavily in my mind. I often wondered how a person (Christian) was supposed to pray (be in a state of worship) without ceasing? Without any biblical or divine guidance, the only way I thought this to be possible was to always do good deeds and keep the remembrance of God on my tongue and in my heart. How do Christian do their worship.
    Jesus prophesied that people would worship him uselessly and believe in doctrines made by men (Matthew 15:9).
    If Christians are Christ-like, why are they not greeting each other with the words; Peace be with you (Salamu Alaikum), as Jesus did in Luke 24:36.
    There are MANY Bibles on the market that are used by different Christian sects and all of these sects say that their book, though different, is the word of God. The Holy Bible; New International Version, the Living Bible, Roman Catholic Version and the King James Version. The Revised Standard Version 1952 & 1971, New American Standard Bible,
    Biblical scholars themselves have recognized the human nature and human composition of the Bible (Curt Kuhl, The Old Testament: Its Origin and Composition, PP 47, 51, 52), there should exist in the Christian’s mind some acceptance to the fact that maybe every word of the Bible is not God’s word.
    Luke 1:2-3, you will learn, as I did, that Luke (who was not one of the 12 disciples and never met Jesus) said that he himself was not an eyewitness, and the knowledge he gathered was from eyewitnesses, and not as words inspired by God. Incidentally, why does every “Gospel” begin with the introduction According to. Why “according to?
    Matthew 9:9 proves that Matthew was not the author of the first Gospel which bears his name: but a third person writing what he saw or heard –not words inspired by God. In summary and nutshell, the present four “gospels” of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) were imposed in the Council of Nicea 325 CE for political purposes under the auspices of the pagan Emperor Constantine, and not by Jesus.
    well known throughout among historian and Christian scholars, History tell us pagan Emperor Constantine’s mind had not been enlightened either by study or by inspiration. He was a pagan, a tyrant and criminal who murdered his son, his wife and thousands of innocent individuals because of his lust for political power. Constantine ratified other decisions in the Nicene Creed such as the decision to call Christ “the Son of God, only begotten of the father.
    hundreds of gospels and religious writings were hidden from the people. Some of those writings were written by Jesus’ disciples, and many of them were eyewitness accounts of Jesus’ actions. The Nicaea Council decided to destroy all gospels written in Hebrew, which resulted in the burning of nearly three hundred accounts. If these writings were not more authentic than the four present gospels, they were of equal authenticity. Some of them are still available such as the Gospel of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas.
    the Protestant word, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Seventh Day Adventists and other sects and denominations condemn the Roman Catholic version of the Bible because it contains seven “extra” books. The Protestant have bravely expunged seven whole books from their word of God. A few of the outcasts are the Books of Judith, Tobnias, Baruch and Esther.
    what Gospel did Jesus preach? Of the 27 books of the New Testament, only a small fraction can be accepted as the words of Jesus, and only of the 27 books are known to be attributed as the Gospel of Jesus. The remaining 23 were supposedly written by Paul. The earliest Gospel is that of Mark’s which was written about 60-75 AD.
    Luke’s Gospel was written much later, and in fact, drawn from the same sources as Mark’s and Matthew’s. Luke was Paul’s physician, and like Paul, never met Jesus. By the way, did you know that the names Marks and Luke were not included in the 12 appointed disciples of Jesus as mentioned in Matthew 10:2-4? John’s Gospel is from a different source, and was written in about 100 AD.
    Luke 10:25-28:Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbor as thyself. And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do, and Thou shalt live.
    These verses tell us that the inheritance of eternal life is for anyone who believes and worships no other God, but the One True God. Luke 10:25-28 agrees with Matthew 19:16-17 which says;
    “And behold, one came and said to him (Jesus), Good teacher, what good things shall I do that I may have eternal life? So he (Jesus) said to him, ‘Why do you call me good? – No one is good but One that is, God. But if you want to enter into eternal life, keep the commandments.”
    Jesus is the son (servant) of man is Mark 14:26 where Jesus is mentioning the Day of Reckoning. Jesus specifically said we would see the son of man, not the Son of God, sitting in the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.
    Did Jesus ever claim to be God or say, “Here am I, your God, worship me”? statement in the Bible whereby Jesus himself declares God .

    • Abraham H.

      Selam Said, I think something is wrong with your disqus account. You are flooding the forum with same posts, with what seems to be an error message: “Detected as spam Thanks, we’ll work on getting this corrected.”

      • said

        salam
        many thanks .you are right.

  • said

    Detected as spam Thanks, we’ll work on getting this corrected.
    Selam Simon and all
    Thank you for Interesting advice. Religion played greatly in our region for good and bad. Your entitle to your opinion. I do not wish to denigrate Christianity ,Jews ,Hindus or Buddhists for that matter.
    Jesus Christ taught us to “love your neighbour as yourself” (Matthew 22:39) and beyond that, to “love your enemies, do good to those who hate you” (Luke 6:27). Faith is about respect; about seeing what is Godly in everyone else and therefore affirming the infinite value of life, and of every human being.There are many examples of Christians who have dedicated their lives to helping the less fortunate, violent regimes in human history were atheist governments whose leaders tried to stamp out religion: Josef Stalin, Mao Tse Tung and Pol Pot. Christians have vigorously opposed totalitarian regimes such as Hitler’s government; tragically, there were nominal Christians in it, yet many Christian believers, were murdered or imprisoned. pagan Romans for their religious tolerance let us not overlook their “secular brutality” or penchant for throwing slaves to the lions for sport! When Hindus declare their acceptance of all, let us not forget caste discrimination and the increasingly violent clashes between Hindu nationalists and other religions.
    A good example for sake of being neutral. A Buddhist perspective would begin with the opposite assertion — it’s us, not them! What prompts violence are “the three stains” — greed, grasping and ignorance — which do not belong to any race, creed, colour, age or gender. They are deeply ingrained patterns that constitute the human condition. They are not applied, or acquired; they are inherent, so they cannot be engineered out.
    But We tend to think of Buddhism as the epitome of nonviolence. Yet Sri Lankan Buddhists have been engaged in a brutal civil war in against Tamils; in modern-day Thailand fully ordained Buddhist monks tote guns, and Buddhist Rahines in southern Burma clash violently with Rohingya Muslims.
    Living the ideals of our faith is difficult sometimes, especially in countries lie Eritrea and Ethiopia and many places where there are ethnic and cultural clashes and where differing faith traditions are part of the mosaic. In these places, the call of Christ to love our enemies is especially important. True adherent and Authentic Christianity and Muslims teaches healing and reconciliation, not violence. Certainly one can name any religion and find examples of violence within its ranks. Even Buddhism, The problem lies with literalist fanatics who engage in gang mentality.There is a lot misinformation ad Islamophobia – an irrational fear of Islam .It is shameful that at a time when there are those who promotes islamaphoia and persecution and killing of Muslim, is a mute to the suffering, denigration and murder of their coreligionists in Eritrea elicit barely a whisper of condemnation or protest.
    Muslim are very familiar and used to the scapegoating, disrespect ,stereotyping and denigration of Muslims nothing new, We must admit fro same time that we have our own tiny minority whose message and methods we have not firmly, and publicly repudiated and rejected. we have our idiots and fanatics it happen to be Isaias and his devilish acts with the complicity of his our aim and good and with his follower of Mafioso group .What Eritrean Muslim reject, deplore and condemn Isais regime is his criminal act deplored by all of us ,but for most part targeting Muslim has hit a bottom and the worst kind ever Eritrea have ever seeing , Or is it merely a coincidence? if you will. The vast majority of Eritrean christen are loving and peaceful people but are ashamed their faith to be associated with this evil man that infect that religious identity with cruelty and hostility? The way of Christ who, when reviled, did not revile in return, who when insulted, did not insult in return, and who taught his followers to love even those who define themselves as enemies. No one can serve two masters. You can’t serve God and greed, nor can you serve God and fear, nor God and hate.

  • Brhan

    Hello Awate and congratulations Semere,

    Books and their writers deserve an applause. Writers spend a lot of time doing the research to come with credible information and there is no publisher who won’t take this seriously.

    The history of religions is in Eritrea to be studied and then presented in a book not only help us know our past but also understand our diversity and have mutual respect to each other.

    The time I read Islam in Ethiopia written by J Spencer Trimingham in 1965, I wished to read similar books about the history of Orthodox, Catholicism and Protestant other religions in Eritrea. Semere fulfilled my wish.

    • Abrehet Yosief

      Selam Brhan,
      I agree with you and I am looking forward to reading Semere’s book. I will look for the book by Trimingham. There is a book on the history of Protestant (Evangelical) in Eritrea. “Kenisha: The roots and development of The Evangelical Church of Eritrea 1866-1935” by Karl Johan Lundstrom and Ezra Gebremedhin published by Red Sea Press. On the history of Catholicism, you may find “The Ebullient Phoenix: A History of The Vicariate of Abyssinia” by Kevin O. Mahoney published by Ethiopian Studies Center in Asmara in 1982.

  • said

    Detected as spam Thanks, we’ll work on getting this corrected.
    Greetings,
    With all my utmost respect to all the believers of Christianity from all kind domination and sect. I would like to ask my Christian reader to answer few question. Muslims sincerely believe that everything Jesus (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) preached was from God; the Gospel (Injeel): The “good news”
    where did the word Christianity or Tewahdo come from and was the word ever mentioned to Jesus? where Jesus called himself a Christian.
    1 Thessalonians 5:17 which says; “pray without ceasing,” that lingered heavily in my mind. I often wondered how a person (Christian) was supposed to pray (be in a state of worship) without ceasing? Without any biblical or divine guidance, the only way I thought this to be possible was to always do good deeds and keep the remembrance of God on my tongue and in my heart. How do Christian do their worship.
    Jesus prophesied that people would worship him uselessly and believe in doctrines made by men (Matthew 15:9).
    If Christians are Christ-like, why are they not greeting each other with the words; Peace be with you (Salamu Alaikum), as Jesus did in Luke 24:36.
    There are MANY Bibles on the market that are used by different Christian sects and all of these sects say that their book, though different, is the word of God. The Holy Bible; New International Version, the Living Bible, Roman Catholic Version and the King James Version. The Revised Standard Version 1952 & 1971, New American Standard Bible,
    Biblical scholars themselves have recognized the human nature and human composition of the Bible (Curt Kuhl, The Old Testament: Its Origin and Composition, PP 47, 51, 52), there should exist in the Christian’s mind some acceptance to the fact that maybe every word of the Bible is not God’s word.
    Luke 1:2-3, you will learn, as I did, that Luke (who was not one of the 12 disciples and never met Jesus) said that he himself was not an eyewitness, and the knowledge he gathered was from eyewitnesses, and not as words inspired by God. Incidentally, why does every “Gospel” begin with the introduction According to. Why “according to?
    Matthew 9:9 proves that Matthew was not the author of the first Gospel which bears his name: but a third person writing what he saw or heard –not words inspired by God. In summary and nutshell, the present four “gospels” of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) were imposed in the Council of Nicea 325 CE for political purposes under the auspices of the pagan Emperor Constantine, and not by Jesus.
    well known throughout among historian and Christian scholars, History tell us pagan Emperor Constantine’s mind had not been enlightened either by study or by inspiration. He was a pagan, a tyrant and criminal who murdered his son, his wife and thousands of innocent individuals because of his lust for political power. Constantine ratified other decisions in the Nicene Creed such as the decision to call Christ “the Son of God, only begotten of the father.
    hundreds of gospels and religious writings were hidden from the people. Some of those writings were written by Jesus’ disciples, and many of them were eyewitness accounts of Jesus’ actions. The Nicaea Council decided to destroy all gospels written in Hebrew, which resulted in the burning of nearly three hundred accounts. If these writings were not more authentic than the four present gospels, they were of equal authenticity. Some of them are still available such as the Gospel of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas.
    the Protestant word, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Seventh Day Adventists and other sects and denominations condemn the Roman Catholic version of the Bible because it contains seven “extra” books. The Protestant have bravely expunged seven whole books from their word of God. A few of the outcasts are the Books of Judith, Tobnias, Baruch and Esther.
    what Gospel did Jesus preach? Of the 27 books of the New Testament, only a small fraction can be accepted as the words of Jesus, and only of the 27 books are known to be attributed as the Gospel of Jesus. The remaining 23 were supposedly written by Paul. The earliest Gospel is that of Mark’s which was written about 60-75 AD.
    Luke’s Gospel was written much later, and in fact, drawn from the same sources as Mark’s and Matthew’s. Luke was Paul’s physician, and like Paul, never met Jesus. By the way, did you know that the names Marks and Luke were not included in the 12 appointed disciples of Jesus as mentioned in Matthew 10:2-4? John’s Gospel is from a different source, and was written in about 100 AD.
    Luke 10:25-28:Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbor as thyself. And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do, and Thou shalt live.
    These verses tell us that the inheritance of eternal life is for anyone who believes and worships no other God, but the One True God. Luke 10:25-28 agrees with Matthew 19:16-17 which says;
    “And behold, one came and said to him (Jesus), Good teacher, what good things shall I do that I may have eternal life? So he (Jesus) said to him, ‘Why do you call me good? – No one is good but One that is, God. But if you want to enter into eternal life, keep the commandments.”
    Jesus is the son (servant) of man is Mark 14:26 where Jesus is mentioning the Day of Reckoning. Jesus specifically said we would see the son of man, not the Son of God, sitting in the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.
    Did Jesus ever claim to be God or say, “Here am I, your God, worship me”? statement in the Bible whereby Jesus himself declares God .

    • Simon Kaleab

      Selam Said,

      The reason for many inconsistencies is because Christianity, as any other Religion, is made by different people as they went along. This will apply to your religion as well, so relax and desist from opening a can of worms.

      • said

        Selam Simon and all
        Thank you for Interesting advice. Religion played greatly in our region for good and bad. Your entitle to your opinion. I do not wish to denigrate Christianity ,Jews ,Hindus or Buddhists for that matter.
        Jesus Christ taught us to “love your neighbour as yourself” (Matthew 22:39) and beyond that, to “love your enemies, do good to those who hate you” (Luke 6:27). Faith is about respect; about seeing what is Godly in everyone else and therefore affirming the infinite value of life, and of every human being.There are many examples of Christians who have dedicated their lives to helping the less fortunate, violent regimes in human history were atheist governments whose leaders tried to stamp out religion: Josef Stalin, Mao Tse Tung and Pol Pot. Christians have vigorously opposed totalitarian regimes such as Hitler’s government; tragically, there were nominal Christians in it, yet many Christian believers, were murdered or imprisoned. pagan Romans for their religious tolerance let us not overlook their “secular brutality” or penchant for throwing slaves to the lions for sport! When Hindus declare their acceptance of all, let us not forget caste discrimination and the increasingly violent clashes between Hindu nationalists and other religions.
        A good example for sake of being neutral. A Buddhist perspective would begin with the opposite assertion — it’s us, not them! What prompts violence are “the three stains” — greed, grasping and ignorance — which do not belong to any race, creed, colour, age or gender. They are deeply ingrained patterns that constitute the human condition. They are not applied, or acquired; they are inherent, so they cannot be engineered out.
        But We tend to think of Buddhism as the epitome of nonviolence. Yet Sri Lankan Buddhists have been engaged in a brutal civil war in against Tamils; in modern-day Thailand fully ordained Buddhist monks tote guns, and Buddhist Rahines in southern Burma clash violently with Rohingya Muslims.
        Living the ideals of our faith is difficult sometimes, especially in countries lie Eritrea and Ethiopia and many places where there are ethnic and cultural clashes and where differing faith traditions are part of the mosaic. In these places, the call of Christ to love our enemies is especially important. True adherent and Authentic Christianity and Muslims teaches healing and reconciliation, not violence. Certainly one can name any religion and find examples of violence within its ranks. Even Buddhism, The problem lies with literalist fanatics who engage in gang mentality.There is a lot misinformation ad Islamophobia – an irrational fear of Islam .It is shameful that at a time when there are those who promotes islamaphoia and persecution and killing of Muslim, is a mute to the suffering, denigration and murder of their coreligionists in Eritrea elicit barely a whisper of condemnation or protest.
        Muslim are very familiar and used to the scapegoating, disrespect ,stereotyping and denigration of Muslims nothing new, We must admit fro same time that we have our own tiny minority whose message and methods we have not firmly, and publicly repudiated and rejected. we have our idiots and fanatics it happen to be Isaias and his devilish acts with the complicity of his our aim and good and with his follower of Mafioso group .What Eritrean Muslim reject, deplore and condemn Isais regime is his criminal act deplored by all of us ,but for most part targeting Muslim has hit a bottom and the worst kind ever Eritrea have ever seeing , Or is it merely a coincidence? if you will. The vast majority of Eritrean christen are loving and peaceful people but are ashamed their faith to be associated with this evil man that infect that religious identity with cruelty and hostility? The way of Christ who, when reviled, did not revile in return, who when insulted, did not insult in return, and who taught his followers to love even those who define themselves as enemies. No one can serve two masters. You can’t serve God and greed, nor can you serve God and fear, nor God and hate.

        • Simon Kaleab

          Selam Said,

          All Religions are flawed. But you are showing selective outrage.

  • said

    Greetings,
    With all my utmost respect to all the believers of Christianity from all kind domination and sect. I would like to ask my Christian reader to answer few question. Muslims sincerely believe that everything Jesus (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) preached was from God; the Gospel (Injeel): The “good news”
    where did the word Christianity or Tewahdo come from and was the word ever mentioned to Jesus? where Jesus called himself a Christian.
    1 Thessalonians 5:17 which says; “pray without ceasing,” that lingered heavily in my mind. I often wondered how a person (Christian) was supposed to pray (be in a state of worship) without ceasing? Without any biblical or divine guidance, the only way I thought this to be possible was to always do good deeds and keep the remembrance of God on my tongue and in my heart. How do Christian do their worship.
    Jesus prophesied that people would worship him uselessly and believe in doctrines made by men (Matthew 15:9).
    If Christians are Christ-like, why are they not greeting each other with the words; Peace be with you (Salamu Alaikum), as Jesus did in Luke 24:36.
    There are MANY Bibles on the market that are used by different Christian sects and all of these sects say that their book, though different, is the word of God. The Holy Bible; New International Version, the Living Bible, Roman Catholic Version and the King James Version. The Revised Standard Version 1952 & 1971, New American Standard Bible,
    Biblical scholars themselves have recognized the human nature and human composition of the Bible (Curt Kuhl, The Old Testament: Its Origin and Composition, PP 47, 51, 52), there should exist in the Christian’s mind some acceptance to the fact that maybe every word of the Bible is not God’s word.
    Luke 1:2-3, you will learn, as I did, that Luke (who was not one of the 12 disciples and never met Jesus) said that he himself was not an eyewitness, and the knowledge he gathered was from eyewitnesses, and not as words inspired by God. Incidentally, why does every “Gospel” begin with the introduction According to. Why “according to?
    Matthew 9:9 proves that Matthew was not the author of the first Gospel which bears his name: but a third person writing what he saw or heard –not words inspired by God. In summary and nutshell, the present four “gospels” of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) were imposed in the Council of Nicea 325 CE for political purposes under the auspices of the pagan Emperor Constantine, and not by Jesus.
    well known throughout among historian and Christian scholars, History tell us pagan Emperor Constantine’s mind had not been enlightened either by study or by inspiration. He was a pagan, a tyrant and criminal who murdered his son, his wife and thousands of innocent individuals because of his lust for political power. Constantine ratified other decisions in the Nicene Creed such as the decision to call Christ “the Son of God, only begotten of the father.
    hundreds of gospels and religious writings were hidden from the people. Some of those writings were written by Jesus’ disciples, and many of them were eyewitness accounts of Jesus’ actions. The Nicaea Council decided to destroy all gospels written in Hebrew, which resulted in the burning of nearly three hundred accounts. If these writings were not more authentic than the four present gospels, they were of equal authenticity. Some of them are still available such as the Gospel of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas.
    the Protestant word, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Seventh Day Adventists and other sects and denominations condemn the Roman Catholic version of the Bible because it contains seven “extra” books. The Protestant have bravely expunged seven whole books from their word of God. A few of the outcasts are the Books of Judith, Tobnias, Baruch and Esther.
    what Gospel did Jesus preach? Of the 27 books of the New Testament, only a small fraction can be accepted as the words of Jesus, and only of the 27 books are known to be attributed as the Gospel of Jesus. The remaining 23 were supposedly written by Paul. The earliest Gospel is that of Mark’s which was written about 60-75 AD.
    Luke’s Gospel was written much later, and in fact, drawn from the same sources as Mark’s and Matthew’s. Luke was Paul’s physician, and like Paul, never met Jesus. By the way, did you know that the names Marks and Luke were not included in the 12 appointed disciples of Jesus as mentioned in Matthew 10:2-4? John’s Gospel is from a different source, and was written in about 100 AD.
    Luke 10:25-28:Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbor as thyself. And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do, and Thou shalt live.
    These verses tell us that the inheritance of eternal life is for anyone who believes and worships no other God, but the One True God. Luke 10:25-28 agrees with Matthew 19:16-17 which says;
    “And behold, one came and said to him (Jesus), Good teacher, what good things shall I do that I may have eternal life? So he (Jesus) said to him, ‘Why do you call me good? – No one is good but One that is, God. But if you want to enter into eternal life, keep the commandments.”
    Jesus is the son (servant) of man is Mark 14:26 where Jesus is mentioning the Day of Reckoning. Jesus specifically said we would see the son of man, not the Son of God, sitting in the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.
    Did Jesus ever claim to be God or say, “Here am I, your God, worship me”? statement in the Bible whereby Jesus himself declares God .

    • Dear said,

      You brought a very broad topic and it is not easy to respond to all your questions. In addition, one should have studied theology to answer all your questions. It is not enough to be a christian. Nevertheless, I will try to answer your first point.
      I do not think that the word ‘Christianity’ existed during Jesus’ stay on earth. The word ‘Christ’ (it must be a greek word), if I am not mistaken means the ‘Anointed One’ , i.e. someone to whom oil or such substance was applied. May be this comes from the scene where the sinful woman crying anointed and kissed his feet. Jesus told her to keep the oil for his burial, because according to the Jewish custom, the body was washed first and oil applied before a person’s burial. Therefore, the words Christ and Christianity were used later on by his students and followers,during the first century A.D., afterJesus ascended to heaven).

      The word ‘Tewahdo’, on the other hand, has something to do with the nature of Jesus, i think. There was a controversy between the church leaders as to the nature of Christ, whether he was God only, or he was God and Human, with two natures. This controversy lead to the schism in two of the christian churches. The one was called the Coptic Church or ‘Monophysite’, which means those who believe in the one nature of Christ. Because he lived on earth with human character as well, the ethiopian church says that his human and divine nature were incorporated and united in one, and that is why the ethiopian church is called ‘Tewahdo’, i think.
      (Is there somebody who has studied theology? Take it easy, and don’t be harsh on me.)

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Selam Said,

      I will try to answer your first question, because if we go to answer all your questions, it will lead us to religious pedagogy and arguments. First his full name is “Jesus Christ”. Hence his followers were/are called “christians,” the same as the followers of “Mohammed” were called “Mohammedans” (in old history books), though Muslims object to being called Mohammedans at this time. All the other questions are rooted from the question Muslims they have on how Christians believe on “Christ”. We do not need to go to make religious argument on “Jesus Christ” and how they see him the Followers of Mohammed. Avoid to make religious argument in this political platform of Awate.com.

      regards
      Amanuel Hidrat

  • said

    Greetings,
    With all my utmost respect to all the believers of Christianity from all kind domination and sect. I would like to ask my Christian reader to answer few question. Muslims sincerely believe that everything Jesus (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) preached was from God; the Gospel (Injeel): The “good news”
    where did the word Christianity or Tewahdo come from and was the word ever mentioned to Jesus? where Jesus called himself a Christian.
    1 Thessalonians 5:17 which says; “pray without ceasing,” that lingered heavily in my mind. I often wondered how a person (Christian) was supposed to pray (be in a state of worship) without ceasing? Without any biblical or divine guidance, the only way I thought this to be possible was to always do good deeds and keep the remembrance of God on my tongue and in my heart. How do Christian do their worship.
    Jesus prophesied that people would worship him uselessly and believe in doctrines made by men (Matthew 15:9).
    If Christians are Christ-like, why are they not greeting each other with the words; Peace be with you (Salamu Alaikum), as Jesus did in Luke 24:36.
    There are MANY Bibles on the market that are used by different Christian sects and all of these sects say that their book, though different, is the word of God. The Holy Bible; New International Version, the Living Bible, Roman Catholic Version and the King James Version. The Revised Standard Version 1952 & 1971, New American Standard Bible,
    Biblical scholars themselves have recognized the human nature and human composition of the Bible (Curt Kuhl, The Old Testament: Its Origin and Composition, PP 47, 51, 52), there should exist in the Christian’s mind some acceptance to the fact that maybe every word of the Bible is not God’s word.
    Luke 1:2-3, you will learn, as I did, that Luke (who was not one of the 12 disciples and never met Jesus) said that he himself was not an eyewitness, and the knowledge he gathered was from eyewitnesses, and not as words inspired by God. Incidentally, why does every “Gospel” begin with the introduction According to. Why “according to?
    Matthew 9:9 proves that Matthew was not the author of the first Gospel which bears his name: but a third person writing what he saw or heard –not words inspired by God. In summary and nutshell, the present four “gospels” of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) were imposed in the Council of Nicea 325 CE for political purposes under the auspices of the pagan Emperor Constantine, and not by Jesus.
    well known throughout among historian and Christian scholars, History tell us pagan Emperor Constantine’s mind had not been enlightened either by study or by inspiration. He was a pagan, a tyrant and criminal who murdered his son, his wife and thousands of innocent individuals because of his lust for political power. Constantine ratified other decisions in the Nicene Creed such as the decision to call Christ “the Son of God, only begotten of the father.
    hundreds of gospels and religious writings were hidden from the people. Some of those writings were written by Jesus’ disciples, and many of them were eyewitness accounts of Jesus’ actions. The Nicaea Council decided to destroy all gospels written in Hebrew, which resulted in the burning of nearly three hundred accounts. If these writings were not more authentic than the four present gospels, they were of equal authenticity. Some of them are still available such as the Gospel of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas.
    the Protestant word, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Seventh Day Adventists and other sects and denominations condemn the Roman Catholic version of the Bible because it contains seven “extra” books. The Protestant have bravely expunged seven whole books from their word of God. A few of the outcasts are the Books of Judith, Tobnias, Baruch and Esther.
    what Gospel did Jesus preach? Of the 27 books of the New Testament, only a small fraction can be accepted as the words of Jesus, and only of the 27 books are known to be attributed as the Gospel of Jesus. The remaining 23 were supposedly written by Paul. The earliest Gospel is that of Mark’s which was written about 60-75 AD.
    Luke’s Gospel was written much later, and in fact, drawn from the same sources as Mark’s and Matthew’s. Luke was Paul’s physician, and like Paul, never met Jesus. By the way, did you know that the names Marks and Luke were not included in the 12 appointed disciples of Jesus as mentioned in Matthew 10:2-4? John’s Gospel is from a different source, and was written in about 100 AD.

    Luke 10:25-28:Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbor as thyself. And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do, and Thou shalt live.

    These verses tell us that the inheritance of eternal life is for anyone who believes and worships no other God, but the One True God. Luke 10:25-28 agrees with Matthew 19:16-17 which says;
    “And behold, one came and said to him (Jesus), Good teacher, what good things shall I do that I may have eternal life? So he (Jesus) said to him, ‘Why do you call me good? – No one is good but One that is, God. But if you want to enter into eternal life, keep the commandments.”
    Jesus is the son (servant) of man is Mark 14:26 where Jesus is mentioning the Day of Reckoning. Jesus specifically said we would see the son of man, not the Son of God, sitting in the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.
    Did Jesus ever claim to be God or say, “Here am I, your God, worship me”? statement in the Bible whereby Jesus himself declares God .

  • ‘Gheteb

    Sketches Of An Orthodox Church: The Cases Of The Two ‘Abbas’ (ኣባ)

    Greetings!!

    This will be the third and last installment on the subject at hand for this weekend. To recapitulate what I have tried to impart on the second installment on Abyssinia and it’s so called civilization, here is what was written “On the Ethnology of Abyssinia and Adjacent Countries”, by J. Crawfurd, Esq., F.R.S. (1867):

    ” As a nation they have never had any element of progress within themselves, nor do they appear ever to have wished for it. Coinage, and architecture in solid masonry, have never been attempted, though the Ptolemies set them the example of both, as shown by the remains of Axum, and the gold and copper coins found in those ruins to this day. The Portuguese introduced the art of brick-burning, and built towers and bridges of excellent workmanship; no person in Abyssinia can now make mortar. No purely national antiquities of any kind exist. Their kings and their people two thousand years ago, must have passed their lives as now, seeking only for daily splendor or enjoyment and indifferent to the perpetuation of their memory by any monument “.

    Since my early childhood, I was aware of an Orthodox Tewahdo church in a city I was born and raised. Keren’s Orthodox Tewahdo church was/is perched on a small hilltop in a sector of this very city known as Geza sigir or Geza Werqet (ገዛ ስግር or ገዛ ወረቀት) which is a stone’s throw away from where our house is located. I was accustomed to the chimes and tolls of the churches bells and the liturgies and church drums. Many of my childhood friends and their families belong to this church. I have been inside the compound to this church on innumerable times and TWICE inside the church to see/watch a movie about David Vs. Gollaiah and a play about Jesus in the 70s, late 1976 to be exact.

    To give the reader a sense of where I was in my chronological or mental age in those years, I had barely finished my Junior High school or Middle School years in that specified time span.

    I even knew and had personal contacts and interactions with two deacons or Haleqas (ሃለቃ) : Haleqa Woldu and Haleqa Goitom with whom I had had lengthy debates and conversations about rituals, beliefs and the G’eez language. I have even picked up some G’eez sentences and words from these two Haleqas. I still recollect that both were affably gregarious, witty and experts in circumlocutions.I asked them pointedly what the “Debteras” role was in the church was and I never really gained any insights from their responses. Later on life, I came to learn that the “Debteras” were nothing but SCRIBES. This is my way of showing that I have nothing but respect for the believers of this religion and my objective is only to take to task the baseless assertion that the Orthodox Tewahdo is the fountainhead or the wellspring of the so-called Habesha civilization. Here is a better description of the “Debteras” (ደብተራ) role in this church:

    ” Scribes or ‘deftaras’ are often more learned than the priests, and equally take advantage of the general. Their principal gain is by writing amulets, and charms against every disease, almost against death. It is believed that some of these men, by their spells, can invoke demons and spirits from the waters, they being careful to nourish the delusion by juggling exhibitions from time to time. They also profess medicine, and as they do not much analyze the effects of their drugs, many an unfortunate falls a victim to some poisonous plant administered as a love philtre [potion]. Most of them are hangers-on of the different churches; they are generally cunning, debauched, and mischief-makers”.

    In the time span that I am talking about, there were two ‘Abbas’ (Fathers): The elder ‘Abba’ was Abba Tsehaye (ኣባ ጸሃየ) and younger and up and coming was ‘Abba’ Woldehaimanot (ኣባ ወልደሃይማኖት). Both priests presented a classic example of contrasting cases. One old the other young; one light skinned the other of a darker skin hue; a retrograde older priest against a young revolutionary one; a reprobate older Abba Vs. an upright one and so on and so forth.

    To capture the general understanding about the Abyssinian Orthodox Tewahdo church, let me quote the following:

    ” The churches are very numerous, and each church is itself an object of devotion, as it is firmly believed that the saint whose name it bears, actually resides in its sanctuary. The stones are kissed with awe, and offerings are deposited, which the priest receives; vows are registered and prayers are made, with equal fervor to the Virgin, our Savior, or some traditional martyr of the Abyssinian church, from which they expect immediate benefit in this world as well as salvation in the next. Miracles, I need scarcely say, are not infrequent, and certain spots of peculiar sanctity perform them almost daily. Whenever offerings slacken, and the numbers that kneel at the shrine decrease, a picture rolls its eyes, a leper is cleansed, or the blind are restored to sight”.

    ” Great respect is paid to all who wear the white turban, the mark of priesthood; they are always addressed as ‘father/ and as superiors in the second person plural, even by chiefs of the highest rank. Any person dying without having chosen a father confessor, is denied Christian burial, and so jealous are the priests of this great means of power, that they extend the rule to strangers. The confessors of the great men are usually indulgent, and they are permitted to compound for their frailties by the endowing of a new church, or handsome gifts to an old one. Nor are monasteries wanting to complete the resemblance to the Roman Catholic Church, and to the middle ages, where every immorality is practiced; nor solitary hermits who dwell in gloomy forests, feeding on roots, and exposed to ferocious animals, and who are sometimes as sincere as they are useless. Nunneries alone are absent from the picture, though vows of celibacy are sometimes taken, if rarely kept, save at an advanced age”.

    ” Christianity is reduced to the simple form of obedience to the priest. The Gospel is forbidden in our translations into the modern Amharic tongue, nor is there one man in ten thousand who knows the commonest precepts of his religion. If some few moral ideas are not denied, they are never inculcated or insisted on, and absolution can always be obtained for money. So blindly devoted is the Abyssinian laity to these astute fathers, that even the almost daily spectacle of their drunkenness, excesses, and immorality, nay, the knowledge that the confessional means ‘seduction made easy/ excites no feeling of disgust and astonishment”.

    Abba Tsehaye (ኣባ ጸሃየ) was a ubiquitous figure in the streets of Keren. Walking from his church’s compound early in the morning, he makes frequent stops in the Enda Swas (እንዳ ስዋ) en route to Keren’s downtown. He made frequent stops to offer the cross for the kissing by the followers of his church. One can also notice that the Abba confabbing with the Khomaros (ኾማሮ) — the purveyors of alcohol –. He was a tall, stern looking, dignified man and aloof to those looking at him from a distance.

    Abba Weldehaimanot (ኣባ ወልደሃይማኖት), on the other hand, was seen hobnobbing with the younger followers of the church and quite often engaged in a conversation with them explain something. He was rarely or even never seen frequenting the Enda Swas. I was told by friends that he personally went to Keren’s mosque to meet with the Qadi or Immam of the mosque on ways of curbing or stopping the proselytizing efforts by the 4 to 5 members of the Jehova Witness followers in Keren. He was a young priest, sociable and well liked by the youth of the Tewhdo church and probably a graduate of one of the monasteries in the vicinities of Keren.

    In early 1976, he joined the ELF and was martyred in the battle that liberated the city of Adi K’walla (ዓዲ ኽዋላ) in the late 70s. In memoriam, the ELF wrote an article in of it’s pamphlets entitled ” እቲ ስዉእ ፈላሲ” — The martyred monk–.

    • Abrehet Yosief

      Dear Gheteb,
      Thank you for introducing me to the writing of J. Crawfurd. Although I don’t know why you felt the need to copy him to tell us about our own life. We know how our huts and villages look like. We know that we whisper “Anteregna” turn into hyena at night. We gossip about our priests and debteras. At the same time we are dependent on the guidance of the same priests who are always there in times of need. I don’t think there is anything unique to The Abyssinian Orthodox Tewahdo religion that cannot be said about other major religions. Sharing the writings of a European traveler from 1867 to discredit the just published book, especially when you haven’t read it yet, is disappointing.

      • Abi

        Hi Abrehet Haftey
        I’m not disappointed by Mr Gheteb.
        I did not expect any better from a self hating ferenj worshipping individual.

    • Haile S.

      Hi Gheteb,
      I like much better your own observation and criticism than you using this ethnologist`s understanding to supplement whatever criticism you might have. Everybody his own flaws; who is now going to remind this gentleman that at that period the Englishmen had the right to sell their wives at auction for the highest bidder. Abyssinia physically lies in the middle of what became Eritrea and Ethiopia; its heritage is our common. Eritrea will not benefit by this constant attempt to relegating that heritage south of the Mereb.

      • ‘Gheteb

        Hi Haile S.,

        Thank you for the feedback you have rendered. What I would like to touch on and amplify by way of this rejoinder is why I wrote these notes on the Orthodox Tewahdo church.

        To begin, to challenge and then EXPLODE the mythomania about what has heretofore gone unchallenged about Abyssinia vis-à-vis Eritrea and the Abyssinian or Habesha civilization and the attendant institution such as the Orthodox Tewahdo church as the mythopoetic centers in the perpetuation of these hoaxes via what is dubbed as Abyssinian fundamentalism.

        Then, I would like to remind those who have REFLEXIVELY gone native in impugning the observation and notes of J. Crawfurd without proffering any cogent counter arguments or narratives. All I got so far is “we knew all that; we whispered about it; we don’t need a foreigner ( non-Habesha) to tell us”. We such a ‘Habesha-centric’ and pathetic response is not enough to refute what has been written about this issue.

        What is more, is the lame and unsubstantiated claim that ” Abyssinia physically lies in the middle of what became Eritrea…” or that ” Abyssinia constituted more than half of what is now Eritrea”. Well, I have seen nothing SOLID, historical or otherwise, that conclusively proves that what we refer as the Eritrean Kebessa or highlands was even an integral part of what was known as Abyssinia. I mean I have seen nothing that countenance this assertion.

        Finally, what is being used to support the claim that Eritrea or whatever part of it was also a part of Abyssinia, is the short period of time from 1750- 1880, the periods extending “the era of the princes” — Zemene Mesafint– to that of Yohannes, where some Eritrean localities may have paid tribute to Yohannes.

        This brief period, 1750-1880, what is also known in the Eritrean historiography as “the pre-colonial period” is exhaustively dealt with in what is known as “The Trans-Mereb Experience”, which I will deal with some other time.

        The term Habesha which Abyssinia is derived from does NOT refer specifically refer to what is now Ethiopia or Eritrea. What the term Habesha as used by the Arabs referred to was the whole of the Eastern Africa as Azania was at some other time.

        • Haile S.

          Hi Gheteb,
          Good discussing with you! In Abyssinian history and politics, I can almost repeat what you said without your repealing attitude of the other. Abyssinian governance has not been in solid unity during or before the period you mentioned. For various reasons, regions and Rases revolted against the king or kings. The Mereb MlaCH (North) area, depending on the period, was certainly a little more out of reach for more additional reasons. However, the Chiefs of the Mereb MlaCH regions did not stop their relationship with the central administration(s) during the period you mentioned or before, during the Gonder era. For lack of time I can only refer to you to the various foreighners who left recital of their travels like the portugese, Poncet, Lobo, Bruce, H-Salt, and the very many French voyageurs of the 19th century (I don’t think Crawfund set a foot in Abyssinia). Among these authors, H-Salt is the one I remember who had interrogations on the Mereb MlaCH being not really under the full control of the Abyssinians, but at the same time he mentions in another chapter meeting someone (in present Eritrea) going south seeking the title of Kentiba (ከንቲባነት). Therefore, one can find justification for and against the point we are discussing.
          An anecdote from my personal observation: there is a village known as XeHaf lam (ጸሓፍ ላም), I think in ኻርነሽም. Very curiously, this name is the exact title of the king’s (SHoan or Goderian reigns) treasurer XeHafe lahm in Geez (ጸሓፌ ላህም)።
          Just to reassure you, Eritrea’s existence has its own recent origin that amply justifies its existence as an independent nation. I can understand your frustration with the “orthodox church getting used as mythopoetic center of the Abyssinian fundamentalism”, but I believe this, at least in part, is in reaction to the Eritreapoeitic rooting in history we Eritreans want to add to its recent existence as an independent nation.

          • ‘Gheteb

            Hi Haile S.,

            Thanks for the feedback. I don’t think what I was looking for is addressed sufficiently here. But, let me bring to your attention what Lobo in his book “Voyage to Abyssinia” has to say about the issue we are grappling with here:

            ” The empire of Abyssinia hath been one of the largest which history gives us an account of: it extended formerly from the Red Sea to the kingdom of Congo, and from Egypt to the Indian sea. It is not long since it contained forty provinces, but is now not much bigger than Spain, and consists of but five kingdoms and six provinces; of which, part is entirely subject to the emperor, but part only pays him some tribute or acknowledgement of dependence, either voluntarily or by compulsion”.

            Wasn’t this part of the distortions and myth in the early 17th century that we glean from what Lobo has described about the extent of the “Abyssinian Empire”?

            These depictions about the extent to which the Abyssinian empire extended are not only patently false, they only belong to the realm of myth only.

            No, I am not worried about the legitimacy of Eritrea’s statehood or nationhood. I have yet to see anything coming from what you dubbed as “Eritreapoeitic rooting” that is not historically defensible or attempts of historical glorifications or aggrandizements that are not backed by historical facts.

            The fact that the Abyssinian Orthodox church was the mythopoetic center of “The Abyssinian Empire” and it’s antithetical stances vis-à-vis Eritrea’s path towards nationhood is the reason why it has been taken to task, so to speak, in the literatures of Eritrean history.

          • Haile S.

            Hi Gheteb,
            We can stay where are; we are not that far apart. One point that I agree with you on the designation of Habesch in the old times: yes based on early historians, it refers to a larger East Africa as you mentioned in your earlier post. An Arab geographer from Bagdad Al-Massoudi living around the year 350 identifies 5 seas (oceans) one of which he calls the sea of Habesch that extends from china to the coast of Habesch. Another more recent German archeologist/historian Eduard Glasser is quoted (by AJ Drewes) to have identified the meaning of Habesch being spice merchants. One appears to be complementary to the other. Glasser’s book is available through Google books for those who understand German.
            On ጸሓፍ ላም , it is a possibility.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Haile and Gheteb,
            One can debate the topic for years and that is good. But would I be wrong if I said my reference is the history of Islam that referred to king Armaha as the Negashi of the land of Habesha?

          • Haile S.

            Hi Saleh,
            You are not wrong. Perhaps that is the most quoted reference.

          • ‘Gheteb

            Ahlan Saleh,

            The issue is who was the king, Negus or Negashi of “the land of Habesha”. The history of Islam refers to the King of Habesha as ” Ashama Ibn Abjar” or “Armah”.

            So, now the question is this: are these two names refer to the same ‘Negashi’ or to two kings? Some historians believe that they are the same.

            ” The Aksumite monarch who received them is known in Islamic sources as the Negus Ashama ibn Abjar. Modern historians have alternatively identified him with King Armah and Ella Tsaham”.

            Some other historians believe that Ella Tsaham was the grandfather of Armah and there are some reference to Armah (I) and Armah (II). Now Ella Tsaham is much more closer to Ashama Ibn Abjar than Armah, in my opinion.

            The question that arises then is that how can one take this reference as “once reference” when the King or Negus of the land in question has NOT been specifically, pinpointedly and accurately identified.

            Though archeologists have found some silver coins identifying king Armah in Metera and Adulis ( Both in Eritrea), no definitive record has been unearthed about the extent of the land of his kingdom. That is to say, where did the land of Habesha started and where did it end during the reign of the said king, has not been answered so far.

          • Saleh Johar

            Ahlan Gheteb,
            Of course, it is not surprising for the king to have two names, or more. We know that kings adopt different names as Tefferi became Haile Sellasie though we identified him as Chewai thanks to aboy Neggru who is believed to have coined the term. I agree, some have identified him as Armah based on the chronology of kings, again, based on what else but Kebre-negest. But in Islamic history he is identified as Ashama. But good luck finding any tefetence of him in church history.

            The Ella proceeding the names of most kings, I believe is the Greek corruption of “The” or “Al” that could be either to signify lineage, for “Ahl” or for TaAzeem, for example, people of the region add Al before their names for grandeur, Abdu Saeed become Abdu Al-Saeed. That Ella is Al. Ella Atsbaha is Al-AsbaHa.

            But regardless, there was a king of Abyssinia who welcomed the Muslim refugees from Arabia. As for the extent of his kingdom, I don’t think it extended too much because by then, the Below, (some say they are the famine Bellemys who fought the romans in Egypt were already expanding to the south west.

            The point is: according to Islamic history, there was a king of Habesha who ruled from Axum.

          • ‘Gheteb

            Ahlan Saleh,

            Here are a couple of quotes taken from the earlier Arab travelers/writers to the region such as Al-Ya’qubi that I want to see your take or view on.

            I think that right after the end or demise of the Axumite Kingdom, Arab travelers, writers or geographers have began to describe the Horn of Africa region as “Habeshas”. This is circa 800-875 CE.

            We know that there were five competing Beja Kingdoms in what is now Eritrea right on the heels of the downfall of the Kingdom of Axum. It is asserted by some that the “Habeshas” were living alongside them. Al-Ya’qubi also mentions an important city or capital near the Eritrean coast called Ku’bar.

            Here are the quotes.

            Al-Ya`qubi describes the Eritrean highlands and seacoast as:

            “a vast and powerful country. Its royal town is Ku`bar. The Arabs go their to trade. They have big towns and their sea coast is called Dahlak. All the kings of the Habasha country are subject to the Great King (al-malik al-a`zam) and are careful to obey him and pay tribute.”

            Decades later, Al-Mas`udi, a tenth-century Arab traveler to the region, gives a similar account in his geographical work Muruj al-Dhahab, the `Meadows of Gold’.

            “The chief town of the Habasha is called Ku`bar, which is a large town and the residence of the najashi [nagassi; king], whose empire extends to the coasts opposite the Yemen, and possesses such towns as Zayla, Dahlak and Nasi.”

            Centuries later in 1295 CE, another Arab traveler, Al-Harrani, writes:

            “one of the greatest and best-known towns is Ka`bar, which is the royal town of the najashi . . . Zayla`, a town on the coast of the Red Sea, is a very populous commercial centre. . . . Opposite al-Yaman there is also a big town, which is the sea-port from which the Habasha crossed the sea to al-Yaman, and nearby is the island of `Aql.”

            All these quotes from:

            ” Aksum: An African Civilisation of Late Antiquity by Stuart Munro-Hay, 1991″

            Can you share your take, views or readings on afore-quoted paragraphs?

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Gheteb,
            Indeed, I have read AlYacoubi, AlMasoudi, and Meqrizi. My take is:

            1) I have no doubt that Habesha kingdom existed with Axum as its capital.
            2) The boundaries were expanding and contracting in different times.
            3) At one time the king ruled vast areas up to Zeila “from which the Habesha crossed to Yemen”.
            4) for the most part, after the Gragn conquests, central Eritrean region was ruled by local chieftains and viceroys (Bahri Negasi/Negashi) under the Axumite and Gonderine kings. There is a captivating legendary story about Abeyto (of the Adi Abeyto fame) who traveled to the king in Gonder to request some title and returned as Abeito (not sure it’s modern equivalent) but he was married to the daughter of the king and he killed her…(story for some other time).
            5) The most balanced and objective history of the region is what I read from books by Prof Lapiso Dilebo, several books in Amharic. Thehistory of the Islamic style states that flourished in that area give us additional information to complete the puzzles–including FutuH AlHabesha (The Conquest of Abyssinia)
            6) Other parts of Eritrea were ruled by many kingdoms including The Funj. Also the Kingdoms of Baden, BAqlin, and others that are mentioned in several history books.
            7) The Dahlak and the coastal regions had local rulers since ancienti times, some under the powerful kings of the region, other time they exited as independent or semi-independent domains. The Abassyid rule of Dahlak (Dar Al Halak–the place of perishing), is notoriously mentioned as a destination for the exile of dissenters from the Abassyid territories.
            8) There is a story related to Dahlak (I have only seen scanty literature so far) of a slave king from there who ended up ruling part of India, and who is still revered there.

            Your main point, I think, is that you claim Eritrea was not part of the Axumite kingdom. I hold the opposite view. It was and I consider myself a Habesha and a product of that civilization, albeit the minor and major experiences.

            Finally, the state of the region was fluid and we cannot extrapolate today’s reality, retroactively, to fit old situations.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Saleh J.,

            I agree with your view.

            By the way, there was no “collapse of Axum”. This is not the view held by eminent experts such as Cambridge professor David Phillipson. To collapse is to suddenly fall down or give way.

            He says: ” … the decline of Aksum conurbation seems to have resulted in the transfer of the capital to a more Easterly location rather than – at least initially – in a broader diminution of the kingdom’s prosperity. These complex processes resulted in a gradual transformation of the civilisation formerly centred at Aksum to that which flourished in more Easterly and Southerly parts of the Ethiopian highlands from the eighth century [AD] onwards. Any ‘end’ of Aksumite civilisation is thus a nebulous and elusive concept; attempts to define it and to establish its date serve only to mask the essential continuity that is now apparent during this crucial period.”

          • ‘Gheteb

            Ahlan Saleh,

            Thanks for the input and feedback. I would like to jot down a short rejoinder in the hope of clarifying something that you have NOT concluded accurately.

            (A) My view on the Axumite kingdom in relation to Eritrea is that, yes parts of Eritrea ( Such as Metera, Adulis and some other sections) were “part of the Axumite Kingdom” as can be attested by my earlier response that

            ” Though archeologists have found some silver coins identifying king Armah in Metera and Adulis ( Both in Eritrea)…. “.

            My beef is with the claim that the whole of Eritrea was under the complete control of the Axumite kingdom and the people of Eritrea in those years identified themselves as Habeshas, I have yet to see a SOLID and convincing evidence on that. That has been the main thrust of my take on this issue.

            These silver coins of Armah were used instead of GOLD COINS because by then the Axumite kingdom on the decline trade wise.

            (B) I am not trying to “extrapolate” the Axumite experience to “todays reality” by any stretch of imagination at all.

            Finally, though there is reference from The history of Islam that refers to the King of Habesha as ” Ashama Ibn Abjar” or “Armah”, I have yet to see any credible reference of the Axumite Kingdom that extended approximately 100 BC to the beginning of its decline in the 7th century that identified this kingdom as a Habesha kingdom.

            The reference of this kingdom as a Habesha kingdom by ” Ashama Ibn Abjar” or “Armah” came or happened at the tail end of this kingdom when Axum was waning and in decline to be completely destroyed in the 9th century.

          • Haile S.,

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    • Simon Kaleab

      Selam Gheteb,

      When the people of ancient Abyssinia were praying to the Judeo-Christian God, J. Crawfurd’s ancestors in Scotland were crawling in mud worshipping stones.

      If you go further South, you have the English who are of Germanic [German and Scandinavian] stock. In a research done by two top-notch Universities, Durham [UK] and Bordeaux [France], investigations of mass graves in ancient Germania have revealed evidence of human sacrifice and cannibalism. I am not aware of our Axumite ancestors practising such hideous customs.

      • ‘Gheteb

        Selam Simon Kaleab,

        Leaving aside the historical and civilizational comparisons between “the people of ancient Abyssinia were praying to the Judeo-Christian God, J. Crawfurd’s ancestors in Scotland” for now, let me zero in on what you claimed as “our Axumite ancestors”.

        First, let me quote what “the son of the invincible Mars”, King Ezana ,claimed in one of the epigraphs in the 4th century CE.

        “Ezana, king of Aksum, and of Himyar, and Kasu, and Saba, and Habashat, and Raydan, and Salhen and Tsiamo, and Beja, the King of Kings”.

        Now many scholars are of the opinion that when Ezana referred to ‘Aksum’, ‘Himyar’, ‘Saba’, ‘Kasu’, ‘Beja’ or ‘Tsiamo’, he was talking about the people and NOT about the localities.

        Here, ‘Aksum’, also referred as ‘Aksumen’ is what is now Aksum in Tigray, Ethiopia. ‘Beja’ refers to the Beja people in Eritrea/Sudan. ‘Kasu’ is a reference to Kush, ancient Sudanese kingdom. And, ‘Tsiamo’ is believed to be what is now Enderta region of Tigray, Ethiopia.

        The question that I have for you, I hope that you won’t revert to a ‘default Abyssinian mode or position’ and proffer a specious argumentations by the gadflies of this Forum, the likes of እባቡ ኣቢ, ተንኮለኛው ኣምደ and a ወያኒስታ ቀሺ( Amanuel Hidrat), are so inured in utilizing.

        Here is the query I want to pose:

        You said, “our Axumite ancestors” and NOT “our Tsiamo ancestors” or “Beja ancestors”. What makes you sure that our ancestors are Axumite and NOT at least Beja or Tsiamo?

        • Simon Kaleab

          Selam Gheteb,

          You said: “Leaving aside the historical and civilizational comparisons …”

          I don’t want to leave this aside as I do not want our unique Axumite [Arab-African] civilization to be mocked by a Scottish man whose ancestors were grossly barbaric.

          The people of England are referred by the generic term Anglo-Saxon because of the dominant culture the Germanic people that settled in the country. If you go on to hair splitting individual details, not every person in England has Anglo-Saxon ancestry. These people have Celt, Roman, Germanic [Angles, Saxons, Vikings and Normans-the Vikings that came via France] or mixed ancestry. Similarly, the word Axumite is a generic term that referred to the dominant civilization of that era.

          Are you going to lose sleep over this?

          • ‘Gheteb

            Selam Simon Kaleab,

            (1) What was “unique” about what you claim as “our Axumite civilization”?

            (2) Who has whispered on your ears that “the word Axumite is a generic term”?

            (3) You also try to make Axumite to mean Arab-African as when you claimed about your “unique civilization” “{{ Axumite [ Arab-African] }}”. Now I have no idea where you got the Arab part of the “Arab-African”?

            Now can you respond to these queries without unduly wallowing in Tu quoques or pulling your hair out? Or is that too much to ask?

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Gheteb,

            Last time I referred to you a book by retired Cambridge professor David Phillipson. It is called “Foundation of an African Civilization- Aksum and the Northern Horn, 1000 BC – AD 1300”. Read this book and learn rather than purveying fake information.

            I also asked you to provide references to support your assertions, but you disappeared without a sound for a while. Now, you come up with quotations from a certain Crawfurd who is neither a historian nor an archaeologist but a quack.

            I suspect what is bothering is the location of Axum. Axum is in Tigray [Ethiopia]. Get over it, this is an accident of colonialism.

          • ‘Gheteb

            Selam Simon Kaleab,

            Now you are referring to a ” retired Cambridge professor David Phillipson” to bail you out. Mind-bogglingly, astounding! I thought “your civilization” was so UNIQUE that you will be able to cough up some evidence to substantiate your unverifiable and outlandish claim that borders on being nothing less than a delusion of grandeur.

            As I said quit wallowing in the deep seas of Tu quoques bring on FACTA, if you ever had any.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Gheteb,

            Bail out against what? Fake information.

            Last time, I referred to you a book to read, but you disappeared for a while. Have you read this book written by an expert in the field from the top most University in the world? Would David Phillipson be less qualified than you? I seriously doubt it.

            You have now resurfaced purveying information you cannot substantiate with references. The best you can come up with is Crawfurd the quack?

          • ‘Gheteb

            Selam Simon Kaleab,

            Bail out against the three questions I posed 2 hours ago. It is NOT what Crawfurd claimed, but it is you who have made the following claims:

            (1) That your Axumite civilization was UNIQUE.
            (2) That it was ARAB-AFRICAN.
            (3) That the term Axunite was GENERIC.

            Now you are desperately trying to peel off on a Tu quoque tangent? Sad!

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Gheteb,

            You are a purveyor of lengthy, multi-paragraph fake information motivated by emotions. Save your time by avoiding references from quacks such as Crawfurd. You were trying to impress people, but you are found out.

            Read and learn from accredited sources. The book I suggested you read is from University of Cambridge, UK, which is the best of the best in many fields.

          • ‘Gheteb

            Selam Simon Kaleab,

            Now you have not only bailed out from the challenge in front of you, but you have bolted out completely by performing a UNIQUE ‘strategic withdrawal’. Mind-bending, to say the least.

            You are telling that you can’t answer the three questions posed to you? Your only way out is “University of Cambridge, UK” and did they also “out-uniqued” your ‘unique civilization’?

            Your Tu quoque has now morphed into a full-blown ad hominem attacks. Again, very sad!

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Gheteb,

            Bail out against your fake information?

            I do not think you are interested in reading and learning. Why do you spend time typing paragraph after paragraph of texts from a certain Crawfurd, who is not an expert in the field, without critical examination or use of plain common sense?

            Your motivation is political, and your politics is driven by emotions.

          • ‘Gheteb

            Selam Simon Kaleab,

            Now you are blaming it on my “fake information” for you to have made those claims that you can’t defend? You have really drowned in the deep seas of illogic now.

            ” Simon Kaleab ‘Gheteb • 9 hours ago
            Selam Gheteb,

            You said: “Leaving aside the historical and civilizational comparisons …”
            I don’t want to leave this aside as I do not want our unique Axumite [Arab-African] civilization to be mocked by a Scottish man whose ancestors were grossly barbaric.
            The people of England, for example, are referred by the generic term Anglo-Saxon because of the dominant culture the Germanic people that settled in the country. If you go on to hair splitting individual details, not every person in England has Anglo-Saxon ancestry. These people have Celt, Roman, Germanic [Angles, Saxons, Vikings and Normans-the Vikings that came via France] or mixed ancestry. Similarly, the word Axumite is a generic term that refers to the dominant civilization of that era.
            Are you going to develop insomnia over this?”

            Isn’t that what you wrote? It wasn’t Crawfurd’s ghost or my “fake information” that prompted you to write it, or did it?

            If you have evidence, then bring it on. Otherwise mentioning a book or someone won’t cut as you have so far provided not even a SMIDGEN of proof to back up your bizarre claims.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Gheteb,

            Why don’t you write an essay on this topic, quoting your beloved Crawfurd lock stock and barrel, and send it to a subject specialist journal?

            I predict it will end up in the dust bin.

          • ‘Gheteb

            Selam Simon Kaleab,

            It wasn’t me who needs to write anything. It is you who should write an essay to back up your eccentric claim about “your UNIQUE civilization” that was “Arab-African” and the term Axumite being “generic”.

            You can also mention how much you are in awe of Cambridge University and a certain professor showing that you are indeed wallowing in the deep seas of illogic, by letting this University “out-unique” ‘unique civilization’.

            I bet that you will become the butt of all jokes and they will laugh you out of town. Well, then again, bailing out is your wont.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Gheteb,

            It is you who needs to write an essay, as you have the habit of clogging bandwidth with fake, quack Crawfurd based information. You might earn a professorship of fakedom!

          • ‘Gheteb

            Selam Simon Kaleab,

            Mentioning a name of a professor is NOT enough for your Kibra-Negest based mythology to pass muster. Bring on what the professor said to back up your outlandish claims of your UNIQUE civilization?

            I bet you that he has said nothing to back up your bizarrely mythological claims about the Axumite empire.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Gheteb,

            I mentioned the book as well as the author. Go and read it!

            Every civilization has a mythical component. Have you heard of Greek, Roman, Germanic/Norse, Middle Eastern, Jewish, Christian and Islamic myths? You are ignorant, you would not know these.

            By the way, evidence of Axum is not based on the Kibre Negest, which is a later creation, but on Archaeology and third party references.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Simon and Gheteb,
            Just an appeal to both of you: the topic of the discussion is very important, and many, including myself are interested to know more if you can provide more information. However, your discourse should be toned down. There is no need for abrasive language that changes the debate into a duel. Kindly tone down your comments and be thrifty on unnecessary provocative words. We are here to exchange ideas and inform each other, not to fight.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Saleh J.,

            I agree with you.

            I am not a specialist in History or Archaeology I can only refer Gheteb, the fake information purveyor, to specialist resources. So far, he has refused.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Simon,

            I am afraid you imply you accept my appeal to tone down when in fact you do not. Otherwise your “fake information purveyor” wouldn’t be in your comment. Someone has to take the lead and tone down.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Saleh J.,

            Fine, the term “fake information purveyor” will be withdrawn from circulation.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Abu Saleh,

            The problem is always this Ghezab Gheteb who doesn’t have any respect to anyone who has different view from his. If the team wanted to observe respection in the forum, they have to stop this abrasive individual or else we can’t let ourself to be abused by this uncultured behavior. You let him to do what ever he want, and will not stop to defend our integrty.

            Regards
            Amanuel Hidrat

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Emma,

            I think I am trying to cool everyone to be civil. At this point, I am just appealing for civil discourse. If this doesn’t help, the moderators will have to decide what action to take on anyone who is disruptive. Our goal in creating and maintaining this forum is not to watch it deteriorate and become a boxing arena. Respect is crucial for mature debates. Belittling or provocative comments should be shunned, and I hope all will considers my personal appeal. The moderators might have a different view but a decision has to be take, This forum should not be taken for granted.

            NB: Emma, kindly avoid the “we” part and limit it to yourself.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Abu Saleh,

            I have reasons why I am saying “we”. There are many of us being abused by him, and hence I could appeal on behalf of those who are abused. Nothing wrong with that.

            Regards

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Emma,
            I know about all the abuses. Please let me handle this abrasive phenomena calmly, there is no need for your representation of others who might feel the way you do. I have initiated an appeal for calm debates and let me focus on it and see where it takes us. Any reaction will not help. Just let me handle this one once and for all. It’s serious as far as I am concerned and it has to end.

            Thank you

          • Abraham H.

            Selam Simon K, ኣይትሓዘኡ ነዚ ሰብ, he is having serious aversion towards anything that could relate today’s Eritrea with Ethiopia; if his god Isayas would by some miracle decide to normalise relations with Ethiopia and start again talking about all sorts of integration, he would be the first one to cheer him up.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Abraham,

            Why does this chap quote Crawfurd, a nobody, rather than read a book by a Cambridge professor who was the Director of the Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology and professor of African Archaeology?

            Simply, he is not interested in learning, but he is trying to fit the facts to his politically motivated emotions.

          • ‘Gheteb

            Selam Simon Kaleab,

            What is there for me to learn when all you have so far provided is outlandish claims that you have abysmally failed to back up and substantiate.

            Merely mentioning a certain professor from a certain institution from the UK won’t add not even a scintilla of authenticity to the outrageously mendacious assertions and claims you have made about “your UNIQUE civilization”.

            What is there to learn? Nothing!

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Gheteb,

            I am just sending you to a specialist in the subject. You should be thankful, but it seems you hate learning. Or may I say, you consider yourself enamoured with fake information.

          • ‘Gheteb

            Selam Simon Kaleab,

            Why is that you can’t summarize what this specialist of yours has to say about your “UNIQUE Axumite Civilization” that was “Arab-African” and the term Axumite being “generic”. Or, is that you can’t or you don’t know.

            Seems to me that you are hiding behind the ‘skirt of this professor’ or the university you so wowed about.

            Bring it on, if this person has anything to offer in backing on your outrageously bizarre claims. The onus is on you to prove what you have claimed and not to tell others to find out about your ‘kibra-Negest’ based mythology.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Gheteb,

            David Phillipson has retired, if you publish your quack essay, you may take his place.

          • ‘Gheteb

            Selam Simon Kaleab,

            He may have retired, but his books should be available and easily accessible to you.

            Now, tell me what is holding from quoting from the parts of this professors book that backs up the three outlandish claims you have made.

            I think you can produce absolutely NOTHING by quoting this professor to back up your claims.

            Check Kibra-Negest and Fitha-Negest for evidentiary material.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Gheteb,

            Go and read it. That is the homework I give you.

          • ‘Gheteb

            Selam Simon Kaleab,

            No one has assigned you here to “give homework” to anyone in this Forum when by all acceptable benchmarks you have failed to do your own homework before making claims you have so far failed to substantiate:

            Your claims are:
            (1) The Axumite civilization was UNIQUE
            (2) It was “ARAB-AFRICAN”.
            (3) The term Axumite is/was GENERIC.

            By all accounts, you have failed to back up your claims. That is the logical conclusion that one has to reach and nothing else.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Gheteb,

            Go and read book, it will remove the fog of ignorance from your head.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Gheteb,

            Every civilization has a mythical component. Have you heard of Greek, Roman, Germanic/Norse, Middle Eastern, Jewish, Christian and Islamic myths? You are ignorant, you would not know these.

            By the way, evidence of Axum is not based on the Kibre Negest, which is a later creation, but on Archaeology and third party references.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Gheteb,

            You have been harping about Kibre Negest day and night. The evidence of Axum is not based on
            the Kibre Negest, which is a later creation, but on Archaeology and third party references.

            There is a Japanese saying which goes as follows: “A frog in a Well does not know the Ocean.”

            Every ancient civilization has a mythical component. Have you heard of Greek, Roman, Germanic/Norse, Persian, Jewish, Christian and Islamic myths? Since you are an ignorant Enda Siwa [traditional pub] historian, you would not know these.

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Gheteb,

            Now then, can you state your [academic] credentials on this subject?

          • sara

            Selam Abraham
            Why do you think this discussion is related to Eritrea and Ethiopia ?

          • Abraham H.

            Hello Sara, well this is not vey hard to decipher from Gheteb’s writings, is it? I think it is very wrong to try and re-invent centuries of history to justify events that took place as late as the end of the 20th cent. The absence of a collaborative study of the common and inter-related history of our broader area of Horn of Africa and surrounding areas is one of the casualties that we are incurring because of the never ending deadlock in the relations between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Let’s hope sometime in the future, Historians, Archaeologists, and Anthropologists from our nations would work together to uncover the yet to be discovered wealth of history of our region.

          • ‘Gheteb

            Hi Abraham H.,

            I don’t think you have addressed Sara’s question honestly and forthrightly. All you have said is that : ” this is not vey hard to decipher from Gheteb’s writings” and went on to make a baseless claim that you would never be able to prove when you said,” think it is very wrong to try and re-invent centuries of history to justify events that took place as late as the end of the 20th cent”.

            First of all, NO ONE is trying to “re-invent centuries of history” and the only one who would write such kind of baseless and non factual claims are those who don’t know what they are writing or that they have some political agendas that they think this ‘shared Abyssinian history’ will prompt the Weyanes and other Ethiopians in supporting their anti-PFDJ political goals.

            By God, there are even Eritreans who are futilely trying to use the Kebra-Negest ( Queen Saba and King Solomon) mythology to advance some Zionist Agendas. You can sniff them out by their monomaniacal and pathological anti-Palestinian stand and their unlimited adulation of anything and everything Israel or Jews. Now, can you see why they want connected to the Hebrew/Jewish lineage through the myth of Saba/Solomon begetting a son called Menelik which is the central message of Kebra-Negest.

            It is Eritreans rights to ‘decolonize’ the history of Eritrea by completely de-,mythologizing centuries of fables and myths that has paralyzed many a Eritrean minds. Eritrea’s history, if truth be told, is the history that upended and turned upside down most, if not all, of the tenets of Abyssinian fundamentalism.

            All those who claim that Eritrea has been an integral part of the Aksumite kingdom, has so far FAILED to show us all the antiquities, obelisks or steles, buildings and other historical or archaeological sites that show that Eritrea was an integral part of the Axumite Kingdom.

            All there is, so far, is that of Metera and Adulis with the antiquities in both places indicating the Greece influence in Adulis and the erected stones of Metera that of the Damat rule or system. All that I have so far seen is that of King Azena’s military campaign against a certain tribe Kasu where he announces that he plundered their riches and destroyed their house and took prisoners and NOTHING ELSE.

            We have historical landmarks such as Emba Metera of Belew Kelew or Mount Below in Eritrea’s Karneshim., graves such as those of the “Rumes”, ‘Baqlin’ etc. etc.

            But, I have seen or read of anything historical/archaeological heritage sites ALL OVER ERITREA that shows that Eritrea was an INTEGRAL PART of the Axumite Kingdom. None whatsoever!

          • Abraham H.

            Selam Gheteb, you said “First of all, NO ONE is trying to “re-invent centuries of history” and the only one who would write such kind of baseless and non factual claims are those who don’t know what they are writing or that they have some political agendas that they think this ‘shared Abyssinian history’ will prompt the Weyanes and other Ethiopians in supporting their anti-PFDJ political goals.” I speak for myself and what I wrote was, there is no need of giving a political dimension to the study of the history of our region. I don’t think any Eritrean forces seeking the connection from the ancient Axumite kingdom as a source of support from the Weyanes. There is simply no need for that as the PFDJ regime has demonstrated itself as the enemy of both the Eritrean people and the Weyanes; this truth by itself is enough for the Weyanes to offer the Eritrean opposition groups a helping hand.
            I’ve yet to see any map of the Axumite Kingdom that doesn’t include considerable areas of current day Eritrea, particularly the central highlands and the central part of the Eritrean Red Sea coast. But beyond this, we have essentially one people that straddle both sides of the Mereb River with almost identical language, religion, traditions, customs, way of life, etc as Berhe Y has mentioned. So Mr. Gheteb, how do you think such a relationship has developed if there wasn’t close contact between these peoples? How many centuries would it take for these similarities to develop?
            PS. I’m not a historian and I’m only speaking from a general perspective. I believe the history of our region is barely studied and it needs the collaboration of researchers locally as well as globally in order to have a better understanding of the ancient civilization.

          • LittleOne

            Hi Ghetab

            So you said “But, I have NOT seen or read of anything historical/archaeological heritage sites ALL OVER ERITREA that shows that Eritrea was an INTEGRAL PART of the Axumite Kingdom. None whatsoever!” ?….then you live in darkness and you are in the minority!

            At least ኣዴና ሓንቲ ተዘይትኸውንዶ ሓደ ቋንቋ ንዛረብ ኣለና?

          • LittleOne

            Hi Sara
            It’s obvious, I thought so too.

  • Abi

    Selamat Gheteb
    I just skimmed through your post. I’m pleasantly surprised to find my name as “እባቡ አቢ”. I love it specially when it comes from ጊንጡ ገጣቤ::
    You know the only person who picked up your favorite jargon is Professor Tes? He copied “Abbyisinian Fundamentalism !”
    It is time for you to recruit more followers. Otherwise, you will be by yourself like a desert ጊንጥ::

    • Amde

      Selam Abi,

      Did you notice how his writing style is EXACTLY like the quote from the book published in 1867? He writing style would be completely appropriate for the 1800s. I wouldn’t be surprised if he wears a tall hat, a pipe and a smoking jacket to dinner. He is strange.

      • Abrehet Yosief

        Dear Made,
        Oh the joy of imagining an obnoxious anthropologist being made to wait amidst all the filth by a lowly gate keeper.

        • Amde

          Selam Abrehet,

          Every day you grace us with unexpected nuggets of joy. I had a good chuckle with that one.

          Amde

        • GitSAtSE

          Abrehet,

          “I did not do it for you N” by Michelle Wong and “Atlantic Council leaving Eritreans out in the cold” by Saay7 comes to mind. As anthropologists closer to 1967 for contrast.

          Fubu Vs. “Isolationists” elaboration and a request for your co-sponsorship of a quantifiable imaginary zone proposal initiative. Reason: My magnanimity rational.

          tSAtSE

      • Peace!

        Hi Amde,

        I do not understand why you seem too conscious about his writing style if you have nothing to say about the subject he is addressing why not move on and engage with someone else or pick your own. I do not know if I need to remind you – you are awatista of the year, please leave littering to Abi:)

        Peace!

      • blink

        Dear Abi and Amde

        You both seems to assume we Eritreans buy your hoye hoye of the deseret land . By now i assume you both understand that your audions are not around to entertain your 3000 years of great story fiction. The only problem i have here is to see Amde in the tricky bag of Abi sad to see such person get hooked.

      • GitSAtSE

        A عامدي,

        1867 – 1967 + 50.

        Fugees,

        زازي

      • GitSAtSE

        Dear Amde,

        Weopon X, The Wolvereen co-sponsorship of an initiative sought. Reasons:
        Fibonacci Architect Nature Vs. 128 Bits of delegates from the Two Houses of Legislative echo chambers. Nature nurturing the Representative Elites (The Electoral College) Vs. The equivalent complement that is the Popular Individual Vote Total of the average everyday Joe middle-class, the laymen low wages earner, the voiceless poverty stricken, the stateless Refugees in addition including the Elite governors own lung voices.
        Starting with 2^0 – First with the Final 4, 2^2 is to make up the Fab Five. These Elite 2^3, 8 with the addition of the Four distinguished make up The Significant Nine.
        ..
        ..
        Up to 2^7, 128 processors to amplify as the harmonious Congressional Selectees the aspirations of our illusive popular desires and demands.
        Precedence for my nominations choice I will utilize USA Saleh Johar’s selection of Three jurors as arbitrators for his deep contemplation with regards to Abi’s recent stringent stance of defiance.
        Fibonacci, Pythagorean Plato, 64 Big Dance of Madness in March and the NIT equalling 2^7, 128 Bits processors Elite is to serve as a quantifiable measuring simulation tool. The hypothetical Senate Selectees will be fictional characters based on a mutualy tangible to our forum real orators.

        The crowned Regional Nationals champion end product resulting a Theory yours truly can attain full comprehension of.
        The requisite is malleability to follow in parallel with respective endorsers’ dispensing duties of their deep convictions regarding HoA.

        Gains, alternative approaches to critical thinking, emboldening exhaustive FUBU initiatives of the Scholars. Widening the comparative happenstances of our world concurrent with current events that are continuously changing shape and form. Causing the effects that are just and equitable.

        My approach and construct will be piecemeal, as I learn and incorporate inputs of all sorts in the dynamics of this medium.

        Parsing and lobbying for nods of support.

        Intro: Weopon X, Wolvereen– I would like to nominated a Quarter of the Body Elites–The Electoral by necessity malleability exhibited by the Somali Elite in electing the President of resurgent Somalian State, which has been or touched upon briefly here.

        The Eritrean-Ethiopian attentive look at “frmajo” could serve as a means of causing a win-win effect for all that are privy actors to the stability of HoA and global positive advances on numerous issues in dire need of Solution Oriented Unity.

        tSAtSE

  • said

    Greeting 2nd time posting
    Trumpism as a Supremacist Phenomenon is a ‘Return to the Future’

    Watching Nicholas Kristof, one of the best of The New York Times’ syndicate columnists, late last night on Don Lemon’ ‘CNN Late’ program, make the very well informed revelation that Donald Trump still enjoys more than 90% approval rating among Republican voters was news to me that while confirmed my long held assessment of the Trumpism as a rising general phenomenon, Kristof’s revelation suddenly took me back to the truth, to the hard reality.

    Nicholas Kristof’s revelation awakened me to another overlooked dimension of the reality of American politics which is that wining on the back of generally Right Wing White Supremacist Populist movement, Donald Trump the person, this Narcissist of a Candidate making it to the American’s highest office, enjoys the levers of power, the means to pressure the Republican legislators and the Republican establishment in general to stand in line and when it comes to counting, to never oppose him in any practical or meaningful way.

    This truth, as a matter of fact, became amply clear in the Senate Confirmation of All Donald Trump’s nominees for the cabinet and the higher slots of the Donald Trump Administration. While this fact bodes negatively to an America increasingly being starkly polarized, it possibly means Donald Trump would enjoy the power levers for a while for him to call the shots.

    The man’s none ending rhetoric, twittering endlessly, directly unfiltered, his simplest and straightforward thinking to his audience is reinforcing, rather than attenuating Donald Trump’s message to the very electorate base that in the first place catapulted him to the White House.

    However, save economic disasters likely in the offing and the breakup of major riots in American cities in the months to come or early years of Donald Trump’s presidency, as both could very well be ominous possibilities with the increasing disenfranchisement and marginalization of the American growing minorities and American liberals, Donald Trump’s appeal to the rising Right Wing White Supremacist would only increase not diminished with Donald Trump’s bizarre, shooting from the hip, offensive rhetoric.

    Regaining the eroded power of the American Right Wing Elites in the aftermath of President Lyndon Jonson’s inclusive reform programs of the ‘Great Society’ signed into law in 1964, Donald Trump is back to unravel whatever social and economic gains achieved thus far by the American minorities, foremost the American Blacks who euphemistically labeled in the post Lyndon Johnson as the Afro-Americans.

    Everything in Donald Trump’s programs signals taking America back to the flagrant era of White Dominance and the unfettered, unbridled and unrestrained exclusivist Wild Capitalism. Buttressed with the ethos of the ‘Christian Rights,’ yesteryear slave drivers under Biblical Renderings, a new exclusive White supremacist era is anew dawning on America. However, nevertheless, that’s a formula that could prove a harbinger of disintegration and disruption of social harmony rather than the ushering in of an era of a great promise of ‘Making America Great Again’ under archaic slogans principles branded to a changed fast converging global world.

    Donald Trump’s deal throwing all the blame on the others trying to catapult anew American White Supremacists to the dominance of American political, economic and all aspects of American life, predicate on riding a wave arousing certain embedded prejudices and an appealing simplistic and a very slanted world view.

    Firstly, Donald Trump, rather Trumpism, is out to restore Capitalism to its original pure unfettered form of ‘Wild Capitalism,’ All is for Grab. Nearly annulling taxes on the rich and removing barriers in the form of regulations on the unrestrained avarice of the rich are but two obvious alarming features of that.

    Secondly, invent and arouse new heightened world political and security tensions that could ultimately invite military showdowns fueling the riches and the power of the league of the American Military-Industrial Complex.

    Thirdly, and possibly, most importantly, invent a New Enemy in the minds, perceptions and consciousness of the American popular narratives that would further give credence and legitimacy to Donald Trump’s White Supremacist Agenda, especially with regard to justifying the diversion of the nation’s scarce resources towards military buildup and spending. All this by eliciting simplistic notions of a worldview that arouses and reinforces fears, prejudices and a culture of placing the blame on the others in the popular sentiments and vision.

    Contrary to all beliefs, this how the world of the WASP and the White Supremacists always existed in the Western culture, foremost the Anglo-American culture with the exception of that short era that followed immediately after the Second World War that as a result of massive economic revival in the aftermath of the huge destructions ravaging the industrialized world, the Middle Class in the West came to existence to only start marginalizing with the rise of Reganomics and Thatcherism in the span of less than four decades. The reinstating of Supply Side and tricking down economics of the Regan and Thatcher era resulted in handing power back again to the American elites and the new parasitic new comers dominating Wall Street and the exploits of the world financial centers.

    America was controlled by the WASPs ever since the landing of the Pilgrims in the so-called New England shores of Eastern United States. As the American territories expanded through continuous conquest and outright land grab, mostly during the 19th century, America became in need – with the technological revolution in transport and energy – of fresh immigrants of people followers of a different Christian sects, the Catholics. The English imposition of the Potato Famine on the British colony of Ireland in the mid-1980s, forcing the exportation of the Potato Harvest, the main staple of the Irish people, to England and Scotland to the deprivation of the Irish people, forced the Irish to migrate in masses to the United States. Southern Italians, of mainly the Mezzogiorno, forever plagued with slow economic growth and lack of modern infrastructure, also began mass immigration to the New World towards the end of the 19th century.

    However, in the evolving new realities of American changing demographics towards the end of the 19th century, American politics and American control of wealth remained stoutly under the firm grip of the White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASP). The new Jewish immigrants from Germany and Eastern Europe, better educated and enterprising, specialized and enjoyed an influential niche in the rising power of Finance in America.

    Now as with regards to Islam being brandished the new enemy, it has for long been in the making ever since the fall of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. America, or rather the dominating American power elite has to brandish an enemy that serves as the source for a rallying cry to moving the masses and to achieve in the process to the American dominating elites.

    Follows in this vein, Harvard’s well-seasoned American strategist Samuel Huntington putting forward a revolutionary hypothesis that was entailed in an article that was first published in 1993 in the Foreign Affairs magazine. The article was entitled, ‘The Inevitable Clash of Civilizations.’

    According to Huntington’s theses, the new emerging world post the end of the Cold War will predicate on ethnic rivalry. In the said article, ‘The Inevitable Clash of Civilizations’ later made into a best-selling book, the world is divided into six competing spheres all founded on mostly ethnic affiliations. As the entire West, including Israel, were all lumped into one group despite varied ethnicities termed the Judeo-Christian and interchangeably the Greco-Roman world. Islam, and despite the huge multitude of varied ethnicities and world cultures ascribing to that faith were all lumped as one competing group under the name of the faith, Islam. The Chinese, designated according to Huntington as one of the competing groups, would find natural affinity and would strategically closely align and potentially forge closer co-cooperate with the world designated under Huntington’s categorizations as the World of Islam.

    Donald Trump and his close top advisors, mainly Steven Bannon, share Samuel Huntington’s vision as Islam and Muslims are branded as America’s New Enemy to be faced and ultimately decisively and mercilessly vanquished. The seeds seem well planted with America’s, under Ronald Regan’s sponsoring of the Islamic Mujahedeen to fight the Soviets in Afghanistan as they grew in time into radical militant splinters; a small tiny fraction of the 1.6 billion widely expanded populations followers of the faith.
    However, in all this, Radical Islamists remain a tiny fraction of the 1.6 billion Muslims that the Trump Administration enjoys generalizing into the rest of the rest of the World’s Islamic community as a convenient rallying cry to expand his base of mostly misinformed American Right Wing Whites.
    Trumpism following in Brexit is a general phenomenon now sweeping across the Western countries. With slow economic growth and switching demographics with minorities increasing in population, the Western Right is trying to change, midstream, the rules of the game. A huge challenge, a huge task, however, this represents; the question remains, would the White Supremacists riding the wave, end of the day, succeed in pursuing their objectives with minimal damage?

    The Fat Lady is Still Not out to sing; as no one knows that end of the day where this would all lead to with a fast converging global world and the imminent challenges posed to humanity’s common existence at large with the none-ending abuses of the Western Elites’ to the environment, the climate, the ecology, however, foremost, to the true wellbeing of humans in the broad global s

  • said

    Greeating
    prevoiues posting was no as spam Detected moderater can fix it on getting this corrected.

    Trumpism as a Supremacist Phenomenon is a ‘Return to the Future’
    Trump is a demagogue who vilifies and scapegoats Mexican, undocumented immigrants, refugees, Muslims, racial minorities
    and other large groups. It sometimes works when people don’t actually know newly arrived refugee Syrian or any one from a Muslim countries . Trump voters, a complicate and diverse group of tens of million people. I would refrain from generalizing or blanket judgment writing off 46 percent of voters? hailer Clinton’s calling half of Trump voters “deplorables” achieved nothing and probably cost her critical votes. And any kind of stereotypes are not helpful.
    It is not fair to stereotyping a huge slice of America as white racist, misogynist bigots is unfair and impairs understanding. demonizing Trump voters feeds dysfunction of US political system. Many evangelical voted for trump over 80% voted for what he stand for .at same time It’s hard to win over hard core right-wing voters whom I am often disagreeing with and without insulting them. One make arguments directed at them. Fight for justice and equality. we all know ,the Trump camp includes some super racists and kind of bigots. But it’s a big camp of millions of people . justices loving people should denounce Trump’s obvious lies and his ugly bigotry. we all must stand and stay firm against his disastrous policies that affect worldwide .

  • said

    Greetings,
    Trumpism as a Supremacist Phenomenon is a ‘Return to the Future’

    Watching Nicholas Kristof, one of the best of The New York Times’ syndicate columnists, late last night on Don Lemon’ ‘CNN Late’ program, make the very well informed revelation that Donald Trump still enjoys more than 90% approval rating among Republican voters was news to me that while confirmed my long held assessment of the Trumpism as a rising general phenomenon, Kristof’s revelation suddenly took me back to the truth, to the hard reality.

    Nicholas Kristof’s revelation awakened me to another overlooked dimension of the reality of American politics which is that wining on the back of generally Right Wing White Supremacist Populist movement, Donald Trump the person, this Narcissist of a Candidate making it to the American’s highest office, enjoys the levers of power, the means to pressure the Republican legislators and the Republican establishment in general to stand in line and when it comes to counting, to never oppose him in any practical or meaningful way.

    This truth, as a matter of fact, became amply clear in the Senate Confirmation of All Donald Trump’s nominees for the cabinet and the higher slots of the Donald Trump Administration. While this fact bodes negatively to an America increasingly being starkly polarized, it possibly means Donald Trump would enjoy the power levers for a while for him to call the shots.

    The man’s none ending rhetoric, twittering endlessly, directly unfiltered, his simplest and straightforward thinking to his audience is reinforcing, rather than attenuating Donald Trump’s message to the very electorate base that in the first place catapulted him to the White House.

    However, save economic disasters likely in the offing and the breakup of major riots in American cities in the months to come or early years of Donald Trump’s presidency, as both could very well be ominous possibilities with the increasing disenfranchisement and marginalization of the American growing minorities and American liberals, Donald Trump’s appeal to the rising Right Wing White Supremacist would only increase not diminished with Donald Trump’s bizarre, shooting from the hip, offensive rhetoric.

    Regaining the eroded power of the American Right Wing Elites in the aftermath of President Lyndon Jonson’s inclusive reform programs of the ‘Great Society’ signed into law in 1964, Donald Trump is back to unravel whatever social and economic gains achieved thus far by the American minorities, foremost the American Blacks who euphemistically labeled in the post Lyndon Johnson as the Afro-Americans.

    Everything in Donald Trump’s programs signals taking America back to the flagrant era of White Dominance and the unfettered, unbridled and unrestrained exclusivist Wild Capitalism. Buttressed with the ethos of the ‘Christian Rights,’ yesteryear slave drivers under Biblical Renderings, a new exclusive White supremacist era is anew dawning on America. However, nevertheless, that’s a formula that could prove a harbinger of disintegration and disruption of social harmony rather than the ushering in of an era of a great promise of ‘Making America Great Again’ under archaic slogans principles branded to a changed fast converging global world.

    Donald Trump’s deal throwing all the blame on the others trying to catapult anew American White Supremacists to the dominance of American political, economic and all aspects of American life, predicate on riding a wave arousing certain embedded prejudices and an appealing simplistic and a very slanted world view.

    Firstly, Donald Trump, rather Trumpism, is out to restore Capitalism to its original pure unfettered form of ‘Wild Capitalism,’ All is for Grab. Nearly annulling taxes on the rich and removing barriers in the form of regulations on the unrestrained avarice of the rich are but two obvious alarming features of that.

    Secondly, invent and arouse new heightened world political and security tensions that could ultimately invite military showdowns fueling the riches and the power of the league of the American Military-Industrial Complex.

    Thirdly, and possibly, most importantly, invent a New Enemy in the minds, perceptions and consciousness of the American popular narratives that would further give credence and legitimacy to Donald Trump’s White Supremacist Agenda, especially with regard to justifying the diversion of the nation’s scarce resources towards military buildup and spending. All this by eliciting simplistic notions of a worldview that arouses and reinforces fears, prejudices and a culture of placing the blame on the others in the popular sentiments and vision.

    Contrary to all beliefs, this how the world of the WASP and the White Supremacists always existed in the Western culture, foremost the Anglo-American culture with the exception of that short era that followed immediately after the Second World War that as a result of massive economic revival in the aftermath of the huge destructions ravaging the industrialized world, the Middle Class in the West came to existence to only start marginalizing with the rise of Reganomics and Thatcherism in the span of less than four decades. The reinstating of Supply Side and tricking down economics of the Regan and Thatcher era resulted in handing power back again to the American elites and the new parasitic new comers dominating Wall Street and the exploits of the world financial centers.

    America was controlled by the WASPs ever since the landing of the Pilgrims in the so-called New England shores of Eastern United States. As the American territories expanded through continuous conquest and outright land grab, mostly during the 19th century, America became in need – with the technological revolution in transport and energy – of fresh immigrants of people followers of a different Christian sects, the Catholics. The English imposition of the Potato Famine on the British colony of Ireland in the mid-1980s, forcing the exportation of the Potato Harvest, the main staple of the Irish people, to England and Scotland to the deprivation of the Irish people, forced the Irish to migrate in masses to the United States. Southern Italians, of mainly the Mezzogiorno, forever plagued with slow economic growth and lack of modern infrastructure, also began mass immigration to the New World towards the end of the 19th century.

    However, in the evolving new realities of American changing demographics towards the end of the 19th century, American politics and American control of wealth remained stoutly under the firm grip of the White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASP). The new Jewish immigrants from Germany and Eastern Europe, better educated and enterprising, specialized and enjoyed an influential niche in the rising power of Finance in America.

    Now as with regards to Islam being brandished the new enemy, it has for long been in the making ever since the fall of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. America, or rather the dominating American power elite has to brandish an enemy that serves as the source for a rallying cry to moving the masses and to achieve in the process to the American dominating elites.

    Follows in this vein, Harvard’s well-seasoned American strategist Samuel Huntington putting forward a revolutionary hypothesis that was entailed in an article that was first published in 1993 in the Foreign Affairs magazine. The article was entitled, ‘The Inevitable Clash of Civilizations.’

    According to Huntington’s theses, the new emerging world post the end of the Cold War will predicate on ethnic rivalry. In the said article, ‘The Inevitable Clash of Civilizations’ later made into a best-selling book, the world is divided into six competing spheres all founded on mostly ethnic affiliations. As the entire West, including Israel, were all lumped into one group despite varied ethnicities termed the Judeo-Christian and interchangeably the Greco-Roman world. Islam, and despite the huge multitude of varied ethnicities and world cultures ascribing to that faith were all lumped as one competing group under the name of the faith, Islam. The Chinese, designated according to Huntington as one of the competing groups, would find natural affinity and would strategically closely align and potentially forge closer co-cooperate with the world designated under Huntington’s categorizations as the World of Islam.

    Donald Trump and his close top advisors, mainly Steven Bannon, share Samuel Huntington’s vision as Islam and Muslims are branded as America’s New Enemy to be faced and ultimately decisively and mercilessly vanquished. The seeds seem well planted with America’s, under Ronald Regan’s sponsoring of the Islamic Mujahedeen to fight the Soviets in Afghanistan as they grew in time to become radical militant and many splinters a small tiny fraction of the 1.6 billion widely expanded populations followers of the faith.

    However, in all this, Radical Islamists remain a tiny fraction of the 1.6 billion Muslims that the Trump Administration enjoys generalizing into the rest of the rest of the World’s Islamic community as a convenient rallying cry to expand his base of mostly misinformed American Right Wing Whites.

    Trumpism following in Brexit is a general phenomenon now sweeping across the Western countries. With slow economic growth and switching demographics with minorities increasing in population, the Western Right is trying to change, midstream, the rules of the game. A huge challenge, a huge task, however, this represents; the question remains, would the White Supremacists riding the wave, end of the day, succeed in pursuing their objectives with minimal damage?

    The Fat Lady is Still Not out to sing; as no one knows that end of the day where this would all lead to with a fast converging global world and the imminent challenges posed to humanity’s common existence at large with the none-ending abuses of the Western Elites’ to the environment, the climate, the ecology, however, foremost, to the true wellbeing of humans in the broad global s

  • Abraham H.

    Selam Awatistas, the retired US admiral William H. McRaven, the man who led the operation that killed Bin laden, declares Trump’s attack on the media is the greatest threat to the US democracy he’s ever experienced in his lifetime, even greater than the danger from terrorism.

    • Amde

      Abraham H.

      Thank for keeping us posted. There are some people characterizing what is happening in the US now as the greatest domestic crisis since the American Civil War. They are not being cavalier about this particular framing of the issue either.

      It is definitely worrisome.

      Amde

  • MS

    Dear Semere wed Tesfamariam wed abuye Habtemariam
    I’m sure it will be a good read for folks who love to know their neighbors, for folks who appreciate the hidden cultural treasures of humanity, etc. I’m looking forward to reading it. I’m also sure it will be a solid reference for individuals who may be swayed by scammers (read: the grand thief tesfazion). We need more of these cultural productions for they remind us how close to each other we are
    Gracias..

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Dear All Awatistas,

    In our conversation we are talking about various books and authors. It would have been very educative, if the books and authors would have been pertinent to the subjects at hand or pertinent to the articles. Talking about books and authors without any relevance to the subject matter can not indicate other than how many books we read. Books and authors are references for contextual arguments to promote new ideas and resolutions.

    Talking about translations: Medical terminologies are the hardest to come about it, than any subjects within our know how. Sociopolitical and socio-economic terminologies were the easiest at least in my experience. Introducing new vocabulary to any particular languages and to make them part of the transformational, cultural, and educational system of a given society. And of course, it demands time and receptabilities from the society.

    regards
    Amanuel Hidrat

    • Paulos

      Selam Emma,

      What are you trying to say? No one is here to impress anyone or to show off as in how many books one has read.

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Paulosay,

        It is all of us doing it. I am criticizing in general that includes my own self-criticism – that when we talk about books and authors, it should be relevant to the subject at hand, otherwise, it hasn’t any meaningful reflections to find its traction. I hope I am clear now.

        regards

        • GitSAtSE

          Ayatat,

          We can all agee, the exhaustve well read has the virtue of Patience.

          Temare ygdelenge.

          XaXe

  • ‘Gheteb

    In An ICU ( Intensive Care Unit): A Two- Headed Entity Ruminates A Political Risorgimento

    Greetings!!

    In an effort of delaying the inevitable arrival of the Grim Reaper and prolonging its political life, the entity, er, the ogre of The Horn of Africa, laying supinely and ‘senescencely’, is talking about conducting a “deep political revival” — ጥልቅ ተሃድሶ — to anyone who would listen and is willing yet again to be taken for a ride.

    The entity is saying that it is studying what its relationship should be like with Eritrea and will soon announce what its policy would be on Eritrea. Never mind the fact that no sane mind contemplates a relationship that doesn’t exist nor even attempts of imposing and demanding of forging a relationship with a plethora of preconditions. But we are NOT dealing with any sane entity here. Rather, we are dealing with a two-headed hydra a/k/a Abyssinian Fundamentalism that never accepted, I mean NEVER really accepted, Eritrea’s independence from the get-go.

    No wonder then that many and sundry are pining for the restoration of a relation between Eritrea and The Ogre Of The Horn Of Africa otherwise known as the entity headed by the detestably loathsome Woyanes. The usual suspects yearning and longing for the return of “the relationship” are, of course, the adherents of Abyssinian fundamentalism, the Eritrean appendages of the ogre of the Horn of Africa and even some Eritreans outside these two camps with a bizarre and Panglossian view of bringing “the two people” of Ethiopia and Eritrea back together.

    All of them conveniently and willfully forget about the ABSOLUTE DIVORCE between the two parties of 1993 and severance of the UMBLICAL CORD that was irretrievably cut in 1991 and the untold and wanton havoc that this very sick entity of the Horn of Africa had wrecked on Eritrea proper. NO, the scars and the memories are INDELIBLY seared in the Eritrean psyche that is uncorrupted with Pollyanna and ‘Panglossia’.

    Yes, the sick entity of the Horn, Woyane, tried to enlist the help of the Finnish government for mediation with Eritrea which was ,reportedly, rebuffed . Now we are hearing about a study that this very entity has conducted about its policy towards Eritrea which for the past 15+ years had left no stone unturned in its aggression/invasion and regime change agendas. Unsurprisingly, non of its dreams had come to pass and FAILURE was its destiny.

    The sick entity of the Horn , the Woyane, is emaciatedly infirm and politically speaking in extremis. Events in Somalia, Kenya, Uganda and South Sudan indicate that the death of the sick entity of the Horn is but a matter of time. The political desperation is no where more evident than the recent visit to Ethiopia of South Sudanese president Salva Kiir who not long ago the Ethiopians were humiliating, browbeating is now using “The Egyptian Card” to its maximum to get what he wants.

    No amount of smooth talking and talking about deep political revival — ጥልቅ ተሃድሶ — is going to save the sick entity of the Horn from its ultimate fate: the ineluctable POLITICAL DEMISE. And no amount of reform will bring forth a viable alternative to the Weyanes until the plurality of Ethiopians agree to bury and inter permanently the ogre of the Horn of Africa, the fundamentalism of Abyssinia, Habeshinia, really, and supplanting it with a holistic polity carrying an indigenous political appellation.

    • Paulos

      n{yawn+yawn+…..n}~>1/2=ሀለውለው

    • Amde

      Selam ‘Gheteb,

      How did you manage to write the word Ethiopia not once, not twice, but a groundbreaking three times in this mini-rant of yours? And not have a stroke? Are you feeling all right? Thesaurus lettin’ you down..hmmm?

      So, Ethiopia wanted to talk to Asmara through the Finns but was rejected? Kinda puts a good perspective on Blue Asmara’s sudden appearance and just as sudden disappearance.

      I invite you to Addis. Would be good for your soul.

      Amde

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Amde,

        Indeed, “thesaurus letting him down.” He is here to show his English vocabulary, than to share any meaningful new or old ideas. How do you categorize him in the Dmtri Mendeleev periodic table? of course not in the noble metals – to use your own metaphor, such as “gold.”

        regards

        • Amde

          Selam Ato Amanuel,

          ምነው ከ ሰልፈር ጋር ሊያጣሉኝ ፈለጉ?

          🙂

          Amde

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Sir Amde,

            Endye! You become Paulos Gnogno. “Sulfur” is impressive.

          • Abi

            Amdachin
            Beautiful. I was about to say the same.
            “ድኝ” ድም!! እያለ አገሩን አወደው
            ድምፅ አልባ ከሆነ ፈፅሞ ገዳይ ነው!!

          • Amde

            Abiti,

            የዚህኛው አዘንግቶ ጡሩምባ ነው።

          • Abi

            Amdachin
            ነቅቶ መጠበቅ ነው ጭምብልን አጥልቆ
            መፍትሄው ይሆው ነው መገኘት ነው ልቆ::

          • Amde

            Abiti,

            ገጠብ-ከል ጨምበልስ መቼ ተፈጠረ
            መልኩን አሳምሮ ቃርን ያሳረረ
            እንዲያው መሸሸግ ነው ፈጣሪ ከቸረ

          • Abi

            Amdachin
            እከክን የሰጠ ጥፍር መች ይነሳል
            የገጣባውን ጋዝ አፍኖ ያስቀረዋል
            ፍጥረታቱ እንዲያልቁ መች ፈቅዶ ያውቃል?

          • Amde

            Abiti,

            አቢይ ጾም ጀመርክ ወይ እምነትህ ጠንክሩዋል
            የኔስ እምነት እንጃ በመጠኑ ሳስቱዋል
            ተስፋህ በፈጣሪ እሰየው ያስብላል
            እኔ ግን ሳስበው “በዛብኝ” ይለናል
            ሳንሰም አንቀርም – ህሊናዬ ፈርቱዋል

          • Abi

            Amdachin
            ፆምና ፀሎቴን አጥብቄ ይዣለሁ
            በአንድ እግሬ ቆሜ እለማምናለሁ
            ፀባይህ ካማረ ላንተም እተርፋለሁ

      • GitSAtSE

        Amde,

        Wolverines Weopon X!

        “Thesaurus lettin’ you down..hmmm?”

        March madness ahead of us! 64 and One!
        tSAtSE

    • Paulos

      Moderator,

      Why did you delete my comment? It ain’t fair doing that with out explanation. Yea I can see that you do have the power at the tip of your finger. I am outahere!

      • Paulos

        Moderator,

        I get the salutation guideline but again it is rather rude to delete a comment with out due explanation.

      • GitSAtSE

        Paul,

        You have come up with that long awaited formula of the n times yawn, vital to the formulations in progress. I almost missed this great post of yours.

        tSAtSE

  • MS

    Hello there

    I think this is one of the best panel discussion I have listened to. Thank you our Mhurat. More is needed from you.

    http://tigrigna.voanews.com/a/3738998.html

    • Ismail AA

      Ahlen Ustaz MS,
      Yes, I concur with your view. The three of them agreed that the dictator’s speech was hallow and pointless. Their views on the economic conditions, stressing the wages, was good and bold. I think the panel will continue.
      I anticipate they will come out with uniform views on what to do to change the sad condition, and challenge the rest of the Mhurat (elites) to wake up from deep sleep.
      Regards

      • MS

        Jazak allah be’lfi kheir
        I really enjoyed it. It was mature discussion, and sober assessment. I’m waiting for part two. And they are from our young generation. Very pleased.

        • Ismail AA

          Ta’ish Ustaz Mahmoud,

          Thank you, dear. I and the rest are doing fine.
          I too awaiting the following part; all of us are betting on the young generation to wake up and salvage their nation. You and I, and thousands of compatriots, did what we could to bequeath to them an independent nation. Preserving it or lossing it is their responsibility. Of course we will do our level best to help them in whatever capacity available to us. Never rest until the last breath fails us.
          Regards

  • Fanti Ghana

    Hello All,
    I recommend this interview (in Amharic) mostly because some topics raised here are mentioned in it and because I personally know the guest to be of one with an impeccable integrity.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S6glc9RRFiU

    PS:
    Abi, Mr. Amanuel Hidrat: this was the interview I mentioned earlier today.

    • Abi

      Fantastic
      Thanks. Very interesting discussion. I hope the tehadiso will bring more young leaders who prefer solving issues with discussion than bullets. I’m cautiously optimistic.
      More DABO/democracy!!

      • Dear Abi,
        Is this a transition from dabo first to dabo and democracy, the two sides of the same coin? I am going to upvote you.
        By the way, is the gimgema over? Has the government taken any measures, or is it again business as usual until the next time?

        • Paulos

          Selam Horizon,

          It is of course business as usual. They’re all bunch of crooks till they get caught that is. This is the beauty of it though: crooks that they are but they work hard so that the people can lead a better life. You can flash a bumper sticker that says, “Live and let live” when you’re cruising around Addis.

        • Abi

          Hi Horizon
          I purposely used capital and small letters.

        • Fanti Ghana

          Hello Horizon,
          I strongly recommend you watch this interview if you haven’t. Understanding the state of the political atmosphere in the early seventies is very helpful.

          • Dear F.G.,
            Yes, I have watched the video. The political situation in early 1970s, the university students movement and latter on the participation of high school students, the question of land and that of nations and nationality, mass disobedience of the ethiopian society and the military, followed by the downfall of the monarchy, the military as the only organized force that filled the void and snatched power from the hands of the young revolutionaries, urban and country-wide opposition to the derg’s autocratic rule and everything that followed are recorded. The interviewee gave us a vivid picture of the political situations of that era and the role played by different personalities.
            Nevertheless, beyond this, what he said of the here and now, i.e. the disappointment of society due to absence of good governance is very important. He pointed out that the government will continue to be relevant only if it listens to the worries of the people, which I think is very important and timely. Has the government responded in a practical way to the questions raised in the last uprising? This things will remain suspended in the air until the government responds to the questions of democracy, good governance, corruption, and finally all ethiopians are made beneficiaries of the economic bonanza, and not only the few. We are aware of the promises given by the government soon after the crisis. Have they been realized? Yes, the government has done a lot up to now. Nevertheless, the question is can it still do more, especially on the points mentioned above. I think so, and it should.

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Horizon,

            Well said. I believe yes, it can do a lot more. The problem has been identified correctly, at least most of it, normally, that is the difficult stage. There is a lot going on behind closed doors, and I am sure they will come out with a bang very soon.

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Selma Fanti Ghana,

      Very interesting discussion from a well read and eloquent revolutionary gentleman. There was one conceptual argument he mentioned in his discussion, which remains deep seated in my mind, and that, I took it as launching pad in all my advocacy. The gentleman said that “the question of democracy, the question of nationalities, and the question of land tenure” are the inseparable issues that must be dealt together”. That statement exactly corresponds to my advocacy which says “the issue of democracy, the issues of our social groups, and issues of good governance” are three complementarity issues that should be addressed together to maintain the equilibrium of the parts (social groups). Thank you Fanti for finding an “eye to my eye” on the issues I care more than anything.

      Regards

      • Ismail AA

        Ahlen Aman; how are you, dear.

        What you stated is indeed the core value of worthy reform minded intellectual. I agree with value system of though that underpin your political advocacy.

        Here, I would rather slightly alter the sequence: social groups, democracy and good governance. I did this because the walls and roof of a building would not stand without solid foundation. Unless we start with harmonization of the socio-political components through fair recognition of their rights and obligation preserved under supreme law of the land, democracy and its institutions would flourish and care for the interest and wellbeing of the components. Building the latter on the former (social groups as you call them) would make way for installing good and fair system of governance. The three are organically linked in accordance with the right sequence.
        Regards

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Merhaba Ismailo,

          Talking about the sequence, you are right brother. I was only interested to make sure that the three issue are interconnected in their merits and when you advocate you can’t advocate one without the rest (the two). If your fight to be meaningful then fight for three of them side by side. Thank you making my point more clearer than I do. Our eyes never miss each other.

          regards
          Amanuel Hidrat

          • Abi

            Selam Ato Amanual
            Have you ever suffered from ዓይኑካ?
            Mine was the worst of its kind.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Abi,

            What do you mean by “ዓይኑካ”?

      • Fanti Ghana

        Hello Mr. Amanuel Hidrat,

        Thank you! I am glad it wasn’t just waste of your time.

    • Ismail AA

      Selam Fanti,

      Thank you for sharing the interview of Wendwesen Kebede. Very informative dialogue. It refreshed my memories of those crucial times that played great role in ushering the prelude to incredible change that Ethiopia had undergone. I was present in campus the day Tilahun was assassinated and the events that unfolded inside the 6 Kilo Campus that Wendwesen had eloquently recalled.

      The election of Tilahun as president and his martyrdom had actually turned the page in the incrementally gathering momentum of student activism since the pronouncement of “Land to the Tiller” slogan of 1963.

      After the death of Tilahun, campus politics had spilled over to the quarters of the Capital. The secondary school students and even some segments of the labor movement started to get involved and support the students in campus. I remember those of us who did not had families or relatives in Addis Ababa during crises that shut the cafeteria’s as punishment used to get coupons for one meal a day. The money for that came from contributions from labor unions and students from well to do families.

      I totally agree with Wendwesen when he said that credit for creating conditions for change should not go to the Derg. It rather should go to the student movement. It could be true that the Derg members did try to rally the principal student activist at the beginning, and benefited from their contribution to rationalize the decrees they issued which were very decisive and history-making. For instance, ending deep-seated land-cum-church based feudal and imperial relation would not have been easy, had it not been for the junta’s determination to out manoeuvre the students and allied revolutionary forces. The Junta’s dilemma was how to prove to their revolutionary credentials vis-a-vis the student activists bolstered by changing seeking forces who became embolden after the fall of the Emperor.

      Regards

  • said

    Greeting,
    Only in the Habesha Culture that Poor and Failed Governance Gets Rewarded

    I am not sure this will relate toward Habesha Culture.The late Professor Raphael Patai, visiting professor at Harvard and Princeton, an early immigrant Hungarian Jew to Palestine, the first graduate of Hebrew University in Jerusalem in 1947 with the PhD before the founding of Israel, wrote in 1973 what I consider a seminal, a best written scholarly book analyzing the working of an Arab’s mind. The book was entitled, “The Arab Mind.” I must have read that book thoroughly twice, two years after it was first published and a few years later in 1980.

    Maybe one finds the answer to the above title of this article in Raphael Patai’s book when a rational observer trained on causality tries to make any sense of the logic and how the system of Governance, foremost Political Governance that in the civilized world predicates on the cardinal concept of “Accountability,” really applies in the Habesha political culture and in the Habesha world. The very simple straight answer: “It Does Not.”

    Just take any of the surviving political regimes and political leaders in the the Habesha world, right across, despite of the long years of upheavals, wars and destructions ravaging most of the horn of Africa world and part of east Africa region and one finds what seemed generalizations and hypotheses in Raphael Patai’s analysis of the Arab mind the very living truth of a despondent actual reality.

    I wouldn’t go very far elaborating and analyzing to give credence to my argument above. Just watch the behavior and the conduct of the surviving of horn of Africa heads of state and their surviving regimes taking their nations, their countries, from one national calamity, from a major catastrophe to the other in huge miscalculations and personal whims in defiance of all writings on the wall of all the dire consequences in attendance, as does not require all that great training in statesmanship to beware.

    However, the irony of it all, rather the real tragedy of it all, political leaders in the horn of Africa are above the law as they remain immune to any questioning or accountability as they never tired of keeping failing learning the lessons, always getting back to still further draw their people and their nation to new national disasters.

    I would save everyone the headache of elaboration out of complete respect for the readers’ intelligence judging on the obvious; however, the real sad story has possibly nothing to do with failed leaderships but rather in our case Eritrea, a failed Eritrean Mind and a hypnotized Eritrean public that is given to complacency, timidity, utter laziness as TOTALLY lacking in the simplest training on the functioning of Democracy.

    As the perfect imbecile, a deranged ignorant thug acting as a President of the United States, Donald Trump, gets some of these dictators leaders all worked up, all excited to starting a new war, possibly more formidable than the 2 currently underway south Sudan ,Somalia, sapping all the energies and scarce resources of their countries, as their response in unison seems, “Hail to the Chief; Here we Come.” These leaders’ impetuous ready reactions appear to stem from the comfort of the thought that no elected legislature, independent judiciary or a free press to answer to or be deterred by.

  • Abraham H.

    Greetings Awitistas, this is not related with the current article at hand, but I consider it very important development and would like to bring your attention to the issue. The voa has reported that the Ethiopian govt has finalized a study regarding its existing relationship with Eritrea and would soon publisize a new policy towards Eritrea. What is your opinion? I’m of the opinion that the Ethiopian govt would probably withdraw its indefinite offer for talks and peaceful resolution of the conflict with Eritrea. I think they would take even more hardline position towards the pfdj regime, and instead of a proportional response as they’ve been doing so far, they would put much more serious response towards any provocations from Eritrea. It will be very interesting to see how this new poliy is going to be.

    • Thomas

      Hi Abraham,

      It is indeed a major development at the very beginning of year 2017. Hailmariam Desalegn said he will address the new policy to the Ethiopian people and added that the Ethiopia people will have to execute the new policy on what to do with Eritrea. It smells like all out war is coming. Now, we would like to hear from the likes of Semere T, Mahmuday etc and we will get to see the roles played by these cowards. Though, it is obvious they won’t do anything except running their big mouth.

      I think the Ethiopian government has finally understood what DIA is up to. The upraising and the bombing of infrastructures supported and instructed by the likes of Birhanu Nega and other sitting with DIA in Asmara had reached extreme and is felt.

      • MS

        Ahlan Thomas
        Remember, once I reminded you to act your size. That means just say things you could do. If you are raising your kids, paying bills on your credit cards…studying…. or whatever that you might be doing, that’s fine. Don’t sound as if you are doing more than others. Once you said you would receive the bullets by standing between PFDJ and the victims if you were, well, something. That came back to whip your behind. So, be yourself, man. Speaking of the cowards, the likes of Semere T and Mahmuday sent your idols to their home proper in a dramatic fashion that Hollywood would be happy to dramatize. I’m raising my kids. That’s all. Dear, Thomas, don’t expect to make a hero out of me. It’s your time now.
        I have a friend who transverse the coma threshold, in and out, that’s politically speaking. Sometimes, he acts like a patriotic person who is acutely worried about his people (and tell you what, when he says “my people”, he doesn’t hid the fact that he is speaking of his parochial community, which is not bad, anyway). It just irritates me when he acts as if he is the only hero standing, shifting blames to soft targets, to poor individuals who have no benefit or interest in keeping the states quo . But that’s what he could do. You know what I mean. Every now and then, he shifts the blame to the poor tegadalay Harnet and the people who sweated and bled for the nation’s independence. Be loud and proud of your position, my friend. You could as well pull in your leg that’s walking along the Northern bank of Mereb to the other one so that you could stand firm and have some peace.
        Speaking of Ethiopia’s policy, I don’t care what policy it pursuits. But an invader will be treated as an invader. Previous Ethiopian regimes had tested that and tasted its result. Our opposition to PFDJ rule does not give Ethiopia a green light to invade our nation. For the time being, just act your size please, and get some rage treatment. Shifting blames and whining does not pay off. My generation never whined when the call came in. And I’m so proud of being a part of that great generation. I don’t like speaking of myself, and I have nothing to speak of compared to the heroes who gave their lives, but you seem to repeat the same offense again and again. I will keep reminding you. Please, either be the person you said you were, or just observe some sense of decency. I’m tired of becoming the target of empty vessels like you.

        • Thomas

          Hi MS,

          Let me summarize my questions to you, what are you planning to do if Ethiopia helps the Eritrean opposition to enter Asmara? You seem to have a problem with that? Mahmuday was tegadalay that I cannot deny but obviously he has long turned against the people who fought to liberate the nation. Remember because you carried guns in fighting the Ethiopians, you won’t have done a thing without the support of the Eritrean people so you should never go that low. Like I said to you in the past, I give you credit for fighting the enemies of Eritrea and her people face to face. However, you will not get a free ride ruthlessly oppress and intimidate under “I created the nation and I will get to destroy here” theme:) So, Mahmuday, think about saving the people who were with all the way because they celebrated and trust you all the way………….

          • MS

            Ahlan Thomas
            It appears, for some it takes time time to get it. I’m talking to you, and all I’m saying is be your self. Feel proud in what you believe in, say what you can do. The rest is out of your comprehension and reach, including the history of EPLF. It’s easy, you can do it. Don’t try to be someone you are not. That’s all.
            That should be enough for today.
            Thanks.

          • Thomas

            Selam MS,

            It looks life has really gotten into you:) I will just leave alone. But, remember never tell anyone how to behave and at times what to say. You will never know what I can/cannot do. The problem comes whenever I see the tegadalay of acting and doing its weirdo order and remember I am not in your stupid military training center:) I refuse to shoot at anyone or take orders from anyone:)

          • MS

            Ahlan Thomas
            AjoKa, just be yourself, or if you are who you tell us you are, let us know, and I will promise to match your expectation, even in this advanced age. Go Commando, stand between the victims and PFDJ, and give me a call. That’s another deal. I really hate showy behaviors.

          • Nitricc

            Your majesty; I just don’t get it that you are willing to waste your time with likes of Thomas? I am really at loss. The dude is a lost cause. He will never understand that every generation have its own responsibility and to answer a call of duty. He is selfish and hopeless. why waste your time?

    • saay7

      Abraham:

      Speaking of thing unrelated to the article, yesterday, there was news that Somalia’s new president, Formajjio, will break from tradition and make his first foreign trip to…. Saudi Arabia. For the last 20 years, every new Somalia president had made his first trek to Ethiopia. Formajio was elected president in no small measure by campaigning against foreign intervention in Somalia (foreign = Ethiopia, Kenya.) It would not be out of character and unthinkable if he makes his second visit to…Eritrea. Then things will get really interesting.

      saay

      • Abraham H.

        Hello Saay7, yes, interesting times indeed that we are in this new year. We do not even yet know how the new Trump administrations’ policy would be towards Ethiopia/ Eritrea and the greater horn of Africa. But the Somalian new govt. breaking its relationship with Ethiopia and Kenya seems as a suicide mission to me. Who would dare challenge their guards?

        • Thomas

          Hi Abraham,

          The Ethiopian prime minister and that of the Kenyan president were at the Somalia presidential inauguration. So, they all seem in line to keep the same diplomatic path. I don’t know if visiting SA means visiting Eritrean president and no president except Al’Beshir has made a visit to DIA. To me, Somalia is in it’s current development because of Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somalia president won’t miss that.

        • saay7

          Hey Abraham:

          Speaking of Trump, an Ethiopian comedian does an ok impression of him (at least his hand gestures)…I will share with u this weekend. Brutal iSem, who is not into giving good reviews for “moral support”, will be unkind

          saay

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Hi Saay,

        Are you against the African peace forces in Somalia? Just curious.

        Regards

        • saay7

          Hi Emma:

          I am *for* politicians who act on the will of the people. You know Somalis, I know Somalis, every Eritrean of my and your generation knows Somalis. And Somalis views of Ethiopians is the same as Pakistanis view of Indians and Greeks view of Turkeys.

          Saay

          • Dear Saay,
            My problem is how to visualize the will of the people of a failed state, and if acting according to their will is their main priority at this point, when they are on a survival mode. A government that breathes on amisom lungs, and if this life support machine is withdrawn, there is no way it can survive and it will collapse entirely, cannot act according to the will of the people.
            After the last crisis, ethiopia withdrew from somalia some thousands of soldiers, and the result was the resurgence of al shabab, and increased casualty of amisom soldiers. The somali federal army is no match for al shabab, and it cannot defend the government or the people. At least at this stage, don’t you think that ethiopia is a necessary evil without which al shabab will overrun somalia?

          • saay7

            Selam Horizon:

            I think compared to the rest of the Horn of Africa, the Somali president comes closest to represent the will of the people. Here’s why:

            Process: Elders appointed 14,000 delegates, who elected 328 parliamentarians, who elected Formajio by 2/3 margin (in the third round.) if we treat this as indirect democracy (electoral college) we can say that the Somali president reflects the will of the people more than the leaders of Ethiopia (50% plus 1 winner takes all), Djibouti (the winner won more than all the oppo combined), Sudan (police state), Eritrea (one party state.)

            Anecdotal: after the election, there were spontaneous celebrations. In social media, there wasn’t a single opposing view from Somalias cast agree-on-nothing Diaspora. The only negative comment I read was from The atlantics Director of Africa Center, Dr Pham.

            Formajios plank and campaigning including statements against foreign intervention widely understood to be Kenya and Ethiopia. So as I always say, the people have the right to make dumb decisions.

            Interestingly, the Prime Minister he just named has already been accused of being a closet Al-Shabab member.

            saay

          • Fanti Ghana

            Selam Saay,

            Good call. I think he is for real. His pick for PM “accused of being a closet Al-Shabab member” is, by the way, from the ousted president’s clan. instead of focusing on his effort to bring the people closer, some news media jumped on the unfounded charge of his “easiness” to Al-Shabab.

          • Amde

            Selam saay,

            I really liked the process. Sometimes I wonder if we worship too much at the altar of the current form of democracy without understanding its background.

            If this process proves to be a good mechanism for creating elite consensus which translates to peace, then all power to them. Remember one of the reasons for Al-Shabab and its Islamist predecessors I even doubt how many Somalis are convinced democrats (i.e. universal suffrage etc….).

          • saay7

            Selam Amde:

            Ironic how Shabab’s miscalculation may result in a more enduring and stable democracy:

            The original plan was to have one-person-one-vote. However, due to the instability Shabab created in the run-up to the election, that plan (direct democracy) was cancelled in favor of the electoral system (indirect democracy). In my view, this was a superior alternative for Somalia and maybe for other African nations who are in the same level of evolution in creation of the Nation-State.

            One of the most compelling arguments African political make against Western-style democracy is that it is unreasonable for the West, whose democracy evolved over centuries to be what it is now (one-person-one-vote) to demand* that of African states which are merely decades-old. The Somali solution, necessitated by instability, is ingenious.

            Saay

            * read the Univeral Period Review recommendations placed on African nations which includes recognition of LGBTQ rights.

          • Amde

            Saay,

            I draw the line at the Q.

            Yeah, I really think the Somalis stumbled on a system that could potentially have legs.

            Now then, we discussed before about the nomads vs the setlled. To me the nothing-but-the-clan political organization is one that logically develops from the nomadic lifestyle. Modern nation-states are really built around settled people. This model might have problems going forward, assuming more Somalis become settled urbanites. But I guess that is a problem for another generation.

            Amde

          • sara

            Dear saay
            Is these Somali electoral system different to the loyal jirga of Afghanistan?

          • saay7

            Hi Sara:

            From the very little I know about Jirga (and what little I know is from American media by way of American generals) I would say the difference is this: whereas the Afghans stop at tribal elders the Somalis went one step further and created a parliament which elected a president.

            Exact same thing is happening in the US today: the elders of the Democratic Party are elected the party leader while the masses are watching sports and cursing the weather. I mean those who are not fortunate enough to live in Cali.

            saay

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selamat Saay,

            So haw saay, aside whether it was representative or not, which I will try to find out the nature of the process, are you telling us the current government will maintain peace and stability without the African peace forces that are in place defending the current government from Alshebab and other Somali insurgent? If they can, I will definitely agree with you that the African Union mission in Somalia (AMISOM) must end its mission as soon as possible. The info I have is as late as two weeks ago is, Somalia is so fragile without the African forces that are in place. So we shall see how the new government will tackle the challenges of the Somalian people, time will tell.

            Regards

          • Dear Aya Amanuel Hidrat,

            As I slowly migrate to an independent studio in this virtual world, I will be making note here and there of the following kind that emphasis the unbalanced equation that enlarges the significant blind spots of our state of affairs.

            “Alshebab and other Somali insurgent? ”

            The home grown, based on history and cultures of the people’s of Somalia gives rise to what only Somalis can fully decipher and respect as either progressive vanguards or allien and destructive to their lands war Lords. The painting of Al SheAb is possibly as dear and a necessary armed stance of The Youth-Al SheAb much as the ELF and EPLF, the TPLF, OLF, EPRDF, and the IRA of Eritrean, Ethiopian and Ireland’s armed wing insurrections resulting from the political crisis that put their people in dire straits as victims of injustice and lawlessness. Born out of clear, real and present dangers. The extremists paint brush of near and far, protecting their respective interests first and foremost, feeding distrust of foreign ideology and presence as enforcers of their whims policy and local governors appointments could be very likely the very causes that the Al SheAb opted for the fundamentals of Islam as the unifying ideological narrative. Ingrained and sacred as the supreme law in both the ideal and extreme predicaments within the relatively homogeneous culture Somalia is, short of its metastasis and alleged coluding in partnership the global religious wars, Al Shebab with regards to it’s immediate Somalian mandate is as legitimate as Awate’s ELF of the 1960s.

            Only the electoral elected new President of Somalia and the council of elders, clan chiefs Representatives and more importantly the Somalian people intimate knowledge of the new government’s composition and planned incorporation of the Al Shebab and possibly other armed militias has on the dangerous or Somalian Safety Vanguards in the resurgent from a Failed State that is the new.

            In 2006, it is arguable the ICU, were making headways in the turn around of chaotic and lawless Somalia. Unfortunately, the proxy wars found the ICU leadership aligned with a less formidable alliance lead by Ethiopia and the Islamic extremists global media paint brush with powerful outsourcing backers behind.

            My point is, the weedout and discard all the Alshebab strategy in this new dawn is impractical as well as subversive tinkering of foreign forces that injects gasoline into a seemingly smoldering smoke of a very long and wide forest fires.

            Amongst the Al Shebab and the PFDJ’s EDF rank and file are majority nationalist who bore arms in defense of their nation and Peoples. Remaining consistent in different arenas, I believe goes a long way to the lasting peace State by State for the whole HoA neighborhood.

            “Frmajo” And he is a Buffalo Soldier! A without a doubt Stamp of Approval. What say you oh Great Gheteb of Cape Hall?

            We can discuss plan for the best prepare for the worst concept. It is the preparation that we may possibly differ on.

            tSAtSE

          • Ismail AA

            Ahlen saay and the rest,

            Awaiting what the future will hold in store, I think I tend to agree with saay. Since the classic process of institution building in Somalia had failed, this rather new experience of organizing tribal-cum-clan constituencies could work. The Somalis have been criticized that though they reasonably satisfied (in comparison to their post-colonial entities in the region and beyond] the prepositions that define a modern nation-state, they could not build viable state. This time they have come with their own domestic alternative.

            Perhaps the failure of every process they had tried so far had taught them an alternative process of relying on home-grown process of consensus building, which I think is democratic in essence because it starts with extensive consultations and harnessing, accommodating and narrowing seemingly irreconcilable gaps of interests. I think those who used to advocate African under the shadow-of-tree traditional consensus building process would take good note of this novel Somali alternative if experience down the road will provide peace and stability to the Somali people and proceed to become a threshold towards re-unification of the state.

            Let us wish our Somali brothers and sisters good luck because they have suffered so much due to divisions and interferences. The success of the Somalis is a positive factor to the neighbors and other societies that are problems that endangered by similar social-cultural and political that had eluded the Somalis.
            Regards

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Merhaba Saay,

            I do not have a problem to be for ” a politician who acts on the will of the people.” In fact I do agree with your stand on that matter. The problem is, the “will ” of the Somalian people Is divided on clan lines. Somalia became the source of instability in the region. As far as they do not have collective will as one people, and engage each other to solve their differences, the idea to act “on the will of the people”will simply be “a matter of stand” and not a matter of solution on their realities on the ground. The instability of Somalia affects to the stabilities of neighbor countries such as Kenya, Djibouti, and Ethiopia. It matters them great. Not only to the neighbor countries but to the international community as well. Because it affect the maritime trade.

            Regards

          • saay7

            Hey Emma:

            Please refer to the reply I gave Horizon on why I think the Somali elections reflected the will of the people more accurately than that of Ethiopia, Djibouti, Sudan or even the US.

            saay

      • Mez

        Greetings,
        No problem Say,

        The Saudis with their almighty army will save him from collapse, in case the new Somalia president renders it’s neighbours as unnecessary.

        Thanks

    • Paulos

      ሠላም አብራሀም

      ክሳብ ማዓዝ ኢና ኢትዬጵያ ከምዚ ተበለት ከምዚ ተሐሰበት እንዳበልና ክንነብር

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Paulosay,

        As long as the current regime remains in power.

        • Paulos

          አታ ኤማ ሓወይ ከምዚ እንዳልካስ ናብራ ኣይኮነን

          • Thomas

            Hi Bro Paulos,
            “ከምዚ እንዳልካስ ናብራ ኣይኮነን” reminded me Abrar Osman’s song. Abrar is the best and he is one of my best favorites.

        • Nitricc

          Hey Aman, wrong and dishonest as usual when comes to Eritrean’s defense. the answer will would have been as long as Ethiopians hold our land illegally. once they are out no one will talk about Ethiopia. THE TRUTH!

      • Abraham H.

        Selam Paulos, whether we like it or not, our affairs in Eritrea are greatly affected by the policies of our neighboring countries, and particularly that of Ethiopia. As a well informed individual, I don’t think you miss this obvious truth. The all sided conflict that has been raging for nearly two decades between Eritrea and Ethiopia is detrimental to the peace, stability, and development of the greater Horn of Africa region.

    • Ismail AA

      Selam Abraham and the rest,

      I have also seen the news elsewhere. While awaiting more when the said new policy is pronounced, the direction of its execution will be ruled by the reasons that led to its making. My speculation is that the Ethiopian government has been angered by Eritrea’s regime’s support of the opposition, and has been openly accusing it for trying to de-stabilize Ethiopia. As we know the tension in the regional states of Amhara and Oromo has only abated due to the state of emergency, and the protest campaigns has just turned to smoldering fire that can erupt anytime.

      Thus, the government has not much space for manoeuvre, and time is not on its side. It has to either implement broader reforms that could can sufficiently respond to the demands and usher in calm, or fail and seek another tactic that could serve in disarming some pocket of armed resistance in peripheral areas of Begemeder and Gojjam. The option for doing this is eliminating the source of arms and funds. For this to happen some robust action will have to undertaken against the regime in Eritrea.

      Thus, it would be save to speculate that the Ethiopian government may be out this time to deal with the Asmara regime. Anyway, it would be reasonable to wait what the near future is going to reveal. It would judicious for the Ethiopians to seriously consider coordinating whatever their new policy intends to achieve with the Eritrean opposition forces because dealing with the regime is one thing and the aftermath or consequences of their action is another. Free and stable Eritrea for Ethiopia is a factor for their own stability and peace.

      Regards

    • Semere Tesfai

      Selam Abraham H., Thomas

      ” Now, we would like to hear from the likes of Semere T, Mahmuday etc and we will get to see the roles played by these cowards. Though, it is obvious they won’t do anything except running their big mouth.” Thomas

      This is my take on the “Ethiopian govt has finalized a study regarding its existing relationship with Eritrea and would soon publisize a new policy towards Eritrea…” thing.

      This time around, there won’t be any earth shattering announcement (confrontational in nature) that would come out of Addis. If I’ve to guess, the announcement would be Eritrea must do x, y, z, if it is serous about border demarcation and normalization of relations – type thing. Why do I believe that is the case?

      This time, war is not in Ethiopian leaders mind. The dark clouds of war are not on the horizon. How do I know? Because I lived all my life under the dark clouds of war. War is all I know. And war is very predictable. You can see war coming from miles away, you can smell war when it is getting cooked, you can hear the noises of war, you can see the troop movements before bullets start flying……… You don’t start a war at a snap of a finger. First you’ve to lay the ground work for war. Or simply……

      Before firing the first shot, you’ve to prepare your nation for war – militarily, economically, emotionally, politically, logistically, diplomatically…….

      Today in Addis – all the propaganda machines are calm, there is no troop movements, there is no shuttle diplomacy from one capital to the other, there is no lobbying……………….

      The point: I expect very mature, very balanced, very foreword looking announcement from the Addis regime.

      Semere Tesfai

      • Paulos

        ሠላም ሠመረ

        What happened to Weyane ይምጻአ ጥራሕ ከነርእየን ኢና attitude? I guess people mellow at 50 or is it 60, maybe 70. Glad to see you changed though.

        • Thomas

          Hi Paulos,

          It with your fault for taking Semere T seriously, he has been running away from problems throughout his life:) I knew him all the way but he gets to confuse people when he talks like a tough guy. This guy came from a broken house; and has never learned how to communicate respectfully:)

          • Paulos

            Selam Thomas,

            I sure don’t know Semere T. from Adam but other PFDJ sycophants that I know of sure can relate to the profile you just stated. Thing is, Isaias has more respect to stand-ups as opposed to back-benders and yes-constituencies.

          • Thomas

            Hi Paulos,

            EPIC!! How accurately you described it. I agree 100%.

          • sara

            Mr Toma’s
            Respect the elders of this forum please, most of all those in the open not hidden with Nick behind the screen.

        • Semere Tesfai

          Selam Paulos

          All I said was, Addis leaders are not saying their usual ገዳይ… ዘራፍ…. የማትረባ ፍየል…. ሁኡም ወደ ጦር ግንባር: ታታታታ….. That’s all.

          Anyway, I like your “ሠ”. If you guys stop harassing us, I will use that “ሠ”

          Semere Tesfai

          • Amde

            ሰመረ.. or should I say ንጉሥ ሠመረ

            Welcome to the Royal ንጉሡ ሠ.

            I do believe the ሠ used to have the sound of the current ሽ.

            All our semitic cousins have charaters that look like ሠ but they pronounce as ሸ.

            The Arabic character for the “sh” sound is ش

            The Hebrew equivalent (shin) is ש‎.

            The cyrillic(Russian) “sh” looks like this… Ш …which they got from the Greeks, who are great at stealing from their semitic neighbors.

            ሸ does not exist in Ge’ez, but ሰ does.

            The only conclusion I can draw is that at some point, we started to pronounce the ሠ as ሰ, then forgot they were supposed to be different. Centuries later people needed a symbol for the “sh” sound affter all, and so someone innovated the bar over the existing letter, and voila, from ሰ we get ሸ, from ተ we get ቸ, from ደ we get ጀ and from ዘ we get ዠ.

            Our use of this script is so old we re-invented it.

            Somebody in the last century innovated በ to a ቨ, but whoever that guy was did not give thought to how elegant the bar-over-fidel innovation was linguistically. If you say ሲያ very fast, you sound like you said ሻ. Try to say ቲያ fast and you sound like ቻ. ዲያ gives you ጃ.

            But you can say ቢያ at the speed of light and there is no way you will come close to a ቫ. Although I have heard rural people pronounce ቴሌቪዥን as ተለቢጅን so maybe I am wrong.

            Many years ago I got into an argument with a Pakistani on whether the Axum king who greeted Prophet Muhammad’s emmisaries was a ንጉስ (my stand) or a ነጃሽ. I suspect now he was right.

            Wear the crown

            Amde

          • Paulos

            Selam Amde,

            That is really interesting. Thanks for the lesson. Please keep them coming for we’re all here to learn and to be better people than we were yesterday.

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Amde

            Well said Mehands (Engineer). I love engineering and engineers – so you know. OK…

            In the early and mid seventies, we were (at ELF and EPLF) improving (translating) the Tigrigna words and Geez alphabets – as EPRP, MEISON, and EMALEDEH were doing the same with the Amharic language.

            Well, to standardize the language, the elite cadres of these two organizations introduced many new words – some from Geez origin, some authentic (Hagereseb and biblical) Tigrigna and some with Arabic origin). Also, some changes were made to the Geez alphabets. Since we had two ha, two se and two Tse(ጸ)s, the Tigrigna language cadres committee dropped one (the least used) and kept the other. Negusu ሠ was the se that was dropped.

            But there was another very important improvement, the Ethiopian elite did (during the mid 1970s) which we at ELF/EPLF failed to do. And that was – how a letter(s) is used in a word. let me give you an example, unfortunately in Tigrigna

            ጽባሕ (as tomorrow) ጽባሕ (as pour ወጥ በኢንጀራ), ጽባሕ (as early in the morning) – I think in Amharic they call it ላላ እና ? And the alphabet proper usage would identified by putting a dot on top of a given letter or by not putting a dot. Now, if you don’t mind please say few things to educate us about:

            A. The History of ሰ and ሠ, ሀ and ኀ, ጸ and ፀ

            B. The use of dots (at ላላና ? words) and haw it has fared in the modern computer Geez software and modern Ethiopian literature.

            Semere Tesfai

          • Paulos

            Selam Semere,

            Never thought about the three meanings of ts’bah. That is very smart. Thank you for the lesson.

          • Aron

            Hi Paulos
            What three meanings in ts’bah are you talking about?

          • GitSAtSE

            (Bodhisattva) Amde,
            The difficulties in a serial as well as parallel processors,
            Sir George Boole’s formulation of man’s natural ways of thinking lead to the physical world production of the mirror that is AI with 128 BIT and growing processors. The British Knight Boole’s intent was to formulate the physical brain of man as it mirrors through the EYE the physical world. Through the reflections and refractions of optics (a whole branch Fiber Optics as bridging medium for signals between nodes, stalled innovation to be second to Satellite.. Kepler’s EYE as you know is the mathematics of vectors of the light reflections and refractions) but I digress.
            The bridge from the human EYE capturing light of everything it finds it’s self inexplicably existing in, as you know already is the divide of yet to be demarcated border between the physical Brain and the Spiritual Mind.
            AI is the physical mirror that distracts man’s due to eggo, the narcissistic one who falls in love with his own image if you will, from bridging the physical BRAIN to the spiritual MIND.
            Was it Plato that first went on the Quest for the Soul?
            I am simply trailing your Nature Vs. Nurture contemplation and pardon my Pythagorean Plato’s running of the harmony of the Awatista Congressional Choir.
            I will apply “The path of least resistance” and avoid The DAM(nation) to my flood or the illusive i and I that I AmEritrean GitSAtSE. by the PIGspam- with the defense: “I Think Therefore I AM” chiseling your Pillar X and mine Sire.
            Agniyeya Azilo40 Intro to Philosophy Children books Press.
            Your in perfect sinked mind/spirit brother separated by the lack of a bridge (demarcation? What demarcstiom? They can’t handle the Truth!) to the brain physical world… Polynesia n Easter Island origin.
            “As you were!”
            tSAtSE (now I would like to keep my word and go on a cooling off period as a silent reader.)

          • Amde

            Selam ሠመረ

            What you are referring to (ማጥበቅ / ማላላት) is called gemination… . That is the only weakness our writing system has. It is weird but true, our writing system is more perfect for Japanese than to Tigrinya or Amharic, simmply because of the gemination issue, which doesn’t seem to exist in Japanese.

            Putting the dot over the geminated letter was first proposed by Ato ሀዲስ አለማየሁ of the “ፍቅር እስከ መቃብር” fame – not language reformers of the 70s. For whatever reason , it did not take off. The government didn’t teach it, and it didn’t require technical publishing equipment be able to use it.

            In fact, this was one of the reasons given by Oromo activists for going to the latin script (ቁቤ)። If you want to stress the sound you just repeat the consonant. As in Gena (“not yet” in Amharic) and Genna (“christmas”). Repeating consonants would have been another solution to the problem, i.e. ገና vs ገንና. That is my preferred solution actually, which would create other difficulties but they can be solved via convention. In any case, the government had better things to do, like fighting የእለቱ ተገንጣዮች፣ የነገ ንጉሦች 🙂 So no definitive decision was made.

            And once we got into the computer age, it was simpler to just make fonts of pure characters and not worry about additional coding for handling gemination when there was no convention about it.

            Personally, I hate the alphabet simplification efforts. We lose too much. For amharic speakers for example, አ and ዐ sound identical. So do ሀ, ሐ and ኸ. Which you as a Tigrinya speaker know very well that they do not. The simplification effort is to me a solution looking for a trivial problem. Just like the saga of ሰ and ሠ, there must be other (now forgotten) reasons why we have seemingly duplicated fidels. It is better to find out what they were.

            When all else fails, look at the original Ge’ez alphabet. ሀ, ሐ and ኀ exist in it. So do ፀ and ጸ. We have to assume then that they must have represented different sounds at the time.

            BTW one can also assume that the script started reporting events for third person masculine past tense. For example, the simplest forms of the letters of your name, ሠመረ, grammatically speaking are just reporting something that happened to a masculine in the past. Any word you make just by using the letters in the first fidel column are all the same thing… it is basically as if it was a script designed for አቃጣሪs. (“He did this then he did this then he did that…”). The roots of the semitic words (those now in the sixth ሳድስ) column, are typically the most complex and least uniformly designed forms. For you ሠመረ is the simplest written form, but ሥምር is the temporally unbound core concept. Logically one would assume the core is written in the simplest form and then modified to match the conceptual modification. But it is the exact opposite. Which leads one to assume that the ሳድስ forms were designed and created last. The person who innovated the ሳድስ form must have been a real abstract thinker.

            Our fidels are really an intellectual treasure.

            Amde

          • Abi

            Amdachin
            Have you ever read the debate between Dr Bayeh Yimam and Dr Tilahun Gamta at AAU? If you haven’t I read Dr Bayeh in you.
            Dr Bayeh is a linguist. I forgot Dr Tilahun’s field except he was at ILS English department.
            ILS= Institute of Language Studies

          • Amde

            Abiti,

            I heard about the debate – did not get to see it. I think by that time the issue was simply political so the linguistic points were strictly academic by then. This is one of those things where the input from the ቁቤ crowd would have helped improve Amharic script (not even saying adapting it for Oromiffa mind you). Another issue for another generation.

            I met Dr. Baye Yimam when he came to visit Michigan. A gentle and impressive soul. A true Wolloye (I am assuming of course but with such a name how could he not be?) I had a copy of his Amharic grammar. He was really keen to develop computer animation based Amharic training material. Is he still around?

            Amde

          • Abi

            Amdachin
            The debate was on Qube. It was politically charged at that time.Bad times.
            He is one of the best.

          • Dear Amde,
            Please forgive me if i am making gross mistakes, because i have very little idea about the subject. this is the first time i come acoss the word gemination (consonant elongation). i believed that words are stressed by elongating the vowels. at first i thought that gemination was equivalent to ‘accenting’ or ‘stressing’ a word, and in geez script we do not have vowels as such, and that may be the reason when we write or speak we understand the difference between e.g. ‘ገና’ and ‘ገና’ from the whole sentence. in some languages, if where to stress a word is a problem, they put an accent over a vowel and the problem of the meaning of a word is easily solved, because one knows where to stress the word to get the meaning, e.g. ge’na and gena’.

            i had no idea upto now why a word within a word (as i call it, wrong or right), is written in the oromo language, or double consonants sometimes multiple times are seen in the same word. I thought that if one wants to emphasize a word one stresses on the vowels and not on the consonants, as i said earlier. i tried to do it in practice, and i thought that the vowels are heard longer compared to consonants. it seems that other people do it differently.
            Nevertheless, i do not think that it was enough reason to rationalize the use of latin script on this grounds alone. politics, i think played a greater role.

          • Abi

            Hi Horizon
            In Amharic we have vowels. They are embedded in each consonant.

          • Dear Abi,

            that is why i said ‘as such’ to emphasize that they do not exist as letters as for e.g. in latin. it seems that i was not successful.
            Thanks.

          • Amde

            Selam Horizon,

            I spend a few hours sounding stupid to myself a few years ago. So if i make a mistake it is all my fault. And now we know that Abi has quite a bit of linguistics under his belt, he will be quick to correct me I hope.

            I believe both consonant lengthening and vowel lengthening occurs in our languages. In Amharic, the consonant one is well known (Gena vs Genna). But the vowel one is also quite common, if not as obvious. Consider ምርት vs ምግብ. Both are simply three ሳድስ fidels starting with ም. But typically, ምርት is pronounced as a single syllable word, whereas ምግብ is a two syllable word. There is no consonant stressing – just a longer vowel after the ም in ምግብ.

            The ቁቤ folks recognized it and tried to make it explicitly addressed by doubling vowel or consonants as needed. Yes, I agree the decision to go Latin was mostly political, but we are where we are.

            Amde

            PS. Do you by any chance live in Finland? Finnish loves vowels even more than qubee does.

          • Dear Amde,
            No; although i have visited nearby countries, sweeden and denmark.

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Amdachin,

            You are talking about our alphabets, you mentioned Japan, then you said the ሳድስ may have been added last. You forced me to stop what I was doing.

            You may already know this, but for sake of those Japanese challenged: the Japanese Hiragana and Katakana (two sets of their alphabets) are extremely like ours:

            Japanese in Hiragana/Katakana alphabets are arranged and sound like so:

            ሀ ሂ ሁ ሄ ሆ
            ከ ኪ ኩ ኬ ኮ
            ሰ ሲ ሱ ሴ ሶ
            ሸ ሺ ሹ ሼ ሾ

            Then Sushi would be ሱሺ and so on…

            However, once they started to inherit Chinese characters and over time, their writing began to incorporate a heavy dose of it eventually naming it “Kanji.” (Japanese stereo typical statement goes: women and children use Hiragana/Katakana and men use Kanji).

            Never mined how and when our alphabets got to Japan, but notice the second and third switch, and the missing fourth and sixth. The fourth probably sounded redundant and dropped it, but your suspicion that the sixth may be a later addition is a strong possibility. When the Japanese got their alphabets could give one a clue to at least determine after what date it may have been added.

            The Japanese use Hiragana for words that are native and Katakana for words that are inherited.

            For example, there is no native Japanese word for milk. So, it is called milku written using Katakana. So, by the mere fact that Katakana is used tells the reader the word is a foreign word.

            I am a strong believer on the “long forgotten purpose” you mentioned and I have been looking for clues whenever possible including for reasons for those so many repetitive words in Tigrigna.

            Take the ጽባሕ Semere mentioned for instance. Currently, it is used to mean “tomorrow.” However, north and west Tigray we say ጽባሕ central-south Tigray ናጋ south Tigray (Raya) ነጋ (the sound is not stressed as in Amharic).

            How this gets interesting is that the “ጽባሕ” user understands what ንጉሆ or ነጊሁ means and the “ናጋ/ነጋ” user understands what “ጽባሕ” (አጥ) as in ኮኸብ ጽባሕ means but both insist in using ጽባሕ and ናጋ respectively to mean “tomorrow.”

            Our lack of resource and guidance didn’t afford us to make a proper study of these and similar differences, but we simply fill-in the gap by giving it shallow explanations such as the reason for ናጋ is the geographic proximity to Amharigna. Even sadder part is however, instead of striving to find out the real “why” we use this “differences” to ridicule one another instead.

            Having said all that the proper ‘ts’ to use for ጽባሕ is “ፀ” as in ፅባሕ.

            Now we have to ask, is it possible ፅባሕ meant tomorrow and ጽባሕ meant one of the other meanings Semere mentioned? Or ፅባሕ meant tomorrow in the morning and ናጋ meant tomorrow in the afternoon? Undoubtedly, we have lost a great deal of knowledge of our words, phrases, and alphabets. For this and many other reasons I strongly concur that the reductionist mentality should be strongly discouraged.

          • Amde

            Selam Fanti,

            The Japanese script(s) are weird. The only thing that makes sense is that they were invented AFTER the Japanese started adopting/using the Chinese characters (kanji), and somebody said “screw this complicated sh*t” and came up with simpler methods. It is strange that they stumbled on two systems (hiragana AND katakana) that basically worked by creating a unique symbol for a consonants+vowel combination, but they never thought about making the derivation logical like ours. Such a systemic modification scheme was available even closer to them from most of the languages in the Indian subcontinent, but apparently that concept did not make it through to Japan. Which leads one to assume that the Hiragana and Katakana must have already been in use prior to Buddhism making it to Japan. The power of Chinese cultural influence must be really strong that even a country like Japan still adheres to it as the basis for their most used script system.

            The “miliku” blew my mind though 🙂 You are right – but … What did Japanese kids suckle on?

            I am wondering if the “ነጋ” form is a derivation from some proto Cushitic word meaning day or dawn or somesuch. It looks like it exists in Oromo, Afar and Somali languages as part of a greeting. I can imagine how a “good morning” in a proto-cushitic language a few thousand years ago forgot the “morning” part but kept the greeting part. Don’t let the Semitic purists (and the Maichew branch of the Agazian republic haha ) get a hold of this theory though. But it really supports the notion that modern Ethiopian languages cannot be purely Semitic or Cushitic, but are a blend of both. Basically, Ge’Ez + Agew, with the mix of one being stronger than the other in Amharic vs Tigrinya for example.

            Based on SalehJohar’s and your comments, I think there might be a lot of people who are gathering their compound lists of words and sayings in related languages. Please continue and educate us with what you find.

            Many thanks,

            Amde

          • saay7

            Hey Amde:

            An opportunity Pulp Fiction missed after it tells us in France the Big Mac is call loyale with cheese should have been what it’s called on Japan

            Big Mac = Bigu Maku

            saay

          • Amde

            Ah Saay

            But “Bigu Maku” does not quite strike fear in the heart like “cheese” now does it? 🙂

            They shoppu at Bāgākingu for Sandoitchi

            The “u” in Japanese is a stand in for their missing ሳድስ equivalent katakana/hiragana.

            Seriously, Sam Jackson could have said any thing he wanted in that scene. It is the cold soulless look in the eyes, especially as he sips at the straw, that makes the scene.

            Amde

          • Fanti Ghana

            Selam Amde,

            I had some decent laughs with my then Japanese classmate about “milku.” I could not imagine a country without a name for milk. We joked a lot, and we concluded that because most Japanese are experts in the sea, they didn’t pay too much attention to what was on the land.

            Anyway, “‘ነጋ’ form is a derivation from some proto Cushitic word meaning day or dawn or some such. It looks like it exists in Oromo, Afar and Somali languages…” doesn’t surprise me at all. It confirms with what I am discovering and studying and a much more.

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Fanti Ghana

            I believe, like many advanced languages, we should work hard to advance all Ethiopian and Eritrean languages to a higher level – we must standardize them, we should make them easier for all (our children and foreigners) to learn them easier. And this are the points I want to make. Again, let me give you another Tigrigna word as an example:

            ጠላዕ (gambling – verb), ጠላዕ (warped/bent – verb), ጠላዕ (sharp abdominal pain – adjective as ጠላዕ ኢሉ ክመዉት ኢሉ), ጠላዕ (fully grown – adjective as ጠላዕ ሰብኣይ/ሰበይቲ/በጽሒ). Now, in this word, the alphabet ላ is stressed differently. And the was the ላ alphabet is stressed is what gives different meaning to that same word. And the question that comes to mind is: how do you discriminate (differentiate) one from the other? If you can’t differentiate one from the other (in our example and many other words), how could you have an advanced language that could be taught at higher education?

            Advancing the Amharic language is very simple, but advancing the Tigrigna language is not (at least until now). And this is the reason.

            Tigrigna has come a long way. And as it was evolving, there were many problems and impediments. And one of the biggest impediments was having two organizational leaders who don’t see eye to eye (ELF and EPLF leaders). During Gedli, from 1971-1975, there wasn’t any communication between ELF and EPLF (which EPLF had different name). Though in different directions, the Tigrigna language was still evolving. As a result, we ended-up with ELF Tigrigna language and EPLF Tigrigna language. In 1975, not very much, but ELF and EPLF leaders started talking. We knew the Tigrigna vocabulary they were using. So, the first question that came to the ELF Tigrigna language committee was what to do with the new EPLF words – (a) should we use their words or (b) should we use our words and have two Tigrigna languages in the Eritrean field.

            The ELF Tigrigna language committee agreed to use EPLF words. The reason: Because ELF was behind in translating new Tigrigna words – and our people, and to some extent our Tegadeltis were already exposed (were using) the new EPLF translated Tigrigna words. But that was just the Tigrigna political terms.

            Since ELF and EPLF were two independent organizations, both were training medics that give health services in Tigrigna. And that was not all. Both in their their own translated Tigrignas vocabulary (which was different from each other), were training military cadres, security cadres, mechanics, electricians……. in their own Tigrigna languages. Basically, there was ELF and EPLF Tigrigna languages in the Eritrean Field.

            Well, at the end of the day – EPLF won, controlled the Eritrean field (Eritrea), problem solved. Or is it really solved?

            The point: Eritreans are not the only people who speak Tigrigna, there are our half on the other side of the Mereb River. Therefor, the advancement of the Tigrigna language is predicated on the communication of both leaders. And the two kin are not talking. And for lack of communication, we are creating two languages.

            The way out: (a) Both leaders have to talk to advance the Tigrigna language (b) one has to defeat the other – God forbid (as was the case with ELF and EPLF) (c) go our separate ways to have two different languages and eventually to separate people.

            Semere Tesfai

          • Fanti Ghana

            Selamat Semere T,

            Wonderful! This is one great example of some of the prices our elites may have caused and causing our people to pay. There is a strong evidence that all languages may have the same source and it is pointing toward Eastern Africa. By neglecting our languages, let alone purposely chiselling from it, we would be committing a grave sin not only against our people but against all humanity also.

            However, I do agree on making it simpler to learn. I believe we can do both. Divide it into basic, intermediate, expert, and major/graduate levels, and those who want to specialize on it would have to learn all the nitty gritty of it including taking it all the way back to when it used to be pictures and symbols and so on.

            Not as pronounced as the ELF-EPLF tigrignas you mentioned, but somewhat similar is silently happening on our side too. In an otherwise honest attempt to make a uniform Tigrigna, there is only one “method’ in use in Tigray schools today. One of the flows I noticed was that it is excluding many words that are not believed to be “common” and it is worrisome. I was checking our Tigrigna dictionary written in 2008, and although very encouraging, I documented over 50 missing words before I was on page 200 of 850+ pages.

            The authors are extremely familiar with Eritrea and Tigray versions. In fact, one of them might be an Eritrean. I hope they cooperated with the “cooperate and standardize” you mentioned in mind.
            As far as some words having numerous meanings, which all the languages I know have them, won’t be as bad as it sounds. As it is true of many languages of the world, the context is what guides which meaning is being used at a given instance. Which takes me back to what I said on my other post. Which “s” “h” and “ts” we use with which meaning is also interesting enough to investigate. To make a long story short:

            1) Cooperate, standardize, and improve (two brains are better than one)
            2) Divide into levels: children and foreigner, intermediate, and experts and majors

            PS:
            I studied Human Anatomy first in English and then in, shame on you but thanks to you, ELF Tigrigna. The first time we got our Tigrigna medical textbook was a hand written copy brought to us by “kifli Hikimna” tegadalay who was my colleague and a dear friend. I was so ecstatic with my new found Tigrigna medical words, I was reading it day and night the first week.
            Now I am wondering which words you may have changed!

          • Abraham H.

            Selam Semere T, i think we should not worry too much as to which ‘version’ of the Tigrinya language would win eventually; in practical sense I don’t see so much difference between the Tigrinya spoken on either sides of the Mereb. At the end of the day, language is also as a commodity in a free market, the version that has more appeal wins, provided the authorities do not interfer in the free usage of the language.

          • ‘Gheteb

            Selam Ato Semere Tesfai,

            You asserted that:

            ” Therefor, the advancement of the Tigrigna language is predicated upon the communication of both Tigrigna speaking leaders. And the two kin are not talking. And for lack of communication, we are creating two languages”.

            I cannot accept your assertion here without demur and I take great exception to it. Both versions of the Tigrigna languages have diverged, MATERIALLY, because of different historical trajectories, be it the Italian colonial experience of Eritrea or from the experiences of Eritrea’s UNEXAMPLED Revolution.

            Eons ago, speakers of the Tigrigna language on both sides of the Mereb river, may have spoken the same Tigrigna such as, for instance, during the reigns of ባሕረ ነጋሲ እያሱ of ድግሳ or that of ባሕረ ነጋሲ ኣመናይ of ሎጎ ሳርዳይ. However, the Tigrigna spoken or even written south of the Mereb river is more influenced by Amharic than the one spoken north of the Mereb which was more influenced, inter alia, by Arabic.

            You also say that:

            ” go our separate ways to have two different languages and eventually two separate people”.

            So far as I know, we have been gone “our separate ways” in terms of the usage of the language even when the Amharas were lording over Ethiopia.

            Without being unduly flippant here, sir, the Eritrean Tigrigna speakers and those who speak Tigrigna in Ethiopia, have been “SEPARATE PEOPLE” for a long time now, be it politically, economically, socially, psychologically, linguistically and what have you.

            Sir, the DIVORCE was ABSOLUTE and that umbilical cord that “tied” these two people was severed irretrievably and no need to fret about the separation of the Tigrigna speakers on both sides of the Mereb river. Their separation is manifestly evident even to those who are politically ‘purblinded’.

          • Semere Tesfai

            Selam Amde

            Thank you Amde. That is superb.

            Semere Tesfai

          • Abraham H.

            Selam Semere T., I see no difference neither in spelling nor in pronounciation between ጽባሕ/tomorrow and ጽባሕ/ as in ጽባሕ ጸብሒ. Only way of differentiating them would be the context in which they are used. Also I guess I’ve a fourth application of the word ጽባሕ, I think the ELF splinter group Sagem used to call their youth as ጽባሕ, pronounced as in early morning. The EPLF equivalent was ቀያሕቲ ዕምባባ, and the TPLF equivalent was ሰገናት.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Abraham,
            There is a world of difference between them. Imagine try saying TsebiH , lunch and “Arid TsebbiH” as in dawn. One is a single syllable and the other is two. The stressed b make the difference. Try girm, as in okay in Tigrinya and the tigraity girrm, for beautiful. We write both the same but say it differently. In Tigrinya it is GRIM In tigrayit you stress the R, and it is GIR-RM. There is your difference.

          • Abraham H.

            Selam Saleh, I could see the differnce between grim in Tigrinya and its exact equivalent in Tigrayit; but I still fail to notice any difference in stress or syllable between tsbah/ used for tommorow, and tsbah/ as in tsbah tsebhi. Where do you see the difference in stress?

          • MS

            selam Abrahamino
            ELF’s tsbbaH, is not tsbaH (tomorrow) but tsbbaH as something coming in the dawn, or something rising, or something having a quality of the future, as you would say ጽባሕ፡ ብራቕ፡ ረፍዲ፡ ወጋሕታ (stress the “b”. Like you would say “ውጻእ” as in ውጻእ-መዓት and not as ካብ ገዛይ ውጻእ.
            If I understood you well, I hope I helped.

          • Abraham H.

            Selam Mahmuday, that was exactly what i said in my comment to Semere above, my question here was if there is any difference in pronounciation between tsbah/tomorrow, and tsbah/ as in seving ‘tsebhi’. Thanks.

          • MS

            Hi Abraham
            I see, I read only the last portion (SGJ and yours); I thought you mistook the tsbbaH as tsbaH (tomorrow).
            BTW: In Arabic, there is a symbol to denote a streesed pronounciation. In a related topic, I saw them using appostrophe in the latest Tigrayet writings to fill-in the first alphabet as in zebbT (ዘ’ብጥ” with doubble b sound- meaning “hits”; while (ዘብጥ)- not stressed, meaning the sound of shooting (toKsi).

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Abraham,

            I don’t think we were talking about one word that could mean different things. The topic was about “Shedda” the emphasized double consonant.

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Amdachin,

            It won’t change your note, but for the sake of knowledge, theش without the dots is the Arabic equivalent of our ‘ሠ’ which makes it even closer.

          • Amde

            Thank you Fanti.

            One of my goals in life… learn Arabic.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Amde,

            In your earlier comment you mentioned the problem with emphasizing a sound, as in Gena and Genna which, if written in Arabic with a J, will mean “Jenna” (heaven) and if written with a K, will mean “he became jealous” (Kenna-K as in Key, Red) There is no G sound in Arabic and it is often explained as “The Egyptian J” because Egyptians pronounce J as G in Genna, just to annoy the Abi crowd.

            There is a similar problem in Tigrait. Arabic has a diacretics that solves such problems. In such cases, Shedda is used. The sign for Shedda is the Geez negusu “ሠ” placed on top of a letter (small, like a superscript) as in دّ for an emphasized “d”.

            Years ago I noticed that when I tried to write in Tigre and couldn’t find a solution for a word which if not emphasized would have a totally different meaning, as in ጸብሕ which means Lunch or Stew without emphasis, but with one it will mean dawn, ጸብብሕ.

            Another thing: I heard from a scholar who has interest in ancient Semetic scripts that the “ሠ” is was actually the “Th” that Abi was mentioned. There are also others who think it is the hard “S” and in Saleh which many mispronounce with a light ‘s’ formed just behind the teeth. The hard “S” comes from the middle of the tongue and upper mouth and that would be the correct S in my name–try moving your tongue as if you are saying a “SH” but instead say an S. That is how my name is pronounced and I just tolerate the mispronunciation 🙂 Sometimes the difference is similar to Bolice and police, Beoble and people, tough exercise for Arab sbeaking beoble.

            Seriously though, that is how our ሠ is supposed to sound, but the liberation era Eritreans (including Emma and Semere T) killed it and the Amharas never learned to pronounce it–both are to blame.

            I am not a trained linguist but I have interest in languages and I have been trying to learn linguistics on my own, you would wonder the pieces of scrape papers that I have collected over the years, but it is mainly related to Tigrinya-Geez-Arabic comparisons.

          • Amde

            Selam Shaleh or Saleh or whatever your name is.. 🙂

            I really tried to practice the proper pronunciation, and I got a find mist of amde-juice on my laptop screen thank you very much. Haha..

            That was quite interesting.

            You know, many years ago when Mel Gibson’s “The Passion of The Christ” came out, our local recently arrived priest asked me to take him to see the movie. I had already seen it and been disturbed by the blood and gore, but otherwise thought it was neat to see actors say their lines in Lat and Aramaic. That was actually the main curiosity I had for watching the movie and it didn’t disappoint. Whenever I heard them speak Aramaic, I felt I had head that word or phrase except it was somehow mangled. Every dialog felt close but just barely out of reach. Well, the priest, who obviously knows Ge’ez quite well, had no problem following it. He was critiqueing scenes, nodding in agreement etc. It was really a treat to be honest – I went in assuming I would be translating the English subtitles for him, I got the service instead. If you have never seen it, I recommend you watch it.

            One of the scenes had one of the Jewish high priests talk to (or haggle with) Judas about his thirty piece of silver, and he clearly referred to it as being “thalatha”, that would be the “th”in “thing” as opposed to the “th” in “these”. That lends support to one of your theories about what “ሠ”.

            I guess the dot was suggested as the Abesha shedda. Still a good idea that can be rather easily implemented, but I guess it is a victim of good enough. Normal people (not pesky poets or authors, polemicists or propagandists) draw sufficient meaning from the context. But it still would be good to define and standardize and implement something to address it.

            Thanks,

            Amde

          • GitSAtSE

            Amde,

            I made the same observation on that movie and mentioned it to Beyan Begash’s intro and article on the origins of Tigrigna a while back. I guess Tigrigna is closer to G’eez or Aramaic.
            From the movie: “Demeyy siteyyo” for drink my blood in the last supper scene and numerous other examples…
            I was never good at tSomm, Jibnna would always get me on the first day. Jibnna in the Sudan and Frmajo in Somalia.
            tSAtSE

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Dear Ustaz,
            I started Arabic class with fear of the intricate writing but full of confidence that at least I will not have a problem with pronunciation. Imagine my surprise when I couldn’t hear the difference between ( ض, ذ, د) and again (س, ص). I couldn’t hear ث either. My teacher, and Egyptian, who was impressed with how fast I could understand the words and the grammar couldn’t figure out why I couldn’t hear the difference between the alphabets.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hi Abrehet,
            From what you explained, you have the least problems to worry about. I think only the Beduins who do not speak any other language have preserved the sounds and they make fun of Egyptians who have the same problem they have. I am not ure it you know, but Arabic is also known as Luqet Aldhad, the language of ض . That sound is so difficult I have not heard it in any other language. Most Eritreans pronounce Ramadan with د instead of with a ض and the Arabs consider that a legitimate reason to redicule our language. But for a Tigrinya or Tigrayet speaker, I believe learning Arabic is so easy–the Amharic speakerw would have a problem with so many sounds: qaf, Ain, Ghen, Haa, Khaa–not to mention Dhad and Saadh. My suggestion: look for a Youtube clip of pronunciation lesson, but make sure the instructor speaks Arabic like a Beduin, such as a Saudi. If you fail to find one, look for a Yemeni, and Iraqi and Syrian–in that order. But not pronoucing the sounds you mentioned correctly is not a serious matter, most of us live with it.
            Arabs who spell the words correctly

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Abrehet & Memhir,

            I was a teenager and not easily embarrassed when I started to learn Arabic, so I think I am okay with pronunciation, but you two reminded me how I mastered the ض.

            Abrehet Y,

            The first book of the Quran ends with a word involving ض (WoLa-LDDDDUuuuA–Lin) The pronunciation problem is farther compounded by the traditionally required specific tonnage and timing to say it properly. My tutor, assigned to me by the then Imam of Jamie-el Kebir of Omdurman (Sudan), didn’t know I was a Christian until much later. I used to driving him crazy to give me an exact number of seconds when I was supposed to stop saying the word. Out of frustration, he once instructed me to hold on to the high “Wol-lDDDDUuuuA–” until he came back from some minutes long errand. The rest is long story, but I just want to say “hafofey” I know how to pronounce it!

          • MS

            Dear Abrehet And SJ

            Yesterday while replying to Abraham, I missed this part of Saleh’s discussion. Saleh knows it, and ‘m sure you do too. As you put it above there are three “s” sounds in Arabic language. However in Tigaryet you have only one “s’, the clean one ( س ). In its natural tongue, even Saleh’s name would be pronounced as ( سالح ) and not as it is correctly pronounced in its Arabic form صالح . All the words that are borrowed from Arabic that have the ث and ص are reduced into theس sound when pronounced by Tigrayet speakers. We also have the “Z” with its three varieties, the “q” two; also the خ ( kh) is not natural to Tigrayet speakers. So, for instance, they pronounce خبر (news) as كبر which will have a different meaning in Arabic, and so on. The point: is words change through time. So, if there was a “th” sound in the remote past, do we have to keep the “se” ngus? That was what I was trying to make in my conversation with Haile S. Therefore, the decision to drop some duplicates could only be a technical matter, as you have explained in some of your feeds, and not a political one, as some sounded to allude.
            PS: I enjoy your feeds.

          • Abi

            Amdachin
            Thanks for linguistics 101. Do you know Geez has the most phonetic alphabet compared to many languages in the world. That is why we can pronounce words at ease. One EPA( English Phonetic Alphabet) we hizbe Abesha dearly miss is the sound of “th” as in “the”. We pronounce it as “z”.

            Amdachin, A friend recently told me Fiqir Eskemeqabir” is written using only ሀሌታው “ሀ”. Since I don’t have the book I did not get a chance to check it.
            Anyone who has the book please check ( not you Semere T
            This is yehager guday. )
            Thanks.

          • Paulos

            Abisensation,

            I am still laughing. Not you Semere T, this is yehager guday 😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂

          • Abi

            Paul
            የሽፍታ ነገር እንዳያንፃጻው ፈርቼ ነው::
            ሲያጠብቅ ሲያላላ
            ጉድ ፈላ!!

          • Amde

            Syelam Abiti,

            Would you believe I looked high and low for my copy of Fiqir eske Meqaber only to remember I had loaned it out to an Eritrean friend of mine.

            That Ge’ez point is interesting. Ethiopic, which can be called Ge’ez ++ has an even wider repertoire. ጨ for example does not exist in Ge’ez either… it was formed from ጠ.

            I thought Eriteans used ሰውራ for Revolution, which is the Arabic word pronounced “Thawra”? Should have been Zawra instead?

          • saay7

            Amde and all Amharic book lovers:

            http://www.good-amharic-books.com/library?category=Fiction

            Do an Eritrean a favor and it will be returned to you ten-fold. You are welcome 🙂

            saay

          • Amde

            Damn you saay,

            There goes my weekend. Many thanks.

            It even has Sememen.

            I am a bit unhappy to see some of the recent books out there. God knows the authors pretty much get nothing for their toil, and if anything those of us with dollars and euros should be supporting them. But old classics – yeah baby.

            About ten years ago I noticed that there was one authors name I saw quite a bit around town. He had found a niche to actually make a living translating American pop/pulp/thriller (think Robert Ludlum and the adventures of Jason Bourne) into Amharic. I don’t know how good the translation was – but he found a ready market. My ivory tower snobbish sensibilities were slightly hurt, but then I actually ended up admiring the guy.

            I told a friend (an Ethiopian friend born and raised in Addis) once that I had bought an Amharic translation of Dostoyevsky’s the brothers Karamazov from Addis. He says to me “Why would you do that? Read it in the original – like me.” I said, “You read it in the original Russian?” He says.. “um…. never mind..” Yes, we do run the gauntlet in translation snobbery.

            Amde

          • Paulos

            Selam Amde,

            The first book I read in Amharic back in Asmara was a Russian sci-fi book translated to Amharic. The title of the book was: እንደሰዉ በምድር እንደዓሳ በባህር. I remember getting fascinated and read it as in a page-turner.

          • Abi

            Hi Paul
            You remember the main character? His name was ኢትሃንደር.

          • Paulos

            Oh Abisensation,

            You read that one too? Damn, that’s swell. No can’t recall the main character’s name.

          • Abi

            Paul
            He was in love with this beautiful girl ( not Eritrean for a change) that he goes deep in the ocean to bring pearls. It is like a dream now. Getting old, buddy

          • Amde

            Wait a minute Paulos and Abi,

            You are such commies. The way I remember it, “እንደሰዉ በምድር እንደዓሳ በባህር” was an American TV show. We had a lot of fun trying to imitate his wiggling in the water.

          • Abi

            Amdachin
            It is a book based in Argentina.(?)
            Did you try to imitate the wiggling in the bathroom tub or in the ሳፋ?
            I can see you shaking your behind:)
            How cute!

          • saay7

            Amde:

            Those are also the lyrics from Balageru:

            Ende seww be bahr
            Ende assa be mdr
            Honen endanqer
            Amlak sTen fqr

            Ephem and gossaye

            Match that Abi:

            https://www.youtube.com/shared?ci=IhsrkT6J4KQ

            saay

          • Abi

            Saay
            ከወንዝ ወዲያ ማዶ ያለኸው አጋሬ
            መሬቴ መሬትህ አገርህ አገሬ
            ና እንተቃቀፍ እንባባል ይቅር
            የዓለም መቀለጃ ሆነን እንዳንቀር

          • saay7

            Abi:

            Standing ovation. And I am driving.

            I just knew this was going to be a great weekend.

            saay

          • Abi

            Saay
            Time to check one of those self driving cars.
            Are you driving a convertible? Or one with sun/moon roof?Watch your head when you stand:)

          • Saleh Johar

            Selam all,

            Here is a link for those who are interested in Amharic translations:
            http://www.good-amharic-books.com/library?category=Fiction

          • saay7

            Amde:

            From Cheers, an 80s TV show. Sam Malone (blue-collar) is trying to impress his love interest Diane Chambers (white collar.) if you want to impress me, she says, War &Peace. He spends the entire weekend struggling with the 800-page book.

            Then Dianne tells him to celebrate the achievement “let’s go watch War and Peace”

            Sam Malone: “there is a movie of War & Peace?!?!?!?!”

            Fade to black.

            saay

          • Amde

            Saay,

            Hahaha…

            I read Arthur C. Clarke’s “2001: A Space Odyssey” when I was in Ethiopia. Then I come here, and find out there is a movie, and of course I am stoked. But geez – three times I try, each time I fall asleep in the middle. Sam is better off with the book.

          • saay7

            Amde:

            When I went to watch 2001: A Space Odyssey I asked for a discount and the clerk said:

            I am sorry Dave. I am afraid I can’t do that.

            Saay

          • Amde

            Haha

            Well played – Dave.

            I thought you were going to ask for a refund.

          • Paulos

            Selam Amde,

            When I first came to this part of the world, I remember, the first week I walked in to a book store and this particular book titled, “Living Philosophies” caught my eye and attention. It was the first time that I came to know about Arthur C. Clarke* where he spent most of his life in Sri Lanka. What is so unique about the book is that, it is a collection of essays of the notable men and women of the 20th century including Albert Einstein not of course reflecting on what they do for a living but not politics, religion and the future of humanity in general.

            *It was sad that he was accused of ugly and nasty stuff in the later years of his life.

          • Amde

            Selam Paulos,

            That will be a book worth looking into. Yes, I was bummed to hear how his last years went.

            He was actually proposing Sri Lanka as the best location on the planet for his Space Elevator idea. That would have been a great boon for Sri Lanka, and who knows it might still be his enduring legacy.

            Amde

          • Paulos

            Selam Amde,

            The guy had everything going well for him as he was well reputed personality at 28 with in the who is who scientific community. But stains can ruin one as the stains refuse to go.

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Dear Amde,
            Just to add to your points. There is a theory that ፀ originally had the sound of ጨ. Some Tigrigna words switch to ጨ with no explanation. E.g. We say ጸባ for milk but then switch to ማይጨባ for “buttermilk”. We say ጸሎት but then we say ማይጨሎት. It appears that ጨ was reinvented over time when the old sound was forgotten.

          • Paulos

            Selam Haftey,

            That makes perfect sense. Thanks for the lesson. Hope Awatistas won’t lodge a complaint to moderators that we should be talking about Eritrean politics not ጸ or ጨ.

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Selam Hawey,
            You are welcome. We can always make it politics. Currently in Eritrea they use only ሰ and ጸ while in Ethiopia they use only ሠ and ፀ. With the introduction of printers and mechanical typewriters, the educators of old, had discussed the need to use only one set, for practical reasons. But they decided not to do so as it would diminish the beauty and nuances of the language. In modern times, with the ease of language software, there was no need to drop any of them. But those in authority in both countries decided to go ahead and use only one set. And at that, use a different set in each country. (I am aware this is tantamount to claiming you are studying history while reading historical fiction. But every now and then, lighter subjects should be discussed.)

          • Paulos

            Selam Haftey,

            I didn’t even know that. I read Hadas Ertra but never paid attention the missing of the said alphabets. I wonder, if it was part of the package to drop anything related to Ethiopia proper. Well, if it is, they might as well dub it, እቲ ካልእ ኵናት.

            You are blessed with a wealth of cultural and traditional knowledge among other things. Am glad that you’re in this forum. Thank you again.

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Dear Paulos,
            I don’t think it was intended to make it different from the Ethiopian alphabets. Both decided to simplify the alphabet and somehow kept a different set (i.e. ጸ ሰ in Eritrea and ፀ ሠ in Ethiopia). There was an interview with the Dean of Tigrigna Department in Mekele University. He stated that it was strange that both countries kept a different set, but he was glad. That way at least the alphabets are preserved for future generation.

          • Haile S.

            Hi Abrehet,
            Yes as you mentioned, I think the suggestion of dropping the `double` alphabets started for type writing purposes during the British administration or Eritrea or before, but also the line for and against it was drawn on the basis of religion. I don`t have a reference to cite, but from memory of what I read, the protestants were for and the catholic clergy was against such change. I am not sure if there was an audible voice from the orthodox clergy. WelWel might have had an opinion on it, but let me limit on what I can say with reference on him. WelWel also proposed a simplification of the Geez numerals. It is written in a book (ምሩጻት ኣንቀጻት ኣቶ ወልደኣብ). Now EPLF adhered to dropping those alphabets. As a revolutionary group it is not surprising, albeit to the detriment of Tigrigna. When revolutions arise, they cover themselves with colorful garments, some innocuous, but many apparently innocuous end up being damaging. Some of you might have heard of the 18th Brumaire (Certainly Amanuel Hidrat :), Marx wrote a book about it with that title), a date that correspond to the 9 November 1799, the ascension of Napoleon to power. The French revolutionaries had previously changed the whole calendar to dissociate it from any religious affiliation; hence Brumaire was the new second month in their calendar. Who forgets another revolutionary garment teramaj mezgebe Kalat (ተራማጅ መዝገበ ቃላት) that appeared at the aftermath of the Ethiopian revolution ድሮ ድሮ ኣቢ ብጫ ሲያራ።

          • Abi

            Gashe Haile
            አመታት ተቆጥረው ጊዜው እየመሸ
            ብጫ ተጠጥቶ ነገር ተበላሸ

          • MS

            Selam Haile S

            I always value your input. Could you expand on your assertion that EPLF dropped those extra alphabets, because, in your view, ” as a revolutionary group it is not surprising, albeit to the detriment of Tigrigna.” I thought their duplicate existence did not have any phonetic or utilitarian use. And to my understanding, that was the reason why they were dropped.
            Paulosay: how is it you give Ethiopia the ownership of Geez? From my experience, I have not encountered the need of two “se, tes/xe. Could you demonstrate the need for both “se”, and “xe”…in Tigrigna or Tigre use? Eritreans dropped the duplicates because they thought they belonged to Ethiopia?
            If they are needed in liturgical literature, I’m sorry. But I would appreciate some feedbacks.

          • Haile S.

            Hi MS,
            The feeling is mutual. I am looking at from the premise (mine, hopefylly others too) that in matters of cultural heritage

          • Haile S.

            Sorry,
            I am typing on my cellphone an accidentally touched the wrong button. So …in matters of cultural wealth and heritage, I don’ believe elimination and simplification are the panacea. Although we have lost the sound of these words, we know which to use for what word, as is being practiced in Geez and Amharic. The link to the revolutionary change is that when Eplf came to power, the change they brought came suddenly along other education and other changes (to those that were not under their direct admin) and were perceived as doing things differently, their way of doing thing. The changes they brought for them were probably a continuity of what they have been doing, but for the receiver, theperception was different. Something that was brought upon without discussion. This is my quick answer for now.

          • saay7

            Abrehet:

            Would love to hear the origins of:

            Tselim
            Tsmdo
            Tsnkur
            Tsfri
            Tsehai
            Tselim
            TsnAt
            Tsrgiya

            Also u didn’t answer if Abi traveled 180 or 360. Most Habesha say 360 when they mean 180 and he is the quintessential habesha.

            saay

          • Abi

            Saay
            The origin of Tsehai is God. The origin of Tselim ( which you love it so much you wrote it twice) is Saaytan.
            The rest Abrehet will help you after she figured out the mean of 180 & 360.

          • Amde

            Abi,

            Are you in linguistics by any chance?

          • Abi

            Amdachin
            I have taken an introductory course in linguistics. I’ve also taken a course in sociolinguistics. A seminar/project in language acquisition.
            I was lucky enough to read many articles at IES .
            IES = Institute of Ethiopian Studies.

          • Amde

            Abiti,

            I think in your case it becomes the chicken or egg problem. Is it your quick wit and facility with language that came first, or the learning and research? hmmm..?

            So what are the chances of spending time in the IES library next time i travel? Is it open to the public?

          • Abi

            Amdachin
            It is always open. ( at least when I was there) My boys spent a day at the museum. They went to Janhoi’s bedroom. Make sure to take Shaleh to that museum at Mekonen Adarash.
            There was also a Research and Publication department very close to IES where you can find plenty materials.

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Hi Saay,
            I was typing, “360 takes you to where you were”, when I saw your comment appear. I dropped it and went straight to carrying out your order.

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Hi Saay,
            Tselim Tsmdo B’Eray neti Tsnkur Tsehai BTsnAt bedihom Tsirgiya tesagirom::

          • Abi

            Hi Abrehet
            ምነው አንጫጫሽው?
            I think if I try to explain what you are saying linguistically it will be like the following
            “ፀ” changes to “ጨ” in the environment where it is preceded by “የ”. Notice in both examples የ came before “ፀ”then changed to “ጨ”.
            Just as in English where “t”changes to “ch” before “y”
            E.g.” huway dont yu” changes to “huway donchu”
            I’m not sure if I’m clear enough.

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Hi Abi,
            ኣትጯጯህ እስቲ:: That is an interesting take. Does the switching of sound when placed before “y” happen in Amharic as well?

          • Amde

            Selam Abrehet,

            You made me pull my Ge’ez -Amharic dictionary and it says

            Interestingly, the primary definition for both the ጸ and ፅ forms (ጻጹት/ፀፁት) is given as “…ታናሽ ዝንብ …” (small fly or insect) from which our own ጻጸ (apparently) gets his name.

            But then ጻጹት has additional definition that states … የዶሮ የወፍ ገላግልት … or what we call in Amharic ……ጫጩት…

            This may be a case of a phonological shift, or you may be right.

            Amde

          • Abrehet Yosief

            Dear Amde,
            Just to add a very minor info on the addition of a bar over a letter. When the sound V was needed, on the Eritrean side, we have a bar over ፈ. The sound is closer to V than when you use በ. If you look at old print material (mostly earlier than 60s) you will see ፈ with a bar on it. I haven’t come across that symbol in Amharic literature.

          • Amde

            Ah Abrehet,

            That is quite interesting. Because that is what I would assume it would have to be as well. I think that is absolutely correct phonetically. But I have never seen it used anywhere (at least on line). Is that form of V now completely dead? I don’t recall seeing it in any of the Unicode font tables either. (Maybe I did and it never registered)

            Thank you

            Amde

      • iSem

        Hi Semere:
        For the foot soldiers and mere mortals who die may believe that war does not happen like that (fingers snapping): They will buy into their leadership’s lies that it was patience as the other side was pushing them hard. But war does start at whim of the dictator.The war does not start with a snap a finger only in countries that have rule of law as the war mongers would think twice about their paycheck come next election, but in a country like Eritrea, war has stared with the snap of a finger, not only that but also the war started with a snap of a finger when the dictator was taking a nap.
        But Ethiopia (read TPLF) has done it again, they study things. They would weigh their options and will decide to the best interest of their country, their longevity and posterity and what ever they do they will be the victors not PFDJ because these guys actually study and as you know during study truth can emerge and when it does it sets free whomever embraces it and faces it

        The Woyane, as Yemane Jamaica confirmed are comfortable in their own skin and add study to that. Since their debut, they have always outsmarted the IA groupies and they will do it again.
        I also think that they will most likely not attack Eritrea, why would they, Eritrea despite its support of the Molla group, G-7 etc over all, it is not an enemy to be concerned about at least since 2000
        But if their study reveals that Eritrea indeed poses a threat, they will take it to task and the Eritreans in the refugee camps will not come to PFDJ’s rescue as the Eritreans of 1998 did
        The study is analyzing scientifically the intelligence they have gathered in the last 14 years as former security agents, pilots, army colonels and veterans military experts sought asylum in Ethiopia

        • Paulos

          Selam iSem,

          That is gold as Amde would say it. Thank you!

        • Semere Tesfai

          Selam iSem

          “But Ethiopia (read TPLF) has done it again, they study things. They would weigh their options and will decide to the best interest of their country, their longevity and posterity and what ever they do they will be the victors not PFDJ because these guys actually study and as you know during study truth can emerge and when it does it sets free whomever embraces it and faces it”

          “The Woyane, as Yemane Jamaica confirmed are comfortable in their own skin and add study to that. Since their debut, they have always outsmarted the IA groupies and they will do it again”

          Mokhsi: I couldn’t have defended Woyane any better. Keep the good work!

          Semere Tesfai

          • iSem

            Hi Semere:

            I think you can because you have better info than me, but you have to be willing

            Not to remind you but TPLF kicked ELF by helping EPLF: You agree?

            Then that in itself is TPLF fooling EPLF and IA

            Then in 1998, IA, the guy who boasted that he knows those who secretly curse or bless us did not know Woyane was planning to attack them because he was napping

            Then when they penetrated Eritrea: Senafe, Barentu and IA boasted we can go to Sahel and fight them, they negotiated the peace on their terms, still occupying Badem and other areas and 25 Km buffer zone

            And now they said they have a study so they can even withdraw from the border for all we know overnight, they are staying put it just because they can and IA could not do anything about it

            So you have the study now, you can defense them;-)

        • Nitricc

          Hi Semere andom: your dedebitness is unquestionable and you don’t have to display your stupidity just to confirm it. I know it is kind of over your head, for a security guard in a mental institution to come with sensible analysis and what is in the reality. how on earth would you utter such stupid and preposterous take when you say ” But Ethiopia (read TPLF) has done it again, they study things”
          what things are do you have in your mind sunshine? the country is in state of emergency; the three largest ethnics are at each others throat and the country about to explode in to unknown and dangerous territories, the government is talking with all oppositions that labeled them as terrorist in the past, the country is under severe hard currency shortage due to corruption and high officials moving their money out of country and and now here you have it the weyane thugs about to close the deal with Eritrea in Eritrea’s term and conditions. because there is no way out. they are sandwiched. I know your IQ won’t allow you to think and analyse but PIA and Eritrea played the game to perfection and the won. I know you won’t get it. The idea and the plan of your weyane thugs to Eritrea was the exact thing what happened to Ethiopia. Once more PIA won. I strongly advice you to stick to your security guard duty and leave the analysis to people with a little IQ. my man, you just simply you don’t have it. Your weyane thugs can not defeat the Gonder farmers let alone to go war with Eritrea. how stupid?

          • iSem

            Hi Nitricc:
            My comments are not meant for a protozoan

          • Amde

            Ok iSem,

            I shouldn’t but this was really really funny.

            Amde

          • Nitricc

            Hi Semere Condom, Did you hear that word Doctors talking about protozoan during your lunch time at your security guard job at the mental institution? Trust me, i don’t expect anything from you, you are just you know? but i looked at the people they upvoted you and wondered about them. they must be as losers as you are.

          • Paulos

            Nitrikay,

            😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂

      • MS

        Selam Semere T
        The sharpshooter you are, I think you missed the point by few millimeters, not bad taking into account the degree of deviation this guy assumes at any given moment. His character changes quickly and seamlessly, from an extremely agitated patriot who would love to cover victims from the bullets of aggressors to a pacifist monk who would rather not talk about it; from someone who pains by the plight of his people to someone who excuses or downplays the acts of past brutal regimes of Ethiopia; from an Eritrean nationalist to a gedli defamer and an Agazian admirer…the chameleonian character of this guy is fascinating, to say the least. He barks about courage yet he would not even courageous enough to face the poor people he enjoys tarnishing. And now, he heard a blip from the Ethiopian PM and there you see him making jumping and making conclusions. The point is: Mahmuday and Semere T never entertained the idea of war. Speaking for myself, Thomas will never find a sentence supporting his accusation that I’m a warmonger, never. To the contrary, he will find that I abhor war. He failed many challenges. This is another one for him. But my expectation that he will meet this challenge is very low, after all, we are talking about a chameleonian character.
        Coming to the real thing: Semere A has a point although he had to veer out of his way to pay homage to his comfort zone. I will skip Jamaica for today, he was another character who ended the journey without feeling full of himself. Anyway, that’s for another day. But to come back, again, to the point (sorry, I have reached Hiwar SheiK, in the long course of Tigre coffee) war results from a miscalculation. Typically, no one goes to war if they know they are going to be beaten. For strategists, the victory of war is not only measured by the immediate effect (capturing territories, killing X number of enemy combatants…degrading capabilities, etc.) but by the long lasting impact (how quickly it stabilize the situation, could it create unfavorable any geopolitical imbalances, the benefits the victor will get from going to war (security, economic….gains), the role of the war in shaping a favorable future for the region et cetera, et cetera.
        In 1988, the driving force was TPLF, but many Ethiopians supported it for many reasons (some believed Eritrea invaded them, others wanted to revenge). Even at that time, the elite of Amara* knew it was a power struggle between the elites of TPLF and EPLF, otherwise, t would be settled peacefully.
        Today, the majority of Ethiopians understand the game. Their priority is not possible Eritrean aggression but the aggression they are enduring from their own government.
        Now, about the miscalculation: remember the PM was asked in Humara. I would bet it was all staged by TPLF cadres. The Tigrean elite is still in a panic mode. They know their time as makers and shakers of Ethiopian politics is nearing. They need to use whatever leverage they have in Ethiopia to agitate for a regime change of their liking in Asmara. The miscalculations by TPLF elite will emanate from the following areas:
        1. Desperation: trying to make a last ditch effort to shape Eritrean politics in their favor while they could use their leverage in Ethiopian politics.
        2. Using it as a diversionary tactic from its domestic political pressures (a suicide).
        2. A wrong conclusion that Eritreans now are more receptive to Ethiopian invasion
        3. A wrong conclusion that even if Eritreans could resist Ethiopian invasion, they could easily be pacified.
        4. Under Trump USA/UN, or the world would not react, or if it does, it will react positively.
        As they say, any military planning does not survive the first contact with enemy. However, it will be both brotherly people who will pay the ultimate price. We should not celebrate talks of war. I hope Ethiopians will wise up and do what you hoped would. I think the central government is maturing, but still, it is under tremendous pressure from TPLF elites.
        * Ambassador Andebrehan tells in his book that during an Eritrean envoy’s visit to Addis, there was a discussion between the Eritreans led by Mahmoud Sherifo and the Ethiopians, I believe, led by the then President MZ. At one point PM Tamrat Layne (from Amara region) tells Andebrahan- paraphrasing- “Why don’t you both cousins solve this border problem?” That shows, even during those heated years, at least some elite Ethiopians knew the war was not really about border but a result of miscalculations originated from the squabbles that had existed between the elites of both organizations.

    • Peace!

      Selam Abraham,

      The funny thing is that Meles Zenawi himself said clearly that the two countries are interwoven on many issues in particular on peace and economic stability: peace and stability in Ethiopia won’t sustain while leaving Eritrea out of the loop and vice versa. Now that the situation in Ethiopia is deteriorating that desperate move is becoming the new reality.

      It is a big embarrassment and missed opportunity for the Eritrean opposition groups that this news should have come at their own effort and pressure because it would have simply put Ethiopia on a better position and deny PFDJ the border excuse.

      Peace!

  • Ismail AA

    Hayakum Allah dear forumers,

    This morning, I have been going through the discussions that have been generated by Semere MH’s introductory notes to his new book. Frankly, some of the inputs are quite seductively enticing, and urge one to do his/her best to make an inventory of stored knowledge, or even interrupt tasks in process to consult sources.

    Well-read brothers like Paulos do come up with substantial issues and supporting references. Pursuit of knowledge in this realm would welcome such in-puts. But one cannot escape the question whether the purpose and intent of this outlet (forum) can allow engaging in expanded discussions or debates that some of the issues deservedly demand.

    Thus, I support Amanuel’s suggestion, which Paulos had also endorsed, that indulging ourselves in broader discourse could shift our attention from priorities that the forum intends to address: current affairs pertaining to matters related to the ongoing struggle to change the oppressive order in Eritrea.

    Having jotted the above points, I think it could be every one of us’ anticipation that this new book would contribute to the enhancement of our understanding of the historical impact the Abyssinian Orthodox Church had on the societies in the regions the research covers. Knowing the enlightened inclinations and approaches of the author, I would speculate in advance that his anchor when undertaking the research for the book could have been bridge-making among the various faiths in the region. Here, I am betting on what I gathered from the few occasions I witnessed him during public engagements, and as well as his background.

    The point I am trying to drive home is that the author through his book could have brought a message of moderation and co-existence of the faiths that counter some of the extremist and outlandish variants that have become rampant. Surely, more could be said and written after the book has been read.

    Regards

  • said

    Greetings,

    Trumpism as a Supremacist Phenomenon is a ‘Return to the Future’

    Watching Nicholas Kristof, one of the best of The New York Times’ syndicate columnists, late last night on Don Lemon’ ‘CNN Late’ program, make the very well informed revelation that Donald Trump still enjoys more than 90% approval rating among Republican voters was news to me that while confirmed my long held assessment of the Trumpism as a rising general phenomenon, Kristof’s revelation suddenly took me back to the truth, to the hard reality.

    Nicholas Kristof’s revelation awakened me to another overlooked dimension of the reality of American politics which is that wining on the back of generally Right Wing White Supremacist Populist movement, Donald Trump the person, this Narcissist of a Candidate making it to the American’s highest office, enjoys the levers of power, the means to pressure the Republican legislators and the Republican establishment in general to stand in line and when it comes to counting, to never oppose him in any practical or meaningful way.

    This truth, as a matter of fact, became amply clear in the Senate Confirmation of All Donald Trump’s nominees for the cabinet and the higher slots of the Donald Trump Administration. While this fact bodes negatively to an America increasingly being starkly polarized, it possibly means Donald Trump would enjoy the power levers for a while for him to call the shots.

    The man’s none ending rhetoric, twittering endlessly, directly unfiltered, his simplest and straightforward thinking to his audience is reinforcing, rather than attenuating Donald Trump’s message to the very electorate base that in the first place catapulted him to the White House.

    However, save economic disasters likely in the offing and the breakup of major riots in American cities in the months to come or early years of Donald Trump’s presidency, as both could very well be ominous possibilities with the increasing disenfranchisement and marginalization of the American growing minorities and American liberals, Donald Trump’s appeal to the rising Right Wing White Supremacist would only increase not diminished with Donald Trump’s bizarre, shooting from the hip, offensive rhetoric.

    Regaining the eroded power of the American Right Wing Elites in the aftermath of President Lyndon Jonson’s inclusive reform programs of the ‘Great Society’ signed into law in 1964, Donald Trump is back to unravel whatever social and economic gains achieved thus far by the American minorities, foremost the American Blacks who euphemistically labeled in the post Lyndon Johnson as the Afro-Americans.

    Everything in Donald Trump’s programs signals taking America back to the flagrant era of White Dominance and the unfettered, unbridled and unrestrained exclusivist Wild Capitalism. Buttressed with the ethos of the ‘Christian Rights,’ yesteryear slave drivers under Biblical Renderings, a new exclusive White supremacist era is anew dawning on America. However, nevertheless, that’s a formula that could prove a harbinger of disintegration and disruption of social harmony rather than the ushering in of an era of a great promise of ‘Making America Great Again’ under archaic slogans principles branded to a changed fast converging global world.

    Donald Trump’s deal throwing all the blame on the others trying to catapult anew American White Supremacists to the dominance of American political, economic and all aspects of American life, predicate on riding a wave arousing certain embedded prejudices and an appealing simplistic and a very slanted world view.

    Firstly, Donald Trump, rather Trumpism, is out to restore Capitalism to its original pure unfettered form of ‘Wild Capitalism,’ All is for Grab. Nearly annulling taxes on the rich and removing barriers in the form of regulations on the unrestrained avarice of the rich are but two obvious alarming features of that.

    Secondly, invent and arouse new heightened world political and security tensions that could ultimately invite military showdowns fueling the riches and the power of the league of the American Military-Industrial Complex.

    Thirdly, and possibly, most importantly, invent a New Enemy in the minds, perceptions and consciousness of the American popular narratives that would further give credence and legitimacy to Donald Trump’s White Supremacist Agenda, especially with regard to justifying the diversion of the nation’s scarce resources towards military buildup and spending. All this by eliciting simplistic notions of a worldview that arouses and reinforces fears, prejudices and a culture of placing the blame on the others in the popular sentiments and vision.

    Contrary to all beliefs, this how the world of the WASP and the White Supremacists always existed in the Western culture, foremost the Anglo-American culture with the exception of that short era that followed immediately after the Second World War that as a result of massive economic revival in the aftermath of the huge destructions ravaging the industrialized world, the Middle Class in the West came to existence to only start marginalizing with the rise of Reganomics and Thatcherism in the span of less than four decades. The reinstating of Supply Side and tricking down economics of the Regan and Thatcher era resulted in handing power back again to the American elites and the new parasitic new comers dominating Wall Street and the exploits of the world financial centers.

    America was controlled by the WASPs ever since the landing of the Pilgrims in the so-called New England shores of Eastern United States. As the American territories expanded through continuous conquest and outright land grab, mostly during the 19th century, America became in need – with the technological revolution in transport and energy – of fresh immigrants of people followers of a different Christian sects, the Catholics. The English imposition of the Potato Famine on the British colony of Ireland in the mid-1980s, forcing the exportation of the Potato Harvest, the main staple of the Irish people, to England and Scotland to the deprivation of the Irish people, forced the Irish to migrate in masses to the United States. Southern Italians, of mainly the Mezzogiorno, forever plagued with slow economic growth and lack of modern infrastructure, also began mass immigration to the New World towards the end of the 19th century.

    However, in the evolving new realities of American changing demographics towards the end of the 19th century, American politics and American control of wealth remained stoutly under the firm grip of the White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASP). The new Jewish immigrants from Germany and Eastern Europe, better educated and enterprising, specialized and enjoyed an influential niche in the rising power of Finance in America.

    Now as with regards to Islam being brandished the new enemy, it has for long been in the making ever since the fall of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. America, or rather the dominating American power elite has to brandish an enemy that serves as the source for a rallying cry to moving the masses and to achieve in the process to the American dominating elites.

    Follows in this vein, Harvard’s well-seasoned American strategist Samuel Huntington putting forward a revolutionary hypothesis that was entailed in an article that was first published in 1993 in the Foreign Affairs magazine. The article was entitled, ‘The Inevitable Clash of Civilizations.’

    According to Huntington’s theses, the new emerging world post the end of the Cold War will predicate on ethnic rivalry. In the said article, ‘The Inevitable Clash of Civilizations’ later made into a best-selling book, the world is divided into six competing spheres all founded on mostly ethnic affiliations. As the entire West, including Israel, were all lumped into one group despite varied ethnicities termed the Judeo-Christian and interchangeably the Greco-Roman world. Islam, and despite the huge multitude of varied ethnicities and world cultures ascribing to that faith were all lumped as one competing group under the name of the faith, Islam. The Chinese, designated according to Huntington as one of the competing groups, would find natural affinity and would strategically closely align and potentially forge closer co-cooperate with the world designated under Huntington’s categorizations as the World of Islam.

    Donald Trump and his close top advisors, mainly Steven Bannon, share Samuel Huntington’s vision as Islam and Muslims are branded as America’s New Enemy to be faced and ultimately decisively and mercilessly vanquished. The seeds seem well planted with America’s, under Ronald Regan’s sponsoring of the Islamic Mujahedeen to fight the Soviets in Afghanistan. as they grew in time radical militant small tiny fraction of the 1.6 billion widely expanded populations followers of the faith.

    However, in all this, Radical Islamists remain a tiny fraction of the 1.6 billion Muslims that the Trump Administration enjoys generalizing into the rest of the rest of the World’s Islamic community as a convenient rallying cry to expand his base of mostly misinformed American Right Wing Whites.

    Trumpism following in Brexit is a general phenomenon now sweeping across the Western countries. With slow economic growth and switching demographics with minorities increasing in population, the Western Right is trying to change, midstream, the rules of the game. A huge challenge, a huge task, however, this represents; the question remains, would the White Supremacists riding the wave, end of the day, succeed in pursuing their objectives with minimal damage?

    The Fat Lady is Still Not out to sing; as no one knows that end of the day where this would all lead to with a fast converging global world and the imminent challenges posed to humanity’s common existence at large with the none-ending

  • Paulos

    Selam Fantination, Yohannes and Simon,

    Fantination,

    Richard Dawkins, the high-priest and crusader of atheism which is a set of religion in itself has failed to make his case in refuting the existence of God including in his 1986 book “The Blind Watch Maker.” The complexity of the eye attests the existence of a higher being where it could never have come into being randomly. That said, him and others argue that, the complexity and perfection of the eye was a product of an evolutionary process where the fallacy of this argument lies not only in its lack of clarity but the exponents do not agree if not contradict each other as well. More over, if the very kernel of evolution is natural selection, why then religion lingered this long and was not selected against if it did not contribute to the survival of human species. If we look at it from a practical point of view, as the mathematician Pascal put it, it is good to believe for it is not only good for your life, you got nothing to lose as well. For instance, my own mother who is in her late 70s and who barely reads and write, her life revolves around the idea of God and it is tantamount to seeping the life out of her when some one on the Ivory Tower tries to convince her otherwise.

    Yohannes,

    The issue if human beings are good or evil by nature was discussed in this forum in another thread where I subscribe to the former. Systematic religion as opposed to personalized faith has had its darkest side where the 30 years war comes to mind among others. That said however, if we are to take human development as an index, in general, humanity has made the otherwise Hobbesian world manageable and less hostile of course through the advancement in science and technology. Out of the 196 nations only few in number are in turmoil where the rest are in a peace time. People are living longer, healthier and relatively happier.

    Simon,

    Faith is not fake. The problem is that, the human mind was not created to understand itself much less to conceptualize the idea of God. We can only imagine and internalize the idea of God through a leap of faith.

    You said something about placebo. Sure enough, our mind can be deceived but the effect of placebo is acute where it can not be confused with faith. It is an established fact that, people of faith with a terminal illness as in terminal cancer live longer than people with no faith and with cancer. That is not a placebo effect.

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Hello Paulosay,

      I do not like to debate on religion b/c it is not science. It is a faith that no one can not rationalize what it is and how it evolves in certainty. And when one who admires science falls in to the pitfalls of religious dogma makes me wonder. Keep in mind that I am religious person. That religious dogma is for me and I do not need to prove to anyone in order to follow me. I keep my religious dogma for me and keep my science background to reason with fellow human being. I compartmentalize them with a big virtual wall not interfere each other.

      But if we are into it, let me tell you a story that happened when I was in the armed struggle. There was one group from the curriculum committee in the department of education of the social affairs of ELF. We work together we sleep together. Before we sleep as part of our leisure time (one to two hours), we debate on philosophy that includes Marxism Leninism. One night we had a topic to prove or disprove whether a “mad person” is full human being or not. The debaters must disprove or prove (a) legally (b) biologically (c) philosophically . A comrade use to call me “Darwin” when he saw me to employ Darwin’s concept in my argument, and I use to call him Emmanuel Kent for him when I saw him using religious philosophy. So my point is, if we delve to such abstract issue on both end of the spectrum, it won’t be fruitful and educative in this forum of engagement. Besides, it will divert us from the current Eritrean political crises.

      Regards

      • Paulos

        Selam Emma,

        The topic of religion came up at least on my part in relation to the above summary of a book. That said however, I respect your opinion and your advice duly noted. Thank you.

    • GitSAtSE

      (Saint) Paul,

      The Timex Watch of Saint Thomas Aquinas did indeed have a Creator.

      Third Ta-Amratt needed for the PaPPas to ….

      tSAtSE

    • Simon Kaleab

      Selam Paulos,

      Broadly speaking, the components of Religion are: Epistemology [Theory and nature of Knowledge] and Ethics [Moral principles].

      Religion’s claim to knowledge is based on crude speculation. Religion can neither explain natural phenomenon nor predict them. Religion, as a body of knowledge is based on uncritical assumptions and faulty deductions, therefore it is fake.

      Morality that Religion markets around is based on the natural fear of death by humans and their detest of being finite.

      The positive effects of Religion, if there are any at all, is not because of the inherent positive qualities of Religion in itself, but due to the patient’s [Man’s] belief in that treatment. Thus, religion serves as a Placebo.

      • Abi

        Hi Simon
        You sound more and more like Nietzsche. This is what he said about religion and God

        “It is not God who created man. It is man who created God. According to materialism, God is nothing but an idealistic reflection of the human mind.”

        Simon, I don’t want to assume too much but you sound like someone who took philosophy class at AAU. You are killing me AGAIN.

        • Simon Kaleab

          Selam Abi,

          Philosophy class at AAU, from Derg cadre Messay Kebede? No, thank you.

          I am just using common sense.

          • Abi

            Hi Simon
            Dr Mesay Kebede? I’m having a bad nightmare already:))
            His arrogance is out of this planet.
            How did I get C? God must have loved me in a Godless class:)

          • Simon Kaleab

            Selam Abi,

            I hear that Marxist Messay has turned into a ‘Democrat’ these days. Another AAU/HSIU character, a well known chauvinist, who has turned into a ‘Human Rights’ activist is Mesfin Woldemariam.

  • Paulos

    Selam Awatistas,

    I am sure you all agree when I say religion is a difficult subject given its sensitive nature where faith is something sacred we hold dear in our lives. Faith, if it is a social construct or something of a transcendental in essence has been given credence to the latter even by the exponents of atheism where Voltaire’s famous dictum comes to mind when he said, “If God didn’t exist, it would’ve been imperative to invent Him.” But the question however remains: Do we need religion to lead a moral life or to secure a better place in the here-after or is it both?

    Voltaire and his contemporaries were shaped up by the Age of Reason when society was stepping out from superstitions, dogmas and when the Church commanded tremendous leverage and clout over the State and the Crown as well. But to their credit, the students of Reason grasped the importance of faith where without it, men’s basic animal instinct could not have been arrested. That said, fast forward to 21st century, when the State with its apparatus and institutional appendages enforces law and order and the tremendous advancement in science and technology including in medicine is well suited to solve all kinds of problems, is there any relevance or place for religion in our lives? What say you as in Awatistas?

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Selam Paulosay,

      Marx’s critique to his fellow philosopher Hegel, on the “elements of the philosophy of right” includes about religion. Marx in critiquing Hegel’s philosophy of right in 1843, characterized religion “as the opiate of the people.” Since religion is a faith that does not require reasons, it is better to avoid debating on religion, especially in Eritrean politics. Religion is subjective and is a sensitive to deal on it in this virtual world.

      Regards

      • Paulos

        Selam Emma,

        I generally agree with your take as it invites us to tiptoe around the subject in religion for it is sensitive. That said however, my uneducated probe was not limited as you said it to the Eritrean reality but to all of us the human family.

        Sure enough, Karl Marx’ pejorative remark about religion is not only vulgar but he seemed to have missed the positive impact of religion in human history. By the same token, great men of science in our time as well have focused only on the bad rap of religion and the up side of science (read: Richard Dawkins in his book “God Delusion”) which I think is intellectual dishonesty part excellence. That said, of course, in this particular work of Hegel you mentioned, Hegel argued that, the State as an instrument of God’s plan in the realization of Absolute Idealism through the self-correcting mechanisms of history. This line of thinking was seen by Marx and others as the State’s way of controlling the masses by evoking faith hence “Opium of the people.”

        • Fanti Ghana

          Hello Paulos,

          I am glad we have the same take on “God Delusion.” I found it to be nothing but a manual for atheists on how to ridicule, shame, and insult the average Christian. The fact that he lacked the basics of the religions he was attacking made me sorry for his followers.

          • Nitricc

            Your Fitness; you said “I found it to be nothing but a manual for atheists on how to ridicule, shame, and insult the average Christian.” No sir, No system is good without honest opposition.
            ” To you, I’m an atheist; to God, I’m the loyal opposition.”

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Nitriccay,

            I agree. Opposition is good; it sharpens both ends, but the author in this case didn’t seem to have a decent understanding, nor the interest or vision to consult those who do before going gung-ho about it. In short, his act wasn’t what disappointed me, but his lack of wisdom.

          • Abi

            Fantastic
            I was not following this religious debate.
            In this particular comment are you talking about Saaytan?

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Abisha,

            እባክህ አቢሻ ቀሽሙ ወንድሜ ጋር አታጣላኝ፤ እሱ መልአክ ነው፤

          • Abi

            Fantastic
            Really???
            እና ወንድምህ መለአክ ነው?
            በጉዴ ወጣሁ!!!

          • saay7

            Hey Abi:

            I thought saaytan was a fallen mel’ak 🙂 Plus, catch up, I wasn’t even part of the discussion: Fanti was defending the faithful against the arrogant atheist.

            By the way, when an Amharic-speakers anywhere in the world says, “hey, how do you say Qeshim in Arabic?” I would like to get instant notification 😂

            saay

          • Abi

            Hi Saay
            I agree ሰይጣን መላእከ ሞት ነው::
            You missed the whole comment while driving.
            I said ” I was not following ”
            You are right this weekend is going to be beautiful at Awate land.

          • Hi Nitricc,
            ” To you, I’m an atheist; to God, I’m the loyal opposition.”
            Wow! Which god do you have in mind, the true God or your demi-god in asmara, whom you worship with loyal opposition for keeping the g-15 in prison, while you do not give a hoot for his other inhuman crimes. Have you forgotten what you said about those who died/killed in the sinai and the sahara desert and those who were drowned in the med. sea. You called them economic migrants, gadget hunters, and they brought it upon themselves, and you even doubted their eritreawinet. Nothing could be more callous and inhuman, and you showed no trace of empathy and compassion in those difficult hours.
            You want to leave the door ajar by saying, “i am a loyal opposition”, an opposition and yet loyal, so that you do not come out a loser, if there is the kingdom of God, and in the case of eritrea not to lose if another government comes to power. You may say then i was against dia when he continued to keep in prison the g-15. What a fence-sitter in politics and even in religion.
            The other funny thing is that you present yourself as the fountain of truth and honesty. Man, you always had your alternative facts, and yet, nobody was aware of it.

          • Abraham H.

            Hello Horizon, this g15 thing from Nitricc is just a lip service to show that he cares or has any empathy left in his damaged soul. The truth is, there are tens of thousands of good and innocent Eritreans that are languishing in the dark dungeons of Isayas that dot the Eritrean landscape.

          • Nitricc

            Hey Horizon did you hear what your PM has to say. lol ““የኤርትራ ጉዳይ ትግራይ ክልል ክፉኛ እየጎዳ ስላለ የተለየ ሶስተኛ ኣማራጭ እየፈለግን ነው።” ጠ/ም/ ሃይለማርያም ደሳለኝ የኢትዮ- ኤርትራ ግንኙነት ኣስመልክተው የሰጡት ሓሳብ።” what do you think he is saying? LOL You see, where this is going?

          • Abraham H.

            Nitricc, someone who is born in the USA, never been to Eritrea, on the contrary, writing and understanding Amharic, hahaha, tegetimka ezi hawna. My suspicion is that you’re….

          • Nitricc

            Hey Abraham; you got me, yep I am caught. lol oh my, you caught me learning something you can’t?
            but I didn’t know that I supposed to be dumb like you? do I, Abraham. let me throw you a bone, sunshine, you can learn any language you want. just you know. what a creature. I don’t think you are capable of learning though, you are stuck with endless ” the suffering of our people” useless thing.

          • Abraham H.

            Nitricc, being dumb is no offense, and I think I’ve seen you admitting your dumbness in this forum many times. What is worse with you is that you lack basic decency, and empathy, and you’ve the killer dia as your role model. Well, I blame it on those who brought you up, whoever they may be.

          • Hi Nitricc,
            The impact of the ‘no war, no peace’ situation does not hurt the two countries or the adjacent regions of the border to the same extent. Nobody said Tigray, especially the border area is completely immune or resistant to the economic consequences of the closed border. PMHMD speaks of ‘ሶስተኛ ኣማራጭ’ as a solution. what exactly that means, i do not know, and we have to wait and see. Nevertheless, i do not think that it is surrender on the ethiopian side, and the PM is going to beg dia for the normalisation of relations. one could suppose that the third way may mean, for example, tax exemption of the border area, easy availability of capital to people with lower interest rate, etc, . Let’s wait and see. (sorry, i have not seen the interview yet).

          • sara

            Merhaba Nitricc,
            Read Eritrea,tigray,hailemariam,
            Rest…what does it mean…can you share it in Tigrinya.

    • Simon Kaleab

      Selam Paulos,

      Religion serves man to navigate the harsh life in this World, just as a pair of crutches serve a cripple to cross the road. The main issue of religion is in allaying fear of death.

      The difference between religion and a pair of crutches is that while religion is fake, hot air and a placebo, a pair of crutches are real.

    • Yohannes Zerai

      Hello Paulos,

      Setting the deeper spiritual essence of religion aside and limiting ourselves to its moralistic values, it is evident that the “men’s basic animal instinct” you speak of has, over the ages, shown no sign of abating. Indeed, it seems to be undergoing a resurgence to new heights stimulated by “the tremendous advancement in science and technology” that some ironically argue should obviate reliance on religion as an essential element of decent living.

      • Fanti Ghana

        Hello Yohannes Zerai,

        I had the exact thought a little earlier. I was thinking along the lines of “we would be lucky in comparison had we followed our “basic animal instinct,” which doesn’t really go beyond an effort to secure basic necessity. However, Paulos’ premise in the above post assumed religion’s basic function to be “niceness.” Time strapped, I let it pass. Lucky Paulos!

        • Yohannes Zerai

          Dear Fanti,

          Lest my earlier comment be misconstrued, I should clarify that in using the phrase “men’s basic animal instinct” I was not referring to human beings’ benevolent desire to survive and efforts exerted to that end. I was rather referring to the “dog eat dog” disposition of the animal kingdom – the propensity for greed and the general tendency of striving to benefit oneself at the expense, and to the detriment, of others.

    • Amde

      Selam Paulos,

      I think we will probably need to make a distinction between religion and spirituality.

      My view of religion is that it is an institution that has proven social utility. I read somewhere a long time ago that religions are the longest living human institutions and it has stuck with me since. What state has as long a history as Christianity for example? Or a commercial entity? A currency? Even languages, which evolve faster than religions so much that arguments over translation become staples of mature religions.

      The dogmatic (literal) explanatory role of religious texts as a source of definitive knowledge about the world is something that is dying, and deservedly so. But, (at least so far) religions give an explanation of what to expect after death. Something the scientific method (observe-hypothesize-experiment-replicate) is probably not equipped to study. The scientific method itself is simply unequipped to address it – yet.

      The other major role of religions is in providing meaning. I feel the coming period of mass unemployment can address the economic problems, but has no answer about providing meaning to the life of billions who will be idle and taken care of. Religion probably will have a resurgence in a new form that fulfills the permanently unemployed.

      The interesting part is what we know as spirituality. Personally I think there must be a significant biological/neurological basis for feelings of connection to entities and places that have no analogue in the material world. That there was a universe outside of the material world was an accepted reality for pretty much all of human existence over our 200,000 years history. It is only now – in the last 200 years – that secularism and atheism are considered accepted social standards. It really is a staggeringly massive change for Homo Sapiens, and yet we have accepted it non-chalantly. At the very least, there must have been evolutionary advantages to having brains that have spiritual experiences vs focusing full time in the physical world.

      The biological/neurological bases for spiritual experiences is something that is suggested by things like why women in general are more faith-filled than men, that the people invest a lot of time in training their brains in meditation and prayer generally report deeper and more definitive communications with the non-material world. It is also a hot area of research right now. At some point we will figure out if these experiences are mental mirages or if there really is another universe accessed through non-material means. On this score as well, I think unemployed billions will probably choose to spend a lot of time exploring.

      So, even as I am a convinced adherent to the elegant Maslow Hierarchy of Needs theory, I think both religion and spirituality will probably have a resurgence in new forms.

      Amde

      • Paulos

        Selam Amde,

        “The things we can not talk about, we have to pass them in a complete silence.” I paraphrased it but these are the notable words of Ludwig Wittgenstein where Bertrand Russell once hailed him as the cleverest philosopher ever. Wittgenstein’s keen sense of observation underscores the shortcomings of the structures of languages we invariably utilize to secrutinize reality including the essence of God as well. To put it differently, we as species are not well equipped to conceptualize say four dimensions much less to understand the essence of existence. Moreover, the handicap nature of science is clearly elaborated in Heisenberg’s “Uncertainty Principle” where in the quantum world, one can not know the position and momentum of a particle simultaneously. The more we know accurately about the position of a particle, the less we know about its position. This sense of disparity shows that, the entire dogma of the scientific enterprise functions with and in statistical probabilities and approximations. As such, we can not have a complete grasp of nature or God through empirical methods alone.

        Of course, the debate still rages on if the mind is the product of the brain or if it is an independent entity on its own. If we look at it from mental disorders point of view, we tend to get a clue where the mind could as well be an independent entity. In the Dopamine hypothesis, dopamine a neurotransmitter plays a central role in schizophrenia where in excess of dopamine results in schisophrenic types and less of dopamine causes Parkinson’s disease. But the neurons which transmit neurotransmitters do not get back to a complete normalcy when the level of dopamine is adjusted say through medication. The idea of fixing the “deficit” arises from the very modus operandi of the scientific world where the brain is taken as a machine with screws and bolts. But the reality is, it is greater than the summation of its parts. I say, the missing factor of the whole is spirituality as in the essence of God.

        • Amanuel Hidrat

          Paulosay,

          Your statement: “If the mind is the product of the brain or if it is an independent entity on it’s own” will take us to the same argument between idealism and materialism which is “beings verses matter.”

          Regards

        • GitSAtSE

          Paul,

          Ludwig W, B Russel, Quantum “uncertainty” of the whereabouts of the particle… Who is crushing who like a clay jebena… I have Google mapped your place of residence: The Library of Congress.

          Call me WiKharia brother Kudus MarQos as in Kudusan LuQas, Yohanns MarQos.

          Do you see the link to Semere Habtemariam’s Ethiopian Eunoc babtisim by MarQos, Abrehet’s the Light of the Lamb and the 64 Teeth of the fox to be crushed by the ROCK?

          Marko Polo, Marko Polo… Go figure. You are sitting atop the highest mound of books containing scientific knowledge with sight of strong Faith your gift of The EYE.
          Carpe Diem!

          My reading list growth and my cup floweth like the Tekeze and Mereb Mlashh…

          tSAtSE

          • Paulos

            Tsatse,

            Did you know that, it was Thomas Aquinas who baptized Aristotle. Not of course going back in time but far more deeper than that.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Paulosay,

            Thomas Aquinas was a medieval thinker. Was he reborn circa 1225, If he was the one who baptized Aristotle? Aristotle was born circa 384 BC. I remember few decades ago, there was BBC news on the air, telling about a British soldier who fought and died during early colonization of India. He was reborn in late 70s from different British family, narrating his own history of the past, giving a full picture of the battle and the place he died at the age of three. It was a big puzzle to the doctors who were listening to him. I do not know how true it was but it was in the news.

            Regards

          • Paulos

            Selam Emma,

            If you notice in my comment, I said, “….Of course not going back in time.” It is said, Thomas Aquinas baptized Aristotle not in the real sense immersing him in Holy water so to speak and given the two different eras they both lived in, rather, Thomas Aquinas brilliantly synthesized Aristotlian philosophy into the very credo of Christianity and hence the baptizing expression. To put it tersly, Aristotle talked about an original and immutable Form where the reality around us according to him is a mere reflection of the Form. The parallel in thinking between Aristotle and the theology of Aquinas comes into a draw when the latter replaced the very concept of the Form with the Logos which is again the central credo of Christianity.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Paulos,

            Don’t worry. Since we are talking about religion, I found a way of telling the story what often religious people do talk about reborn again.

            Regards

        • Amde

          Selam Paulos,

          “The things we can not talk about, we have to pass them in a complete silence.”

          I think I have to disagree with this one. Perhaps it is my engineer side talking. But if one looks at Buddhist or Hindu or even Christian monks who profess spirituality or some kind of connection to the non-material, it can be suggested that they get into these experiences through intense prayer and meditation. Which, I would argue, is a form of brain training. To be crude, it can be distilled to a large amount of time in seclusion, concentrating on a single or very few items. That reading of spiritual practice makes it a relatively accessible form of training for those with the time and inclination.

          A lot of work is ongoing now to figure out the most effective/efficient ways of getting into these states. People are experimenting with ways of separating consciousness from the body on a repeatable basis via chemical or electromagnetic or brain wave entrainment or laser etc means.

          We are on the cusp of an era where billions will have their daily needs met and will have nothing to really do. I figure these practices will become a huge part of the human story over the next century. In essence we are moving into an era of democratization of the spiritual experience. Who knows what we will meet on the other side?

          Amde

          • Paulos

            Selam Amde,

            Forumers are staging a coup where the discussion at hand is veering us away from the main objectives of this site. I say, I concur. But if I have to jot down one or two points: illicit drugs as in PCP, LSD, Angel Dust, Cocaine among others not only alter the chemistry of the brain, one zones out into a completely different troubled world. And epileptic seizures alter the brain as well where Dostiyoviski felt he experienced the scene of angels as he suffered from it most of his life.

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Dear Amde,

        So, you are an “adherent to the elegant Maslow Hierarchy of needs theory”. So do I, my friend. Eye to eye.

        • Abi

          Selam Ato Amanual
          Please add another eye. Can’t wait to see our people out of the lower level needs.

          • Fanti Ghana

            Hello Abi & Mr. Amanuel Hidrat,

            Speaking of an eye, I found an eye this past Wednesday you two can share. There is an excellent interview (I will post the link tomorrow) with one TPLF old timer who briefly mentions that they used to distribute anti-government pamphlets including that of ELF and EPLF. I knew him personally because he was my boss and mentor at one time. He mentions a few things that has been discussed here before, so most Awatistas may enjoy it too. Stay tuned.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Fanti Ghana,

            Fanti the bridge maker.You have proved it many times.I look forward to listen the interwiew.

            Regards

      • GitSAtSE

        (Bodhisattva) Amde,

        The difficulties in a serial as well as parallel processors,

        Sir George Boole’s formulation of man’s natural ways of thinking lead to the physical world production of the mirror that is AI with 128 BIT and growing processors. The British Knight Boole’s intent was to formulate the physical brain of man as it mirrors through the EYE the physical world. Through the reflections and refractions of optics (a whole branch Fiber Optics as bridging medium for signals between nodes, stalled innovation to be second to Satellite.. Kepler’s EYE as you know is the mathematics of vectors of the light reflections and refractions) but I digress.

        The bridge from the human EYE capturing light of everything it finds it’s self inexplicably existing in, as you know already is the divide of yet to be demarcated border between the physical Brain and the Spiritual Mind.

        AI is the physical mirror that distracts man’s due to eggo, the narcissistic one who falls in love with his own image if you will, from bridging the physical BRAIN to the spiritual MIND.

        Was it Plato that first went on the Quest for the Soul?

        I am simply trailing your Nature Vs. Nurture contemplation and pardon my Pythagorean Plato’s running of the harmony of the Awatista Congressional Choir.

        I will apply “The path of least resistance” and avoid The DAM(nation) by the PIGspam- with “I Think Therefore I AM” chiseling your Pillar X and mine Sire.

        Agniyeya Azilo40 Intro to Philosophy Children books Press.

        tSAtSE

      • GitSAtSE

        Amde,

        The inexplicable enmity Elitist machine is rather purging the pertinent to progress submissions .. dogma! is an understatement. My days here are numbered and the declaration if war. “Don’t ask them to leave. Make them leave.”

        Bob: “Didn’t my people before me slave for this…”
        I beg your pardon for the out context sound of this rant.. but your selective purging and paintings will see it’s wrath. You know who you are:”who the cap fit, let them wear it!”

        Here is a deal for you, post this comment and I will make it my last! Purge it.. See you in the TRENCHS.

        tSAtSE

        • Amde

          Selam TsaTse

          It is not in my power to post, purge, deny , edit anything you post here. Perhaps the moderators have something to say. Dude, your posts are out of this world. I love them even if I understand maybe 20%. But that may not be a sentiment shared by everyone – who knows.

          Please don’t say my days here are numbered or declare war.

          One of my favorite episodes of Star Trek – The Next Generation is “Darmok and Jalad at Tanagra”. The crew stumbles onto a civilization that speaks only in metaphor. This metaphor was built up from a legend describing an old battle. The automatic translator was useless because it was a straight vocabulary and grammar construction, and didn’t have this legend as context. They almost went to war because Picard and crew did not understand. Sounds familiar? If you have never seen it, look it up and enjoy. Somebody needs to be a Picard to your Dathon. At Tanagra. When the walls fell.

          Amde

        • Ismail AA

          Selam Gashe Solomon tSAtSE,
          No to war; yes to negotiation. I dream to see trenches broken and barricades levelled. Amde should be cleverer than me to be able understand 20%; assuming that includes the “sem” and “werq”. I understand a mean 15% of the “sem”, and no clue about the “werq”. Still, I enjoy your input and skill in communicating in alternaive way.
          Regards

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selam Semere H.,

    I will join to congratulate you for your second book. I look forward to read it.

    Regards

  • Ismail AA

    Selam Semere Tesfamicael Habtemariam,

    Let me add my voice to the felicitations some brothers have preceded me. An excellent writer that Semere is (have read a few book reviews and a book by him) I look forward that the book has, in addition to adding to our knowledge about the topic, come out to be a medium that broadened his enlightened and pragmatic views about the affair of the diversities that populate the nation-states the discourse encompasses.

    In other words, it would not be misplaced speculation to anticipate that the book shall articulate and reinforce the author’s known bridge-making views, especially when the pervasive polarization the current regime has created in his own country, Eritrea.

    His remarks in the introductory paragraph has given me the clue to state this impression. It true people of multiple faiths that make up a nation-state also share the mutual heritages rooted in their faiths, which common historical destiny would forge into a broader national cultural heritage while mutually preserving the socio-cultural particularities of the communities.
    Regards

  • Haile S.

    Hi Semere,
    Congratulations! Look forward to reading your book. We are at a time where the Eritrean part of this church is divided into ‘pro-democravy’ and ‘pro-PFDemocracyJ’ camps especially in our western world. What we hear is not the devotion to principles, but both fanning pro-camp and anti-other camp discourse way out of any religioug expectations. Can you imagine sitting in a serene bench in front of a cross and thinking of the other camp? Understandably, this is a reflexion of the society and the turmoil it is undergoing, but it is also a revealing sign of absence of reference. Have you ever considered writing it in an accessible language, Tigrigna for example or are you condidering translating it into? I think followers of this church need something that diverts them from the unhealthy atmosphere and this book could potentially be of great help.
    Haile S.

  • Paulos

    Selam Semere T.H.,

    Many thanks for gracing us with a book that directs us to the past to examine who we are when the times are ripe with different confessions of faith sprouting to blur our identity to the extent of rocking the kernel of our values. Tewahdo Orthodox is not something to look down to anymore where the priests and deacons are assumed uneducated flock. They are Ph.Ds in different fields including in the life sciences as well. Tewahdo Orthodox for me personally is not only the rock base of my faith, it is also the anchor of who I am and the expression of my identity as well. I look forward to read your book and thank you again for writing the book and for the hard work as well. God bless!

  • Fanti Ghana

    Selam Semere Tesfamicael Habtemariam,

    Thank you for your hard work to make this history available to us. I shall buy your book, and hopefully, I will comment about it in this forum. I am familiar with Dr. Girma’s work in his “The Origin of Amharic” 2009, and he is meticulous and well-organized in his work, so when a well-organized scholar witnesses someone’s work as “well-organized,” it is noteworthy to say the least.

    Until then I want to ask a couple of questions.

    1) Were you aware of the book “የኢተዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋህዶ ቤተ ክርስትያን ታሪክ” ከሉሌ መልአኩ (1997 E. C.)?
    2) If you were, and assuming you read it, how is your book different from it if at all?

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