Home / ትግርኛ / መሰረታዊ  ስነ-ቁጠባ፣ “እታ ስውርቲ ኢድ”

መሰረታዊ  ስነ-ቁጠባ፣ “እታ ስውርቲ ኢድ”

(መሰረታዊ  ትምህርቲ ስነ-ቁጠባ፣ “ዘፍጥረት ገንዘብ” (እታ ስውርቲ ኢድ-The Invisible Hand-Adam Smith) ብኣቶ ጳውሎስ ዝቀረበ ካብ ባይቶ ልዝብ ዓዋተ ዝተቀድሔ፥) awatestaff

ሰላም ብሩኻት ህዝበይ,

ቀዳም ማዓልቲ ብርጭቆ ንጉሆ ተሲኣ ናብ ሹቕ ኣስፔዛ ክትገብር ትኸይድሞ፣ ሓወቦይ ምራጭ ገዛ’ዘላ መሲልዎ ብርጭቆ ኣቲ ብርጭቆ ተበለ መልሲ ምስ’ሳኣነ፣ ንግሆ ምድሪ ናበይ እያ ኸይዳ ኢሉ ከንጸርጽር ይጅምር፣ መርዘን ስለዝጀመረቶ፣ ውዒቲ ሻሂ ከተፍልሓሉ ስለዝደለየ።

ብርጭቆ ቅድሚ ምምጻኣ ግን መርዘን ገዲፋቶስ ድሮ’ኳ እንዳፋጸየ “ገንዘብ ገንዘብ ፈላልዩና” እንዳበለ ክደርፍ ጀመረ።

ቁሩብ ከይጸንሐ ብርጭቆ ደበኽ በለት፣ ሓወቦይ በትሩ እንዳዋጣወጠ፣ ኣቲ ብንጉሁኡ ናበይ ኬድኪ ኢሉ ኣፋጠጠላ፣ ካብ ትሓቱኒ ግዳ ነዚ ኣስፔዛ ናብ ክሽነ ከእትዎ ዘይትሕግዙኒ በለቶ፣ ሓወቦይ ከይመለሰላ ናብ ምሕጋዝ አተወ።

ኣጋ ፋዱስ ምስኮነ፣ ብርጭቆ ኣብ ክሽነ’ኾይና ንምሳሕ ዝኸውን ምግቢ ክትሰርሕ ጀመረት፣ ሓወቦይ ኣብ ክሽነ ከምዘላ ምስራኣየ ይቕሬታ ክብላ ኸደ፣ ብኡ’ኣቢሉ ኻኣ ዕዳጋ ከመይ ኔሩ ኢሉ ሓተታ፣ ንሳ’ኻኣ ከምዚ ክትብል መለሰትሉ፣ ገንዘብ ሓሲሩ፣ ካልአይ’ካኣ ሎምስ ካብ ገዛእቲስ ሸየጥቲ ዝበዝሑ ይመስሉ በለቶ።

ገንዘብ ማለት እንታይ ማለት እዩ ኢሉ ሓተታ፣ ንሳ’ኻኣ ገንዘብ’ዳኣ ናይ ነገራት ዋጋ መዐቀኒ እዩ በለቶ።

ገንዘብ ናይ ዋጋ መዐቀኒ ኣይኮነን በላ።

እዋእ ንሱኹም’ሲ ሎምስ ዘይተባህለ ከተስሙዑና ኢኹም በለቶ። እቲ ሓፈሻዊ መረዳእታ ናይ ገንዘብ ከምቲ ዝበልክዮ እዩ፣ እቲ ሓቂ’ግን ገንዘብ ናይ ኣብ ነንሕድሕድና ዘለና እምነት መዐቀኒ እዩ ኢሉ መለሰላ።

ሕጂ ንምሳሌ፣ ኣብቲ ዓድና ዓዲ ንኣምን ገንዘብ ዝባሃል ነገር ተዘውቲሩ ኣይፈልጥን ንበሎ፣ ሓደ ማዓልቲ ቀለታ ድንሽ ኣድልይዎ ስለዝነበረ ግን ጽርሃ ዘይትደልዮ ድንሽ ከምዘለዋ ስለ ዝሰምዐ፣ ናብ’ኣ ኸይዱ ድንሽ ሃብኒ ይብላ፣ ጽርሃ ግን ካብ ቀለታ ትደልዮ ነገር ኣይነበረን ነገርግን እቲ ዝደለዮ ድንሽ ትህቦ፣ ቀለታ ሽዕዑ ምናልባሽ ዳሕራይ ማዓልቲ ኣነ ዘለኒ ንስኺ ትደልይዮ እንተሃለወ ኢሊ ሓንቲ ጻዕዳ ወረቐት ሽሙን መኽተሙን ኣስፊሩ ይህባ።

ድሕሪኡ ጽርሃ ካብ ማሓዛኣ ሓያት ሳእኒ ወሲዳ ስለዝነበረት፣ ኣብቲ ግዜ’ቲ ግን ሓያት እቲ ካብ ጽርሃ ትደልዮ ዝነበረት ጽርሃ ስለዘይነበራ፣ ጽርሃ ነዛ ቀለታ ዝሃባ ወረቐት ሒዛ ናብ ሓያት ትኸይድ እሞ ትህባ።

ሓያት ቅድሚ ክልተ ወርሒ ኣቢሉ ይኸውን ካብ ሙሓሙዳይ ኮሚደረ ወሲዳ ስለዝነበረት፣ ነታ ጽርሃ ዝሃበታ ጻዕዳ ወረቐት ንሙሓሙዳይ ትህቦ። እታ ጻዕዳ ወረቐት ከምኡ እንዳ በለት ሙሉእ ዓዲ ንኣምን ትኾልል።

እታ ጻዕዳ ወረቐት ገንዘብ ኮይና ማለት እዩ! ስለዚ እታ ወረቐት መዐቀኒ ዋጋ ናይ ድንሽ፣ ጨና ወይካኣ ኮሚደረ ዘይኮነ፣ ናይ ኣብ ሰበ ዘለና እምነት መዐቀኒ እዩ። ፍየት ማኒ [Fiat Money] ተባሂሉ ይፍለጥ።

እቲ ብዛዕባ ሸየጥቲ በዚሖም ሸመትቲ ውሒዶም ዝበልክዮ፣ ናቱ ታሪኻዊ ኣማጻጽኣ ኣለዎ።

ቅድሚ ናብኡ ምእታውና ግን ሓደ መሰረታዊ ነጥቢ ክንፈልጥ የድልየና እዩ፣ ንሱ’ኻኣ ብዛዕባ ኣይዛክ ኒውተን [Isaac Newton] ዝተባህለ ብ17 ክፍለ-ዘመን ብዛዕባ ፍልስፍናዊ ኣባጋግሳ ናይ ተፈጥሮ ዘቕረቦ ስነሓሳብ እዩ። እቲ ስነ-ሓሳብ እንታይ እዩ ዝብል፣ ፍጥረት ከም ዓቢ ማሽን [Machine] እዩ፣ እዚ ማለት ካኣ፣ እዚ ማሽን እዚ፣ ብናይ ፈጣሪ ኢድ ዝተሞርኮሰ፣ ከምዚ ንማኪና ብመፍትሕ ጌርና መታን ክትንቃሳቐስ ንጅምራ፣ ፈጣሪ’ኻኣ ሓንሳብ ነቲ ማሽን ምስጀመሮ ናቱ ሕግን ስርዓትን ሒዙ ቀጸለ።

ድሕሪ ቁሩብ ዓመታት ኣይዛክ ኒውተን ምስሞተ፣ ሓደ አዳም ስምዝ [Adam Smith] ዝተባህለ ወዲ ስኮትላንድ [Scotland] ነቲ ናይ ኣይዛክ ንውተን መጽሓፍ መሰምበበ፣ ኣብ ኣታሓሳስብኡ ዓቢ ጽልዋ ኣሕደረሉ፣ ካብ ናይ ኣይዛክ ኒውተን ስነሓሳብ ተበጊሱ’ኻኣ፣ ኣብቲ ኣብ ዕዳጋ ዝግበር ምሻጥን ምልዋጥን ምዕዳግን፣ ናይ ፈጣሪ ዘይትረአ ኢድ ከምቲ ንተፈጥሮ ብሕጊን ስርዓትን ተካይዶ፣ ንዕዳጋ’ኻኣ ስውርቲ ኢድ ተካይዶ እያ ኢሊ መሰረታዊ ሓሳብ ናይ ስነ ቁጠባ [Economics] ክሳብ ሕጂ ተቐባልነት ዘለዎ ኣቕረበ!

ኣብተን ክልተ ፍሉጣት መጻሕፍቱ “The Theory of Moral Sentiments” እታ ሓንቲ’ኻኣ “The Wealth of Nations” ነታ “ዝተሰወረት ኢድ” ዝበላ ወይካኣ “The Invisible Hand” ከም ናይ ሓሳብ መሰረት ጌሩ ኣብተን ዝተጠቕሳ መጻሕፍቲ ነቲ ስነ-ሓሳቡ ብዑምቀት ኣስፊሑ ይገልጽ።

ብርጭቆ ስቕ ኢላ ድሕሪ ምስማዓ ከምዚ’ላ ንሓወቦይ ሓተተቶ፣ እታ ዘይትረአ ኢድ ዝበልኩማ፣ እንድሕር ንሳ’ኾይና ነቲ ዕዳጋ ተካይዶ፣ መንግስቲ ኢዱ ከእቱ የብሉን ማለት’ድዮ?

እዚ ሕቶ’ዚ ከቢድ ጥራሕ ዘይኮነ ክሳብ ሎሚ ኣብ ናይ ፖለቲካ መስርሕን ቅድን እቲ ማእኸላይ ደረጃ ዝሓዘ ንናይ ዝተፋላለያ ሰልፍታት ዘፋሓፈሐ እዮ።

ምናልባሽ እቲ ዛዕባ ገፊሕን ዓሚቑን ስለዝኾነ ካልእ ማዓልቲ ከነዕልለሉ ኢና ኢሉ መለሰላ።

 

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Documentary – awate.com: The Journey – ዓዋተ: እቲ ጉዕዞ- عواتي: المسيرة

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  • iSem

    Hi
    well done. Sal messed up the Tig proverb and speaking of women’s day, there is a mother in the prove Sal mutilated:-) Akejah
    My translation for the invisible hand is : ኢድ ደቂ ሕድርትና
    develop the characters, especially Mahmuday, make him deeper with his MS, Wedi Saleh, with different mannerism and conviction: a person who believed two conflcting ideas and still function: Genious How

    • Paulos

      Selam Semerile,

      ኢድ ደቂ ሕድርትና is creative. I go with that. Sorry Sal.

  • saay7

    Dr Paulos

    👏🏾👏🏾👏🏾👏🏾👏🏾👏🏾👏🏾👏🏾

    ከብኡ ሓሊፍና ድማ:

    1. ብርጭቆ ድያ ንበዓል ቤታ ትገልጰሉ ወይስ ንሱዩ’ገላጻይ? እሞ ድማ On international women’s Day? ዓገብ!

    2. The invisible hand is translated in Tigrinya in a proverb “ዕዳጋ ከም ትላኣእካዯ ዘይኮነስ ከም ዝጽንሓካ”. If I messed that up don’t correct me: I hate proverbs 🙂

    3. In Tigrinya, Scotland is Scotlandee

    4. I can’t wait for Frederick Hayek, keynes, and of course the greatest economist of all time, Karl Marx, to show up in your series.

    Very well done.

    • Amanuel Hidrat

      Selam Saay,

      እታ ብሂል አቦታትና: ልክዕ ገይርካ አቀሚጥካያ አለኻ:: ስለዚ አይትሰከፍ:: It also fits with “the invisible hand.” Thank you.

    • Paulos

      Ciao Cappo,

      Do you know what is rare? When a complement comes from The Man himself! I am grateful. Thank you!

      Will try to continue the series including on Hayek and his nemesis Keynes.

  • Selamat Denmarkino AArkey Professor Paulos,

    I don’t see how a cubbayya or a menelikhe can be related or bartered. When I hear the sound birCHiQue I see watermelons then how is it when I hear BirCHiQo I think or see a glass cup. I too, like BirchiQo, like to pick on Haweboy MiraCH’s mind with regards to the invisible hand, itty HibiEti Eid, BirCHiQo is enquiring about. Is government even necessary let alone exist to meddle with the market that is guided by the true invisible hand – Necessity.
    The necessities of the people should dictate which trade sectors or partial borders and border towns be excited and which should be depressed. There is also some talk about the availability of a certain currency or the more wider use of one currency over the other because of the consequences of the not invisible meddling government’s hand created the shortages of liquid assets in the hands of Adi neAmin. I was wondering if Hawoboy MiraCH would have such thoughts at the fore when he commences to elaborate on the subject of the invisible hand – itta HibiEti Eid.

    Tho HibbiEti is hidden and zeytraai Eid or the unseen hand would be a closer fit to the invisible.
    Please continue to bring to the known and seen more of that beautiful sne-filTet teHabiou zelo misahkha.

    tSAtSE

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selam Dr Paulos,

    Saleh not only has brought your educational comment to the tigrigna front page of the website as “structured article,” but he is also encouraging you to contribute educational pieces for the tigrigna page regularly. I have no the convincing ability than him. But I will earnestly ask you to heed his call for the following reasons (a) your depth of knowledge (b) your veracity of knowledge (c) your ability of conveying and perceiving knowledge (d) of having a wider readership to your writings (e) of having the quality of an educators (f) your love to our people.

    If you accept the call, here is my suggestion (a) restructure your previous comments that were written in series with the same characters in an “article format” like this one and send them to be reposted in the front page (b) continue in the same style your philosophical teaching by relating them with our realities. Your writing will be filed in the archive of awate easily accessible for posterity references. ሃየ ምስ ዕንባበታትና ንጽበየካ አሎና::

    Regards

    • Paulos

      Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

      I am immensely humbled by your kind words. Thank you so much. Really!

      As you have aptly put it, the idea is to inspire the younger generation to crave for knowledge about anything and everything where the fact of the matter is that there is no such a thing called “hard to understand.” And when time permits, I will try to convey any structured knowledge worth knowing in such a way more accessible to the general reader including in Tigrinya. Thank you again!

  • Abrehet Yosief

    ክቡር መምህር Paulos
    Could Aboy Mirach discuss how Amolie Chew and Gold/Silver worked as mediums of exchange?
    ክብረት ይሃበልና.

    • Paulos

      ሰላም ፍትውትን ክብርትን ሓፍተይ,

      I actually thought about it when I was commenting on the origins of money. This may actually surprise you as it did to me—the whole idea of Barter is a myth where there is no credible evidence to this day that can lend credence to that effect. In fact, serious and well reputed Economists and Anthropologists whose work of study is in the origins of money convincingly believe that, Adam Smith himself made the whole story up when he talked about the Bartering system the Native Indians he claimed to have practiced which is mentioned in his book, “The Wealth Of Nations.”

      I certainly realise that, the Bar of Salt practiced in Ethiopia as a medium of exchange was not a Barter system and the same can be said the use of Cacao in MesoAmerica or Tobacco in Colonial Virginia but again these are not any separate from the Bank Notes we came to utilise except that they are cumbersome. ተራእዩኪ’ዶ ክንዲገለ ዝኸውን ጨው ተሰኪምኪ ካብ እንዳ ኣያ ሃይለ መጽሓፍቲ ክትገዝኢ ክትከዲ?

      • Ismail AA

        Selam Dr. Paulos,

        While scanning down the page the great question Abrehet asked was incubating in my mind until I landed on her entry, and read your answer. This matter is as old as necessity had imposed crafting ideas for exchanging goods as value tagged mediums. Every congregation of people in social formations invented some rare or scarce and durable commodity as medium of exchange of needed goods and services among individuals of social set ups. I think the most durable among all is gold until power and wealth of nations replaced it by paper notes like the dollar and pounds etc.

        The point I trying to make is that the operation preceded modern economics and thinks like Adam Smith. The basic idea was matter of trust or confidence and scarcity valued article. In Ethiopia, or let us say hinterland Ethiopia, salt was scarce commodity than in the areas contiguous to sea shores – reason why salt was adopted as medium. Later some remote areas reverted to Maria Theresa thalers and used it long after the Bir was introduced; they had more confidence in the former than in the latter because of its fragile nature. I remember friends of mine who were assigned to teach in remote regions of Ethiopia received their pay in coins biggest in value of which was “sumni” or 0, 25 cents piece. Imagine one who should make it sure he/she got enough sakes on pay day and returning home with heavy sacks of 150 Ethiopia Bir.

        • Paulos

          Selam Kbur Haw Ismail AA,

          As you said, precious metals as in gold and silver had been utilized as a medium of exchange where it was more pronounced during the reign of the Romans. But again, it was practically not feasible to walk around with precious metals and clever people figured to use bank-notes that are indexed to be equivalent to say, gold.

          More over, the clever people inscribed on the Bank Notes something that says, “Payable to the bearer.” This means that, the minute you present the Bank Notes that are in your possession, you get back the precious metals that are represented by the Bank Notes. But the question is: do we ever get back the precious metals every time we make transactions? No we don’t. We just trust!

      • Haile S.

        Selam Paul,

        I just finished my 24 hr silence imposed on me as a punishment by ፍርደ-ገምድል ዳኛ Nitricc for repeating here an old adage. Now I can open my mouth. Another proverb for Nitricc, ኣይጥ በበላ ዳዋ ተመታ! I hope Nitricc is happy for his punishment getting respected and voluntarily implemented! Anyway, it was a perfect coincidence to stay inactive from Awate because I am getting exceptionally busy these days & for the coming several weeks.
        Before the weekend ends, let me share with you a youtube video showing the Denakil “Mint”.
        https://youtu.be/8jUZJYeCl_M

        • Nitricc

          Hey Haile S; like i have said, i am not a person to dispense any verdict but sensing your quality and decency, i thought i had to express my view and I thank you for heading my suggestion. in the mean time, here is my reward to you. I have boundless respect for Eritrean women and don’t be offended showing my respect and absolute admiration to my Eritrean women. I have nothing but respect for you, SIR!!!!
          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfedWJLpNLs

  • Nitricc

    Greetings people; speaking of economic foundation for Eritrea; i just watched this Eritrean 10th graders debating and i can’t hep but notice the rooting of the idea of self-reliance . I am amazed with their English language mastery, they speak better English that Semere Andom and Hayat all together. Danait Tesfamichael must be from Adi-NaAmin. Adi-NaAmin is the future of Eritrean irrigation production, the future of Eritrea. My question is how is possible the 10th graders know and understand the important of Agriculture but the rest miss the point. The future is bright. And for those who you knock the Eritrean education, well ask my good friend Hayat and Semere Andom. I bet you thos 10th graders speak better and smarter than the two dushes.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BiLG8O5QQzQ

    • Paulos

      Nitrikay,

      Am I reading you right? Are you saying that the future is bright for Eritrea on account a 10th grader speaks good English? Hope you are not serious.

      The intent of the commentary in hand was to highlight the origins of money so much so that, the origins of money is rooted in debt. That is to say that, paradoxically, the wealthiest person as of today is living in unpaid debt. That is the ingenuity of the theory.

      To get back to the debate between the two high-schoolers, as much as I commend their debating skills including their grasp of basic tenets of Economics, I also wish if they could debate on the issue of open society, civil liberties, rule of law, transparency, accountability, multi party system and Constitutionalism.

      That said, before we even begin to entertain the idea if agriculture or heavy industry driven economic policy is an apt for Eritrea, we need to debate about the basics on which the ideas of Economics are rooted in.

      First and foremost, people are driven by self interest where altruism loses any meanings. That is the fundamental framework of Economics. When people are left alone to seek and maximize their self interest, it becomes the engine of the economy. When the role of the State or government is limited to protect private properties and providing security, what we call Open Market Economy or Capitalism is born.

      For the said scenario to bear fruits however, institutions ought to be put in place. Here, I have to be clear that, I am not opting for what is best for Eritrea, rather, Eritrea ought to have the needed institutions in place before having the luxury of young students debating between agriculture or industry.

      Certainly, one can make the argument that, big government is needed particularly if the country is stuck in a protracted recession or depression in a bid to stimulate the economy including to provide social safety-net for the disadvantaged but again before we have those ideas, we need to have the basics as in Eritrea first needs to go back to normalcy!

      • Hayat Adem

        Paul,
        So, that means you don’t know this too-young-to-contribute-old-eniugh-to-insult kid? Do you some people who try to disprove you by going even more wrong? Okay, i have a joke below that explains what i meant.
        Teacher: Nitricc, why don’t brush your teeth? You must do that every morning.
        Nitricc: Why teacher?
        Teacher: What do you mean why? FGS, you are grade 8,you should know why. It is something we dohave to stay clean and healthy.
        Nitricc: I am ckean and healthy.
        Teacher: You don’t know that. For example, I can tell you by just looking at your face I can tell you what you had for breakfast.
        Nitricc: okay, tell me.
        Teacher: you had egg sandwiches.
        Nitricc: WRONG! I only had egg sandwitch the day before, not today.

        • Ismail AA

          Selam Hayat,

          It perilous to try outsmart a smart person. Irrespective of anything else, the humor side of you comment made me laugh.

        • Paulos

          Hayata,

          That is so funny. Thank you for the laugh.

  • Amanuel Hidrat

    Selam Dr Paulos & Awate staff,

    Doctore, In order your readers to follow the continuity of your teaching, I wish the Awate staff to put all your previous installments, that were in the comment section, in the front page of Awate with this one.

    Awate staff, can you see the way I see it, in order to include and benefit readers out of this forum?

    Regards

    • Saleh Johar

      Selam Emma and Paoulos,
      First, welcome back Paulos.

      Emma, I agree with you his short lessons are excellent and to the point. But I think he has to cooperate—write such short pieces for the front page—it’s the same effort with added value. Can you convince him to do that? I wish I could but you try first:-) the same applies to Haile and others who are skilled in Tigrinya and Arabic. The good hunk is it doesn’t prevent one from commenting under the content page. It’s two birds for the writer and a flick of birds for the rest. Importantly, it will help awate in its outreach efforts. It’s not only win-win but a jackpot:-)

  • Hayat Adem

    Dear Paul,
    ብኡ’ኣቢሉ ኻኣ ዕዳጋ ከመይ ኔሩ ኢሉ ሓተታ፣ ንሳ’ኻኣ ከምዚ ክትብል መለሰትሉ፣ ገንዘብ ሓሲሩ፣ ካልአይ’ካኣ ሎምስ ካብ ገዛእቲስ ሸየጥቲ ዝበዝሑ ይመስሉ በለቶ።
    Uncle Miratch with all his profound all-rounded knowledge shouldn’t have let Birchiqo get away with contradicting herself in just one sentence. Money doesn’t get cheaper with outnumbering sellers. Maybe Birchiqo was trying to oversell and overinvoice her expenses and exploit the provider. I am sure Uncle Miratch wouldn’t miss this but he might have preferred to let it go because he had gone back to Birchiqo with an apologetic mood.
    Paul,
    We are all falling in love with these pieces. The only problem is that Hayat is now acting irratiinally. She has now preferred not to accept any tomatoes or other grocery from Mahmuday. This was not because the quality of Mahmuday’s produce was bad nor his prices were comparatively high. In fact, Hayat is favoring buying the same stuff from Peace though more expensive and inferior in quality. Hayat’s decision seems to be influenced by nonmarket considerations because Mahmuday has been irritating her lately. There are many companies and countries both on supply and demand side that act in the same way. And that is where the invisible hand comes impotent and unexplainable. Hopefully, uncle Miratch will shed light onto the matter with his next pieces.

    • Paulos

      Hayata,

      I am sure ሓወቦይ ምራጭ deliberately threw the anomaly or the contradiction as you put it in between so that not to make ብርጭቆ look obtuse but to send a message that ወልዳይ ፍጡር the head of the Central Bank made the wrong move as he always does in a bid to stabilize the economy.

      He might have abruptly lowered the interest rate and the people might have borrowed more money and consequently increased money circulation.

      ዓዲ ንኣምን as you know is in ዓንሰባ but the hypothetical scenario ሓወቦይ ምራጭ drew to illustrate the origins of money based on “The Credit Theory Of Money*” was when the village was still busked in an age of innocence when Hayata and Muhamuday were kindered spirits.

      *What is so fascinating about the theory is that, if ቀለታ had something that ጽርሃ needed when he asked her for ድንሽ, he wouldn’t have given her the ጻዕዳ ወረቐት [sort of an IOU if you will] and the dynamics would have ended right there. But the fact that the paper circulated through out the village to the extent that it was long forgotten it started between ቀለታ and ጽርሃ, illustrates that the origin of money is debt! Simply because ቀለታ had to be in debt in order for the paper to go in circulation.

      • Hayat Adem

        Paul,
        That indeed was the main point. That is a good one.
        Do you also remember a comment I posted here when IA changed the Naqfa Currency Note in 2016? The justification officials gave us then was that they wanted to modernize the banking and market transaction processes. In actual terms, that was a mafia style state robbery. They confiscated so much money from so many peple. They also promised a salary raise so that many people don’t stand up and protest the process. Semere tesfay then declared the salary raise as “mana flowing down of the sky”. We were told the least paid member of the army would earn at least 2000.00N. And it was supposed to come with a back pay every body was counting the money reaching pocket in advance. Ah.. kindey ke zeybelunan zeyqesheshunan!
        Now, for arguments sake, lets just trust them and assume they had a good reason to change the Notes and the banking system, as well as the cash-free transactions they wanted to introduce. They wanted our illiterate peasants to use check for all kinds of transactions. In fact, I was imagining one of the possible complications: if a peasant received a check for a sold ox, and he was late to cash it in a bank in that day, and he had to go back to his village, can he use that check for other transactions? The check can take the place of the paper Aboy Miratch told us. In a bizarre way, the higedefites pushed us back to the very first early days of the creation of money, didn’t they?

        • Paulos

          Hayata,

          That is so smart. You should see me laughing. Your over active imagination is on the roll.

          I think I remember your comment to that effect. As you know money doesn’t have an intrinsic value and the check can certainly be used as a medium of exchange should the peasants agreed upon. The limitations of the theory we cited earlier is the fact that, it can only be applied in an isolated area with a small population as in ዓዲ-ቀ፣ ዓዲ-ኮሎም or ዓዲ-ንኣምን።

          Shifting…..did you listen to what ታማኝ በየነ and እንዳርጋቸው ጽገ have to say About Abiy and his government? On separate interviews, ታማኝ said that, Abiy doesn’t have the competence to govern Ethiopia. And equally in fact more poignantly, እነዳረጋቸው said that, the current regime, far worse that the previous regime is closing up all the venues to democracy. It is just amazing to see how soon these people flipped.

          • Hayat Adem

            HI Paul,
            I am mostly spoon fed by friends who listened to those and they told me exactly the same. It is amazing!
            What amazes more is not 5hat the guy has changed much. What has changed is what they calculated and what they are getting. That prompted me to ask direct question to a smart awataista by 5he name Kaddis. Why is everybody miscalculating and why everybody shortchanging natuinal interests for petty calculations? It so seems our Amara friends took a calculated risk in their hunger to dislodge Tplf and threw all their support behind the TL only to cry for being outgamed later. In the process, at worst Ethiopia and at best Addis are at risk.
            Do you know what I heard today: Team Lemma convinced the Federal Gov to deploy 2000 liyu hayl into Addis, reasoning that it is its head quarter and it many Oromia instituions to take care of. When that was allowed they deployed 6k strong paramilitary into the city. Now they act outside the fed and run it rogue should they feel so. Ethiopia is slipping into the unknown.

          • Paulos

            Hayata,

            It is the first time almost after a year that the narrative is departing away from Tigrai or the Weyanes where the showdown is between the Centralists, Federalists and the Ethno-Nationalists.

            In Oromia only, you have Lencho Letta and his party, Team Lemma and his party, Dawed Ebssa and his party, Merrara Gudina-Gerba and his party, finally you have the Qeero guys swinging back and forth reigned on by Jahwar. This is pretty scary scenario.

            In Amara, you have ADP with no popular base but trying hard to win the Amara people by sending a daring laced with a bravado messege to the Weyanes that not only they are not puppets any more but can engage them to bring back areas as in Welqayit to the Amara fold. In the meantime however, the Fanno guys under the rubric of Tamagne who are h*ll bent to bring back the old Amara glory are stealing the limelight from ADP. They are also demanding the Constitution to be revised where the rationale being, it was the Weyanes and OLF only who drafted the Constitution in 1994 when the Amaras were kept in the cold.

            And you have far more complex issues with in the Southern Nations and Nationalities that comprises Sidama with almost 13 million people, Gurage, Welayta and Guma. As it happened, Sidama is demanding to part ways where referendum is set already to take place I think in a couple of months. Thing is, if Sidama is recognised as a Killil in its own right, the other mentioned members will follow suit as well and it will herald not only the end if the Southern Nations and Nationalities but it will be the end of EPRDF as well.

            The question that begs an answer is that, why did it work when the Weyanes were in power but seem to be falling apart when the Abiy guy rode the mantle of power? I think, the Weyanes need to come back to the center of power for they seem to posses the elixir to that effect. In that event, Isaias will be the biggest loser and he will live with it for he is too accustomed to lose.

          • Hayat Adem

            Hi Paul,
            Read my lips: IA is going to be eaten up by the movements of tectonic political plates from within sooner than he could harvest any benefits from the crisis he has enabled in Ethiopia. That said, the Ethiopian elites are acting stupid and indifferent. That part 8s mind boggling!
            I don’t think the Weyanes are willing nor welcome to get back to Addis. From a recent intvw DT gave to a local media, he kind of regretted forgetring Tigray in the past and that they now want to focus on Tigray. While it awas a strategic mistake they made in not doing their best to build Tigray in the past, disregarding their role in the Fed now will also be another startegic mistake. They need to balance and help the center as well.

          • Saleh Johar

            Hello all,
            Just checked the stats on Paulis’ Post
            Total clicks 2985
            12% through twitter
            27% through Facebook
            3% other platforms
            The rest is organic awate clicks
            Average stay in page 4mints
            Taking into consideration that awate’s other language sections are not promoted (you know why), this is great indication of the potential.

            Stay well

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Dr Paulos,

            Any significance about these three villages? What makes them peculiar than the surrounding other villages? Or are you simply picking them for purposes of your philosophical teaching like the other names? You intrigued me.

          • Paulos

            Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

            Nothing in particular except that they are pristine and I thought they can best illustrate the theory at hand. And many thanks you found the series of commentaries educational.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Dr Paulos,

            Since “words” matter in our conversation, after I reread this comment of yours, in my opinion the word “pristine” made these three villages peculiar than the other villages around them, despite your are saying “Nothing in particular.” If you still believe they are pristine than the others, could you elaborate “pristine” in reference of what? My focus is not to challenge your perceptions, but rather to understand your perception on these three villages.

            regards,

          • Paulos

            Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

            Let me start in reverse and hopefully in the end will try to come around the word pristine and its relevance to the said villages.

            In this young century, one of the defining social and political realities particularly in the Western world is what is to become known as “Identity Politics” or “Tribal Politics.” Furthermore, despite the remarkable advancement in the sciences and technology where almost what is to be discovered is already known including mapping the human genome and mapping the entire universe, people are growing less content in comparison to the previous generation to the extent that the highest selling drugs are the anti-anxiety and anti-depressant drugs particularly with in the affluent society. The question is: What is missing? Policy makers of every Western nation are grappling with the nagging question to no avail.

            The challenge however is not unprecedent. Rousseau, for instance, whose brain-child is “Romanticism” lamented the break down of the society due to the monopoly of “Reason” when the other human elements as in compassion, empathy, sympathy including altruism were corroded when “Enlightenment” set in. He advocated for Man to return to his original “Pristine” place.

            More over, during the “Reformation era particularly “Calvinism” [an offshoot of Protestantinism] encouraged self-reliance where it ultimately gave rise to “Individualism” in tandem with Rene Descartes’ “Reductionism” where the idea replaced the time tested “Holism” that had hitherto glued society and the Epicurean community together. On a side note, it was with in the said light that the Sociologist Max Weber wrote his magnum opus, “The Protestant Ethic And The Rise Of Capitalism” where capitalism is based on a fierce self centered individualism.

            In the aftermath of the Industrial Revolution, a prominent French Sociologist–Emile Durkhaim observed a disturbing pattern when self harm or suicide shoot up where it was hardly the case if ever prior to the advent of the Industrial Revolution. In his book, “Anomie” he theorized that, certain segments of the society lose a moral guidance when they are unable to catch up with the fast paced advancement of technology when the mode and means of production transitioned from cottage industry to division of labour in mass production.

            In our time as well, we are confronted with complex challenges when we transitioned from the “Analog” world to the “Digital” world where the latter is on the verge of morphing into “Artificial Intelligence.” In the mean time however, the trade-off in human wellbeing is not encouraging to the extent where more people feel isolated as they search their place with in the social, economic and political structure.

            But imagine if one can find a throwback place with in the cacophony of commotion where everything is untouched as in Pristine!—ዓዲ-ቀ፣ ዓዲ-ኮሎም፣ ዓዲ-ንኣምን could be cases in point.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Dr Paulos,

            “In the mean time however, the trade-off in human wellbeing is not encouraging to the extent where more people feel isolated as they search their place with in the social, economic and political structure.”

            I found as an “intro reply to my question” in the above quoted statement of yours, where you were in search of places or “villages” with in the social, economic, and political structure of our society, where you could relay as the basis for your teaching. Then, in the next paragraph, I was expecting what these three villages distinguishes as them as “pristine” from the other villages at least with in the same region. I was surely expecting to know the basis of your “reference” to the word “pristine.” Until you come up with your “reference”, here is my take on the issue from the Eritrean political perspective:

            Actually, from the historical perspectives of our ghedli, these villages in particular and that region (Hamassien) in general, were the center of the ideological contest of the two organizations in our ghedli era. And as such, these three villages will in no way could be categorized as “pristine” as far as they had the influence of the two organizations.

          • Paulos

            Selam Professor A. Hidrat,

            I actually suspected if your question was heading into that direction as in if there was any partiality or prejudice on my side to pick those particular villages as opposed to the other villages in Eritrea. But of course, the reason was to make a contrast between complexity and simplicity with in the social and economic realities in particular.

            I actually didn’t know if the villages were an ideological battle grounds between the two Fronts. It is good to know and thank you for the lesson. In fact, I would appreciate if you could tell us more about the specifics in which the Fronts couldn’t see eye to eye so to speak.

          • Saleh Johar

            Paulos,

            Sorry, I should have commented on the style but due to time constraints, I only focused on the technical side.
            I think such educational pieces are badly needed. The majority of us have become news junkies with nothing outside the realm of current events. And as you know, no knowledge can be gained by focusing on current events (NEWS). I firmly believe that we are lagging behind on general knowledge, basic knowledge. What you addressed made me go back and see what was being discussed when the PFDJ announced the currency change, and many related topics that we discussed. Unfortunately, most of the discussion was not on economy–little did we touch on the social and political implications but only touching the surface. But if we do not have basic knowledge about different subjects, it is difficult to fully understand or interpret the policies of the PFDJ.

            Therefore (you guessed there was a THEREFORE:-)

            You are gifted and you your knowledge base is diverse–if it was languages, you would be a bonafide polyglot…to the power of ten. I appeal to you to consider my request that Emma has been repeating for a thousand times. Believe me, that would help our political culture more that news about Isaias at Adi Halo would. Okay, we can have all the news we want, but there should be much better. I believe your kind of post helps us grow one cell at a time, not kill one 🙂

            Thank you for the post.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Dr Paulos,

            If the word “pristine” wasn’t part of your statement, it wouldn’t matter for me if you pick randomly any village for that matter for purposes of educating your readers. Again it has nothing to do with prejudice and partiality, it has only to do with the word “pristine” and as such in politics. In the Era of the divided Eritrean society, it is unthinkable to find a pristine village in our society. That is my understanding.

  • Haile S.

    Selam Paul and All,

    Beautiful! I love ብርጭቆ’s curiosity. Please continue her dialogue with ኣቦይ ምራጭ. It is very educative and entertaining.

    Your story reminded me of the different currencies (ባጤራ) Eritrean came to know and were in use in the territory either very briefly or for longtime. In addition to ብር and ናቕፋ, here are some of the currencies. Please add any others that you know.

    ቅርሺ = Thaler ?
    ጅነ = Guinea
    ፈረንካ = Franc
    ሽልን = Shilling
    ዲናር = Dinar
    ሊረ = Lira

    Currency was used during the Axumite time and collection of it are available in the regional museums. Does any one know if this currency had a name?

    • Paulos

      Selam Hailat,

      Glad you like it. It is kinda funny, it seems to be catching up with me when in fact I started particularly ሓወቦይ ምራጭ as a funny character in my other comments.

      The currencies you laid out have stories to tell for they had periodically played a major role in Eritrea’s historiography. I don’t know of any other currency except that, Thaler is synonymous with Maria Theresa when she ruled as you know Austria and Hungary and the name Thaler was derived from the name of the fiefdoms she reigned over. That said, will try tomorrow to continue on the role of a government in the market dynamics including or with in historical contexts.

      P.S. I almost forgot to mention that I actually didn’t know that ጅነ was Guinea. Thank you for the lesson.

      • Abrehet Yosief

        Selam Aya Haile and Ustazna Paulos
        I think Qrshi comes from arabic word gurush?
        I also remember stellini. Which ended up as savings account in the form of a necklace.

        • Paulos

          ሰላም ፍትውትን ክብርትን ሓፍተይ,

          Stellini as a saving account? That is so funny! Please do tell us more as the Brits would say it.