Inform, Inspire, Embolden. Reconcile!

Enough to the Cruel Man in Asmara

The need of good governance inspires us to say enough to the cruel man in Asmara.

It is the historical record of peoples that reflects their suffering and heroism and conveys their experiences to generations. The agony of the peoples of the Third World was the result of the Western invasion of its countries, which divided its lands and peoples arbitrarily to draw the colonial Powers boundaries separating brother from brother, to sacrifice the one family distributed among more than one country. Because the policy of colonists sought to plunder the raw materials and resources of these colonies without caring about their development, many people suffered countless calamities for ages.

Because the wishes of the peoples of Africa, Asia, and Latin America to live in dignity and free, contrary to Western domination, which was characterized by attempts to obliterate the national identities and cultures of the indigenous natives, these colonialist states ignored and impoverished individuals and groups and adopted a policy of “Divide and Rule”, which served to disperse human energies so that the poor don`t think beyond securing their day’s food.

Eritrea was not an exceptional case, its situation was more complex due to various factors, some internal and others resulting from foreign conflicting interests that made the country and its people a scapegoat for the strategic battles of the superpowers.  The conspiracy, as we prefer to call, was in the form of linking Eritrea to a federation with Ethiopia, instead of giving the Eritreans, like other Italian colonies, Somalia and Libya, the right to self-determination to choose their own future.

Without going deep into the struggle era`s details for their independence, which lasted for about five decades, it can be said here, in a nutshell, that Eritrea was liberated in 1991 and took its place among the nations after the enormous sacrifices made by the Eritreans, all Eritreans without exception. Of course, no wise person in any part of the world expected that the experience of a great people would be thwarted after they had been able to force their enemies to accept their will for freedom, from one side, and forming their sovereign state, not as a gift from anyone, but as a harvest of the paid sacrifices.

We, the Eritreans and our friends everywhere, expected, on the eve of the independence that the leadership of EPLF came from the field enough matured and had learned lessons from any mistakes they made there. We expected the liberators to be competent to deal with the nascent state and thus they had a capability to manage its internal affairs and at the same time to adopt a balanced political policy in the field of foreign relations to enhance the national interests.

But, unfortunately, the provisional government that was formed after the liberation of the country neither rose to the citizen’s ambitions nor met the expectations of friends. Instead of opening the door to all the national political factions that contributed to the liberation course at different times and invited them to participate in the process of building the country, which was destroyed by long wars, President Isaias Afwerki announced on the day of the referendum and the Declaration of Independence: “There is no place in Eritrea for any organization except the Eritrean People`s Front, whose forces entered the capital Asmara after the defeat of the Ethiopian army in May 1991.

In my opinion, the country’s political quandary began from that moment. It was better for Isaias Afwerki the victor, who was respected by the Eritrean people for the role he had played side by side with other heroes in the previous stages of the struggle negatively and positively with other militants. The expectations of all were that the problems of the armed struggle would be addressed through a call for a comprehensive national reconciliation conference and the establishment of a constitutional system that would heighten the contribution of all citizens to the process of building a state of institutions.

Taking into consideration the great frustration that has been caused to us by the failure of the Eritrean government and its inability to meet our most basic expectations, we are faced with the question: Why has the process of state building faltered during the past quarter century? Why has our country become isolated and persecuted for its sons fleeing from it, seeking asylum on various continents?

There are certainly many factors that have brought Eritrea to the current political dilemma. There are undoubtedly factors inherited from the stage prior to the declaration of the independent state, where the economy of the country was completely destroyed by the wars and there were no reliable institutions in the country to move forward to build the foundations of a modern state. However, the quarter-century that followed the declaration of the independent Eritrean state to this day has been sufficient to overcome these inherited obstacles and to move towards building a developed and prosperous nation starting from scratch.

Then, in this case, another question is asked more urgently: What happened until the results of a great revolution to ending up to a frustrating outcome and reversing all expectations?

In order to obtain an integrated answer to this central question, we need from one hand, to follow closely the developments that followed independence, and to monitor the positions of the Government of President Isaias Afwerki towards national and international issues, from the other side.

In the first months of 1993, President Isaias Afwerki declared that no Eritrean political forces outside his party would be allowed to enter Eritrea to engage in any political activity and to allow the leaders of those organizations only to enter the country as individuals.

Instead of extending the hand of reconciliation to all, the security authorities have carried out large-scale arrests of Islamic teachers and sent them to prisons without trial.

The arrest did not end with the arrest of Islamic sheiks and teachers, but rather the arrest of a Christian sect because it refused to vote in the referendum. The situation with all communities continued to be awful. The authorities have adopted controversial domestic policies, for example, the change in the administrative divisions to make the country divided into six provinces, which led to the abolition of entire provinces and the distribution of some others in more than one territory.

On the other hand, the National Service Decree issued in the early years of independence, which found a great response and welcome among young people and their families, gradually turned into a factor of alienation and disagreement with the government because it became open for decades, contrary to the year and a half expected by the people. Thus, the decision of national service turned into a disaster. With time and long service, and the closure of Asmara University, young people decided to abandon Eritrea and flee the hell of that service and seek opportunities to study and work in other countries.

If we go to the external dimension to have a look at the foreign policy adopted by the government of “President” Isaias Afwerki, and without going into many details, we note that it has tended to escalate rather than calm the differences. The country’s relations with the neighboring countries have witnessed serious tensions at various stages. Regardless of the real causes of those conflicts and who stood behind them, Eritrea was supposed to adopt a rational and reconciling policy with all rather than the other way around.

Based on all the above words, and recalling the rejection of “President” Afwerki work with the contents of the Constitution of 1997, which laid the foundations of building state institutions enabling the people to choose their representatives and follow the performance of the government, it can be said that walking in the wrong way has started from there and therefore every event came after that was a reflection of that. The result of that fatal mistake was that the regime starting to distance itself away from its people to enter the two sides in an open and dangerous confrontation.

As a result, what was happened, at the end of last October, with the Al-Dia’a Islamic school, or with the Catholic school of the Vatican, Asmara University, Islamic institutes and others in the past, cannot be seen in isolation from the wrongful policies of the Asmara tyrannical government.

How should we properly explain to the world what occurred at the Islamic Al-Dia`a School?

The Eritreans in many countries have expressed their rejection of the government’s policy towards Al-Dhia`a School in Asmara in a very civilized manner and away from creating a sectarian polarization and this is worthy of respect and appreciation.

However, the Eritrean opposition forces outside Eritrea are required to work systematically and orderly to convey the suffering of citizens inside the country to influential powers, especially in Europe and America, to exert more pressure on the dictatorial regime to comply with the will of the people. It is very important that the Eritrean opposition organizations avoid exposing the problems of the interior with the regime, such as what happened with al-Dhia`a School or others in a sectarian or regional pattern, because this would be in favor of Isaias Afewerki’s continuation of power.

  • Berhe Y

    Hi Alex,

    Yes everyone is entitled to their opinion. Yes, I am irritated by anyone who defends this illegitimate and illegal government that’s in power.


  • blink

    Dear All
    The death toll in Egypt rose to 305 and many causalities , can these people be supported by some countries in the region ? UAE security man is pushing for bombing Aljazeera head quarter and some media in the ME are accusing qatar to be behind the killing of innocent muslims in the region , could this go farther ? By the way awate forumers are silent about the Mosque killing ? 305 people are not equal to the people dead in New York or paris .

    • Saleh Johar

      Yes Blink.
      The Muslims are having a good time protected by ISIS and the likes. It’s not Awate readers, blame it on the noisy ones who suddenly go silent when the victims are the perceived cousins of the terrorists. Mainly the very impartial noble media outlets who shape the world opinion.

  • said

    Greeting Hannan,
    Divide and Rule, Eritrea like most of African nation born out of Colonialist Power . You covered Eritrean Sovereign and some kind of Similarity also is Lebanon Born Out of the Anomalies of the Spoils of WWI.

    The French Colonialist Power created a new enlarged Lebanon in fulfillment of the wishes of the Lebanese Maronite Church at the time of the Splicing of the Arab Middle East at the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919 that bore the very dysfunctionality of its hasty makeup as an amalgamed hodgepodge of demographic of a supposedly much expanded politically dominated Christian Maronite territories in a larger State much in the current defined boundaries that was termed The State of Greater Lebanon (Dawlat Lubnān al-Kabīr).
    This is simultaneously as the other victorious European Powers at the end of First World War, Great Britain, was energetically at work setting the grounds for the creation of a Jewish State in fulfillment of the Balfour Declaration to the South of the new enlarged Christian Maronite Lebanese State of nowadays Lebanon. This further accentuated the very sources of dysfunctionality of a new Lebanese State by the very nature of the security and political contradictions the whimsical such colonialist-creations entailed.
    Invoking the Description of New Lebanon as a Sustainable Sovereign State as Britain or France is, is more of a misnomer belied by the very inherent contradictions entailed in both the multi-sectarian makeup of the New Expanded Lebanon, simultaneously with constant vigilance, preparedness and deterrent military prowess beyond the inherent capabilities and resources that the creation of a totally foreign Spartan, bellicose Expansionist settlers-colonialist entity, Israel, to the South of The State of Greater Lebanon (Dawlat Lubnān al-Kabīr) require.
    The New Creations by the European Colonialist Powers at the closing of the Versailles Peace Conference post WW1, i.e. The State of Greater Lebanon in response to the wishes of the Lebanese Christian Maronite Minority; and, a Jewish State, a close neighbor to the south, in response to the wishes of the outreaching World Zionist Movement, carried all the seeds of permanent political and security tensions rendering the sustainability of the newly created enlarged, rather fragile, Lebanese State a permanently very challenging proposition.
    This very much explains, and throws light on the roots of the current and forever recurring political impasse in a Lebanon forever invoking Sovereignty as a none convincing Cause Célèbre that is rather open to contestation and confusions.
    It all started with the anticipation by an insightful and a politically well-trained Lebanese Maronite Patriarch, Elias Peter Hoayek of the timeliness to jump on the occasion to get a piece of a larger pie, to share in the Grand Party among victorious European powers in the allocations of the Spoils of the Patrimony of the Stickman of Europe – The term first used in the mid-19th century to describe the Ottoman Empire – during the Versailles Peace Conference in the aftermath of the Balfour Declaration and the Sykes-Picot Plan.
    Heading a delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference, the Maronite Patriarch Elias Peter Hoayek presented in a memorandum on October 27, 1919, the predominately Christian Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate (the Governate of Jabal Lubnan’s) Aspirations for Edification out of the new Sykes-Picot Grand Plan of partition of the Ottoman Empire of a politically Christian Maronite dominated new enlarged Lebanese State under the name: The State of Greater Lebanon (Dawlat Lubnān al-Kabīr).
    Assured of the Sympathy and Support of the Vatican and the polity of co-religionist Catholic France as epitomized in the understandings of France’s powerful Prime Minister at the time, Georges Benjamin Clemenceau, the Lebanese Christian Maronite Delegation coming on the heels of the Sykes-Picot Partition Plan seemed assured of the granting of their request presenting their Memorandum at an opportune and a timely occasion.
    The creation of the State of Greater Lebanon (‎ Dawlat Lubnān al-Kabīr) included a significant extension of the frontiers of the Lebanon Mutasarrifate, the enclave of the predominately Christian Maronite Mount Lebanon Governate, despite the fact that the Christian community would not be a clear majority in such an enlarged state as the Maronite Delegation sought a state that could better provide for its people with the arbitrary annexations of much larger adjacent territories that once belonged politically and administratively to the Governance of former Ottoman-Administered Vilayats.
    However, the demographic makeup of the annexed territories was predominately of the Arab Muslims who naturally shared much of the aspirations and the ill-fate of their once compatriots in the larger expanded Arab Levant as the larger Levant was sliced simultaneously into new colonies by France and Britain “French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon”.
    The quest for the annexation of agricultural lands in the Bekaa and Akkar was fueled by existential fears following the death of nearly half of the Mount Lebanon Mutsarrifate population in the Great Famine; the Maronite church sought the annexation to the Mutasarrifate of the coastal towns of Beirut, Tripoli, Sidon and Tyre and their respective hinterlands, all of which belonged to the Beirut Vilayet, together with four Kasas of the Syria Vilayet (Baalbek, the Bekaa, Rashaya and Hasbya).
    The State of Greater Lebanon was declared on 1st of September 1920, following Decree 318 of the 31st of August, 1920.
    When the Ottoman Empire was formally split up by the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920, it was decided that four of its territories in the Middle East should be League of Nations mandates temporarily governed by the United Kingdom and France on behalf of the League. The British were given Palestine and Iraq while the French were given a mandate over Syria and Lebanon (See herewith attached, “French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon”).
    French General Gouraud proclaimed the establishment of The State of Greater Lebanon on September 1, 1920. He outlined the country’s boundaries to include the area from Ras-al-Naqurah in the South to Nahr-el-Kabir in the North; and from the Summits of the Anti-Lebanon Mountain in the East to the Mediteterranean Sea in the West. The Declared State include Lebanon’s present boundaries after splitting few Syrian villages on the southern and western borders with Lebanon and adding them to Lebanon and with Beirut as its capital. The new territory was granted a flag, merging the French flag with the Lebanese Cedar.
    Thus, interestingly, Patriarch Elias Peter Hoayek as the head of the Lebanese Maronite Church is hailed by some as the father of Lebanonism and the founder of the modern Lebanese state. Many Lebanese people hailed his patriotism as considered by some as the founder of Lebanon.
    The French, totally indifferent to the fate and future of Syria and the Syrian people, rather following the standard colonialist rule of “Divide and Rule,” divided Syria along most sectarian lines into six different political enclaves “French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon.” Eventually, and as part of the lax and indifferent policies of the French Colonialist Power, the Sanjak of Alexandaretta of the Syrian Territories to the Norther West was annexed by and remains part of the new pro-Western Turkey.
    Ironically, rather simultaneously, as the British assumed Mandate of Palestine under the League of Nation in 1922, the Zionists, with the full support of the British Colonialist power, set to work in earnest to systematically create a military settlers-colonialist entity in Palestine. It was within the span of a mere quarter century from the date of the granting Great Britain a Mandate over Palestine by the League of Nations in 1922, the demographic, cultural and political makeup of Palestine was dramatically transformed with the systematic influx of droves of mass Jewish immigration from Europe and the Soviet Republics. Israel came to existence in 1948 through the terror, the forced uprooting, expulsion and the exodus as refugees of the majority of indigenous Arab Palestinian population. This, along with never abating aggressive territorial expansionist policies and drives of the Israelis in defiance of the stipulations of the International Law and UN Resolutions.
    Israel, from the very start of the Zionist Movement, being a mostly an illegal construct under the International Law, espoused pre-emptive armed incursions in well-conceived punitive raids to neighboring territories, and endeavored to build its military capabilities and incessantly pursue bellicose and aggressive expansionist policies towards its neighbors. This was particularly repeatedly carried out against Syria, Lebanon and another newly created state, Jordan, intended to serve as a potential buffer state to safeguard against encroachments against the newly created Spartan Israeli State.
    Israel, as in the words and ambitions of the real father of Zionism and one of its founders, first Israeli President, Chaim Weissman, was intended to become, “As Exclusively Jewish, as Britain is British and France is French.” Israel’s Expansionist Territorial ambitions, as again expressed by Chaim Weissman, followed on Ze’ev Jabotinsky’s “Iron Wall” Theory. Besides, as was in the Zionists’ original plan, Israel’s territories would extend to the Litani river in the South of Lebanon and to part of nowadays Jordan.

  • Peace!

    Hi Awatista,

    Is the horn of Africa heading for a new geopolitical showdown?

    “Sudanese President Omar Bashir has given an exclusive interview to Sputnik, speaking on the possible military cooperation with Russia, as well as on the situation in the country’s hotspot, the Darfur region. He has also accused the US government of “devastating” the Arab world.”

    Given the world is in a critical juncture for imminent changes, countries are debating and preparing to defend their future and even existence as a country. Eritrea still remains isolated, too poor to position itself to decide its own fate, and sadly enough, is vulnerable to many unknowns. What’s even depressing is that PFDJ has nothing in its mind other than praying for Egypt to bomb Ethiopia and expedite the demise of Weyane as if it will turn Eritrea into Singapore the next day.


    • iSem

      Hi Peace:
      It makes perfect sense for dicator Beshir to seek refuge in Putin as the for now suspended ICC indictment hangs over him for his genocide. About dividing Sudan to 5 countries, the USA does not have to do it, he had 30 years to close the cleavage in his country but instead he has widened it and am not sure about the number 5 countries you mentioned but his country is slated to be divided to 4, SS included, Darfur and the for now dormant East, Darfur is his making and SS is the making of of the European colonization which threaded people who do not belong wth each ohter instead of later getting united on their own volition as did Italy ,as did Prussia etc, but the the Sudanese culture and dictators widened he divide with every dictator and they got SS, Darfur. Sudan like many most African countries has nothing to show for except paved highways from major cities and civil war and genocide and blood and rule of the jungle for its 60 years independence a
      Now USA is paying attention to Africa through Africa command after hundred years focus on the middle east, China has almost colonized many African countries and the continent is poised to be like the middle east if Russia is now playing there

    • Selam Peace,

      Don’t you think that al bashir is concerned more about his survival than anything else? The russians and iranians saved al assad of syria from the demise of his dynasty, and most probably russia could save dictator al bashir, who is still under the icc demand for his extradition to the hague.

      In these times, when the world is in chaos, partisan politics and aligning with a predator world power by a third world country is more damaging than helpful. In addition, Eritrea flirting with egypt is another dream that could turn into a nightmare. Neutrality is the right thing rather than trying to find a comfort zone somewhere, especially by opposing the only world power.

      You might ask, what about ethiopia? In my opinion, ethiopia has made somehow the right choices up to now, and she follows the right policies. She cooperates with the west politically, and as much as the economy is concerned, her cooperation with china has shown positive result, despite what others say to the contrary.

      With the arab world, ethiopia is at equal distance from the countries of the region, unlike eritrea that tried to play it clever, and as much as egypt is concerned, she seems to have convinced the world that her demand to use the nile is only logical, even if she can’t convince egypt.

      Therefore, it is not to be envied that al bashir is playing his last card for his own sake, and not for the sake of the people of sudan. Moreover, the only thing that could save sudan from disintegration is to implement a federal system of government and give autonomy (self rule) to the remaining regions. What the colonialists left behind is not going to work for long any more.

  • iSem

    Hi Awatista:

    Here is an impassionate address to the slave traders in Libya and African leaders

  • Kebessa

    Dear PFDJ,
    Contrary to the way modern governments operate, you own, control and monopolize the entire media inside Eritrea. So instead of spreading your “views” on public protests through rumors, grapevine, twitter and anonymous internet articles, why not go on TV and directly address it? Why not allow Eri-TV floor for open public discussion? What are you afraid of? Actually I kind of know what you are afraid of. You might not be smart on a lot of things but at least you realize you operate without rules and laws. When you take brutal actions that are against the law, and you do that too often times, you don’t have to explain anything. The beauty of governing without accountability! At times though the grievances can be intense and out of hand. When that happens and you feel the heat, you still remain quiet but this time you have explanation to your silence: “tm mibal meritsna” (to emphasize you are taking the high road). You use this magic, one-fit-all phrase to shield yourself from having to explain your actions in reference to the law. There were times this phrase earned you public praise, but you overused it and now everybody knows what it stands for.

  • Hayat Adem

    My belated applause for Hannan,
    The grand themes: history + interest = national narrative.
    The way to build consensus on history is using those who know and care most. These are scholars and academics who deploy the power evidence and analysis. Eritrean history, like all social histories, is about the past and it must not be allowed to be written with the future in mind.
    Interest is about the future. National interest must be defined using our most pragmatist and brightest thinkers. These can be acute thinkers and leaders who deploy the power of reason and compassion. Eritrean interest, like all national interests, is about the future and must not be sacrificed in order to accommodate the past.
    Truly evidence-based history and well envisioned and rationalized interests have never suffered incompatibility, rather to the contrary, they are always in natural harmony and potently reinforcing each other. But any society must be more mobilized to secure the future interest, more than anything else.

    • Ismail AA

      Selam Hayat,

      Fine that the forum has you back; you too was one of the missed in the past few weeks. Your ideas in this rejoinder are quite economical in language (words) but rich in substance and wide in scope. Historiography (in its various facets) is meant to articulate the interest of nations. It is an operation without which no meaningful nation building could get direction and consummation. History as discipline opens insight to the past that lends direction to the present on which contemplation on the future also depends. National narrative is sum total of all these three phases that help nations to chart out collective purpose for their existence and development.

      In my judgement the study of history is more of a neutral nature and end rather than consensus oriented. It is the social scientists and students of other disciplines of humanities who become burdened to learn from findings of historiography and agree on what is relevant to their goals in the service of nations and societies. That is why I agree with you on the fact that history should not be written with the future in mind because this is not the job of an historian. This segment of the study of history may be interesting to politicians who might need to engage experts in crafting policies which are in nature transitory variable.

      The “pragmatist and brightest thinkers” you have alluded to may fall in this category. The core purpose of these actors is rationalization and prioritization of policies that cater for the interest of nations and citizens. At this point, thus, the past and its contents constraining the future may not be worrying preoccupation if those pragmatists and thinkers would care to strike the right balance. By balance, I mean the point you have state in your last paragraph. By essence, the past (old) save its positive values and lessons makes place for the new and worthwhile societies preserve the past a indispensable treasure and heritage for posterity.

      • Hayat Adem

        Thanks Ismaillo,
        You even said it better. I totally agree with all what you said above.
        There is something less important; nonetheless that keeps me so busy all day. But I read articles and comments selectively and some times at delayed time, just not be completely lost of the forum.

      • Amanuel Hidrat

        Selam Ismailo,

        The word “balance” is a commonly used when we debate about history whether it is accurate or not. Say for example when we evaluate history, we graded them like “this is a balanced report” or “this is not a balanced report” and hence are commonly grading phrases or sentences in our communications. Now my question to you is: Does writing historical events requires the discipline of balancing? If history is about recording past events accurately, why do we need to balance them? Isn’t history about telling the facts and truths as they happen in real time and space? I know often times it is said history is written by “victors”, only to reflect their successes. But I also know with time elapsed, their self-decorated narration are changed when the hidden untold facts come to the surface by digging to the truth by unbiased new generations. So my position until this time holds, that history is not about balancing events and narrations, but it is about telling the facts and truths however it happened to shape the destiny of human being.

        A manuel Hidrat

        • Hayat Adem

          Hi Emma,
          If history was only about facts, evidence and truths, there would never be a room for disagreements and arguments. Unfortunately, there are many kinds of selectivity and bias involved leading us to all kinds of diverging analyses and conclusions.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Merhaba Hayat,

            If we admit history is about selective and bias accounts, we are also admitting there is no real history of real events at real time and real space. Let us see how Ismailo will respond from a historian point of view. No matter how victors dictate about it, history will be only the real account of the real events.


        • Ismail AA

          Dear Aman,

          As you might have surmised from the exchanges with dear Hayat, the issue she raised was vast and cogent no amount of time one could allot to this forum can do justice to even minimally handle the matter. Those six words she shrewdly stated at the top of her rejoinder directly provoke curiosity of an historian. You might have noted that her statement adds interest ( in the broadest sense of the term, I assumed) to history of nations and societies to shape up meaningful national narratives that in comprehensive manner define their existence within given space and time.

          My purpose in attempting to comment on her statement was to differentiate between history as discipline in its own right and utilization of what history records for the purpose of formulating narratives of nations within which policies would be designed for the purpose of catering for the interest of nations. To drive the point home from historian’s perspective, I stated that “the study of history is more of a neutral nature and end “. I might add here, moreover, that historians tend to jealously argue for their autonomy when engaging the rigour of studying history. This answers the question you have posed about history’s purpose being “telling the facts and truth as they happen in real time and space”. In this sense, thus, history is ” The register of knowledge of fact …” as Thomas Hobbes stated in 1651, inviting to ponder of the terms register, knowledge and fact.

          Now the issue of “balance” came in relation to the interest part of Hayat’s statement which I understood to mean interest of nations or societies independently and in relations to counterparts. The point was about the need of practitioners of policies in the interest of nations who might resort to utilizing what historians recorded to rationalize attainment of national interests. The worry here is lest revisionism would distort or even tarnish the purity of facts historians have recorded by sifting fact from myth and other pollutants of truth. I might not need to digress here how PFDJ has been engaging in flagrant revisionism of the history of the our liberation struggle era. Again, to answer you question, thus, historians need not be hampered to find balances or consensuses in determining facts about organic and inorganic events they study on basis of evidences. As last word, it is important to note in passing that defining the meaning of history as other disciplines had also its share of controversies by categories of thinkers such idealists, relativists, historicists and revisionists etc.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Ahlen Ismaialo,

            Your response is always authentic, realistic, both from principles of historical research and historiographical approach. And yes “historians need not be hampered to find balances or consensuses in determining facts about organic and inorganic events they study on basis of evidences” as you aptly put it. The reason why I asked you that question is simply because in the Eritrean mind it is only “a balanced report” that is acceptable as history. When I asked you this question my dear friend Mahmuday was in mind, who admires a balanced report and not as ” history is the registered of knowledge of facts.” That is why I found it to be keen, if I turned my question to you to hear it from a historian mouthpiece. In my view a balanced report, it simply means make happy both sides of the argument or make them all happy.

            But towards the end of your comment in trying to rationalize Hayat’s comment you have opined that “practitioners of policies” could utilize what historians recorded to the attainment of national interest. Historians will record the good and the ugly in the history making. If that is the case, how could policy makers could rationalize, unless it is selective, to the interest of their nation? I am asking to elaborate your statement for purposes of educating your readers. Good to have a historian in this forum. Thank you as always.

            Amanuel Hidrat

          • Ismail AA

            Selam Aman,

            Yes indeed, dear Aman. Historians record “the good and the ugly” of events they study. That is why they are jealous of their autonomy in their rigour to sift fact from myth or other contaminants that human vanity may have reflected on shaping up the event. Let us think about glorification of a leader in a battle who collect every credit despite the fact that many heroes and heroines might have paid their precious lives. A proper research of events has take due account of all questions pertaining to who, what, when, how etc. That why history should preferably be studied by later generations rather than contemporaries for the sake of preserving integrity and neutrality of the researcher. It’s in this context that practitioners of lessons from history should be alerted to keep the integrity of the facts be they good or bad, to borrow your characterization. By the practitioners, the assumption is about policies related to guiding human endeavors in the field of, for instance, politics, social and cultural aspects of societies. These could involve politicians and their experts or chroniclers in the service of victors and rulers. Real target of historical research is broader than rulers and the powerful.

  • blink

    Dear all
    My condolences to the Egyptian people , horrific, cruel and inhuman things happened to them and I hope they come out from this in a United way to defeat to the people of caves.At this hour 235 dead and 109 wounded and still counting. The result of human ignorance at its finest hour.

  • said

    The ruling Zanu-PF party. This is the same party that has blocked democracy for four decades. In short, the hard times are far from over for Zimbabwe. Pooling the carpet under of feet of Zimbabwean in broad day light.
    My modest reading of Zimbabwe’s current predicament, is mostly gathered and picked up from Western media and press conference in inform me. My basic understanding of Zimbabwe is elementary.
    I Just hope the historians will do a better job in near future about Zimbabwe concocted change of regime. the People in Zimbabwe know the history well because of the long-term rule by Robert Mugabe is well known and who has been forced out at 93, after he appeared to be moving to secure his wife’s position .Mugabe, who ruled the country with an iron grip for 37 years and he finally caved to popular and political pressure on Tuesday . Many more took to the streets at the weekend to voice their demands for change. They believe they have a right and an opportunity to determine their future.
    Mugabe and his ilk — including former Vice President Emerson Mnangagwa, who appears to have orchestrated Mugabe’s overthrow — controlled politics and society by stacking all three government branches with friends and family. They ruled the country for four decades using patronage and fear.
    Some African countries and spicily some Middle Eastern countries, the history is full of atrocities committed in the name of law and order. The world international community and international civic agency should be seriously concerned about what’s happening in Zimbabwe right now and the near future. that so-called “democratizing coups” are meant to in power the army and largely fiction. For much of the 20th century, most Middle East nations saw some form of military dictatorship. Some countries, like Libya, Iraq and Syria among them, spent long periods of the last century under the rule of individual dictators — men who, like Mugabe, were protected by their very own Praetorian Guard. Some African countries and the Middle Eastern region’s totalitarian regimes excelled at violence. Jailing, killing and torturing their political opponents, the dictatorships sought to annihilate their detractors. Middle Eastern history shows that military dictatorships do not help nations advance or build democracy. Instead, they leave stunted states unable to guarantee democratic legitimacy or ensure social well-being. After long periods of military rule, entire generations may have known only impunity, not rule of law. That makes democratic governance a hard thing to comprehend — or to bet on.
    But real coup was led by Commander of Zimbabwe Defense Forces Constantino Chiwenga, who is closely aligned with former vice president Emmerson Mnangagwa. And he was seen as Mr Mugabe’s right-hand man. Nicknamed “the Crocodile”, Mnangagwa embodies the link between the party, the army and the para-state. He has all the credentials of a strongman, as a participant in the armed struggle.
    There will be no real change, it is not a break completely with the past, it is a continuation the ruling Zanu-PF party. Zimbabwe’s former vice-president Emmerson Mnangagwa, 75, a liberation war veteran and stalwart of the ruling Zanu-PF party and former spy chief, Mnangagwa, once one of Mugabe’s closest aides, can count on the support of the armed forces, is to be sworn in as president on Friday, the Crocodile for his fearsome reputation, Mnangagwa has been accused of leading brutal waves of repression against opponents of Zanu-PF and Mugabe. In committing brutal atrocities and ruthlessness, , Mnangagwa should be expecting an indictment for his past crimes? the president-in-waiting, Emmerson Mnangagwa, is a known quantity, having trained in China, He also attended the Beijing School of Ideology, run by the Chinese Communist Party.
    As reported widely. Mnangagwa served as one of Zimbabwe’s two vice presidents. From that position, he and his supporters, known as Team Lacoste.
    Mnangagwa embroiled in a bitter struggle with Grace Mugabe and he out maneuvered her. President Mugabe’s wife harbored political ambitions to one day assume the highest office in the land. There is nothing else that one needs to know.
    The long-planned coup to install Mnangagwa was way underway, but it was important for the military to present a façade of legality to appease the African Union and international community. Mnangagwa have orchestrated in taking over the reins of power in a legal manner. The Proof is in the budding. This is why the army wants Mnangagwa and not Grace Mugabe. The armed struggle provides legitimacy for the ruling order in Zimbabwe. General Constantino Chiwenga made this explicit in his press conference. It is the only legitimacy available to the political class, and conveniently provides a cover for the elite and its vast networks of patronage.
    The apparatus of vote-rigging and repression that Mugabe entrenched over the years cannot be undone easily in near future. The generals whose soft coup kickstarted the process of Mugabe’s demise were the main architects and enforcers of this machinery. They did not initiate Mugabe’s toppling because they have suddenly become genuine democrats. They embarked on their actions because they had no other choice.
    The generals and Mnangagwa will allow free and fair elections – or let Mnangagwa do so – is day dream and fanciful. it would be naive to believe Mnangagwa’s ascendancy marks the dawn of a new era,
    as reported Moreover, the army generals responsible for Mnangagwa’s rise have not yet recanted their vow never to let anyone who did not participate in the 1970s liberation struggle rule Zimbabwe. Unless this change, their stance also automatically disqualifies Tsvangirai, the only opposition leader to have defeated Mugabe in elections. The generals repeatedly refused to salute him after he was co-opted into a unity government as prime minister.
    Mnangagwaalso called the transfer of power the start of a “new democracy” for Zimbabwe, during that address. The country’s opposition party the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC-T) released a statement on Thursday morning that it was “cautiously optimistic” that Mr Mnangagwa “will not mimic and replicate the evil, corrupt, decadent and incompetent Mugabe regime”. Mr Gutu said that the MDC-T had not been invited to Friday’s inauguration and that party leader and former prime minister Morgan Tsvangirari has not been invited either.

    Mnangagwa acts of violence and other human rights abuses against political opponents” is well documented. By conservative estimates, the killings left around 4,000 people in mass graves. Others put the figure at 20,000 dead. Mnangagwa is one of the most bloodthirsty warlord he should be convicted for genocide. Any other outcome after would be unjust and preposterous.
    There is a dark cloud under which the majority of those who survived Mnangagwas mascaras of violence and are out their lives, and that shrouds the memory of those killed, or are still “missing”. and the litany of mass murder, the ethnic “cleansing of revival ethnic group is evident ”, and destruction bloody years of 1980 . Mnangagwa his serial atrocities were committed by troops under Mnangagwas direct or indirect command, while the international community dithered and looked the other way.
    Mnangagwa Became the country’s spymaster during the 1980s civil conflict, in which thousands of civilians were killed .Mnangagwa pogroms included more mass-murder and torture. Mr Mnangagwa’s fearsome reputation was made during the civil war which broke out in the 1980s between Mr Mugabe’s Zanu party and the Zapu party of Joshua Nkomo. As national security minister, he was in charge of the Central Intelligence Organisation (CIO), which worked hand in glove with the army to suppress Zapu.

    Mnangagwa he is a Karanga – the largest clan of Zimbabwe’s majority Shona community. And Mugabe’s come from Zezuru clan,

    Thousands of innocent civilians – mainly ethnic Ndebeles, seen as Zapu supporters – were killed in a campaign known as Gukurahund. Then there was the wholesale demolition of countless towns and villages.
    Mnangagwa yes in some sector He is adored, many supporters carried placards thanking Mnangagwa for his “resilience and endurance”. Mnangagwa atrocities can gain a logic of their own.

  • blink

    Dear awate family
    African Union formally accused the western democracy and human rights activists for falling on their promise of democracy and justice in Libya. Western countries and the terrorist in Libya are in a be group in terrorizing the African people. Where are these activists ??? African people are traded under the pretext of human rights.

  • Nathom Habom

    Selam awate
    Why don’t you post my comment ,are exposing yourself already that your are bias media
    I am asking again where is your accountability for fake,news you propagated of,28 Muslim deaths
    It an appeals for all terrorist organizations of,the world to kill Eritrean Christian it that right ????
    Your hatred against the peace loving Eritrean have no limit, shame

    • blink

      Dear Nathom
      are you afraid by the Mugabe news , tell the dictator at home that Eritreans know what happen in zimbabew , he can not just hide the news

      • Nathom Habom

        Selam awate
        You are conflicting answer her ,if there is a peacefull transition I am all for it without any foreign interference.
        So still would you acknowledge that the news from Asmara was fake about the 28 death and 100;injuries.????
        To instigate a conflict between faith isn’t a crime by itself ??so where is your accountability.??
        You sit in the west and foment conflicts,you lobby sanction and destruction,what right have you
        For regime change ????,you who did all your possible to harm Eritrea ????
        You guys speech about democracy and right for everybody ,what right ????the right to rule ???
        Isn’t that your interest ???not the people ,Eritrea for good or for bad is the only stable country in that erea
        Leave it alone.

        • Peace!


          Thank God no PFDJ supporter on dinner table tonight. Please be patient for few minutes and then you can puke all you want.


          • Nathom Habom

            Seam awate
            I am not here for debat ,it is irrelevant for me and you or Eritrea
            They working ,building their country will me and you from our confort can say what want
            You must accept first reality on the ground what is real and what is fake
            If democracy is based of propaganda and fake news well good luck
            The French said ( DERRIERE UN MENTEUR IL Y A TOUJOUR UN VOLEUR )
            Means behind a lie there is always a thief.

        • blink

          Dear Nathom
          you see , you should call issias first and tell him about the news . I did nothing to harm Eritrea but you did harm Eritrea by financing and supporting issias

          • Nathom Habom

            Selam awate
            Issayas don’t need me to know what is in the news ,Spears me your scapegoat mugabe
            I don’t finance pfdj but I will be surely part on that proud organization.
            If you want why don’t you go and tell him by yourself .
            mugabe,Mugabe who the hell is care about mugabe,your news has brought divisions in the Eritrean society mostly
            Against a very very unknowns minority,stop lying about country ,you democracy that is your right
            But stop division, learn for experience in other countries,
            Eritrean are nobles,humbles,and Peace loving people,Your hate for regime blind you from the reality on the ground
            You insulting peoples or media outlet that visited the countries and gave positive news .
            And applaud aljezira the same outlet that sided with fundamentalist in Syria ,Libya look at the mess
            Why you wish this kind of outcome for Eritrea,why you guys think that Eritrea will be better under your rule ???
            Regionalism,religionalist ,fake democracy is better that unity diversity????
            if so why it didn’t work in Ethiopia???

          • blink

            Dear Nathom
            OK , are you suggesting Eritreans are happy with PFDJ ? The reason I brought mugabe was that the final day of the sadistic leader at home is watching his last day , second who divided Eritreans? PFDJ did long time ago but they failed.

          • Nathom Habom

            Selam awate
            When did they did it ??
            The regime speech about regionalism or regionalism ??
            You see you can’t fool me or anyone her ,you guys worked hard to dismember Eritrea
            How many time you guys said is issayas last day ??
            The regime is strong like a rock ,it sound he the entire support of the people
            This why you guys are knocking the western door to be installed in a illegal way ,
            By force ,like Libya fool you don’t know what’s destruction to wish that for your country

          • blink

            Dear natham
            First we need to agree to communicate clearly about PFDJ and the Eritrean people. I can say, I am the most moderate person in this forum to tell you openly about every negative aspects of the opposition , I am not one of these unionists, Islamists or agazians or dark future ( the desale group) but I am telling you that you are mistaken because you just drink wrongly from the PFDJ breweries.

          • Nathom Habom

            Selam blink
            Who said pfdj is perfect of course it’s rude and harsh
            But that is the condition that made him like that ,if you are betrayed by an old friend neighbor
            Who seek your destruction ,and an international community that side with him
            When you ask justice everyone give you their back ,you have no other choice than to toughin up
            You impose discipline you close all crack inside that can wicken you and be ready for the worst to came
            Means courage and determination and think there are succeeding .
            The country sovereignty is safe

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Nathom,

            I hope you volunteer to go to Eritrea and help the dictator to fight his enemies.

            The fact that you equate the country with one person and even the party as his own play ground shows that you have neither the understanding nor the qualification to speak about the country and the people.

            He is 72 years old, an old age by any standard. Just a matter of time and he will be gone.

            Think what will happen to the country that he is guarding from his enemies all by himself.


          • Nathom Habom

            Selam Berhe
            Did you hear the more older you are the more wiser you be
            We call that experimence look how he outsmarted everyone and
            Every country that wished bad against his country .
            He will be known for generation to came ,sorry for you
            And yes I will give my life with honor,we lost so many for this land
            Glory to those who gave their life and glory to young at the border
            Guarding the country safe while some of us are gambling the sovereignity
            Of our homeland with the enemy

          • Berhe Y

            Hi Nathom,

            Yes he has experience alright, the evil kind. His experience is how to harm the ERITREAN people.

            Don’t you see your people treated like animals in Lybia, tortured, raped,killed including women and children. This is the experience you speak about. These people are exposed to this life because they can’t live in peace in their own country if Isayas Afeworki.

            You give your life to Isayas, you are the last hypocrite on earth.

            This is my last exchange with you, and I want to make a self bet.

            There will be celebration and euphoria in Eritrea like you have never seen before when he use gone. You will not find a single person tearing up when he is gone.

            Edmen TEnan yuHabena, eta meAlti yerEyena.


          • blink

            Dear berhe
            what you mean by ”Don’t you see your people treated like animals in Lybia, tortured, raped,killed including women and children” are not they one of your own too , is politics becoming DNA thing again.

          • Berhe Y

            Hi blink,

            Off course they are my people what do you think. Ok I should have said our people, it’s understood. Have you not heard people say “HizbiKa”.

            What do you mean politics become a DNA thing?

            My reply was for Nathom, asking him if at all cares what’s happening to our people because of the god he worships.


          • blink

            Dear Berhe
            Nathom already made it clear that , he will gladly pay his life for his leader but i was thinking these people in libya are more closer to the justice seekers than to PFDJ . If our brothers and sisters are rejecting PFDJ and happens to be in Libya , i expect every justice seeker to care more than PFDJ in securing their safety , yet we failed our brothers and sister but we are good at beating the drum when we see their body on shores , how is that possible ,

          • Berhe Y

            Dear blink,

            Could it just be that we don’t know what to do and or that we have no means to do anything.

            Those they tried are being accused of benefiting on their misery.

            May be you lead the way, who knows people may follow you.


          • blink

            Dear Berhe
            could it be that we are focusing on propaganda , i mean we are simply irresposnible about this issue . Imagine how many our people are in a serious problem in Ethiopia , sudan and Israel , yet we are mum and no one from the big mega phone owners care about them , yet they are quick to show their dead body and that is called what.

          • Berhe Y

            Dear blink,

            I can only speak for myself and I don’t judge and ask anyone that I am not prepared to do myself. My only fight is with the regime and anyone who sympathize with. If anyone has the concise to oppose the PFDJ regime, I have no doubt they care about their people suffering.

            I understand and I appreciate fighting home grown dictator is very difficult task. The dictator and it’s tentacle that holds together needs to be cut and broken piece by piece and for that to happen, it requires everyone involvement and everyone to do their share. Waiting and leaving the task to opposition or to this group or that group will not produce results.


          • Lebam

            Selam blink,

            Don’t forget the ones killed on the Sinai desert, because it is horrific how many thousand bodies one can see piled up next to the fences. I believe they were trying to get to Israel.

            Also, the atrocities done against the Eritrean people and other Africans in Libya. However, Mr Berhe Y brought it up already.

          • blink

            Dear lebam
            You are right , I was just saying that we in the better place who rejected the dictator should have done better job in amplifying our brothers plight and suffering out side Eritrea. Look I have always checked next to all opposition websites and they all lack one important thing and that is they never try to use their power in telling the reality. Many of them are quick to put dead bodies on their front page yet they did too small to help them. We must look ways to help them or to tell the world. I feel ashamed too see their dead body used for dirty political propaganda campaigns . We have seen in the last month how people go wild about fake news about people who get killed in AP and Aljazeera. How can we expect them to go after the dictator when they safely come to Italian ports ? It is simply madness of political activism. We need better way of motivating and helping them.

          • Lebam

            Hello again blinkai,

            I agree with you completely. I recently started being more involved in Eritrean politics. However, I am more than interested in supporting our people that are suffering and to help make their voice heard. Any sort of online participation needed or demonstrations are something I’ll do my utmost to partake in from here on out. It’s the people in Eritrea that has suffered for ages that need to be taken care of, but ferenjis like myself will enjoy being among them and also to become humbled by their experience.

          • Lebam

            Hi blink,

            Just wanted to add that I don’t support any kind of violence for the cause, even if some might be necessary at some point. Why? Besides the obvious reasons when you’re a person with moral values, it is because it doesn’t seem right advocating such a thing when one is outside the country and safe. The best and fastest way for a change is from within the devils (IA) nest.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Lebam,

            When you have a violent government, you can not fight it by peaceful means. Whether it is from inside or outside, that violent government should be challenged by violent means, unless you don’t have all the means and instrument of violence.

            Second one of the reason you alluded why you don’t advocate for violence is, “it is because it doesn’t seem right advocating (it) such thing when one is outside the country and safe.” It won’t make you immoral if you are contributing towards a “violent removal” of the violent regime. It is not necessary all justice seekers to be in the forefront war fighting. There are many ways you could contribute to make it effective financially and diplomatically as part of the three-leg-stool strategy (military, diplomatic, financial) to defeat your enemy (the PFDJ system). Good example close to our home is the history of our Ghedli. Our ghedli became successful not by the fighting army only, it is by the fighting army and the commitments of the Eritrean people to the cause by giving financial support and diplomatic engagement with the international communities.

            Third, imagine how many Eritreans have lost their lives to avoid violence against the violent regime. Count all the “counted and the uncounted” Eritrean lives we lost in the last 26 years (we are still counting), you will be surprised that it will be cheaper to root out the despot and its system by all means available in our domain. Fighting by nonviolent only does not show any resoluteness to our cause. And there is no success without sacrifice. And when we make sacrifice, it must weaken your enemy that eventually bring the necessary success. Sacrifice by nonviolence to your cause does not weaken your enemy nor does it bring to the demise of it, nor does it dismantle the institution of oppression.

          • blink

            Dear lebam
            Me too , I don’t support any violence to any change, violence based change always end up to be a mother for more violences but you will see here few old men pushing for more gun sounds in order to set their old revenge . We all Eritreans need a peaceful change but some are here digging holes in our society based on their evil plan . We shall not fall to their narrow minded views.

          • Amanuel Hidrat

            Selam Blink,

            Will it sound to you good, if we say only the “young bojbaj” are saying the nonviolence because you are one of them? Why do you say these old guys are all for “revenge” when they are not? These is not about EPLF or ELF, it is about bringing criminals to justice, who ever they are. Is there any justice at all without bringing criminals to “criminal justice”? Why are we calling ourselves including yourself “justice seekers”? In our Eritrea crimes are committed and they are still committing crimes as we speak. For me and like me, it is a life long concern all these crimes being committed to our people, and we are committed to end that, no matter how ineffective we are. What it counts is where is “our heart” and what is our “effort” to do about it. So stop these nonsensical statements. You can not comment without insulting or undermining people. Grow up please.

          • blink

            Dear Mr. Amanuel
            Are you one of these dreamers who wish to see violence in order to get a mini state like Afar state and kunama state , no you are not one of them and I have never ever saw you in these mini groups leadership. Are you one of the Agazians or islamists ? No I don’t believe you are and I don’t believe you support a change by such groups. But since you think a violence is the only only way to root out Issaias I believe you have another reason than mine and that is it.

            Youth bojbaj ? Yes we refused to kill our brothers in the front, we left our guns in Eritrea and said to the armed opposition,” no we are not going to be played by your heinous views “ , infact almost all the youth can read and right , we choose to cross the M.sea than to kill our brothers, that is what we did and still doing. I have been advising Eritreans in camps not to entertain the armed opposition and not to care about their corecodile tears . I still tell not to listen to the gun loving people. Getting justice in 2017 is different than it was in 1960th .

          • Haile S.

            Selam Nathom Habom,
            I agree with the meaning of your name ናቶም ሃቦም (rendre à César ce qui est à César). The problem of many eritreans including of those large numbers you say are for PFDJ is precisely that. It is that merciless leadership that does not tolerate those who speak and stand on its way. Because they don’t agree it’s go-it-alone way as a right way for eritrea. A leadership that uses its self-abandoned diplomatic clout, vexation and frustration to punish not necessarily its enemies, but its very own people it is supposed to protect. ‘Un je m’en futiste’ ዓይኒ የብለይ ስኒ የብለይ (Aini yebley sni yeblay) who hits its citizens from all directions. A leadership that has this flowed thought that considers its own citizens as colonized submissive to outside rule, but not submissive enough to its justice-less own rule. It considers it citizens as weak unreliable, undisciplened, easily manipulated that don’t deserve to be considered worthy critical participants and builders of a country. This is what the leadership explicitely or implicitly slowly diffused and tried to inculcate in the minds of its citizens, and it is unfortunate that you come out here with that whip of the leadership to tell us that in this forum. In this forum, people are giving to Cesar what belongs to Cesar, ናቱ ንህቦ ኣለና (natu nhbo alena). Please stop the mass whipping and come up with constructive and defendable ideas.

          • blink

            Dear nathom
            Well if you accept they are doing bad job , can they be corrected? I don’t believe PFDJ can be corrected because they have done horrible things and that is very highly unlikely to come to terms with almost all Eritreans. The only reason Eritreans didn’t follow the opposition is because the past 17 years the leaders of the opposition have been divided and manipulated by weyane and some opposition agendas are against the sovereign state of Eritrea example look at Afar in exile , kunama and some religious fanatics.

          • Lebam

            Selam Nathom,

            You are the one lying by saying that the regime has the support of the entire Eritrean population. That is a blatant LIE!

            How can one support a dictator that treats his people like slaves? Where do all the money from the mines (Nevsun) go to? It is certainly not the people. Eritrea could be a rich country, Eritrea could be a dream for tourists to visit because of the access to the red sea. You are either brainwashed, or even worse, you don’t respect the value of human lives.

            Also, I have never seen anyone write that they want a war in Eritrea. I have infact read the opposite, which is a peaceful transition of power.

          • Nathom Habom

            Selam le am
            Well the proof is without the support of the people
            The government wouldn’t endure all this attack against him economically,diplomatically,militarily
            Yes he would have collapsed long time ago,yet you can’t see that ,frustrated you guys will use
            Anything to harm him with the people with him .open your eyes he is building a nation worthy of the hero that gave their lives for it , unity ,diversity and stability those tresors that our neigbours lost ,they choose the other pass division and western advise whiteout really looking what the people need now there is a risk of all out civil war,
            Attack against tigrayan is happening and yet the people of Tigray got nothing
            Do you learn from the neighbors so Eritrean peoples choose unity,diversity and stability to hell western style democracy .

          • Lebam

            Selam Nathom Ethabuom,

            The people that follow a self appointed leader are mindless fools, especially when he is robbing them of their country’s riches and taking it for himself. IA wants his people to be ignorant. You know that is true, because media is controlled by him and you’re not allowed to question his authority. IA is a evil dictator that is suppressing his people instead of helping them grow economically and evolve as a people. By doing that he can control the people, because they become donqoro. They follow the whip like sheep’s.

    • Nathom Habom

      You said many time ,may death ,by glorifying the UN glorifying act
      Of a small entity that refuse to follow the rule but thank you you have exposed a true agenda
      but stop exposing a small minority that have nothing to do with this business
      By the way did you complain of the young kid in internet for that fake news ??No for sure
      They belong to house of course

  • Nathom Habom

    Selam awate
    What happen to 28 death and 100 injuries ,you seek accountability for the government
    How about your own accountability for your fake news ,did you apologize yet ,No of course
    Remember the only group that fight in Ethiopia is the Eritrea jihad groups funded by Ethiopia
    Look civil war how it destroy Syria,can you see that you who sit in the west

  • Binieam


    Sometimes the smallest and most overlooked things can be the most effective .
    The Awate motto itself, to inform, inspire, embolden and reconcile can have such a powerful impact( if it become the uniting principle of the opposition movement) in the struggle for change, especially when the regimes biggest source of strength, is the physiological and emotional sway it uses effectively to manipulate in its favor. The Goal then should be to peel its layers, shed light on the illusions and distortions it propagates. This may not result in regime change, but it dose help to rob it of its blind support base and its ability to contrive and manipulate. With these things gone it has no other option but to change.

  • Acria

    Hello everyone,

    If I may quote you, Ms. Hannan, you have asked ” Why has the process of state building faltered during the past quarter century?” You have given a number of fairly valid reasons. For me, the main reason Eritrea became the ‘North Korea of Africa’ (NKA) is we, yes we Eritreans collectively, let it happen to go this far. Due to our fear, reliable or imaginary, we kept silent. Out of loyalty, we were and are indifferent and kept silent. Out of personal benefit, real or imaginary, we took sides and kept silent. For those of us who are willing to speak up, unfortunately, happen to be in the comfort of our adopted democratic nations. We kept going like this for the last 26 years. How many more years can we tolerate this unbelievably shaming history of ours? Why are our courageous ‘tegadelti’ silent? Why is the youth willing to die in the Sinai Sahara and Mediterranean sea but not willing to die for the Eritrean people?
    Eritreans want to live in a democratic state in peace with themselves and with neighboring nations. We don’t want national conscription. We want to leave our country and come to our country as pleased without restriction. How to bring these changes? We can’t expect our non-elected military leaders to institute these changes. We can’t expect the diaspora to effect these changes. Change will only come from inside! We have experienced the beginning of this: the courageous stance of the Al-Diaa Islamic School for their rights. It is time for all Eritreans to standup for their rights now! Don’t give up the fight now. I believe the chain of fear is gone now. I hope the blind loyalty to the dictator will disappear soon. All I can say to the Eritreans in the diaspora is to become a catalyst and get the movement going. Fear no one! Let’s share the taste of democracy that we enjoy to our people. Let’s not be selfish!

    • Ismail AA

      Dear Acria,
      Great rejoinder; I couldn’t have put an iota better. It is in a nutshell summary of cause and effect of our situation. The national dilemma that should keep on stirring our conscience is whether our collective complacency that brought us where we are would be turned around to collective and virtue-driven national uplifting to empower us to see the an end of the ordeal. Incidentally my gratitude goes to Ms. Hannan who has produced an excellent article that enticed you to com up with these comments.

    • Hasot

      [begin yuor comment with salutation///moderator

      Where is the hydrogen bomb Eritrea exploded last month?

  • Lebam

    Hello everyone,

    Great article, Hannan!

    I have been wondering who is most likely to take over when IA is removed, or dies? Anything other than a democratically elected president won’t make me happy personally, but a change would be refreshing nonetheless.

  • Saleh Johar

    Hello all, Hannan, and Ismael<

    Welcoming Ms. Hannan Abdulah, our new writer at An excellent start and I am hoping this is not the first and last article. Welcome Hannan.

    Ismail, it seems you are the only one who missed me, thank you for noticing I was absent–no one else missed me. My feeling are hurt 🙂 I had a hectic week but I am back home since Sunday. I will tell you about my absence soon.

    • Paulos

      Welcome back Ayay.

      Of course we missed you. Glad you’re well.

      • Fanti Ghana

        Selam Paulos,

        I missed Memhir too, but right now, I have a much pressing issue of my own.

        It is really true, it is you!

        I heard a rumor, I thought it was an inside joke at first, then it was repeated a couple more times, I began to hope for it to be true. Of course, I couln’t directly ask for obvious reasons. My heart kept pounding from excitement while my mind wandered whether I talked too much in the last four months. I will go back and review all my posts. Oh my god, what will I find when I review my posts; perhaps a something embarrassing or something apology worthy? It doesn’t matter, I am too delighted to worry about that right now!


        To those of you who may be wondering what went wrong with me, I can assure you that I am of a sound mind, totally in control of my faculties, and as healthy as a horse. The above lightly coded message was not meant for everyone.

        Hurray! Ahem!

      • Peace!

        Hi Paulosay,

        ንባዕልኻ ኣበይ ቀኒኻ 🙂


    • Ismail AA

      Dear Saleh Johar,
      Thanks for responding. My concern had in fact worsened when nobody reacted to my inquiry about you and MS. I was concerned lest fellow forumers might have not been willing to share information they had.

      • Peace!

        HI Ismail,

        Saleh shared his trip to Qatar with his picture in his Facebook page about a week or so. I think he was on aljazeera too..


        • Kokhob Selam

          Dear Peace ,

          My massage to “welcome” him (SGL) was at that very moment..but he couldn’t notice it.


      • MS

        MerHaben bek Ustazna
        I missed your inquiry, thanks. I’m currently in a separate channel for a reason. I’m checking the forum once a while. Thanks for oyur vote of confidence with regard to my reply to the Sudanese doctor. I’m now looking at the developments in Zimbabwe. I think we were better prepared this topic thanks an article SAAY had penned, and the subsequent discussions on possibilities of the military in Eritrea. I have sent the introductory part to assenna, and am just digesting supporting ideas. Your rejoinders are consistent with my reading of the issues the next will be: compare and contrast and then see if there is any possibility:
        1. IA/Mugabe: personal and situational factors that made the guys who they are): here we may find some ingredients that differentiate the two despots and hence the nature of the military and security apparatus (hint: how deep is the sense of awareness of issues regarding nationhood, constitutionalism and institutional tradition….)
        2. Eritrea/Zimbabwe politics (hint: the difference between Zanu-PF and PFDJ): here coupled with elements from #1, we may find ingredients that enabled ZDFs to act the way they acted- a brand new role of the military in Africa…although it is easy to spot that the military intervened to save its own “revolution” meaning the principles of ZANU_PF, it still deserves appreciation for its professionalism and its awareness that coups have become “old style” transfer of power…are there institutional and professional qualities that moves the Eritrean army to play similar role? I think you hammered it well and my analysis is not going to be that far apart from what you have jotted down….
        3. After doing some superficial and fast analysis of the institutions of both army, I will opine if there is any possibility that the Eritrean army could play similar role.
        The key point is: Zimbabwe inherited institutional tradition even if those institutions were erected to serve the racist regime of Rhodesia. It did have a highly educated middle class; it had one of Africa’s best economy and burgeoning middle class; it had the traditions of unions and civic associations; it had flourishing press, etc.
        Eritrea brought what it had built in Sahel which was a culture of secrecy and tight chain of command. The officers of the Eritrean army are hand-picked; IA is their model and protector, and in return they may feel they have the duty to return the favor…Eritrea had to built constitutional thinking and institutional practice from scratch. It had time to do it, unfortunately, it did not do it.
        Happy Turkey’s day.
        PS: if i become late in correspondence it is just I’m really…really busy. Please don’t let SAAY know this because he accuses me of saying “I’m busy.”

        • Haile S.

          Selam Mahmud,
          From now on I will stop calling you MS. MS is an abreviation for multiple sclerosis:-) a nasty disease.
          Good points of comparison. Would be great if you could elaborate and develop on the last points you raised. You said ” Zimbabwe inherited institutional tradition even if those institutions were erected to serve the racist regime of Rhodesia…. Eritrea brought what it had built in Sahel which was a culture of secrecy and tight chain of command….”
          I don’t want to believe that you are presenting it as if EPLF had no other choice.
          – what prevented EPLF from using the institutions that Ethiopia left in Eritrea?
          – wasn’t what EPLF said “Ethiopia left us nothing except ruin” too exaggerated?
          – weren’t those who went to Sahel and attained leadership level within EPLF the same people who were serving the ethiopian administration?
          – how about comparing what TPLF/EPRDF did with what EPLF did upon holding their respective domains?

          • Berhe Y

            Dear Haile and Mahmood,

            Mahmood that’s great. And I am in agreement with Haile S. that you will be careful not to by into the notion of EPLF narrative we have had nothing to work with. I am sure it’s the same in other parts of Eritrea but at least in Asmara, the administration was fully functional in all aspect of the social, economic needs of the population.

            Ethiopians other than few who were on top of most of the institution, Eritreans were responsible for all the day to day activities of the city. The Italians established the system, then Eritrean inherited it, Ethiopia for the most part were not involved other than the high rank (and the legal system). The Derg introduced Kebele (worst decision) and people hoped the EPLF would get rid of Kebele but they kept them because it was in line with their socialist ideals of controlling the people.

            One more point, I don’t think it’s because of the EPLF culture of secrecy but instead it’s because of the communist mentality of Isayas Afeworki and his vision of controlling the country and the people.


        • tes

          Selam MS,

          Of course those former EPLF PFDJ members believe that military control the preferred one. You can neither think out of this box nor divorce frpm your x-comrades.


          • blink

            Dear tes
            You are still talking to MS , you wish to get his reply because you wanted to take him to your own low level of shenanigans. Good luck with your hatew ketew.

        • Ismail AA

          Dear MS,

          Glad you showed up – the same SGJ did the same. It’s nice you have been following events in Zimbabwe. As I could surmise from you comments, you have read the exchanges we had had with fellow formuers – in somewhat expanded manner with Amanuel Hidrat in reponse to questions he had raised in the light of very enlightening comments posted by Prof. Chimbganda.

          I think the situation in Zimbabwe is still in developing phase. It will take sometime before things settle down after the euphoria of Dr. Mugabe’s exit runs its full course, and contours of the politics in the country become legible to read. In other words, how things will sort out inside the Zanu-PF in particular, and how the existing opposition such as Morgan Tvangirai’s MDC and the sizable elites groups will react, in general.

          Moreover, the multiple near and far foreign forces that could find the moment opportune to meddle in the affairs of the country are an element to watch. The white minority has still been awaiting opportunity; its tentacles are very well connected to former colonial metropolitan strongholds. The issue of land and the effects of the 1979 Lancaster House accord is still pending which was the core cause for ruining the post-independence surplus exporting agrarian economy through murderous embargo coordinated by the British and the USA. Thus, when those developments shape up it will be possible for us Eritreans to engage in sober assessment of the situation and relate it our own conditions as you have hinted.

    • Peace!

      ሰላም ዓምና

      Welcome Back!


  • said


    Thank you Hannan. EXCELLENT and a VERY Timely Article.
    Beside nationalism and patriotism. Eritrea being an independent nation. Fact remain we Eritrea are a composite people. There is no such thing as a singular Eritrean identity. Nine ethic group and Nine Stories and history, identity, culture, langue and religion. Connection and belonginess is the human story, marker of our identity. We have always been on the move. We all come from the same place, may be something that’s necessarily born in our land, but may have come from somewhere else. may be that explains humankind’s come from our Afar region and origins and yet after thousands of years being the same origin and region, we are still fighting each other. That being said. The equality of all people should be a fundamental principle that is a starting point of the convention’s existence, not a side issue, peripheral to be debated. As a nation for all and place for moral correction and existential validation. And that is structured around equality and equity and preserve the values of progressive civilization. we should abandon the ends-justify-the-means politics that leads some Eritrean to defend IA and his regime. the impulse of belongness and to associate only with people like ourselves and grow even more certain that PFDJ evil forces are persecuting us all. It requires to be open mind and the freedom to be vulnerable with people unlike yourself not just Eritrean, which includes, at least potentially, all human beings. it should be an act of humility, not hubris. It should not be a discomfiting experience, — especially Eritrean millennials in diaspora — have lost something. Their Eritreans and community belonging, by not interacting, they becomes primarily virtual, they’re seeing people through a screen and not flesh and blood
    For who live in diaspora. Eritrean Intelligentsia to SPEAK-OUT CONDEMN and DISAPPROVE the irresponsible and adventurous actions of PFDJ Regime, foremost the Regime, in stark violation of the International law and the Universal Declarations of Human Rights of continuing to taking us the Eritrean at Large to the Wilderness, TRAPPING and TREADING over the Taboos and regime supporters high values daring in the bright day time to talk openly of courting the no elected Outlawed regime .
    It is the very high moment for Eritrean Intelligentsia to become Vocal and Active OPPOSING the Asmara Regime, PFDJ Regime responsible as they are for great wastage of Generations and Future Generations Wealth to immediately stop hammering of Eritrean capital human resources and collapse of Eritrea economy , and to stop reginal warmongering taking us anew to Wasteful, Senseless and most destructive internecine strife.

    The Eritrean intelligentsia’s Silence “IS NO MORE ACCEPTABLE.” The Eritrean Intelligentsia’s Silence Must Deploy all form of protests to press and ultimately succeed in the adoption and implementation of their demands, regime change and foremost the right to elect democratically their own government.
    The Clock is Ticking, Eritrean Intelligentsia, Should Now Unhesitatingly and MOST FORCEBLY Act. We Are in the Zero Hour and Can No More Afford to be Silent and Appeasing as Our Past, long too Long, Silence, Created IA Monster. Eritrean patriotic forces led internally and by Eritrean diaspora everywhere should politicize regime oppression and inhuman subjugation. a gross infringement “on Universal Values, Eritrean Values and Humanistic Values”. I am sure Eritrean in diaspora and opposition leadership has been thinking over this, the last twenty-five years. Forging alliances with these political and societal forces is a must to get some equilibrium to dance our human rights Couse .

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