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“If You Want Us to End Our Armed struggle…”

September 1, 1961 is often described as the day Hamid Idris Awate “fired shots at Mt Adal” which makes it sound like it was some sort of spontaneous, celebratory and symbolic gunfire.  In truth, September 1 (Bahti meskerem in Tigrinya or FatiH mn September in Arabic) is the day Hamid Idris Awate led a small band of Eritreans to open the next chapter of Eritrean resistance to Ethiopian occupation: armed struggle.  Mt. Adal, September 1, and Awate are symbolic because they are the where, when and who in the chronicle of Eritreans fighting back against Ethiopian security forces.  September 1 is celebrated by Eritreans because it is a day that emboldened and inspired generations of Eritreans to believe that saying no to a bully does not automatically result in defeat.

The Inevitability of Armed Struggle

After the end of World War II, pro-independence Eritreans had every reason to believe that their case was no different from that of Libya and Somalia–the only two other African colonies of Italy–and that, therefore, they should be treated similarly: granted independence immediately or after several years of UN trusteeship. Their dreams were dashed because (a) there was substantial Eritrean population that wanted to be unconditionally unified with Ethiopia (unionist party) and (b) post World War II/Cold War political calculations favored Ethiopia which made a strong argument for annexing Eritrea.   After 10 years of “fact finding” missions, the United Nations settled on a compromise position of federating Eritrea with Ethiopia.  A Federal Act was drafted guaranteeing certain civil liberties and autonomy to Eritreans, under the Ethiopian crown.

Between 1952 and 1962, the Ethiopian crown violated the terms of the Federal Act, according to Eritreans.   According to Ethiopians, the Eritrean parliament, which was composed of pro-Independence and pro-Ethiopian representatives, took a series of steps to reduce its autonomy and ultimately voted to dissolve itself and incorporate Eritrea as just another province of Ethiopia.  Throughout the decade, there were rallies by labor unions, students, journalists to protest the violation of the Federal Act–including the institution of Amharic as the official language and, importantly, the lowering of the Eritrean flag and its replacement by the Ethiopian flag.  By 1958, Eritreans in Sudan had formed Haraka (Mahber Showate), with the specific aim of conducting urban clandestine acts of peaceful resistance.  By early 1960, many notable Eritreans, including the journalist/writer/opposition leader Woldeab Woldemariam and the president of the Eritrean parliament, Idris Mohammed Adem, had been exiled to Egypt.

1960 was the year of African liberation.  That was the year Benin, Burkino Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo and Zaire got their independence from the colonial masters (mostly England and France.)   Crucially, it was also the year Somalia (another former Italian colony) got its independence (Libya had already secured its independence in 1951.)  Closer to home, Sudan had gotten its independence in 1956;  and, in Uganda and Kenya, the British Empire was unwinding and the two were on the verge of securing their independence.

None of this was lost on Eritrean university students living in Revolutionary Egypt where Gemal Abdel Nasser’s popularity was at its apex because he had checkmated the West by nationalizing the Suez Canal and then, in an even more improbable scenario, succeeded in getting the UN and the US to denounce and reverse the English, French and Israeli occupation of Sinai.

Three University of Cairo students (Idris Osman Gelawdios, Mohammed Saleh Hummed, Adem Mohammed Akte), one from Azhar University (Said Hussein),  one from a law school in Italy (Taha Mohammed Nur) and, lastly, the former president of the Eritrean parliament (Idris Mohammed Adem) formed the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) with the specific aim of launching an armed resistance against Ethiopia.

This decision was, no doubt, influenced by (a) the failure of Haraka (Mahber Showate) whose “peaceful resistance” was increasingly showing to be a dead end (Haraka was itself abandoning the Sudanese Communist Party-inspired urban clandestine peaceful resistance and calling for coup d’etat and, eventually, armed resistance) and (b) the African guerrilla movements of the era.  What was needed was an Eritrean Liberation Army.  All that was missing was a leader with a proven military record and ability to inspire followers.

The Inevitability of Hamid Idris Awate

Hamid Idris Awate was comfortable with the gun ever since his teens: his father owned a rifle and taught his son how to use it.  But Hamid was no lone ranger: he was a disciplined soldier, thanks to his military background with the Italian colonial force (conscripted in 1935) which included military intelligence training in Rome.  He was a charismatic leader gifted with language fluency: he was reportedly adept in Tigre, Hdareb, Arabic and Italian.  He was also not afraid to take on authority figures if he felt their demands were unjust: he had challenged the new British administration (whose presence in Eritrea after the defeat of the Italians was not guaranteed to be a short term stay.)  Crucially, Hamid Idris Awate was from a region (Gash) where Ethiopia’s authority was at its most tenuous.  That is: if an armed struggle was going to take root, Gash (bordering Sudan) was most favorable.  And it is for this reason that, for two decades, the ELF used it as a base of its operations.

But most importantly: Hamid Idris Awate had national consciousness: he knew that the struggle would take long (despite various approaches from the ELF founders in Egypt, he wasn’t willing to start the armed struggle until he felt he was ready) and he knew that it would not succeed unless it had a broad base of support from all of Eritrea, including the Eritrean highlands.  When he was elected as commander of the Eritrean Liberation Army, he told the handful (13) members who elected him “We are all Eritreans; we have to serve our country with honesty and sincerity.  We are here to achieve a goal, and if there is anybody who may have personal ambitions other than the declared objective, then, he must leave now. ”  This was reported by Abu Rijela, an Awate contemporary who was a legend in the Eritrean Liberation Army.

Hamid Idris Awate knew exactly what he was fighting for and instilled in his fighters the discipline to know it and practice it.  Hamid Idris Awate was not fighting for his tribe, for his religion: he was fighting for Eritrean independence. When the Ethiopians sent him Eritrean intermediaries to give up the fight, he didn’t ask that they build more mosques or declare religious holidays and respect the rights of his tribe.  He told them to pass this message: “If you want us to end our armed struggle, lower the Ethiopian flag, and raise the Eritrean flag.”  His cause was national.  And when he died, less than a year after he launched the struggle, he was considered so crucial to the new movement that his death was kept a secret for months.

Why September 1 and Mt Adal Are Significant

Even in the 1960s, Ethiopia vastly outnumbered Eritrea, and taking on Ethiopia would mean fighting the odds.  The phrase “against all odds” may have been popularized by author Dan Connell but it was first tested on September 1 at Mt. Adal.  This battle started at 6:00 am in the morning and would not conclude until 1 pm, ending in a stalemate.  But the message that was sent was loud and clear: a relatively well-armed Ethiopian force failed to crush 13 ill-equipped fighters led by Hamid Idris Awate.   The Eritreans knew that Ethiopia would come back with more re-enforcements and wisely retreated.  But the news that Eritreans fought back Ethiopians and stood their own was electrifying.  The Eritrean Liberation Army doubled in size (from 13 to 24); Eritreans started donating money and property–a practice that would not end until May 24, 1991.

The Ethiopians came back with a larger army to “crush the bandits once and for all”–a futile slogan they used for 30 years–and they were beat back again, but not before Eritrea would, tragically, begin yet another 30-year long tradition: giving up a martyr.   The first Eritrean martyr to die in battle was Abdu Mohammed Faid.  But this also resulted in another 11 Eritreans joining the Eritrean Liberation Army from the Sudanese army.

September 1 stands for belief in a just cause; refusal to give up; determination to fight injustice no matter how overwhelming the odds against us; to pay any price for a cause; and leadership that inspires followers.   This is why when we celebrate the date, we also celebrate the man: Hamid Idris Awate.

inform. inspire. embolden. reconcile.

About Awate Team

The Awate Team is a group of individuals who collaborate in preparing editorial contents that mainly appear under the PENCIL signature and other columns that carry the Awate Team signature. It represents the collective team's view.

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  • Hayat Adem

    “[Hayat], don’t be coy now:…”
    Sal, I’m this late to revisit the discussion but I didn’t want to let* you go with this funny and loose commentary.
    That was funny and loose. A certain hopeful philosopher was once trying to prove/disprove things following a thought process formula: “what would this room look like if an invisible horse was standing in the middle of this room”, he asked himself. “It would look like exactly the way it looks now”, he answered himself. “May be, he is standing in the room right now as I speak”, he concluded. Trapped by self-created paradox, he continued arguing for and against: “Because I have no way of knowing whether that invisible horse is here or not, even I cannot say whether this room is populated by one or more invisible horses or not.”
    My “if” was not any different from the “if” conditionality you used in Awate’s quote, as in: ‘if you want us to stop our armed struggle, lower the Ethiopian flag and raise the Eritrean flag”. We all are aware that there are more than two sides to Awate’s personality and polity. That means, I would not be an odd man out if I questioned or I wanted to question the “little bio” you put for us about him. But, I’ve been lately heeding Aman’s and Beyan’s repeated reminders not to dwell on past histories while we have plenty of urgent problems at hand. I was using Awate’s grand initiative to contrast it with what it had achieved (independence) and where we tragically ended up later because of PFDJ blunders (no-freedom, no-hope). What is wrong with that?
    I chose the word “violence” to describe PIA’s behavior post-independence, not the Ghedli zemen. You can’t possibly blame me for not saying “armed struggle” for Isaias’ post-independence period because that wouldn’t be accurate. But frankly, there is one thing really BIGGER that made me more uncomfortable in your comment than your judgmental pointers on me. Choice of words tells a story about the teller, in deed. I took it as is, meaning: I believed you were quoting Awate’s words directly. I did not think you were choosing words for him. Using quotes would be inappropriately misleading on your part if you were choosing words for him simply because you think you understood his intentions and actions of the time.
    On the one you threw as a side-point, I agree that Eritrea and Eritreans are the focus here. PIA should be primarily judged for his good or wrong doings in terms of their impacts on the nation and citizens, first but it doesn’t stop there. So, even when we blame him for making troubles with neighboring countries, it is in light of the bad consequences those put Eritrea and Eritreans. What he did on Djibouti and Somalia brought sanction on Eritrea. What he did in 1998 put Eritrea at a no-win situation of relapse and unclear future, and all those massive border crossings. What is to be agnostic about PIA’s actions? Even if he harmed others at zero cost to Eritrea, I would expect enlightened citizens to reprimand and shame him. Wrong is wrong. Enlightened citizens the last line of defense for collective sanity should their leader go wildly bad.
    *I don’t mind even if you are the only reading it and others are on the newly posted sections.

  • xy

    “The advent of Eritrea as a newly created state has put the Kunama in the position of double periphery now that the national borders have divided them on the ground with several thousand Kunama living in Tigray.”

    “In spite of a small population [~60,000] the Kunama are conspicuous in Eritrea. The live in an area contested for centuries by diverse foreign and internal powers. The consolidation of nationalist sentiments in the wake of Independence fosters a climate of suspicion and distrust towards the government.”

    “Recent violent incidents combined with the ills inflicted upon them by the behaviour of Tigrini individuals have produced a movement of thoughts and emotions, particularly acute nowadays… There is now a hypertrophy of fear among the Kunama communities, a generalized phenomenon particularly visible in the towns with the rampant presence of government agents.”

    “The Kunama as a whole are identified as a people who sided with the Derg during the war, and the stigma is enduring despite the fact that the Ethiopian army numbered many Eritrean Tigrini in its ranks. The Kunama’s decision was in great measure determined by the action of the ELF and its precursory elements.”

    “Idris Awate, the national hero worshipped annually in Eritrea as the man who defiantly opened the hostilities in Eritrea against Ethiopia in 1961, is remembered by the Kunama as the mass murderer who was their main executioner in the period 1943-1949. He is now enshrined in the foundation myth of the new country and his tomb has been erected as a monument on the edges of Kunama territory. ”

    “To this day, the Kunama accuse the British of having been instrumental in planning the hostilities and Idris Awate is vividly remembered for the appalling atrocities he committed and instigated at that time.”

    ” Deep political problems are masked behind the current focus on refugees/returnees from the Sudan… Crucial in that regard is the current programme of villagization, compelling whole villages to move away from ancestral land in the name of ‘visible’ development. The forced removal of local communities, partly because of refugee resettlement is an ongoing process specifc to Kunama land.”

    THE SHAMBUCO INCIDENT – Two Kunama Farmers Murdered for not Selling Their Own Sorghum at a Price Demanded by the EPLF Police:

    ” On 11 March, 1995 two Kunama were killed in the marketplace following an incident with the police. I was staying in a village close by when this happened and met the next day with Kunama who witnessed the incident… Accounts differ on the number of Kunama arrested who were sent to prison in Barentu. All Kunama up to Om Hager felt deeply over this event and it reached momentous proportions as a source of concern.”

    [Source: D. Lussier, 1997. Local Prohibitions, Memory, and Political Judgement Among the Kunama: An Eritrean Case Study. XIIIth Conf. of Ethiopian Studies, – Kyoto Japan]

    • Tamrat Tamrat

      Ethiopia is strogner than elf or eplf so North Kunama people get help from their Southern Kunama. The blood of tigre-tigringa is still thicker than water. Tigray state has sympathy over tigringa people that is why the demand of kunama and afar is undermind in Ethiopia. But since the visonaary is dead, we are working on the case. No kunama or afar without their free will forced to be separated from their ethnic Groups.

      • haile

        Selamat Tamrat,

        I have two questions as regards your position on Afar, Kunama…

        1 – If you think Afars should unite with their brothers in Ethiopia, would you agree the 400000+ Afari of Djibouti should re-unite with Ethiopia (they cover all the way to the coast)

        2 – If Afari people can’t make up an independent country, wouldn’t it be sensible for them to break from Ethiopia (under article 39) and join Eritrea? Because by doing so, they become one of the major ethnic group in Eritrea making about 2million people (close to 30% of the expanded population). If they go to Ethiopia, they would end up being one of the smallest and least influential (18million Orome, millions Amhara, Millions Somali, Millions Tigrayans…Afar would just be a 1.8million strong tiny group in a 90 million country)

        As a side note, if the Afars in Ethiopia join us, Eritrea would gain all of the Potash resources in the region and the Afars would gain a bigger say in a national government by becoming a populous ethnic group in a small country.

        Although, it is preferable that we respect each others territorial integrity, if we really go down the self determination avenue, it is more likely that they will all join Eritrea 🙂


        • Fremale Faro

          Selam Haile,
          It does not matere, if we are with our brothers in Eritrea or Ethiopia. What maters for us is to be the masters of our resources,as you said our potash and of course our ports. Our strife is to control the political power in these three countries you mentioned. Egri Kedamai réEka telahe, the tigrina ethnic group is controling the Horn, why not we do the same?

          • belay

            Fremale Faro,
            I believe the great Afar people are capable of standing on their own feet as they have done and protected us from our enemies.Therefore it should be the otherway round.ie we be with them,not them to be with us.Who are we with out them?port,Resources and courage.

        • Kokhob Selam

          Dear Tamrat,

          What will you say on the above post of Mr.Haile. I think Ethiopian Afar should think now while the chance is there.join their brothers and be Eritreans. That is good offer. Hahaaaa.
          Brother Tamrat, you are always in trouble. You are trying to find something from Eritreans dark time. PFDJ is going my friend and no temporary situation will change over our stand in our national freedom. But you can be wise to swallow that Eritrea is free nation and still enjoy the mutual interdependent relation of both Habesha. As always try to explain to you, we can be united simply without any confusion as two nations. What do you want from Eritrea, just get it while you are respected and the same for Eritreans from Ethiopia.

        • Tamrat Tamrat

          Hi Halie!

          Do you think people like isayas become dictator without a reason?
          Look at yourself now how you try to Connect Things when it comes to the right of kunama and afar. You could have done the same like the dictators if you are not diminshed to cyber dictator. You are isayas for kunama and afar as far as Your principle concerned. Tha it what we Call genious politicians these days in eritrea. Priod. And we Call this the mother of all double standard.

          Off course if you oppress the two kunamas, afars,etc for years until they give up then you end up like saying Djibouti afar etc etc. But afar and kunam were divided into eri and ethio only in 1998. I hope you dont believe the afar decided to splitt themeselves into eri-afar and eri-ethiopia by Your 99.9% referndum.

          Afar in ethiopia regardless the seriousness of article 39 have managed to make their own government with a very Limited excutive Power. But that doesnt mean they gave their people and land for the great Eritrea just because Eritrea is Greate. Remember the tigray is more blood related for the majority in Eritrea. If it were the afar ethnic Group which is the leading party in Ethiopia you could have understood me Crystal Clear.

          Nations are created and destroyed, enlarged and diminished. Eritrea nad ethiopia are not exceptional. All the trics you use agaisnt ethiopia can work for afar too agaisnt Eritrea.

          If you realy think the afar in Eritrea teach their children how tigrinya people liberated them from the state of Afar then you are cheating yourself. But i tell you how the afar state and people teaching how isayas is treating its people. And as to the potash usage of Eritrea or ethiopia, let us say the afar people decide on that.

          • haile

            Hi Tamrat

            @Cyber dictator..haha ye’matameTaw yelem!

            Please consider the fact that it is ONLY the house of the great Afar people that can authoritatively speak as regards Afar matters. Not Tamrat and Not Haile! It would be disrespectful for the great Afar people for you or me to tell them what is good for them. We should learn to sit back, learn and listen to them. Then we can dialog on EQUAL terms. They may be offended by insincere concern by interested non-Afars. The same goes for Kunama.

            If I am about to bet on the out come of an Afar self-determination, I would bet that it would go along the way of solving their basic problem. That is a problem shared by many who find themselves being a minority and less represented in a society. If they go to Ethiopia, they would still remain a mere less than 2% of the population. If they go to Eritrea, they would make up a whooping 30% of the country, accounting for the second largest ethinic group in Eritrea that is capable of winning a national election and forming a government to run the whole of the country. This would give the Afar people a huge regional dominance, as they also form a major part of Djibouti. Eritrea would be the gateway to regional, continental and international representation of the Afar people. Why would they choose to continue to be a minority in Ethiopia if Eritrea and Ethiopia give them chance to decide. They would go to Eritrea, it is a simple science. I am only saying this as a pundit and don’t wish to step on the Afar peoples sole right to explain their situation as they see it however.

            Also, you need to remember that Afar people are a legitimate stakeholders of Eritrea proper, as they have paid in blood and sweat for Eritrea’s independence as well as fought bravely, tooth and nail, for Eritrea in its darkest time when the super powers were coming from your side of the border. Please don’t underestimate the Afar people, the house of Afar has respected elders and academics that can frame their legitimate demands.


          • Tamrat Tamrat

            Hi, Haile!

            Let us the betting and dectating leave aside and not be on the way of the state of Afar! It is not the amount of blood you spilled what Counts. What counts is what afar states gives to afar People. And my incincerity and ungretfullness be also judged by the splitted Groups not by you who are drumming the Virtual map of Eritrea or death. As to which way the afars or kunamma go let’s what ethiopia or Eritrea propose to the splited ethnic Groups and what their Choices brings about. The grip of the dictator is so relaxed and contemplating the freedom of the splitted ethnig Groups question is nearer to its solution by each day. I am afriad Your free election in Eritrea out smarts the states of Afar. We take the risk anyways.

            One more thing, the afar People have sacrificed its children not to fullfill the great Eritreas dream but for its people’s human right, self adminstration, democray, etc the way you have whished for ‘Your own group’. Other wise you would never convince Your cincerity by splitting these Peoples. And after all if afar states chooses Eritrea there would be no agression between eritea and ethiopia at least concerning afar region. If Afar state declares independency then again much better for ethiopia because the relation we have With Djibout prooves that we can live With Our negibours in Peace. If Afar chooses to remain as part of Ethiopia, then sorry Haile two horses are better thatn one.

            This i want you to underline. Whether Ethiopian constitution is a scham or real, Afar state is nearer to adminstering itseslf way far better than the afar rgion in Ethipia.

          • Tamrat Tamrat

            Correction:the last paragraph should be read like ‘This i want you to underline. Whether Ethiopian constitution is a scham or real, Afar state is nearer to adminstering itseslf way far better than the afar rgion in Eritrea.’

  • xy

    Additional Information on Idris Awate Genocidal Campaign Against the Kunama
    I present here the Kunama version, but I also came across an unpublished document written in 1951 by Giuseppe Puglisi, an Italian journalist who visited the area at the time. HIs carefully documented report gives a thorough account of the casualties, losses in terms of cattle, and huts that were burned on a ddaily basis.

    It is a strong indictment of the British Military Administration of Eritrea. Puglisi incriminated the British for having deliberately staged the disorders: “I am positive that there is an on-going process of genocide directed against the Kunama, whether or not the parties or neighbouring groups are conscious of this, but there is no doubt that this is being done with the assisstance of the British Administration.”

    Kunama description of how they tried to defend themselves using stones – the only weapons available to them:

    The Kunama shouted “Aula, Aula” and they blew their horns to rally. They gathered and positioned in one line. They were throwing stones at the enemy, down to the river of Ashoshi below. Dungus Arei became a member of Jabata (ELF) later on. It was him who started the war in the first place. It was him who killed with his sword all the Kunama he could find. Hamad Idris Awate was there with them.

    A group of people went to live close to the police station thinking that they would be safe. They did the same in Dokinbia and other places. They went close to the police stations, all of them. Bird’s tracks were the only traces left behind at the Gash river.

    Starting in Aula, they killed the Kunama from Tika, Shikaba, Suba Suka, Amelia. The pregnant women were hacked to death… The destruction was wild… In the end even the Tigrini from Serai agreed to join the Nara and the Beni Amer, they came from that mountain..

    The British police was aware of the situation, they came but did nothing…

  • Tamrat Tamrat

    Facts eritreans chalenged and their delama of priority.

    Unproportional patroitism (mass exodes and patroitism dont go hand in hand) both in the leading party and oppostion.

    The fear for who rplaces the dictatorial regime.

    The elf sympathaizers has determined to arabize Eritrea but they are not the majority.

    The eplf has ended as pfdj.

    The majority common eritreans want Peace and no part of the two extrimists ie eplf or elf.

    The minority Groups divided between Eritrea and ethiopia have no any of the above nuisance but be it ethiopia or Eritrea they dont want to be separated from their ethnic Groups to satify the ‘colonized’ eritrea or the ‘colonizer’ ethiopia.

    Regardless the interest of the minority Groups both in ethiopia or Eritrea,ethiopia demands sea Access.

    The Arabs needs elf to fullfill their dreams while the west needs ethiopia to stop the Arabs in controlling the read sea international trade highway.

  • haile


    So it is confirmed then?


    it is no longer Contact Ali Abdu, it is only contact us! Any doubts are cleared by additional link that is “Government Contacts”. Go down under Ministries and you will find two are vacant. Ali Abdu’s is one of them.

    Finally we get to rest the case:-)

    • Student

      So what! Ali Abdu has served Eritrea admirably and can now do something else in life that he wants to do. He has done a lot more for Eritrea than someone like you has. What have you done for Eritrea, haile? We know you can talk crap with the best of them since you come here babble all day but what have you done for Eritrea that really matters? Please share it with the class since you are all about criticizing the PFDJ or government officials who have worked and toiled for years for little or no pay.

      • TiETiE( Shiro bubble)

        Anta Entay Eka Tblena ZeleKa. For little or no pay. MeJemerYa MeN Eyu MeriTSwom. All are unelected Shifta. We don’t care whether they are paid or not. People are asking them to jump down the edge.

      • haile


        Better if you patiently finish school. How do know what haile might have done for Eritrea? Much less how it compares with that of someone else? And what do you know about pay? Student, you need to finish school first!

        Here is how those who worked for Eritrea are spoken of. Care to tell us who is behind writing it? Slow down temaharay:)

        “Sherifo…Records show he was often absent throughout critical battle and was dubbed “Fisto and Fihira,” unique nicknames reserved for cowardly individuals”


        If you don’t limit to what you know, Student would soon become Insane…keep clear of bubble talk.

        • Salyounis


          That was from one of Dr Bereket’s book? Not one of his greatest quote: doubt if he is proud of it.


          • haile

            Selamat Saay,

            Indeed, I must admit though, I doubted it at first since I hadn’t read the book. Although, the Wikipedia author (2013) must have been on a mission to reward someone who has “served Eritrea admirably” 🙂

            Initially, I thought of listing the 15 names of those who “served Eritrea admirably” and weren’t lucky enough to escape the clutches of our “student” here’s teacher. Then decided to give him an example of another bad “student” to compare themselves to 🙂

            Dr Bereket? 2002? that is another story, isn’t it?


      • Zaki


        what you have said is true.don’t pay attention to what these two intruders have said.they seem to have suffering from islamo-phobia and they are allergic patriots e irrespective of their religions. For the sake of God, what is the relationship of Sherifo and Ali Abdo with this very topic? I think the topic we have to comment on is Bahti meswhat kerem and the pioneer of the Armed struggle.Randomly and deliberately tarnishing of others’ names based on groundless facts is not good (Adi ayegabirn’yu).

  • belay

    what I want to say was,if one loves evil 50% of it,what is it him self?
    Love and hate never go together.
    on both sides there are volerable people.They are all people.And these are same people in two different countries.A hater gets a kick out of any crime,even from his own people like Says.So 50%,of what?

    • Red1


    • belay

      Please read as,
      like Isayas. not says sorry.

  • belay

    PS: “by the way, many of us are agnostic about the “violence” Isaias waged against foreigners because we think they (and you know who I am talking about) are just as horrible as him, particularly in their treatment of vulnerable people. It’s his violence against our own people (defenseless) that makes us struggle against him.”

    An evil is an evil,you can’t love evil 50% cos he is

  • Teweldino


    Every single one of your posts argues things from Weyane’s or a Tigrayan’s perspective. Every single one! Why not tell us whether you are Ethiopian or not. We don’t judge here at awate.com.

    • Araya

      No worries, Teweldino, Hayat aka paplion is deep from Adi-grat.
      She too embarrassed to tell you other ways how on earth an Eritrean never to utter anything Eritrean?

      She is wasting her time for nothing.

      • Student

        Is Hayat Wiqato? It all makes sense now. I also think Yodita, who appears here from time to time to argue Weyane’s case, is also Wiqato. I don’t understand why they can’t just admit that they are Ethiopian to us. Ain’t no shame in being an Ethiopian. Be straight with us.

        • Araya

          I won’t surpriesd me Wiqato, Hayat and Yodita are the same person.
          I bet you SAAY knows that Hayat is as the same person Wiqato.
          I bet with my farm and with all the animals in it that SAAY knows but he is looking the other way.

  • Hayat Adem

    Dear all,
    “If you want us to end our armed struggle, lower the Ethiopian flag, and raise the Eritrean flag.”
    If* Awate said that, then people on the other side did not get the message, and Awate had it his way. The people who didn’t listen paid the price. As a consequence, the Eritrean flag is up, the Ethiopian flag is down in the skies of Eritrea as of 20+yrs ago.
    FF: PIA seemed to directly counter Awate’s message: “even if you listened to what we said and you let us get what we wanted, we’ll never stop the violence.” I mean, how else would you explain then the horrors he did against his own comrades including the fighters who got maimed for his cause and leadership? How else would you explain the non-stop sowing of thorns all over Eritrea against the youth and forcing them flee their homes and families? How else would you explain the 1998 dust and smoke he stirred up? How else would you explain, his problem with Djibouti, IGAD, AU and UN? How else would you explain the odd situation he puts Eritrea and himself with the US?
    There are some naive supporters who innocently** believe that the reason why he is at quarrel with the US and Weyane is not is because “Weyane is kadami and PIA stands his ground”. Nothing can be further from the truth. Who do you think said the following publicly: “The US can use Eritrea’s military bases as part of its war against terror.” Of course, it was PIA and not Weyane. He is just trying to fool his supporters to mistake him for a principled leader.

    * The “if” question does not imply doubting nor the opposite, but conditionality.
    ** The innocently mistaken are our only hopes, as the folks who are supporting him despite their full knowledge about his wrongs should be counted as the lost sheep.

    • Salyounis

      Selamat Hayat:

      Don’t be coy now: the “If” at the beginning is you experiencing doubt. It is a doubt for you because you have had people you trust, people who have explained the Eritrean revolution, the Ghedli, tell you that Hamid Idris Awate was a tribalist, an Arabist, an Islamist, a man who was clueless, a man who was proxy fighter for Arabs and an ethnic cleansing mass murderer to boot. What you are experiencing is called “cognitive dissonance”: the mind hosting two completely contradictory pieces of data. Since that, the prologue–awate was a clueless shifta–is key to making sense of the narrative you have been swindled to accept, this mini bio of Hamid Idris Awate creates discomfort.

      Words are telling. We Eritreans call our revolution an “armed struggle”: even foreign journalists and scholars who write about Eritrea call it that and explain why we call it that. We chose those words to state that it was an undesirable, forced upon burden we had to undertake after trying everything else for 20 years (since the defeat of the Italians in WWII.) And you (and others) replace it by “violence.” Struggle is an evolutionary act; violence is a psychological term, a form of aggression that lumps assault, rape together. With this one thread, you have created continuity between what Hamid and Isais did and do, a mirror image of what hgdefites do. The higdefites say both awate and Isaias are right; the ghedli defamers say both are wrong and you have eased yourself without much effort, just by selection of a word, into the latter.

      Hamid Idris Awate would see Isaias as a betrayer of the thing he started which, stripped to its core, was a fight to restore human dignity. Your narrative really is one of many that tells Eritreans that fighting against injustice is futile because IF it was indeed started by someone with right motives, it’s going to be hijacked by someone without the right motives.


      PS: by the way, many of us are agnostic about the “violence” Isaias waged against foreigners because we think they (and you know who I am talking about) are just as horrible as him, particularly in their treatment of vulnerable people. It’s his violence against our own people (defenseless) that makes us struggle against him.

    • L.T

      W/ro Hayat
      A,Habesha are Abyssinia-Tegaru and Amhara ethno-linhuistic group.
      B,Hamid Idris Awate are a man who fired the first shots of the armed struggle in Eritrea.
      C,Akelguzai-southeast Eritrea are Deqi Menab and Akeguzai and Hammassien are deqi Loggo Sarda.
      D, Alula Engda Qubi”Wedi Qubi” are Tenbienay”Tenbienay -Mendalay
      E,Dahlak with more than 200 islands off the ceteal Eritrea cost.
      F,Eritran Global Solidarity- Unity with Ethiopia by Half Gojami Seyoum Tesfaye from Atlanta.
      G,Jebha-Arabic;the Front
      I,Ethiopia-Amde sion and Zeree Yackob and Orthodox Christian
      J,Federation-Eri-Ethio only,1952-52 or 1952-1962
      K,Tigria-Ras Woldslassie,Dej Sabagadis and Dej Wube(All were a Shifta)operating in Eritrea.Relation between Eeritrea and Tigria outbreak 1998 becouse of Weyane.
      Weyane-narrow nationalists their base is “Agame”Yibluna

  • Beyan Negash

    Eritrea’s National Holidays: Our “Grand Remonstrance” or “Myth”

    The topic of national holiday presently in a heated discussion shows democracy at work. Someone had asked, facetiously or not, what the meaning of democracy was in one of the discussion threads: Well, this is clearly one of the hallmarks of that. It is not about political theory but just a simple practical aspect to being human.

    The power of status quo lays in its ability to vehemently resist change even if it comes at the expense of shaming and silencing those who want to up the ante; by golly, those who uphold it deeply will use coercive measures if they can to keep those who want to up the ante from succeeding at such endeavors.

    Ah, but as a result of such challenges are when theories of all sorts proliferate. It is worth to remember and keep in mind that this is not about theories. For example, GM laments, “We were better off without the first gun shot by shifta/ bandit awate, stop mystifying and idolayzing common SHIFTAS INDOCTRINATED BY EGYPTIANS.

    And Dawit elevates the lament as he ups the ante pushing the envelope to a conceptual level as he vehemently refuses to subordinate individualism or refuses to make it prerequisite to one’s national identity; still this appears to be digestible yet bitter pill to swallow for those on the status quo ante’s side: “I do not acknowledge Awate nor celebrate Bahti Meskerem but will still remain an Eritrean as long as acknowledging Awate as an Eritrean icon is not a necessary condition for being an Eritrean” was Dawit’s loud assertion.

    And, then somewhat elaborate and one who seems to capture the myriad reasons why national holidays under discussion are most needed is no other than A. Benstar – star indeed. I love the way he weaves and paints picture with words.

    So, call it our version of “Grand Remonstrance” or “Myth” or our true historical narrative, the spectrum and the variances too great to nail into one cohesive thought. Perhaps, citing some historical accounts and contexts from the 1600s might prove instructive.

    In the aftermath of the Civil War of England, according to Brailsford, “Round about 1646 […] the Levellers emerged as an independent group […] drawn from the lower middle class, the skilled craftsmen and the small farmers. Their followers ranged from some well-to-do merchants to the weavers of Spitalfields and the lead-miners of Derbyshire.” The distinctively unique marker of the Levellers rests in this fact: that they “were the first political party which dared to make complete religious toleration a chief plank in the platform.” Beyond the Leveller’s political platform lay also the “inspiring historical myth they wove about the Norman Conquest” to paint an “idealized picture of Anglo-Saxon democracy under Alfred the Great and Edward the Confessor, and maintained that it was William the Bastard who brought in serfdom.” This kind of myth was meant to aid and abet in the argument they attempted to advance as they “call[ed] for an end of feudalism, and a most effective way it was, for it linked the class-consciousness of the ‘laborious and industrious people’ with the emotional force of English nationalism.”

    The Levellers as indicated above played effective sociopolitical role in the development of national sovereignty of the English people during the aftermath of England’s Civil War. Viewing September 1st, 1961 in this light, one can see how such historical narrative was needed to wage a cohesive and effective liberation movement. Glorifying heroes – deservedly or not – seems to be the necessary ingredient for a successful revolution. It would be interesting to see if anyone can offer any countervail to the type of narrative that revolution and revolutionaries seem to require.

    Now, of course, one of the many essences of democracy is to respect individuals such as GM and Dawit their every right and in their desire to celebrate or lack thereof it and that as Dawit insightfully put it or was implied in what he states, the measuring yardstick of anyone’s Eritreanity should not and ought not be based on how patriotic or how strongly one feels toward the important dates that a country celebrates as its national holidays.

    There is nothing more sinister than the American Independence Day Holiday Sale, Lincoln’s (President’s Day) mattress and furniture sales; Labor Day’s washing machine sales, etc. That’s just awesome! Of course, time is of the essence here. All of these Holidays are old; perhaps, the emotional juices that were once strongly associated with such holidays have been squeezed out and had been so hollowed out that the people don’t go on protesting of the denigration of their sacred Holidays. I get that. Eritrea’s holiday remains young – time-wise – therefore emotions can run high and some remarks can seem offensive, but that is the essence of democracy where one has to be tolerant of differing views. At the same time the other side also should consider being respectful of those who wish to celebrate one of Eritrea’s national Holidays, however, controversial any particular Holiday may seem.


    Brailsford, H.N. The Levellers and the English Revolution. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1961. Print.

    • A. Benstar

      Greetings Beyan Negash and all,

      Brother Beyan, thank you very much for your sweet note that seems to be a little more generous than one would expect these days:-) My friend, I, too, love the way you play with words in your own unique way. I am more into the essence that cover the bones of the messages delivered here or elsewhere and, as such, I find your notes more informative, educational, as well as reflective than most.

    • Beyan,

      Your words are smooth as your personality. I see many are enjoying your comments in their contents and palatability. Keep alive your engagement.

  • Tamrat Tamrat

    If a country is led by A party or a president supported/recurited by the west then that country allies itself With the west and the same is true for those supported or recurited by the arab world. There is no free ride. Eritreas leaders delama is at msot of this type. What isayas has done so far was that he did not put back the flag ‘Ethiopia’ took Down, the ‘parliament’ ‘ethiopia’ adjourned, the leaders introduced arabic as offical Language undermining the native Languages, etc and still septembe 1 is producing more global eritrean cellebration abroad than home. Home is good for the mass suffering and waiting for absloute Democracy and justice defined and updated by awatte bullett.

  • Fanus

    No one can take away Eritrea’s glorious history and all its sacred moments away from the Eritrean people.

    No one can take away September 1 (Bahti Meskerem), May 24 (Independence Day), June 20 (Martyrs Day) away from the Eritrean people.

    Kibrin Mogosn n Hamid Idris Awate, Felami Sewra Ertrea!
    Bahti Meskerem n Zelealem tinber!
    Awet n Hafash!

  • Gebreab

    Dear Adal.
    What would say today those USAmericas who fought against the Evil empire for freedom and justice to see today their country has become together with Grey-Britain the axis of Nazis of 21st century?

    • Fanus

      UM..Britain and USA are two separate countries and have been since 1776. Yes there is a lot of kinship between the two and the relationship has been described as being”special” but they are two separate countries and do differ with each other from time to time. Notice Britain last week told the USA that it can’t go along with the decision to strike Syria. But they are two separate countries and Britain does respect the USA’s sovereignty. Lesson for the evil Weyanes.

      • Senai

        As I can understand from your language you are defending the very heinous and brute nations in the world.And by the way Weyanes are angels in comparison to the heinous nation,you are defending.”AdiA Zeynafeket Si HatunuA TinafiK”.But in your case I would say”AdiA TSeliAs,Ketalita Tefikr”.I am living in Grey-Britain sorry Gret-Britain,and I encounter every day haters.How their bodies are able to tolerate to live with such amassed hatred…is just unbelievable… I think they cannot survive without hatred. So Please,swallow this none sense,we people in the region (Horn of Africa) do not hate each other so much.Too much hatred must have to do some thing with mental dis-order or sickness,you cannot explain it otherwise.Great-Britain has really reared a sick Society. When you listen to Bob Marleys music,you think the guy was crazy,but you have to experience it yourself to realize how right he was.Most of our people who came straight to Great-Britain may think all Europeans are like the Brits(white or black regardless)haters,no they are not,xzenophobia is every where but are not cannibalist barbarians like the Brits.The Brits are different kind of breed of Europeans.They are not intelligent,creative,innovative,brilliant…But they are real bloodsuckers I can assure you that.Of course no body expects from a slaver,colonizer to become over night a philanthropist…And you my brother,your telling me Weyane is Evil…’cause you do not know who your real enemy is,that is your big problem…get out of the coconut-shell and explore…

        • Tamrat Tamrat

          Your discription of British people shows us that the enermous tolerance you have for British people or their system. Then my question would be what keeps you in britian then? The juice you got out of the sucked blood or what? Or you want to change the suckers system fro the very its roots in London?

  • Adal


    Happy belated Bahti Meskerem! Bahti Meskerem and Mount Adal are to Eritrea what Lexington and Concord are to the American people. The Battles of Concord and Lexington were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. They were fought on April 19, 1775 in the Province of Massachussetts Bay. The battles marked the outbreak of open armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen colonies in the mainland of British North America. The first shots were fired just as the sun was rising over Lexington. The day after the battle John Adams left his home to ride along the battlefields. He became convinced that “the Die was cast, the Rubicon crossed.” Thomas Paine had previously thought of the argument between the colonies and the home country as a kind of lawsuit but after news of the battle reached him he rejected the King of England forever. George Washington received the news of the battle at his home and wrote to a friend, “the once happy and peaceful plains of America are about to be drenched in blood or inhabited by slaves. Sad alternative! But can a virtuous man hesitate in his choice?”

    • Gebreab

      Adal. What would say today those who fought for freedom and justice against the Evil Empire of Britain about the current USA?I guess not good.Yes not good!The USA,UK,France are preparing for the next bloodshed to happen in the Middle East after Irak.Many Syrians are now alive but ,in seconds,minutes,hours,days could be dead.And the decision about death or life lays all on USA.What a cruel world!

  • eriobserver

    Awate was a banda in service of the Italian army. I wonder how he served the Italians with distinction against his own people and decide to fight against the Ethiopians.

  • A. Benstar

    Greetins everybody,

    Happy Bahti-Meskerem Eritreans and their friends again! While am at it, I would like to inject the Bahti-Meskerem Eve note I posted in one of the earlier articles here where it really belongs with slight editorial changes as follows:

    September 1, 2013, marks the 52nd anniversary of the initiation of Eritrea’s armed struggle for national independence form Ethiopia colonization by force of arms that ended victoriously in 1991. Many Eritreans around the glob celebrate Bahti-Meskerem to remember the event and honor Awate who is said to have announced it by firing the first bullet against Ethiopian occupation forces in mount Adal in September 1961 as the commander in chief of the first Eritrean Liberation Army! Today, Eritrea is liberated but its people are being ruled by one of the most barbaric regimes the world has ever seen, the so called PFDJ with an insane and despotic man called Esaias at the helm. Meanwhile, Eritrea’s arch-enemy in the form of the so called TPLF/EPRDF , aka Weyane, is still playing its old and ugly tricks by creating discord and disunity in the Eritrean body-polity while at the same time undermining Eritrea’s territorial sovereignty by refusing to let the Ethiopian-Eritrean border be demarcated on the ground according to the rule of international law that he and all concerned agreed to abide and live by! In this connection, the state of the Eritrean opposition to PFDJ’s despotic rule in Eritrea is, to say the least, on the talking stage where everybody sings the same song but don’t know or don’t want know how to go about dancing to their songs on the ground in order to bring the changes they seek by themselves. The Eritrean opposition Esaias’s diabolical rule in Eritrea have yet learn how to make its talk grow hearts that feel right and legs that walk straight before God and their own kind under the rule of law that they should establish to govern their collective national lives instead of living in a delusional world of their own myopic creation where their politics mostly go goes around circles of trivial and sectarian or personal interests for decades on end.

    Having said the foregoing, it is important for Eritreans and others concerned to always remember that Eritrea was created state by Italian colonization and it is a colonial construct like other entities in its class. Eritrea, however, did not get its full independence like other colonially formed states of its era but was instead put under British Military Administration in 1941 and later joined to Ethiopia in a federation in 1952. As soon as the federation came into effect, the little king of Ethiopia called Janhoy violated the spirit and letter of the Eritrean-Ethiopian federal union. Seeing that the Eritrean-Ethiopian federal union was turned into that of a colonizer and the colonized, Eritreans challenged the Ethiopians to respect the articles of the federation peacefully to no avail and were ultimately forced to take up arms to liberate their country from Ethiopian occupation.

    Proceeding, as soon as Eritreans realized that they have all been tricked by Ethiopia and its patron America, they started peaceful political resistance to Ethiopia’s violation of the terms of the federal union between Eritrea and Ethiopia but were met with brute force in response! Thus, Eritreans soon established an organized resistance to Ethiopia’s illegal acts under the Eritrean Liberation Movement or Mahber-Shewaate and a branch of it soon gave birth to the Eritrean Liberation Front with the Eritrean Liberation Army as its military wing. The ELA was established by Awate and his colleagues in western Eritrea and was exclusively Muslim in composition at its inception when it started resisting the Ethiopians military in the Eritrean field.

    Awate as the leader of the first Eritrean Liberation Army, the ELA, is said to have fired the first bullet that announced the Eritrean armed struggle for independence from Ethiopian colonization into being in mount Adal in 1961. The ELA gave birth to the Eritrean People’s Liberation Army, the EPLA, which concluded the goal of Eritrea’s territorial independence after the ELF was ejected from the Eritrean field to the plains of Eastern Sudan by a combined EPLF and TPLF assault in 1981! However, territorial independence from Ethiopian colonization brought with it the loss of both individual and collective freedom to the whims of one evil man whom many considered as their savior till most of them belatedly found out that he was a vicious wolf come garbed in sheep’s clothing at the helm of a national plague that is now known as the “PFDJ”. The EPLF, aka Shaebia, was a possessed organization right from the get go and it said and did what its master Esaias wanted said and done without ifs and or buts of any significance from any quarter of his organization whatever! The old EPLF or Shaebia now named the “People’s Front for Democracy and Justice” has brought neither democracy nor justice but has turned the lives of the Eritrean people into a living hell on Earth and rules them like hated slaves and beggars in their own country for which they paid dearly!

    Thirty two years ago, Esaias’s Shaebia or EPLF and its TPLF or Weyane sister organization conspired to eject the ELF out of the Eritrean battlefield with the support of regional and international powers and both soon defeated the Derg and took power in their respective countries! Now, 32 years later, some of the former adherents of old Shaebia want to destroy its new self by siding with its Weyane old friends and the remnants of their old enemy or the old ELF, their mother and aunt whom they destroyed as foreign and dangerous to the realization of Eritrean unity and independence or so said the liars from both sides of the Mereb River! Now, Shaebia babies, be they young or old, generals or journalist, doctor or janitor, or any simple fool that was used like a tool, are the last ones to raise an accusing finger at those who air the simple truth that has been out there for all that cared to see right from the outset of DIA’s march of death and destruction on his way to absolute power in Eritrea! A large part of the Eritrean people without regard to their religion, region, ethnicity, and the like served and followed Esaias and his Shaebia till the ugly reality started unfolding and clubbing anyone who dared to stand up DIA’s way or the highway!. The old beast called Shaebia has now been baptized as the PFDJ and still keeps devouring anyone that voices a word against the cult master as it did devour those who tried to stop Esaias and his Shaebia from their singular march to absolute power which brought the Eritrean people to the miserable and hellish lives they are leading today!

    Furthermore, it is said that people make their own governments and what people deserve is what they make, be it a government or otherwise! Reality is hard to get rid off and those who in some way or another served Esaias to gain absolute power in deciding the fate of the Eritrean people have to first recognize that they have helped and served Esaias the demoniac to build a plague of an organization called the EPLF or Shaebia that is now destroying the people of Old Eritrea in order to build the people of DIA and his New Eritrea in the graves of the Old, for starters! Many of Esaias former servants and followers have now abandoned the sinking ship and plague after they saw that the fate of those whom Esaias and his Shaebia or PFDJ eradicated was coming home to roost and what went around started coming around to visit them! Some of these have either bowed down to the boss in repentance for their sins, many got thrown in jail to rot or die for finding the gusts to question their former hero and boss, and many took to flight and are making self-serving and gutless noises from their places of refuge and safety as if they have not much to do with bring about the problems that are bedeviling the Eritrean people like never before! Now, it is too late to cry foul on others and pretend that one is clean from being party to what brought about the tragedy that has been and is still befalling the Eritrean people without let up!

    Bay way of conclusion, on this Bahti-Meskerem day of celebration and reflection, another great Eritrean known as Wedi Ali deserves mention as a national figure of historical significance in the current leg of the Eritrean people’s struggle to assert their political sovereignty and end PFDJ bestial rule in their homeland! It goes without saying that Awate stands tall in annals of Eritrean history when it comes to look the beast on the face on the battlefield in order to remove him from the Eritrean homeland. Likewise, Wedi Ali stands tall in Eritrean history when it comes to look the beast on the face and challenge to set the Eritrean people free from his tyrannical oppression. Awate’s leg of the Eritrean revolution ended in victory with the liberation of territorial Eritrea from Ethiopian occupation in 1991 with world acclaim and may Wedi Ali’s call for liberty, justice, democracy, and the rule of law to reign in his homeland become a living reality where the Eritrean people could live in peace by establishing a government of their own making whom they can hire into or fire out of office under the rule of law that governs all Eritreans citizens equally and democratically!

    • Selam A. Benistar,

      Good summary, and to your conclusion I say Amen.

      • A. Benstar

        Greetings Amanuel Hdrat and all,

        Brother Amamnuel, thank you for your brief and generous one-liner comment 🙂


  • TiETiE( Shiro bubble)

    ShftneT and Ideas.
    What is Shifta and who was Shifta?
    1. The seraye and Akele Shifta -> seeking village or family or personal superiority.
    2. Menelik of Amhara? -> domination and dream of founding heart kingdom.
    3. Yowhans tigrayan? -> Adey YeHlife AyHbn.
    4. Aba Nega Tembien? -> personal and Tembien superiority.
    5. Idris Awate? -> organized revolution and the end of shifta time. still unclear.
    6. Aba Timer Halay? -> Adey YeHliFe AyHbn.
    7. Arabita Jeberti? – > seeking their own fate.
    8. Seraye and Akele and Hamasien Degyat -> seeking greed.

    • L.T

      Teddy of Mekdela
      ” Scares of Majar Napier and shut him self”–Aye Wend”
      “John of Tenbien
      “Is it better to wage war with Christian Italia or to with Durbush Muslim?asked to Menelik”—Aye lb
      Meneliko fm Ankober
      He invaded Tigria 100 yrs with his hard USB-memory you have with you today.
      Majar Alula Engada of Tenbien
      “He killed by his own”
      Shiro bubble kisb Tayta kab megogo tewtsie!!

      • Zaki

        Teddy of Meqdela (haxe Tedros)was the one who invited war to his own country by taking idiotic actions against British missionaries.what has he done to his poor people save taking his own people’s cattle by force and burning their farm lands and cottages.what about haxe yohanns? when Minelik was aware of Haxe Yohanns’s courage and determination to win the war against him , he detracted his way by the well known saying which goes ” it is certain that if we and u fought against each other you will win the battle and will rule Ethiopia for forty years. But if u fight Muslims who were led by Abajifar, You will enter paradise.” yeah, he chose the paradise without noticing the trap that Minelik had prepared for him. he lost his life and his head was taken for exhibition to Sudan.But Awate’s revolution was clear from the very beginning. he was quoted as saying ” this today’s little spark will change into bonfire”

        • L.T

          Gebresadik Mokria”fm Atsi to Atsi…”they are still in their sunset glory,the grandest of grand old men,a kind of national monument.Yowhannes was still very far from being a christian and in spite of all the good advice he received from Atsi Menelik he was incapable.A long religious training had not abolished even mitigated his self love.it had served only to provide the ego with a theological alibi.Among his victimes are Shiro bubble and B,C,D and all the rest.A larger,superordinated whole,Ecclesiastical history exhibits a hierarchy of hatreds,descending by orderly degrees fm the church’s official and ecumenical hatred of heretics anf infidels to the particular hatreds of order for order,chool for school,province for province and theologian for theologian.

  • Tesfabirhan Weldegabir Redie

    well written and a reminding how a small force can change the course.

  • GM


    We were better off without the first gun shot by shifta/ bandit awate, stop mystifying and idolayzing common SHIFTAS INDOCTRINATED BY EGYPTIANS.

    • TiETiE( Shiro bubble)

      He could be shifta you may right since he was from less educated. Therefore he was like any shfita from Seraye or akeleguzay. In that time there were several deadly Shifta in seraye and Akeleguzay. But they were not organized like Awate. Awate ShftNet – perhaps god willing or chance. At one time I read that Yahoo founder was playing simple in his garage before it become the best company in the internet world. Infact the Awate step got it right by reason remote area . The Jeberti party and its leader Abdelkadir failed by many reason perhaps one reason was they did not camouflaged their organization until they clearly stand of the ground. they were much muslimized. Haileslassie and Hamasien fought them hard. It is like hamburger inside a split bread – no chance. I wish they had win. the Christian become slave of haileslasie still they are still being slaved. Had the Jeberti succeeded it would not bad – would be GdeY Gdeka. But one thing I could not understand why the Jeberti are not credited? why still sensitive issue? though I am not Jeberti I am proud seraye.
      Regardless of his Shifta stance Awate deserve credits. These with academic experience need to do more research why Awate Shifta succeeded. There were many shifta in southern seraye and Akeleguzay but their stance were disagreement with their village people or clan superiority and disputes. nothing more than that.

      • Senai

        Tie tie,
        the people you call them Jeberti are Tigrina speaking moslems,period.

        • TiETiE( Shiro bubble)

          Infact Jeberti are not Tigryna.
          1. they speak Tigryna slightly different from tigryna Christian but 99% tigryna. if you listen two mothers – one tigryna Christian and one Jeberti mother you can hear different tigryna however understandable. they are the greatest contributors of tigrnna language especially in the 1940s and 50s there were several great journalists.
          2. All Jeberti are muslim so nothing to do with tigryna Christian.they lived parallel with tigryna Christian so does not make them tigryna.
          3. They have their own social norm that is different from Christian tigryna.
          4. Sometimes they marry with Seraye Saho but most of the time their own women clearly no marriage with Tigryna Christian except illegal or accident and always bring disputes. therefore these people are 10TH Biher.
          5. Their population could exceed tigryna or at least they may equal to Tigryna.
          6. Economically, socially, religiously, educationally they are well organized.Freedom is missing from them.
          7. They have been victims of leaders but the tigryna Christian people respected them and treated them well always told them to keep their religion saying AbTa Nay AboKa.
          8. What is the obstacle if Jeberti called the 10th Bihere eritra? why some people and Esayas afewerki worry about Jeberti.
          9. Economically they are very important for tigryna Christian and the Tigryan people will be happy if they have their own Biher.
          10. Beginning from myself if they want to speak Mehamed language it is fine.
          * I am not Jeberti nor muslim. I am seraye Christian south proud of my village. and I would not let certain people and certain location dictate us, decide us who we are and should not tell us how we speak. the first step to beat these arrogant people is to bring more oppressed people like Jeberti and others so they will be exposed even ejected no sight of landing.

          • wediere


            Jeberties are not as organized as you think, especially on the request to be considered a 10th biher, it is irrelevant and adds no value to the citizenship – think about it in Eritrea what do you get for such designation?
            They are proud of who they are, like you put they seek no approval from a third party to be recognized as a biher. That is why you don’t see much ranting about the topic.
            The priority is get the Eritrean person to be treated like a human being in his own country, to be able to dream for his future and live and move freely in his beloved country. Human dignity is missing.
            It is beyond imagination that another simple soul imposes such a burden on another soul, akin to slavery and calls that for the benefit of society. We need to free ourselves and our people from that psychological shackle that over time has put so much weight and developed fear of few gangs that are making their lives so miserable.


          • Kokhob Selam

            TiETiE( Shiro bubble).

            Most of the points you put are correct about Jeberty. What I want to say frankly is that their stand on Eritrean freedom from the beginning was clear. No other ethnic group has shown his clear stand of freedom other than Jeberty. Yet, you should not forget there were people from other ethnic groups who stand with them. I can only say if all accept the idea of people like Abdulkadir Kebire we could have saved a lot of life and time. Anyway it is the majority (knowingly or not) who pay the price and all Eritreans has paid for it. What makes me disappointed during our national struggle was that almost all political parties were demoralizing this Ethnic group. I have witnessed this. You see, if someone asks about Biher to those ignorant politicians, they were not giving the real meaning.
            To be honest you can’t force an ethnic group to be part of you when even you are not really Biher. Where is Biher in Eritrea? Isn’t something we are trying to develop it? Our nonsense politicians are trying always to cover their mistakes by undermining others. And this is the biggest problem we are facing, the negative culture of our Gedli Era is still serving to cover mistakes a. blame others b. neglect, reject, undermine even label them the worst.
            See, people should not imagine and dream to find peace if they don’t respect others even if they don’t get resistance. As I always mentioned, truth is powerful and has its own power. That is what happened so far. If you reject slavery and fight against it be honest and don’t do it to others.
            And take a point here, Next time if you find a man from jeberity tells you they are not Biher don’t trust him. Don’t trust a man who doesn’t respect his ethnic group like some PFDJ supporters do. How can he respect you if he doesn’t respect his value and culture?
            Jeberty is an ethnic group like others. And if they chose to be called Biher Tigrigna it is up to their choice but should not be forced or cheated.
            I believe we are in advanced edge and even nationalism is going to lose its position but the very ethnic value will try to survive and Jeberty should be given their full freedom to show their ethnic culture.
            Dear Wedi Ere,
            Allow me to disagree with you. Although what you said about Jeberty mostly is correct “they don’t need the 3rd party…” but I oppose the sentence “think about it in Eritrea what do you get for such designation?” if you think of peace for Eritrea you are thinking for what is inside Eritrea. The case of Jeberty should not be ignored and we have to listen to them. You don’t have to say what Eritrea will get from 10th Biher. You should say what all Bihers will get from a nation called Eritrea. Then what is that Free Eritrea who doesn’t respect the request of its Ethnic groups?

          • Abe z minewale

            The people of Dembelas speak the same language as the people of AdiKeih with different slang. If is not tigrigna what kind of name do we have? I don’t understand when Islander speaks English either

      • GM



        They have to stop of dreaming that they are out of the blue, a different species different etnic from their habesha brothers, claiming filthy, arteficial and ridiculous identity ARABISM they will not gain RESPECT or CREDIT FROM ERITREANS.

        In regard of the fabricated status as national symbol/hero awate shifta has, the hamasien, the akele or seraye shiftas you speak about, his collegues couldn’t reach this status because the were not in the pay of their masters -EGYPT,SYRIA and in general Arab muslim countries.

        • TiETiE( Shiro bubble)

          THANK YOU Kokeb Selam.
          I love your points we need like you.
          Slavery run in different formats.
          the Jeberti case is not land dispute what I mean is no one’s business except the jeberti. if they want to be called AndemesKel or Nesredin no one’s business. When it is Land disputes you might claim 30% or 40% ownership so you do not loose totally. These opposing Jeberti identity they are claiming they have the right to own some shares of Jeberti names and their choices to become Biher. Is not this slavery or ownership over Jeberti. then what is freedom means?
          Two people come up to you and they ask you to call them dengola and their is Biher is dengola what bothers you?
          Watch me I am going to give them their name Jeberti and they are the 10th Biher.

        • wediere

          Kokhob Selam
          “Then what is that Free Eritrea who doesn’t respect the request of its Ethnic groups?”
          No contention there, it diminishes the claim of Free Eritrea when in practice you see that Jeberties are not considered as an ethic to their choise.
          Saying that, there is no need to waste effort to get acceptance from those who reject you, Jeberties don’t need an approval from anyone else, it is as simple as that.

          For those who reject like GM, there is an underlying issue that causes them fear, it all revolves around the 50-50 % that we hear it all the time. If the balance went 45-65 either way, would it make a difference? I don’t think so.

          In USA during election some states are called swinging states, even if small their vote can be or is the deciding factor in who gets elected, Jebeties might be in that position (fortunately or unfortunately) by their location, language and religion.

          There is interesting ethic identification in Eritrea and Ethiopia that I want you to explain why is it so (it might help you understand). In Ethiopia they call them Tigray and in Eritrea Tigrigna, the former identified by the land they reside and the latter by their language, even though both are the same people?
          When you talk about Habesha, it much bigger than you make it sound as it encompasses many ethnic groups, including the Jeberties.


          • Kokhob Selam

            dear Wediere,
            How should we define An ‘ethnic group’ then? what are the common and standard criteria’s that describe ethnic group. Language? If so why Arabs have one language and different ethnic groups? Place? Why then most of countries have ethnic groups mixed places? Culture? Why then we see two and more ethnic groups with similar culture? What else? Economy and system of business? Infrastructure? None will answer to your Wedi Ere.
            But hey, the example you brought may not work as the Tigrigna speakers of Ethiopia and Eritrea in one part of history has gone different directions. Remember at least the Ethiopian Tigrigna speakers remain the same while Eritrean Tigrigna speakers has been colonized and new history has taken place.
            It is the same with Eritrean Jeberty and Ethiopians Jeberty. Ethiopian Jeberty may not claim as Ethnic group. for one very clear reason Eritrean Jeberty are more complete first for their more organized jebety culture gone out of feudalism as they have been colonized by Europeans. And in fact they were the first to ask separation from Ethiopia due to contradictions they face with kings of Ethiopia.
            As for me, every country segregates and categorizes people depending their culture and request and let them live in peace together. And I feel describing Ethnic group should as bellow.
            01.A group that regards itself or is regarded by others ( the former is important) as a distinct community. And is deferent from other.
            That can show more or less it has shared characteristics such as culture, language, religion, and traditions, which contribute to a person or group’s identity. That doesn’t mean all the above it might be part.
            02.Characteristics that will help to distinguish the group from the surrounding community. Ethnicity is considered to be shared characteristics such as culture, language, religion, and traditions, which contribute to a person or group’s identity.
            03. Their willingness to find symbolic markers of that difference (food habits, religion, forms of dress, language) and to emphasize their significance; and

            At last what is needed is freedom of people as per their needs as far as they don’t monopolize others.
            Not only Jeberty but we may have others who can ask they are an ethnic group. we have to learn accepting others as they are. The same in politics, we should not say to a political party you are not there when in fact it is there. We don’t have to Waite till they fight against us. And then come down like EPLF. You may think you are a winner for sometime but sure it is a matter of time till your group go flat in front of your face.

            there is always better chance getting the road that leads to peace in listining othes. and I prefer to listen more from you and others.I always enjoy standing right with what i believe is correct yet i don’t have problem in correcting my mistakes if you can show me my mistake.

          • Kokhob Selam

            Dear Wediere,
            “For those who reject like GM, there is an underlying issue that causes them fear, it all revolves around the 50-50 % that we hear it all the time. If the balance went 45-65 either way, would it make a difference? I don’t think so.”

            One more thing here, why still people are talking about 50-50? what if we start counting? for me it is just easy and say Jeberty is an Ethinic group as per their request. over. if we have time and count and talk about quantity we will just be lost as we have a lot to do. otherwise go to Seraye and call/name the villages you will surprise to learn that Jeberties in seraye, Hamasen, Akelguzay are not so small population. that is nonsense to talk about quantity when you even say Rashida is an Eritrean Ethinc group. and more nonsense when you talk about religion 50-50. why is it needed. the future Eritrea has to be for all without fabricating numbers and theories.

            Afar Eritrea are mossly in one eria and thinking about future adminstration should be carefuly handled. respect is the way out.

      • L.T

        No no no..W/ro Shiro I am my self a Hammasien from Himbrti (Hamushte Adi -Logo-Chuwa):In Himbrti have we a Jeberti and the experience that we have today with them are free.I can say jeberti in Himbrti or Hammassien are for the most innocent and even the most holy can be.
        you shiro,means that you who could not help dreaming.you are a bad luck woman.

  • Kokhob Selam

    Thank you awate team.
    The man was generous and kind and open minded. Above all he was practically leading even though it was not for so long. He has done his duty and who ever follow him has done his duty. We don’t allow any single creature to exploit the situation and try to undermine our struggle.
    PFDJ is not willing to solve problems and didn’t leave any space for peace, but that doesn’t mean our national struggle had no meaning. instaed, that means we have pending job to be done as Eritrean citizens. One day all our problems will disappear as we are knocking the door for peace.

    Eritrea will always celabrate remebering the place, the time,and the great man (Adal, Bahti Meskerem and Awate).

  • Tamrat Tamrat

    After 62 years the whole question billed down to the independent of Eritrea must be preserved the way Italia designed it. Why did eritrea couldnt make it as an independent country immediatly after italia was defeated is a mistery. Most of all the awate bullet message which is modified from time to time is getting complicated more and more. In one hand the message of the bullet is described as if awate is the mother of all fighters for democracy and justice and at the same time trashing the basic human right of same ethnic group must be splitted just becasue italia said so. That is more difficult to understand because in italian time those ‘neglected ethnic groups’ were not be affected by the italian colony thus continuded their life as norma as possilbe. And now the bullet of awate has no meaning for kunama, afar, etc. Could awate say let those kunama and afar be with those ‘devils Ethiopians’ or ‘barabaric ethiopians because my bullet saves only in the boundary itayalia gave me.

    Any ways, we are now. How can we stop awates bullet and use discussion?

  • historian


    Mount Adal was the first armed conflict of Eritrea’s glorious revolution (sewra or gedli). The conflict led by the courageous Awate on Septmeber 1 at Mount Adal escalated to a full-fledged trench warfare with tanks, anti-tanks, anti-aircrafts and a complete set piece war that thirty years later gave birth to an independent Eritrea.

    Bahti Meskerem will always have a special place in our hearts.

  • Ghezae Hagoa

    Selam All,

    Happy Bahti Meskerem, a day that will live in glory! I want to send my best wishes to Awate.com for its service to Eritrean ‘deleyti fithi’.

    As usual my sincerest wish is to see the Saleh’s back home, to the greatest nation in the world ever, ‘ERENA’, comforted in their passion…one listlessly looking at Lalmba, the other producing and distributing oldies of Ere songs…starting with his favorite…

    that would be…Tsegai Beraki:)

    • L.T

      Tesgai Berkai is fm Tigria but a proud Eritrean top one and I hope you too are.Remember Eritrea is for Eritreans and canada are for Canadains and be proud Mr Gezaie as Eritrean in Your comminty in Canada.
      Awete dead for you and your likes.

  • haile


    Happy Bahti Meskerem! and thank you AT for the above summary reflection about the history this special day in the annals of Eritrean history.

    Indeed, the current stage in the history of the Eritrean people, where the citizens are rightfully demanding the rouge faction of the EPLF that is committing atrocity in Eritrea, by illegally holding to state power, to relinquish its control.

    The challenge to the regime has reached a stage where there is virtually nobody who would directly support its acts and policies but do one of the following three (i.e. leaving out the opposition):

    1 – We are supporting the regime because there is no alternative.

    2 – We are supporting the regime because there is no-war-no-peace situation.

    3 – We are supporting the regime because its demise would result in chaos and fragmentation.

    One or more of the above have lulled the many in the diaspora into relegating themselves into a powerless spectators of the most horrific crimes that their own people are exposed to.

    It needs to be clear to everyone that all roads to finishing off the struggling regime go through the Eritrean diaspora. The brutal and immoral nature of the regime means that internal dynamics in Eritrea would follow their own trajectory.

    The regime is essentially diaspora based, it has controlled Eritrean communities throughout the diaspora and subcontracted their normal activities to external fundraisers as mekete and awehahadi bealat (national holidays coordinating committee). Through such venues it has managed to control the diaspora away from relevance and ensuring that they remain impoverished.

    The regime advocates write from behind barbed wires where they don’t engage public opinion in mediums such as this one. Its international diplomatic collapse has rendered it unable withstand opposition forces.

    The opposition has an upper hand on the propaganda front that it would do well to launch media blitz that win diaspora public opinion. Many in the diaspora fall with in the uninformed outer layer of the regime’s fraudulent claims of popular support.

    In tackling the regime in the diaspora, the opposition is faced with three layers that it needs to strategize carefully. Every diaspora constituency of the regime has an inner core (for smaller communities numbering 4-5 and bigger communities 15 – 20) of individuals who are fully fledged members of the crime syndicate. This inner layer is part and parcel of the regime itself (think of the diaspora arm). This inner core is surrounded by tens or close to 100 middle layer of individuals who are really not directly linked to the regime but dedicated to advocate for it in a highly charged, emotional and volunteering attributes. You can think of this middle layer as willfully ignorant, dismissive and kind of foolhardy. This middle layer is surrounded by hundreds or sometimes thousands outer layer who really are sold to the above three fear factors and are really there with no clue whatsoever. At best you could think of this outer (third layer) as making up the vast of the silent majority.

    Hence, the first line of defense from the opposition’s perspective is the outer or third layer that can be swayed by rational argument that balances the existing challenges of Eritreans with a message of hope and brighter tomorrow. The strongest resistance would only be mounted by the middle layer of confused hardliners. With control of the outer layer and the fact that they would be standing on shaky grounds, this group of middle layer will eventually give way. The inner core wouldn’t put up any resistance, essentially its role is limited to control and command and with the collapse of the outer and middle layers, the inner core would simply melt away and abandon the its base completely.

    On this special day of the start of the Eritrean armed struggle, it is imperative that the opposition starts to draw battle plans for yet another start of final clashes to defeat the regime in the diaspora. Evaluate its current standing strength and identify the necessary logistics in order to start the final offensive and remove the regime from the face of the earth.

    Happy Bahti Meskerem

    • Abu Khamsa

      Hi haile, The opposition can’t even organize a three-car funeral much less….

    • Well said Haile,

      You have peeled the onion layer by layer.

      My comment on the article follows:

      I do not acknowledge Awate nor celebrate Bahti Meskerem but will still remain an Eritrean as long as acknowledging Awate as an Eritrean icon is not a necessary condition for being an Eritrean.

    • The main reason why the so called Opposition Failed:

      Subseviency to woyane has been their stumbling-block……………

      What has been woyane’s motive for acting as their stumbling-block?

      Woyane has material interest to incorporate Eritrea into Tigrai. This is not a far fetched assertion; it is boldly written in its Abai Tigrai Manifesto. The fact that it subsequently forcibly incorporated part of Wollo and Begemdr, all of which were claimed as part and parcel of Abai Tigrai in the Manifesto should serve genuine Eritrean as a stark warnning not be hoodwinked by the ever treacherous woyane.

      Woyane may try to hide its morbid intention on Eritrea by citing pre-Independence historical antecedents, such as its association with EPLF, its recognition of the Eritrean colonial question and its recognition of Eritrean Independence but the genuine Eritrean must understand that woyane did all that not out of goodwill for Eritrea and Eritreans but because it was compelled to do so out of pure necessity. If it did not do that,it could have nipped in the bud by the EPLFs long time ago.

      Can any one now see that the interest of woyane and that of the so called “Eritrean Oppostions” are fundamentally contradictory?

      I think it is very easy to see. And if we have seen it, then we should know why the Oppositions have been dancing in circle without any progress. Woyane would never want them to be United, Strong and Better Organized because to do so is against its basic interest.

      If the so called ” Eritrean Oppositions” have never been able to recognize this Dilemma for twenty-some years, would any one entrust them with a leading position in our struggle? No, unless they boldly exit out of woyane box and openly repent their sins.

      However, the so called “Eritrean Oppositions” are not the only ones who are in limbo , they have their counterparts, who, oblivion to Isaias Afewerqi’s endless and deceptive eumphemism, perpetually dance in circle to tune of his con-artistry, as if possessed by powerful ganien.

      There is no doubt that the damage Isaias Afewerqi is inflicting on Eritrean economy, psyhe etc. may be far worse than woyane but I think it is about time that we recognize the fact that the two, woyane and Isaias, are one and the same, and that their apparent antagonism is an illusion predicated upon tearing Eritreans into warring factions as a means of realizing their Chicken Dream of Abai Tigrai.

      I am perfectly aware that there some well meaning Eritreans for whom relegating Isaias Afewerqi as Tigrawai is a phobia but I say it is about time for them to face their phobia if at all they are to cure their illness.

      • haile

        Selamat Dawit Moconen,

        I read many posts from you that make out the claim that IA and Woyane are working together and their objective is to incorporate Eritrea (or part of it) into Tigray.

        I have some questions for you:

        1 – How do you see this “master plan” eventually being put into effect? Is the woyane going to put a government in Eritrea that would seek UN blessing to dissolve Eritrea’s nationhood and recognize it as a Tigray or Ethiopia administrative region?

        2 – Do you foresee some sort of referendum or public voting (albeit a sham one) being carried out in Eritrea to that effect?

        3 – How do you foresee Eritreans at home and diaspora reacting when the fateful day arrive?

        4 – Do you think that IA’s brutality against our people is turning most of Eritreans to want to accept being part of Tigray or Ethiopia or do you think it is undermining their ability to work together because they are not inclined to be re-united with Tigray or Ethiopia?

        5 – Once what you state to be “the master plan” (I call it such to save time) is put in place, what is going to happen to Eritreans in Eritrea? Would they be considered security threat or be part of the new arrangement where the system would rely on them to function?

        6 – Do you think IA has enough legitimacy with the Eritrean people at this time to even dare suggest anything like that?

        7 – Finally, if the regime is working to eventually re-unite us with Tigray, why is it using all its propaganda assets to paint Tigray and Ethiopia as the main causes of all the misery that our people are going through? Wouldn’t this create problems for the “master plan”.

        You don’t have to answer in 1,2,3,… format. If you rather prefer, you can give me a general idea of this apparent contradiction and we can go from there.


        • Zaki

          I think You have forgotten or you pretending to forget what Ethiopian Government once said “we will get sea port legally agains the refusal of The Eritrean governmen”. what does this mean, bro?

        • Haile,

          This ought to be regared as the burning issue of our time with regard to the basic survival of our country. Alas! many do not seem grasp. Probably, they are foolishly looking for its concrete manifestation but when that happens, to would be too late to do anything about it, or too difficult to handle. Take the analogy of outcome of Cancer relative to early or late diagnosis.

          The threat emanating from woyane and Isaias Afewerqi should never be underestimated; they have powerful external powers on the their side, among which Israel and NATO can be mentioned.

          Isaias Afewerqi and his agents are increasing steadily the pressure cooker over our people at home to submit into his desire end; the able and young are leaving their country in droves, and the remaining are shedding off their pride in themselves and are fast accepting begging as away of life.

          The mother of all the Pressure Cookers Isaias Afewerqi is applying on our people is the illegal and unnecessary war of 1998, designed and hatched by him and woyane. The No War,No Peace situation prevailing in our country; the complete isolation of our country; the sanctions imposed by the UNSC etc. are all the products of the war intended for the evil end, which is, the establishment of Abai Tigrai.

          As they say that the highest reach of injustice is to be reputed to be just when you are unjust. Isaias Afewerqi is exactly doing that by blaming others for the crime he has been perpetrating on our people. Evasions and euphemisms are the other of his weapons he use in his art of deception. Those who would not buy his deceptions, he murders without any sort of misgiving.

          On the other hand, as Isaias Afewerqi successfully destroys the strongholds of our economy and Eritrean Identity, woyane is systematically building puppet-oppostions, which is purposely factionalized along ethnic and religious lines, to be used in the event, God Forbid, Eritrea falls apart and pernicious civil ensues.

          Once the intermidiate end which Isaias Afewerqi and woyane have been working and waiting for is reached, the UNSC, under the cover of averting humane tragic situation ,would delegate woyane forces to enter Eritrea.

          When woyane declared the war of 1998, it deceptively asked the so called “opposition” to join it in the war in order to take over the responsiblity of running the country because it said that it was illegal for it to stay in Eritrea once Isaias was toppled.

          The opposition foolishly took woyane on its words and joined as asked. Had it not been routed by the Sawa Lions, treacehrous woyane had a surprise in store for them.

          Yes, all that legalities were pure semantics for woyane to use those naive souls as its Trojan-Horses, through which to legally mutilate Eritrea into its constituent parts in fictitious referedums, and the UNSC, no doubt,would have put its Offical Stamp.

          Isaias Afewerqi left no stone unturned to expose the Eritrean Armed Forces to woyane onslaught but to no avail because the Eritrean Nationalistc pride and courage prevailed at all odds and brought woyane to the round table, where it was defeated through through.

          It was this agony of defeat that forced them, Isaias and woyane, to adopt a new circuitous path, through suspending the Constitution, disbanding the Baito, the false defamation of Senior EPLFs and their illegal incaceration, the No War, NO Peace situation, the sanctions etc. but again, in vain.

          No matter what they do, we will chase them, expose them and defeat them. We will count our victories, and they, their defeats.

  • Zegeremo

    Thank you, Awate Team!


  • Abu Khamsa

    Thanks Awate team for the background and bio on Hamid Idriss Awate, the man who started the Eritrean revolution.

    Long Live a Free and Independent Eritrea!

    Happy Bahti Meskerem!

    • sara

      its the 52nd EID AL SAWRA al Eritrea, not fourth of July or the grand barbecue day.may our heroic martyrs rest peace.